The Kingdom of Belgium ( Dutch , French Royaume de Belgique ) is a federal state in Western Europe . It is on the North Sea and borders the Netherlands , Germany , Luxembourg and France . Belgium has around 11.4 million inhabitants (2018) on an area of 30,688 km². With 374 inhabitants per km², Belgium is one of the most densely populated countries. The degree of urbanization in Belgium is almost 98 percent, the highest in Europe. The city of Brussels is the capital and seat of the Belgian royal family and the center of the largest agglomeration. Other major cities are Antwerp , which as a municipal administrative unit is also the largest city in the country, as well as Ghent , Charleroi , Liège , Bruges and Namur .
Belgium has been a constitutional hereditary monarchy since independence in 1830 and the constitution in 1831 (see also Belgian monarchy ). The north of the country with the Flemings is Dutch, the south with the Walloons is French (see Flemish and French Communities ). The Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual, but mostly French-speaking. In the German-speaking region in eastern Belgium are Standard German and West Central German dialects spread (see. German-speaking Community ).
The Flemish-Walloon conflict, which has been going on since the 19th century, shapes the conflicting interests of the representatives of the two major population groups in Belgian politics. Since the 1970s, attempts have therefore been made to counter this problem by decentralizing the state organization. To this end, Belgium was converted into a federal state consisting of six states - three regions and three communities . The regions of Flanders , Wallonia and Brussels-Capital as well as the Flemish , French and German-speaking communities today form the political basis of the country as member states . The state structure of Belgium is considered to be complex, since a. the territories of the regions are not the same as those of the communities.
Belgium is a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC), today's European Union (EU), whose main institutions are based in its capital, Brussels. In addition to the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the Belgian state is also a member of the Benelux Economic Union .
Country name and overview
The name "Belgium" is based on the Roman province of Gallia Belgica . This northeastern part of Gaul was inhabited by tribes of Celtic (i.e. the Belgians ) and Germanic (i.e. Germani cisrhēnani ) origins. In the 18th century, the French adjective belge or belgique was considered an equivalent of Nederlands 'Dutch'; the short-lived independent Belgian state of 1790 was called e.g. B. in French États belgiques unis and was mostly called Verenigde Nederlandse Staten in Dutch . Later, the use of belge and belgique was increasingly limited to the southern Netherlands, today's Belgium.
From the High Middle Ages to the middle of the 17th century, Belgium was a haven of cultural and economic creativity and wealth. From the 16th century onwards, Belgium was the theater of many battles between the European rulers. B. during the coalition wars and the First and Second World Wars . Belgium participated intensively in the Industrial Revolution and owned the huge colony of the Belgian Congo in Central Africa from 1885 to 1960 , and since the First World War including the adjacent area of Rwanda-Urundi .
Geology and geomorphology
In the wake of the post-glacial Flanders transgression , beach ridges formed , which are still present today as a closed dune belt up to 50 meters high on the Belgian coast. This is followed by a 10 to 20 kilometer wide zone of marshland .
The so-called Flussgeest lies further inland. Here the deposits of the Maas alluvial fan were covered with sands of great thickness in the last glacial period. In the slightly undulating land, fields and meadows alternate with wooded areas and heather ; in some cases raised bogs also occur. To the west of a line Antwerp-Brussels is the wide Flemish plain. In its northern part it is also covered by sand, in the south it is dominated by clay soils, which are more favorable for agriculture. Here the plain is dominated by a loose chain of Tertiary hills. To the west, the plain already mediates to the north of France layered plain, which is mostly made up of Mesozoic sediments.
The valleys of the Sambre and the Meuse form a sharp boundary at a tectonic fault zone which separates the Tertiary and Chalk plateaus in the northwest from the Ardennes as part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains in the southeast. The heavily forested Ardennes are made up of differently resistant paleozoic slates , sandstones , greywacke and quartzites . In Belgium you can reach a height of 694 meters with the Botrange in the High Fens .
In the fault zone of the Haine-Sambre-Maas furrow there are rich deposits of hard coal . The first continental European mining and heavy industrial area was established here from 1830.
Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region
Flanders forms the northern part of the country and consists largely of lowlands . It is the most populous region in the country. The politically independent capital city region of Brussels is an enclave within the Flemish region. This part of the country consists partly of sandy gees - for example in the province of Limburg, which is located in the east of the Flemish region. The Geest is also interrupted by marshland , especially in the area of the rivers. Of these, the Meuse and the Scheldt are the most important. In the extreme west of Flanders is the 72.3 km long coast with the port city of Ostend. In particular, the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant with the area around Brussels are very densely populated.
The Walloon region comprises the southern part of Belgium. In terms of area, it is the largest region in the country. Their area is mountainous and sparsely populated in the Ardennes and is cut through by the river valleys of the Maas, Sambre and Ourthe. The most important cities in the region, in particular Liège , Namur and Charleroi, are located along these rivers . In the west of the region there are also Mons as well as Mouscron and Tournai , which are located in a cross-border metropolitan area with the northern French city of Lille . The geographical center of Belgium is located in Nil-Saint-Vincent ( Walhain municipality ) in the densely populated province of Walloon Brabant. The highest point in the country is the Signal de Botrange ( ) in the High Fens in East Belgium near the border with Germany. The highest village in Belgium is Mürringen in eastern Belgium ( ).
25% of Belgium's land area is used for agriculture. Around 95% of all Belgians live in cities. According to the calculations of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences , Belgium has an area of 30,688 km².
- the Brussels Capital Region 162 km²
- the Flanders region 13,624 km²
- the Walloon Region 16,901 km² (including the German-speaking Community 854 km²)
There are, among others, the following rivers and canals:
As the province of Belgica - a name introduced by Caesar - what is now Belgium experienced many rulers. In the early Middle Ages it was part of the Frankish Empire and was also politically divided again and again when it was divided. Later it was predominantly part of the Holy Roman Empire and split into individual duchies and counties.
From the High Middle Ages to the early modern period, the cities of Flanders with their cloth industries represented one of the two centers of the European economy (alongside the cities of northern Italy). Politically, the individual territories came under the House of Burgundy , which was inherited by the Habsburgs in 1477 . In 1555/56 the Habsburgs were divided into a Spanish and an Austrian line. The Dutch provinces were assigned to the Spanish Habsburgs.
In 1579 the Catholic Union of Arras and the Calvinist-Protestant Union of Utrecht were formed . The provinces of the Union of Utrecht broke away from Spain in 1581 and founded the Republic of the Seven United Provinces , whose independence was recognized in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 after the end of the Eighty Years War . The provinces of the Union of Arras, Flanders and Brabant were administered as the Spanish Netherlands by a Spanish governor. After the Spanish Habsburgs died out (1700) and the resulting War of the Spanish Succession , the Austrian Netherlands came under the rule of the Austrian Habsburgs in 1714 .
As a result of the absolutist and centralist efforts of the Austrian ruler Joseph II , the Brabant Revolution took place in 1789 and the short-lived United Belgian States were proclaimed in 1790 . Revolutionary France annexed the Austrian Netherlands between 1792 and 1794, followed by incorporation into the French Republic in 1795. At the Congress of Vienna (1815) the provinces were awarded to the Netherlands.
After the Belgian Revolution , the country gained independence in 1830. A parliamentary monarchy was established and Leopold von Sachsen-Coburg was named the first king of the Belgians. Leopold II , son of the first king, acquired the Congo in Africa as a private property. After the atrocities of the Congo (brutal excesses in the economic exploitation of the Congo) became internationally known, Leopold had to cede the area as a colony to the Belgian state in 1908 . During Leopold's reign of terror, an estimated 10 million people were killed in the African country as a result of slavery and forced labor . In 1960 the Congo became independent.
During the First World War , neutral Belgium was invaded by the German Reich according to the Schlieffen Plan and almost entirely taken over by the German army. The German military also took action against civilians with shootings, fires and hostage-taking. Massacres of civilians took place in Dinant and several other Belgian cities. These attacks were justified with alleged partisan activities, the real basis of which is disputed (see Francs-tireurs ). In the course of the trench war , many cities in Flanders were destroyed and parts of the country devastated. When labor became scarce in the German Reich, tens of thousands of Belgian civilians - Flemings and Walloons - had to do forced labor for the imperial military and the German armaments industry.
After the war, the mixed-language area around Eupen and Malmedy , today's Ostbelgien , became Belgian national territory through the Treaty of Versailles after a controversial referendum in 1925. Belgium also took part in the occupation of the Ruhr .
During World War II , the country declared itself neutral. In May 1940 it (like the Netherlands and Luxembourg) was occupied by the German Wehrmacht on the so-called western campaign . Belgium remained occupied until 1944/45, minorities such as Jews and Roma were deported to concentration camps. Until its liberation by the Western Allies, it - like half of Europe - suffered from the arbitrary rule of the National Socialist dictatorship and the Jewish population from their persecution and extermination; Cities and landscapes were largely spared from war damage. Only the Ardennes offensive in December 1944 and January 1945 led to severe destruction in the east of the country, especially around Sankt Vith and Bastogne .
The customs and economic unit of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, which had been planned since 1944 , was agreed in the Hague Treaty on February 3, 1958 and entered into force on November 1, 1960 ( Benelux countries ). Belgium is one of the founding states of the European Economic Community (EEC) and has played an important role in the European unification process . The country and the Belgian capital, Brussels , became the seat of international organizations such as NATO and the European Union .
Domestic politics after the Second World War were characterized by federalization , which tried to mitigate secessionist tendencies in the various linguistic areas, particularly in the Flemish north. In Flanders, separatist parties get a high percentage of the vote.
Form of government and institutions
Belgium is a federally organized constitutional, parliamentary hereditary monarchy with a bicameral parliament . The federal legislature consists of the king and the two chambers of parliament, the more important Chamber of Deputies with 150 and the Senate with 60 members. The active and passive right to vote for women at the national level did not exist until 1948 on the same conditions as the right to vote for men. The king also belongs to the executive branch, which he forms together with the 15-member federal government , which in turn is presided over by the prime minister as primus inter pares .
The federal institutions are responsible for the judiciary, financial policy, internal security, foreign policy, national defense and social security.
In the 2019 Democracy Index, Belgium ranks 33rd out of 167 countries with an average score of 7.64. It is therefore regarded as an “incomplete democracy” and occupies one of the lower ranks within Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Belgium has a flag and a large, medium and small coat of arms.
Most political parties split in the 1960-1980s into a Flemish and a Francophone party, and there is often a German-speaking counterpart. Parties of the same grouping work more or less closely together and sometimes also form factional communities. The German-speaking parties only operate regionally.
|Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (N-VA)||25th||conservative separatists, emerged from the Volksunie|
|Vlaams Belang||18th||Right-wing populist separatists, formerly Vlaams Blok|
|Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V)||12||Christian Democrats, formerly CVP|
|Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democrats (Open VLD)||12||Liberals, formerly PVV|
|Socialist Partij Anders (SP.a)||9||Socialists, formerly SP|
|Great||8th||Green, formerly Agalev|
|Parti Socialiste (PS)||20th||Socialists|
|Mouvement Réformateur (MR)||14th||Liberals, formerly PLP and PRL|
|Center Démocrate Humaniste (CDH)||5||Christian Democrats, formerly PSC|
|Démocrate Fédéraliste Indépendant (DéFI)||2||Representation of Francophones mainly in Brussels, formerly FDF, 1995 to 2010 joint lists with PRL and MR|
|Partij van de Arbeid (PVDA / PTB)||12||Communists, formerly AMADA / TPO|
Belgium is characterized by internal turmoil - especially between the Flemish (Dutch-speaking) and the Francophone (French-speaking) ethnic group living in Wallonia and Brussels. For example, censuses that record the residents' spoken language have been banned since 1961. However, tensions have eased over the years. “There is no end to Belgium in sight,” said historian Christoph Driessen in his History of Belgium in 2018 . He pointed out that the separatist parties are in the minority in Flanders and that there are practically no separatist tendencies in Wallonia. Younger Belgians and migrants could also do little with the language dispute. The enthusiasm for the entire Belgian team at the 2018 World Cup , in which Belgium took third place, also showed that there is still cohesion .
Political developments since 2008
In March 2008, Flemish and Francophone Christian Democrats ( CD&V and cdH ) and Liberals ( VLD and MR ) as well as the Walloon Socialists ( PS ) agreed to form a joint government with Yves Leterme (CD&V) as Prime Minister.
On December 18, 2008, the Court of Cassation - the highest ordinary court in Belgium - announced in a letter to Chamber Chairman Herman Van Rompuy that Leterme had tried to appeal to the court on the question of the planned sale of the Belgian bank Fortis to the French financial group BNP Paribas to influence; Leterme had denied this shortly before. Leterme resigned the next day.
From December 30, 2008, Herman Van Rompuy (CD&V) led the Belgian federal government , which was composed of the same five-party coalition. However, after being designated the first permanent President of the European Council on November 19, 2009 , he resigned on November 25, 2009. On the same day, Yves Leterme was reappointed Prime Minister and has since led his second federal government in this legislative period. This government collapsed again in April 2010 when the Flemish liberal party OpenVLD announced its withdrawal from the government after internal disputes over a solution to the conflict over the bilingual Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde constituency .
In the early elections on June 13, 2010 , the Flemish nationalists of the N-VA under Bart De Wever won 27 of the 150 seats, making them the strongest parliamentary group among the Flemish parties. In Wallonia, Elio Di Rupo's socialist PS became the strongest political force. The formation of a government was difficult, and it was not until a year and a half later that Elio Di Rupo was able to form a coalition government , which was appointed on December 5, 2011. As a "tripartite" made up of the party families of the Socialists, Liberals and Christian Democrats, it did not have a majority among the Flemish parties. With the socialist Elio Di Rupo, for the first time since the end of the last government of Paul Vanden Boeynants in 1979, a Francophone and a Socialist were elected Prime Minister of Belgium. The Leterme government remained in office until he was elected. The time span of 541 days from election to the formation of a new government is a record in modern world history.
In the elections on May 25, 2014 , the socialists in particular lost votes, which meant that the previous government no longer had a majority. The N-VA was able to book further gains. On October 11, 2014, the new government , called "Suédoise", was sworn in under the Francophone Prime Minister Charles Michel . In contrast to the previously usual broad coalitions, all parties involved, the Flemish nationalists ( N-VA ), Christian Democrats ( CD&V ) and the liberals of both language groups ( MR and OpenVLD ) come from the center-right spectrum. For the first time since 1988, the socialists were not involved in the government that had no majority on the Francophone side
The Michel I government fell in December 2018 over the ratification of the UN Migration Pact , which was rejected by the N-VA and which then withdrew from the government. Thereupon Charles Michel formed the Michel II government without the N-VA members, which resigned before a vote of no confidence on December 18, 2018 and then remained in office, even beyond the parliamentary elections on May 26, 2019, as there was no new majority found.
After Charles Michel was elected President of the European Council to succeed Donald Tusk , he announced his resignation on October 26, 2019. On October 27, 2019, the King appointed Sophie Wilmès as the new Executive Prime Minister, the first woman in this position since independence 188 years ago. On March 17, 2020, she was sworn in by the King as Ordinary Prime Minister of the Wilmès II government , after all parties with the exception of the Walloon Communists, the Flemish Nationalists of the N-VA and the Flemish right-wing extremists of Vlaams Belang supported her in the face of the Corona crisis agreed. She promised to only take care of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium and its consequences and to ask the vote of confidence after six months. After the formation of the government continued to stall, but then a new coalition was formed, but one of the "informators" had to be quarantined because of a corona infection, the time was extended again.
On October 1, 2020, the new government under Prime Minister Alexander De Croo was sworn in. For the first time it consists of seven parties from the four party families of the Socialists, Liberals, Christian Democrats and Greens, and is called the "Vivaldi Coalition". It is considered to be left-liberal, for the first time it has equal representation with ten women and ten men, is significantly younger and has fifteen members of the government who have never held a federal political office before. Sophie Wilmès became Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Belgium has a strategic geographical position in the heart of Europe, in the middle of a European metropolitan area and close to the largest sea ports. As a result, there is a certain dependence on international trade, with the most important trading partners being the neighboring countries of the Netherlands , Germany and France . This makes Belgium one of the most open economies in the European Union (EU). Against this background, Belgium traditionally pursues a policy of opening up to its European neighbors, on the one hand through the Benelux Community, on the other hand within the framework of the Council of Europe and the European Union, of which Belgium is one of the founding members. The country is also a founding member of the European Monetary Union . Eurobarometer surveys regularly show that around two thirds of the Belgian population are pro-European, which is above the EU average of just over 50 percent. The Belgian capital, Brussels, is the seat of several EU institutions and agencies such as the Commission , Parliament , the Council of Ministers , the Economic and Social Committee or the Committee of the Regions , as well as numerous lobbying groups , non-governmental organizations , etc. that work in the field of European policy.
The Belgian governments since 1945 have worked to build Europe. Under the Belgian Presidency in the second half of 2001, it was decided to convene the Constitutional Convention , which a few years later would produce the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE). Belgium campaigned for the ratification process of the TCE and - after its failure - for the preservation of the substance of the TCE in the Lisbon Treaty , which was signed on December 13, 2007 and entered into force on December 1, 2009.
Belgium's defense policy is based not only on NATO (Belgium is a founding member), but also on the EU within the framework of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The capital Brussels is the seat of both NATO's main bodies and the EU's European Defense Agency , making Belgium the center of the Euro-Atlantic defense structures. The country provides troops for the EU battlegroups and participates in EU operations, for example in EUFOR . Thanks to its historical connections to the African country of the Congo , Belgium has established itself as an opinion leader on matters relating to the Great Lakes and Central Africa within the EU and is making a significant effort to stabilize Eastern Congo peacefully.
Due to Belgium's federal structure , which assigns an extraordinarily high level of competences to the local level, both the regions and the communities are significantly involved in the formulation of Belgian European policy, but at the same time affected by the implementation of EU political goals - which explains any local differences in implementation. For example, they are responsible for cultural policy and can conclude contracts with foreign countries in this area, so that they have built up an independent profile abroad, for example by appointing cultural officers in some Belgian embassies.
In the second half of 2010, Belgium chaired the Council of Ministers . This Belgian Council Presidency formed the centerpiece of the Trio Presidency with Spain (first half of 2010) and Hungary (first half of 2011). Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the Belgian Herman Van Rompuy was appointed to the newly created office of President of the European Council ; The Belgian Charles Michel has held this office since December 1, 2019 .
The Belgian Armed Forces (Dutch Defensie van België , French Armée belge ) are divided into Army , Navy , Air Force and Medical Corps (Dutch Medische Component , French Corps médical ). In 2006 the Belgian armed forces had a strength of 36,000 men. Voluntary military service was formally abolished in 1994. Belgium spent just under 0.9 percent of its economic output or 4.4 billion US dollars on its armed forces in 2017.
The Belgian Luchtmacht or Force Aérienne Belge is the second largest armed force with 6,350 men. You have 72 F-16 fighters and 31 helicopters at your disposal.
The police reform of 2001 created an integrated police force structured on two levels:
- Federal Police (Dutch Federale Politie , French Police Fédérale ), with a general commissioner and three general directorates (the administrative police, the criminal police and the directorate for support and administration). Some of these are also decentralized at the provincial or judicial district level.
- Local Police (Dutch Local Politie , French Police Locale ) with its currently 195 police zones was formed from local police units and the gendarmerie (ndl. Rijkswacht ) that existed until 2001 .
Belgium has been a federal state since 1993, which is divided into three regions and three communities . There are ten provinces and 43 arrondissements as subordinate administrative units . Local self-government is exercised by the 589 municipalities.
Both the regions and the communities are member states of the Belgian federal state; they differ in their territorial delimitation and their competencies. The regions (Dutch west, French régions ) are responsible for large areas of economic , environmental , transport and agricultural policy , they also exercise legal and, if necessary, technical supervision over provinces, arrondissements and municipalities. The communities (Dutch gemeenschappen , French communautés; formerly often referred to as cultural or linguistic communities) are responsible for the entire education system , cultural policy and other "personal issues" (areas of family, health and social policy, including public hospitals) . Even in comparison with other federal states, regions and communities together have a high level of competencies, and they can also independently conclude contracts with foreign states in their areas of responsibility. International agreements concluded by the Belgian state which affect the competences of the regions or communities require the consent of their parliaments; this applies, for example, to the treaties of the European Union . At the federal level, responsibility for foreign , defense and financial policy , social security systems as well as the police and the judiciary have remained.
The territorial delimitation of the regions and communities is based on the language areas: the Flemish region comprises the Dutch language area, the Walloon region the French and German language area, and the Brussels-Capital region the bilingual French-Dutch area. The Flemish Community exercises its powers in the Dutch and bilingual areas, the French community in the French and bilingual areas, and the German-speaking community in the German language area. Regions and communities each have their own parliament and government. However, the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region have merged their institutions so that there is only one Flemish Parliament and one Flemish Government , which exercise both the powers of the region and the Community.
In addition, in Belgium, at a lower administrative level, there are ten provinces that lie within the regions:
- The Flemish Region (Dutch Het Vlaamse Gewest ) comprises five provinces:
- The Walloon Region ( La Région Wallonne in French ) also includes five provinces:
- The Brussels Capital Region (Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest , French: Région de Bruxelles Capitale ) is considered to be provincial. It exercises its responsibilities in the Brussels-Capital administrative district , which is congruent with the Brussels-Capital region.
|(Source: Eurostat )|
The state budget for 2009 comprised revenues (receipts) of 163 billion euros. This contrasted with expenses (expenses) of 183 billion euros. This results in a budget deficit of 20 billion euros or 6.0% of the gross domestic product . Between 1995 and 2007, Belgium succeeded in significantly reducing the relative share of national debt in the gross national product. However, this success has been jeopardized by the consequences of the global financial crisis since 2007. On November 25, 2011, the rating agency Standard & Poor’s downgraded Belgium from AA + to AA . This was justified with the smoldering national crisis, the low growth and the increasing pressure of the financial markets.
The national debt as of June 30, 2016 was 455.3 billion euros or 109.7% of the gross domestic product.
In 2006, the share of government spending (as a percentage of gross domestic product) was in the following areas:
The population of Belgium is usually divided into language groups. Exact data on the actual distribution have not been collected since the language border was established in 1962. According to this, the Dutch- speaking Flemings make up almost 60% of the population. The Walloons and the French-speaking residents of the Brussels-Capital Region and the surrounding area, mostly collectively referred to as French-speaking Belgians , comprise a little less than 40% of the country's population. In addition, there is the third population group with an official language area, the German-speaking community in the east of the country with less than one percent (77,527 inhabitants on January 1, 2019).
Other minorities do not have an official language area. These include smaller, West Germanic dialects speaking minorities in the officially French language area ( Luxembourgish in the Areler Land and Platdiets in the Low German communities ). Groups of Yenish Manouches and Roma living in Belgium as well as local caravan residents are referred to as voyageurs , gens de voyage or woonwagenbewoners . The number of gens du voyage in 2005 was estimated at 15,000 to 20,000 people, corresponding to 0.15% of the Belgian population. The rest of the resident population consists of immigrants from many parts of Europe and Africa .
In 2012, 25% of the total population had a migration background . Since 1945 there have been 2.8 million new Belgians of foreign descent. Of these, around 1.2 million are of European descent and around 1.35 million come from countries outside Europe ( Morocco , Turkey , Algeria , Congo ). Since the relaxation of Belgian nationality law, over 1.3 million migrants have acquired Belgian citizenship. The largest group of immigrants and their descendants in Belgium are Moroccans with more than 450,000 people. Turks form the second largest ethnic minority with around 220,000 people. 89.2% of the inhabitants of Turkish origin were naturalized as well as 88.4% of the Moroccans, 75.4% of the Italians, 56.2% of the French and 47.8% of the Dutch population.
Life expectancy in Belgium between 2010 and 2015 was 80.5 years (women: 83.0 years, men: 78.0 years). The average age in 2016 was 41.4 years. A woman had an average of 1.7 children.
There are three official languages in Belgium today:
- Dutch , see Flanders and Belgian Dutch
- French , see Wallonia and Belgian French
- German , see German-speaking Community
Since the independence of Belgium in 1830, only French has been the official language of the state. In 1873 Dutch was legally recognized as the second official language in the Kingdom of Belgium, but French remained the language of administration and instruction throughout Belgium. In 1919, German was added as the official language in the newly acquired area in the east: Ostbelgien was previously part of the German Empire and was annexed to the Belgian state after the Treaty of Versailles . Only then did the great majority of Flemings emphatically demand that their Dutch mother tongue should also be used as an administrative and teaching language in schools and universities and that it should be treated as the official French language.
In 1921, the Belgian government recognized the territorial monolingualism of its residents in the three regional language areas: the Dutch language zone in Flanders, the French language zone in Wallonia and the new German language zone in East Belgium. However, the Flemish-Walloon conflict between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking residents continues to this day. In the bilingual capital Brussels , French and Dutch are the official languages (see also language relations in Brussels ).
The majority of Belgians belong to Christian churches: around 75 percent of Belgian citizens are Roman Catholics , around 1 percent belong to the United Protestant Church and 8 percent belong to Islamic communities. There are also smaller Christian Orthodox , Jewish , Buddhist and Hindu minorities. The proportion of people who are not religiously bound is around 16 percent.
Belgium has traditionally been a Catholic country. Belonging to the Catholic faith was a major reason for the Belgian Revolution in 1830 and the split from the predominantly Protestant north. The Catholic majority covers all three language areas (Flemish, French, German). With the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven , one of the most important universities in the country is still denominationally bound. Rural Flanders in particular was strongly Catholic until the middle of the 20th century, while the liberalism and socialist labor movement caused by the early industrialization of Wallonia was more secularized , which has also affected the Flemish part of the country since the 1960s.
The United Protestant Church has 45,000 parishioners in 110 parishes, 70 of them Walloon, 35 Flemish, three German and two English-speaking with 85 pastors. It is a United Church and thus contains Lutheran and Reformed (Calvinist) elements. There are also Protestant free churches, including the Baptists in Belgium .
In 2011 there were one million people with a Muslim background in the country. Muslims make up 22 percent of the population in the Brussels-Capital Region , 4.0 percent in Wallonia and 3.9 percent in Flanders . The majority of Belgian Muslims live in the big cities such as Antwerp , Liège , Charleroi and especially Brussels. The largest group of immigrants in Belgium are around 400,000 Moroccans . The approximately 220,000 Turks are the third largest immigrant group and the second largest Muslim ethnic group.
The Belgian federal government recognizes and supports six religions and one non-denominational worldview: the Anglican Church , Islam , Judaism , the Roman Catholic Church , the Orthodox Church , the United Protestant Church of Belgium, and the free- spirited belief community .
Homosexuality is widely accepted in Belgium. Homosexual acts were decriminalized as early as 1974; anti-discrimination laws have also existed since 2003. Belgium was the second country in the world to open marriage to homosexual partners after the Netherlands in 2003. The United Protestant Church has allowed same-sex couples to be blessed since 2007.
Unia , the “Center for Equal Opportunities and Fight Against Racism” in Belgium, registered 101 reports of anti-Semitic crimes in 2018. This is a doubling of the corresponding reports in 2017, in which 56 anti-Semitic crimes were recorded. The carnival parade in Aalst, Flemish, has been criticized for years, denigrating Jews in a typically stereotypical and anti-Semitic manner. The same group that was responsible for the anti-Semitic dolls from the previous year also designed anti-Semitic caricatures for the 2020 Carnival parade. Christoph D'Haese ( Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie ), the mayor of Aalst, does not want to condemn the dolls and the caricatures. In December 2019, UNESCO removed the street carnival from the list of intangible cultural heritage. The reason given was that in the past few years, floats with racist and anti-Semitic depictions took part in the street carnival in the Belgian city. This is not compatible with the basic principles of the Convention for the Conservation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage or with the values set out in its Charter. In the meantime, the EU Commission has been asked to initiate criminal proceedings against Belgium under Article 7 of the EU treaties.
The number of reports of anti-Jewish content on the Internet has quadrupled within a year in Belgium alone: "Jews are forging a conspiracy against the world" or "Hitler did not finish his work" are sayings that appear regularly. In addition, the highly controversial right-wing extremist Flemish student movement “Schild & Vrienden” has increased anti-Semitism. Examples include the attack on the Jewish Museum of Belgium , in which four people were shot dead in Brussels on May 24, 2014, or the terrorist attacks in downtown Brussels on March 22, 2016 and at Brussels-Zaventem Airport .
The education system in Belgium differs due to the far-reaching powers of the individual communities, but the higher education system was largely standardized at the inter-community and European level in the course of the Bologna Process . The federal authority of Belgium is responsible for the pensions of teachers, the definition of the minimum knowledge for obtaining a diploma and for the school system (from 6 to 18 years of age).
Flemish Community Schools
From the age of two and a half or four, children usually attend a kind of kindergarten with preschool (nld. Kleuteronderwijs , French. École maternelle ). From the age of six, children go to primary school for six years (nld. Basisonderwijs , French. École primaire ). Belgian and Flemish schools are public (Flemish Community), free (subsidized; mostly Catholic schools) or private (unsubsidized). In many cases, Catholic schools have a higher level of education than state schools. French is taught as the first foreign language from the fifth year of school. From the seventh year of school onwards, classes take place in one of the secondary schools.
The secondary schools (nld.Secundair onderwijs , French Enseignement secondaire ) are divided as follows:
- a) first grade (from 12th to 14th year)
- b) Second and third grade (from 14th to 18th year): Choice between
- ASO (general secondary education)
- KSO (secondary art education)
- TSO (technical secondary education)
- BSO (vocational secondary education)
- c) fourth grade (from the 18th year; no compulsory education): mainly nursing schools
English lessons are available from the second year of secondary education on an ASO. Usually a student can choose between the following directions: math , Greek , Latin , science . In the later years other directions such as economics / trade, human sciences and modern languages are added. Most of the Belgian fifth and sixth grade students at an ASO also have at least one hour of German per week, sometimes three.
At KSO schools, which are mostly only found in large cities, the student has the choice between e.g. B. Comics, computer graphics, etc. The student also takes English and French lessons as well as mathematics . The degree is completed with the Diploma Secundair Onderwijs ( Abitur ), which gives you access to university studies.
Since schooling is compulsory until 18, once a student has reached that age, they can leave school or wait to receive their diploma . Exceptions are BSO schools: There a student can leave school earlier and follow compulsory education with an apprenticeship / vocational training.
Schools of the French Community
Children from the age of two and a half can be admitted to a kindergarten ( École gardienne ). From six to twelve years of age, pupils attend primary school ( Enseignement primaire ). The grade levels are counted from the première primaire to the sixième primaire. From the deuxième primaire, French-speaking students can learn Dutch as a second language.
The secondary level, like the primary level, comprises six years and offers two different training directions:
- Classical-humanistic direction with three years of École moyenne inférieure and subsequently three years of École moyenne supérieure with the degree Diplôme d'humanités , which corresponds to the German Abitur .
- Technical and economic direction enseignement technique ou professionel with also six years of teaching and the diploma diplôme technique or diplôme professionnel .
Schools of the German-speaking Community
Schooling has the same age group as in other parts of Belgium: Kindergarten can be attended from the age of three. From the age of five or six you attend a six-year primary school. Another six years are completed in a secondary school. Some schools cover all three age groups, so they can be attended from kindergarten to high school. Other schools can only be attended from kindergarten to the sixth grade, after which you have to change to another school. Some schools are purely secondary schools (seventh to twelfth grade).
French is taught from the first year of school. From the eighth school year, English is added as a third language.
From the ninth grade onwards, a student can choose between social sciences, natural sciences, languages, arts, secretarial services, economics or electronics in some schools.
At the language department (modern language branch) a student learns not only English and French but also Italian, Spanish and Dutch.
Tuition is compulsory up to the age of 18, whereby a student can also meet this requirement with an apprenticeship. There you only have to go to vocational school twice a week.
In the DG there is a so-called vocational department at some schools (e.g. the Robert Schuman Institute in Eupen and the Episcopal School - Technical Institute in St. Vith). This department is suitable for students with learning difficulties and for those who already know their career aspirations. The obtained high school diploma can be compared to a technical diploma . In order to receive such a high school diploma, you have to attend school for another year, here it is a total of 13 years.
In the vocational departments, a student can choose between office, hairdressing, cooking, carpentry or social professions.
In the following years you will be trained in your chosen subject. The general subjects are reduced to a minimum, so you are optimally prepared for your future profession.
Belgium has eleven universities :
- Dutch-speaking: Catholic University of Leuven ( Katholieke Universiteit Leuven - KUL), University of Ghent , University of Antwerp (UA), Transnational University of Limburg ( University of Hasselt - UHasselt & University of Maastricht - UM / Netherlands), Free University of Brussels ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel - VUB), Catholic University of Brussels ( Katholieke Universiteit Brussel - KUB);
- French-speaking: Université libre de Bruxelles , Facultés Universitaires Saint Louis à Bruxelles, Université de Liège , École Polytechnique de Mons , Facultés universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix Namur , Université catholique de Louvain in Louvain-la-Neuve .
There is only one university in the German-speaking area , the Autonomous University in the German-speaking Community .
Individual faculties on an equal footing with universities are the Evangelical Theological Faculty of Leuven (Evangelical Theological Faculty), the Faculty of Protestant Theology Brussels (Faculteit voor Protestantse Godgeleerdheid) and the Royal Military Academy ( Koninklijke Militaire School / École royale militaire ).
In comparison with the gross domestic product (GDP) of the European Union , expressed in purchasing power standards, Belgium achieved an above-average index of 118 in 2014 (EU-28: 100). The gross domestic product of Belgium was around 409.4 billion euros in 2015. The gross domestic product per capita was 36,500 euros in the same year. Despite its small population, Belgium was the 20th largest exporter of goods in 2016. Thanks to its location in the heart of Europe, it is very closely integrated into the trade network of the European Union. Belgium's most important trading partners are the neighboring countries France, Germany and the Netherlands. In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Belgium ranks 20th out of 137 countries (2017-2018). In 2019, the country ranks 48th out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .
The unemployment rate was 6% in June 2018, slightly below the EU average. In 2017, youth unemployment was 19%. The total number of employees is estimated at 5.3 million for 2017; 46% of them are women.
Distribution of the working population by sector (status: 2013 and share of total value added in 2016 in brackets):
The tourism plays a major role in Belgium. In the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017 of the World Economic Forum, Belgium ranks 21st out of 136 countries. Belgium was visited by 7.5 million foreign tourists in 2016, bringing the country an income of $ 11.8 billion. Mostly Germans, British, Luxembourgers, French and Dutch visit Belgium. The British also developed a kind of First World War tourism. There are still many old war memorials and cemeteries in West Flanders . The holiday resorts on the Belgian North Sea coast ( Knokke-Heist , Bredene , De Panne , Nieuwpoort , Oostende and others) are also very popular. The Ardennes are also a popular holiday region. From the Belgian North Sea coast you can take many day trips, for example to the neighboring countries of France and the Netherlands or Great Britain. City tours to Brussels , Hasselt , Ghent , Antwerp and others have also proven to be particularly popular . The city of Bruges is probably the city with the greatest tourism. It is sometimes called the Venice of the North . There is an independent tourist association for Flanders and another for the rest of Belgium.
The country's per capita carbon dioxide emissions are among the highest in the world.
As of 2019, Belgium had two active nuclear power plants . In 1999 parliament decided to phase out nuclear power (see also: Nuclear energy in Belgium ) and in 2003 a timetable up to 2025 was set. However, there were delays in implementation.
The Flemish newspaper market is the largest and is dominated by three publishing groups: Corelio Media (among others publisher of De Standaard , Het Nieuwsblad ), De Persgroep (among others publisher of Het Laatste Nieuws , De Morgen , De Tijd ) and Concentra (among others publisher of Het Belang van Limburg , Metro ). The most important publishing companies in Wallonia are Rossel (among others editor of Le Soir as well as co-editors of L'Echo and Grenzecho ) and IPM / Medi @ bel.
In the broadcasting sector, there are separate public broadcasters for the three language communities: VRT (Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroep) for Flanders, RTBF (Radio Télévision Belge Francophone) for Wallonia and BRF (Belgian Broadcasting) for the German-speaking community. In addition to the BRF programs, many radio and television programs from nearby Germany are used by the East Belgians of German origin.
The most important German-language newspaper is the Grenz-Echo , which appears daily in Eupen . Among the magazines include the German-language edition of the Belgian Official Journal (Official Journal of the Belgian Government) in Brussels, the agricultural publication The farmer from St. Vith, the municipal bulletin Eupen currently , the Association of Organ The Public Transport International - Public Transport International of Brussels or the quarterly magazine Geschwënn - zeitschrëft vum Arelerland for German speakers in south-east Belgium around the city of Arlon / Arel.
According to a study by Bank Credit Suisse from 2017, Belgium was 17th in the world in terms of total national assets . Total real estate, stocks, and cash holdings totaled $ 2,453 billion. The wealth per adult person is 278,139 dollars on average and 161,589 dollars in median (in Germany: 203,946 and 47,091 dollars, respectively). In terms of wealth per inhabitant, Belgium is among the top 10 countries in the world. Overall, 54% of the total wealth of Belgians was financial wealth and 46% was non-financial wealth. The Gini coefficient for wealth distribution was 63 in 2017, which suggests relatively moderate wealth inequality. The top 10% of the Belgian population owned 47.6% of the wealth and the top 1% owned 17.5% of the wealth, which is a lower concentration of wealth than most other European countries. The proportion of Belgians with assets over a million dollars is estimated at 3.9% of the population.
Disputes between the French-speaking Walloons and the Dutch-speaking Flemings have existed in Belgium since the 19th century (see also Flemish-Walloon conflict ). A current point of contention has its cause in economic differences between the parts of the country: Since the Walloon regions, which were formerly characterized by the coal and steel industry, are in a recession phase, unemployment there is significantly higher than in the Flemish regions. At the same time, two thirds of the Belgian gross national income is generated in Flanders. The Flemish region pays a solidarity contribution, which in Wallonia is mainly used to finance social benefits. However, these payments are politically controversial in the Flemish region. The growing resentment about the economic weakness of the Walloon region is particularly evident in the Flemish separatist movement, whose main organization is the Vlaams Belang party .
|Item||province||GDP 2017 in € million||
GDP / capita, PPS ,
(EU28 = 100) (2017)
GDP / capita in € (2017)
|2.||Walloon Brabant Province||17,477||131||43,700|
|3.||Flemish Brabant Province||47.104||125||41,500|
|4th||West Flanders Province||45.263||115||38,100|
|5.||East Flanders Province||53,855||108||35,900|
|Change in gross domestic product (GDP), real|
|in% compared to the previous year|
|Change in% yoy||1.4||0.8||3.2||1.7||2.7||2.9||1.0||−2.8||2.4||1.8||−0.2||−0.1||1.6||1.4||1.4||1.7|
|Development of GDP (at market prices)|
|absolute (in billion euros)||per inhabitant (in euros)|
|GDP in billions of euros||387.5||391.7||400.8||410.2||421.1||437.2||GDP per inhabitant (thousand euros)||35,100||35,300||35,900||36,600||37,300||38,500|
|Development of the inflation rate||Development of the budget balance|
|in% compared to the previous year||in% of GDP
("minus" means deficit in the national budget)
|inflation rate||2.3||1.8||4.5||0.0||3.5||2.6||Budget balance||−4.1||−4.2||−3.1||−3.1||−2.5||−2.6|
|Development of foreign trade|
|in billion euros and its change compared to the previous year in%|
|Billion euros||% yoy||Billion euros||% yoy||Billion euros||% year-on-year|
|Export (in percent) to||Import (in percent) of|
|United Kingdom||8.9||United States||8.2|
|United States||5.9||United Kingdom||4.8|
|Spain||2.7||People's Republic of China||4.4|
|other countries||33.8||other countries||39.2|
Thanks to its central location as a European trading center, Belgium has one of the world's densest infrastructure networks. In 2016, Belgium was ranked sixth out of 160 countries in the Logistics Performance Index compiled by the World Bank . The parameters for international shipping and the logistical time required did particularly well.
Belgium was the first country in continental Europe with rail links. The state railway company is called the National Company of the Belgian Railways (SNCB / NMBS) and operates one of the most densely developed rail networks in the world. An S-Bahn went into operation for Brussels and the surrounding area on December 13, 2015 , and S-Bahns have also been running in Antwerp , Charleroi , Ghent and Liège since 2018 .
The traditional sleeping car company Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits , which operated, among other things, the luxury trains Orient Express , North and South Express and Ostend-Vienna Express , was founded by Georges Nagelmackers from Liège .
All places along the entire North Sea coast of Belgium are connected to the longest overland tram line in the world, the Kusttram .
Belgium is an important transit country between Central and Western Europe . The most important port is Antwerp on the Scheldt , one of the largest and most important seaports in the world. The seaport of Bruges-Zeebrugge is also one of the most modern and important in Europe. The port of Ostend had traditional importance as a ferry port until the opening of the Eurotunnel .
The Belgian national airline was the traditional Sabena until it went bankrupt on November 6, 2001 . It went on in the SN Brussels Airlines , which in turn merged with Virgin Express to Brussels Airlines .
In 2013, the entire road network covered around 154,012 km, of which 120,514 km were paved.
Belgium has a very well developed motorway network with a length of 1,756 km in 2010, which - like all other roads in Belgium - is almost completely equipped with street lights and illuminated at night. However, this lighting is to be restricted in the future to save electricity and thus to protect the climate and consequently remain switched off between 0:30 a.m. and 4:30 a.m. Due to the high volume of foreign traffic, a motorway toll of 60 euros was planned for 2008, which caused heated discussions, but has not yet been introduced.
There is no typical all-Belgian cuisine, as numerous specialties are more likely to be assigned to the Flemish cuisine or the cuisine of Wallonia or are inspired by the culinary arts of neighboring countries, especially France (more precisely: Lorraine ). But a world-famous invention was made in Belgium that is often misclassified: French fries . Belgian waffles are also a specialty. The most popular waffles are the Brussels and Liège waffles. Belgium is also known for its pralines , which are among the best in the world. Another special feature is the diversity of varieties of Belgian beers , including numerous abbey beers (Abdijbier, Bière d'Abbaye) with higher alcohol content, fermented in a special way beers (eg. As Lambic , Geuze ) or mixed with fruit flavors beers. The most popular types of beer are Jupiler and Stella Artois , both of which belong to the Belgian brewery group AB-InBev .
Football is a popular sport in Belgium . The Belgian 1st league is one of the oldest in the world. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Belgian national team (known as the Red Devils ) was among the top international players . After participating in the 2002 World Cup , Belgium had not been able to qualify for an international tournament for twelve years. In recent years, however, the Belgian national team has once again been among the best in the world, as proven by winning the bronze medal at the 2018 World Cup . ( See also: Soccer in Belgium )
The national sport in Belgium, however, is cycling. Because of this, Belgium has produced some celebrities in cycling. So were and are Eddy Merckx , Roger De Vlaeminck , Johan Museeuw , Peter Van Petegem and Tom Boonen of the best cyclists in the world. Important one-day classics take place in Belgium, for example Liège – Bastogne – Liège and the Tour of Flanders .
Special mention should also be made of cyclocross , a special cycling discipline that takes place in winter. The domestic races are attended by tens of thousands of spectators. As a rule, three to four of the eight or so World Cup competitions are held in Belgium, as are most of the other top rated competitions. Belgium dominates the sport like no other country and has by far the largest number of world champions and overall world cup winners, with Sven Nys in particular.
Carom and billiards artistique should not be forgotten , in which the athletes René Vingerhoedt and Raymond Ceulemans dominated the scene for years. Billiards is also very important for many amateur and pub players.
The Spa-Francorchamps circuit is one of the most demanding circuits in motorsport. International racing series, including Formula 1 since 1950, host here at regular intervals . One of the highlights is the annual 24-hour race .
With the Circuit Zolder , Belgium has a second race track of national importance. Formula 1 races were also held here from 1973 to 1984. Nivelles-Baulers , the third course on which Formula 1 races took place, no longer exists.
International grade races have been held several times on the Heusden-Zolder speedway track . The final of the European Grass Track Championships has already been held on the grass track in Alken in the Limburg province .
Comics are generally very popular in Belgium; King Baudouin, for example, was a big avowed fan. The “Bandes Dessinées” (BD for short, French) or “Strips” (Dutch) are often found in the cityscape, every good Belgian bookstore has special BD departments and you can even find them in every large supermarket.
Comics are a main export item for Belgian publishers, as many internationally known and famous comic artists and authors come from Belgium, which, compared to its size, has produced the most in Europe. The most famous are Willy Vandersteen ( Suske and Wiske ), Jean Graton ( Michel Vaillant ), Morris ( Lucky Luke ), Hergé ( Tintin ), Peyo ( The Smurfs and others), André Franquin ( Spirou and Fantasio , Gaston and Marsupilami ) and Philippe Geluck (Le Chat).
In Belgium it is possible to study comics as a major at art schools such as the Royal Academy of Fine Arts and the Institut Saint-Luc in Brussels. That is why the Bandes Dessinées are also dubbed the “ninth art” in Belgium. In Brussels there is a comic museum ( Center Belge de la Bande Dessinée ), in which this art movement is honored on three floors.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the time of the Renaissance , numerous composers from the area of today's Belgium, especially from Hainaut , were leading and style-defining in Europe (the so-called Dutch). Important names are Guillaume Dufay , Johannes Ockeghem , Josquin Desprez , Heinrich Isaac , Jacob Obrecht , Adrian Willaert , Orlando di Lasso . The French composer César Franck was born in Liège , spent the first thirteen years of his life in Belgium and was already musically active there before the family moved to Paris in 1835 .
- Saint Gudula of Brussels and Eibingen is the patroness of the city of Brussels and a Belgian national saint.
- Well-known painters are Pieter Bruegel the Elder , Peter Paul Rubens , Léonard Defrance , James Ensor and the surrealist René Magritte as well as the friend of Vincent van Gogh , Eugène Boch , and his sister Anna Boch .
- Well-known architects are the Bauhaus architect Henry van de Velde and the Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta .
- World-famous writers are Charles De Coster , Émile Verhaeren , Maurice Maeterlinck , Georges Simenon and Amélie Nothomb .
- For the music world of the 19th century (and beyond) Adolphe Sax was an important figure. Well-known musicians of the 20th century are the jazz musicians Toots Thielemans and Philip Catherine , the singer and chansonnier Jacques Brel , the crossover and pop singer Helmut Lotti and the Flemish singer-songwriter Frederic Sioen . Furthermore, the rock musician Gotye was born in Belgium, who became famous and successful with his hit Somebody That I Used to Know .
- Belgium has been a stronghold of trance music since the late 1990s . The vocal trance formations Ian Van Dahl , Lasgo and Sylver are internationally successful . In the more progressive scene z. B. Push or Yves Deruyter very well known.
- Well-known actors are the action film hero Jean-Claude Van Damme , the actors Benoît Poelvoorde and Johnny Galecki , the actresses Émilie Dequenne , Cécile de France and Jasmin Schwiers . The brothers Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne are successful directors .
- Well-known athletes are the tennis players Kim Clijsters and Justine Henin , the soccer players Jean-Marie Pfaff , Marc Wilmots , Emile Mpenza , Daniel Van Buyten and Vincent Kompany , the racing driver Jacky Ickx and the racing cyclists Eddy Merckx , Tom Boonen , Johan Museeuw , Peter Van Petegem and the motocross racer Stefan Everts .
- The comic book authors and drawers Hergé ( Tim and Struppi ), Morris ( Lucky Luke ), Franquin ( Marsupilami ) and Peyo ( The Smurfs ).
In Belgium, active euthanasia is allowed, even for minors, and is regulated by a law that provides doctors with special training for this purpose.
In 2017, a total of 2309 people made use of active euthanasia, including three minors. In 2009 there were 822 cases, almost 80 percent of them in Flanders.
- List of rulers of Belgium
- List of cities in Belgium
- Brussels-Rundschau (German-language Belgian newspaper)
- Belgian field post
- Women's suffrage in Belgium
- Women's rights in Belgium
- Christoph Driessen : History of Belgium. The divided nation . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-7917-2975-6 .
- Insa Meinen: The Shoah in Belgium. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-22158-5 .
- Johannes Koll (Ed.): Belgium. History - politics - culture - economy. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-402-00408-1 .
- Frank Berge, Alexander Grasse: Belgium - disintegration or federal future model? The Flemish-Walloon Conflict and the German-speaking Community. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2003 (Regionalization in Europe, Volume 3), ISBN 3-8100-3486-X .
- Claus Hecking: The Belgian political system. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3724-9 .
Further content in the
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- belgium.be - Official information and services (Dutch, German, English, French)
- Royal Palace - The monarchy in Belgium
- Country data from the German Federal Statistical Office
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in Belgium
- Belgiuminfo - German-language current information page
- 175 years ago an opera sparked the Belgian revolution. In: arte.tv. August 25, 2005, archived from the original on April 21, 2020 .
- Link catalog on Belgium at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
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