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Course of the Maas.jpg
Water code FRB --- 0000 , DE : 28
location France



River system Rhine
Drain over Hollands Diep  → North Sea
River basin district Meuse
source in France near Pouilly-en-Bassigny
47 ° 58 ′ 28 "  N , 5 ° 38 ′ 1"  E
Source height 409  m
muzzle Hollands Diep
(former North Sea bay , today part of the southern main river of the Rhine) Coordinates: 51 ° 42 ′ 54 ″  N , 4 ° 40 ′ 4 ″  E 51 ° 42 ′ 54 ″  N , 4 ° 40 ′ 4 ″  E
Mouth height m NAP
Height difference 408 m
Bottom slope 0.47 ‰
length 874 km
Catchment area 33,000 km²
A Eo : 33,000 km²
357 m³ / s
10.8 l / (s km²)
Left tributaries Sambre , Dieze
Right tributaries Semois , Lesse , Ourthe , Rur , Niers
Flowing lakes Maasplassen
Big cities Namur , Liège , Maastricht , 's-Hertogenbosch , Venlo
Medium-sized cities Verdun , Sedan , Charleville-Mézières , Roermond
Residents in the catchment area about 9 million
Ports Verdun , Sedan , Charleville-Mézières , Namur , Liège , Maastricht , Maasbracht , Roermond , Venlo
Navigable mostly
Nieuwe Maas and Oude Maas are mouths of the Rhine below the Meuse mouth.
The Meuse at Laifour in the French Ardennes

The Meuse at Laifour in the French Ardennes

The Maas ( Latin Mosa , French Meuse , Walloon Moûze , Limburg Maos and Dutch Maas ) is an approximately 874 kilometer long river that flows through France , Belgium and the Netherlands . The Meuse flows into the southern main stream of the Rhine-Maas delta , the Hollands Diep , and thus belongs to the river system of the Rhine . The Meuse is by far the longest tributary of the Rhine and the second richest in water after the Aare . She is also the namesake of the second longest tributary of the Rhine, the Moselle ( Latin Mosella : "Little Maas").


Source of the Meuse

The Meuse rises at 409  m in Pouilly-en-Bassigny in the municipality of Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse ( Haute-Marne department ) on the Langres plateau . After its long upper course in France, it crosses the Ardennes and the cities of Namur and Liège within Belgium and then passes the cities of Maastricht , Roermond and Venlo in the Netherlands . From Borgharen near Maastricht to about the height of Maasbracht , the Maas ( called Grensmaas here ) forms the border between the provinces of Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg . The Grenzmaas is not navigable between Borgharen and Maaseik. Ship traffic runs over the Juliana Canal, which runs parallel . The Meuse then turns westward and forms the border between the Dutch provinces of Gelderland in the north and Noord-Brabant in the south. As Amer , it flows into the Hollands Diep , a former bay that is now part of the southernmost of the Rhine estuary.

Development history and artificial changes of the river

River taps on the upper reaches

The now very narrow catchment area of the Maas upper reaches is a consequence of loss of territory due to river taps from the somewhat lower lying neighboring river areas, i.e. the Seine in the west and that of the Moselle flowing to the Rhine in the east. In its upper reaches, the Meuse runs mainly through series of mostly resistant limestones from the Upper Jurassic (known as Malm in Germany ), whereas the neighboring river areas there are more easily cleared rocks.

Around a million years ago, today's Aisne was diverted to the Oise and thus to the river system of the Seine. Today the bar flows through the deserted wide valley to the Meuse. During the Saale Glaciation , around 250,000 years ago, the Meuse even lost its upper reaches, in this case to the Moselle. The 12 km long valley between Toul and Pagny-sur-Meuse fell dry as a result of the river tapping, a left-hand Maas tributary at that time became today's upper reaches of the Meuse.

Rock of Freÿr near Dinant


Maasplassen in belg / netherlands Limburg

Below the exit from its narrow valley in the currently rising Rhenish Slate Mountains ( Ardennes ), the Meuse deposits its sediment load in a broad embankment that extends to the North Sea and is mainly formed by deposits from the Rhine. Sandy-gravelly deposits from the Meuse are found mainly in the Belgian-Dutch region of Limburg. The Maasseen (Dutch Maasplassen; from Dutch plas for ponds) were created there through the large-scale mining of gravel in the middle of the 20th century . After the great flood in the middle of the 20th century ( Holland storm surge ), huge construction projects in the area of ​​the coast for dykes and weirs ( delta works ) as well as for the dykes (polders) in the provinces of Zeeland and Noord-Holland resulted in large amounts of sand and gravel Concrete production and needed for embankments.

Mouth area

Heusden on the Maas
Mouth delta of the Rhine and Maas
Distribution of the mean discharge of the Rhine and Maas in the delta area

The mouth of the Maas forms the Rhine-Maas delta with that of the Rhine . The Maas-Waal Canal branches off at Cuijk and reaches the main arm of the Rhine at Nijmegen . Since 1904, the Meuse itself has flowed into the Hollands Diep , a former North Sea bay through which the Nieuwe Merwede arm of the Rhine flowed, via an artificially created drainage path along the former Oude Maasje stream , called Bergse Maas und Amer . Before that, the main part of the Maas water flowed into the main arm of the Rhine delta , the Waal, via the watercourse that had existed since 1273 and is now called Afgedamde Maas . Since the construction of the Haringvliet dam in 1970, Hollands Diep and Haringvliet have also become sections of the southern main arm of the Rhine via Waal and Nieuwe Merwede. Since then, the water from the Meuse and the Rhine has been reunited to the sea, at low tide mainly via the Nieuwe Waterweg near Rotterdam, at high tide mainly via the locks of the Haringvliet dam. Overall, the water distribution in the Rhine-Maas Delta is carefully controlled, especially depending on the flow of the Rhine at the Lobith gauge on the German-Dutch border. At medium and low water levels, most of the water of the Meuse, together with that of the Rhine, crosses the urban areas of Dordrecht and Rotterdam before it reaches the open sea.

The estuary landscape is largely below sea level. In earlier centuries, after almost every severe storm surge or flood situation on the Maas and Waal, their appearance and thus the course of the rivers and streams changed. The naming of the waters in the Rhine-Maas Delta has largely remained unaffected by the greatly changed drainage routes. Because of the Rhine that once ran further north, many arms of the Rhine were former lower reaches of the Maas coming from the south, such as the Nieuwe Maas and Oude Maas .

Catchment area and water data

The catchment area of ​​the French upper reaches in the hill country of Lorraine (around 30 percent of the entire catchment area) is elongated and narrow, which counteracts extreme flood peaks, as does the rock that often stores water. In contrast, the Belgian part (around 40 percent) drains the Ardennes, which is rich in precipitation and has many steep tributaries, which increases the risk of flooding in the Meuse. At the border with the Netherlands (at the Borgharen gauge), the Meuse has around 260 m³ / s of water. In the Netherlands the terrain is almost flat. At its mouth, the Meuse drains a catchment area of ​​around 33,000 km² with a water flow of around 357 m³ / s. In the lower part, the boundaries of the catchment area are drawn inconsistently. Sometimes the fringes of Hollands Diep and Haringvliet are also included, but these are mainly traversed by Rhine water ( see also the river system of the Rhine ). Accordingly, there are also length specifications that exceed 874 kilometers (rounded 875 km).


As an exception, a few channels are also entered in the following table because they are important for the water balance. Some confusing side relationships result from the fact that the North Brabant Aa is passed several times by means of culverts under the Zuid-Willemsvaart .

The Meuse, its tributaries and their tributaries from 25 km in length
  • Upstream order
  • A body of water flows into that of the river courses listed above, the name of which begins above the indication of the confluence side ("right" / "left") of the flowing water.
  • Arrows are directed downstream and are in front of geographically upper parts of a previously mentioned river course.
  • Lengths given after the slash refer to the course of the river according to the official classification in contrast to the traditional use of the name,
    or to the scientifically longest flow path in contrast to the officially defined river.
  • If the flow path from a (secondary) inflow and the part of the river into which it flows is longer below this mouth than the main body of water,
    the distance between the mouth and the source or the mouth of the main body of water is given.
  • Watercourses that start as a branch from a larger body of water are entered twice:
    • at the water from which they branch off, highlighted in blue
    • at the water into which they flow, highlighted blue-gray
  • Waters of less than 25 km in particular are included if they are to be regarded as part of a longer watercourse.
Tributaries> 80 km:
(lengths in km)
Semois  (210) • Sambre  (193) • Ourthe, Ourthe Occidentale  (180) • Rur  (164) • Chiers  (140) •
MaximaK., Zuid Willemsvaart  (126) • Dieze, Dommel  (120) • Niers  (113.1) • Amblève / Amel  (93)  • Lesse  (89) 
Inflow in the direction of flow
seen from ...
Surname Location of the mouth Water
code BE: various (Wallonia: water bodies )
[m³ / s]
Amer , part of the Rhine-Maas estuary in South Holland 012, 0
right SpijkerboorSteurgat from the Rhine
Left Donge ← Leij Geertruidenberg 0.035, 0
Bergsche Maas 024.5 230, 0
↑ Maas Heusden (DE: 28),
BE: MV35R , MM38R (lower / upper Namur),
FR: B --- 0000
784, 0 33,000, 0 357, 0
Left Dieze Hertogenbosch 6.5 / 120 14th,
right Aa (underflow) 0.046, 0
center Zuid-Willemsvaart (north end) 118/123
↑ left Dommel 113.5 / 120
Left Maximakanaal 8.25 / 126
AFTER  L Zuid-Willemsvaart (north end) 0.005.4
^ Zuid-Willemsvaart 118/123
AFTER  L Aa (underflow) Helmond 0.046, 0
Left Aa (upper course) 023.4
right Astense Aa Branches 018.7
if necessary water supply from Kanaal van DeurneNoordervaart
AFTER  R Noordervaart Nederweert 011, 0
AFTER  R Kanaal Wessem - Nederweert 17th,
Left Hertogswetering Oss 032.5 about 100
right Niers Gennep EN: 286000 113.1 01,380, 0 0007.8
Left Nice below. Wachtendonk EN: 286200 028.3 00,182, 0
Left Tungelroyse Beek Neer 026th, 0 00,157, 0
right Schwalm Swalms EN: 284000 045.3 269, 0 001.6
right Rur Roermond DE: 382, ​​BE: MV28R 164.5 02,361, 0 022.2
Left worm north of Heinsberg EN: 282800 057, 0 00,355.5
Left Merzbach Linnich DE: 282534 028.4 00,106, 0
Left In the at Jülich DE: 2824, BE: MV32R 054.1 00,374, 0
right Urft in the Rursee EN: 282200 046.4 00,372, 0
Left Olefin Schleiden- Gemünd DE: 28228, BE: MV30R 027.9 00,196, 0
Left Kanaal Wessem - Nederweert Wessem / Maasbracht 017th, 0
right Julianakanaal 036, 0
right Geleenbeek Stevensweert 045.2 002.8
Left Abeek Ophoven 043.6
right Geul, German: Göhl at Meerssen BE: MV26R (-II), MV25R (-I) 58, 001.5
AFTER  R Julianakanaal Maastricht 036, 0
AFTER  L Zuid-Willemsvaart Maastricht 118, 0
Left Connection from the Albert Canal Neerharen 0004.75
Left Jeker , fr .: Geer Maastricht MV22R (-II), MV18R (-I) 054, 0 0463 002.7
AFTER  L Albert Canal (to the mouth of the Scheldt ) Liège, German: Liège 129.5
right Ourthe OU32R (-III), OU22R (-II) 130.5 / 180 3 624, 055.2
right Vesdre, German: Weser 2 km from its mouth DE: 281280 069.7 0696 010.9
right Amblève, German: Amel Comblain-au-Pont AM17R 93, 1,080, 019.5
Left Lienne Stoumont AM13R 29, 0149 002.9
Left Salm Trois-Ponts AM10R (-II), AM18R (-I) 034.3 0202 003.2
right Warche above. Stavelot AM16R (-III), AM06R (-II), AM03R (-I) 040.9 0194 004.5
right Aisne 3 km below Barvaux OU26R (-II), OU24R (-I) 031, 0 0187
↑ right Ourthe Orientale 8 km west of Houffalize OU32R (-III), OU11R (-II), OU07R (-I) 038.7 0329 005.7
↑ left Ourthe Occidentale OU06R (-III), OU03R (-II), OU01R (-I) 049.5 0406 007.2
right Hoyoux Huy MV07R (-II), MV07R (-I) 28, 0239 002.0
Left Mehaigne bug OU06R 59, 0352 002.5
Left Sambre Namur BE: SA27R (-II), SA25R (-I),
FR: D0000600 , D0120600 , D0--022-
193, 0 2,740, 028.6
Left Orneau Jemeppe SA22R (-II), SA21R (-I) 25th, 0203 001.8
Left Piéton Charleroi SA13R 30th, 0170.4 00
right Eau d'Heure Marchienne-au-Pont SA11R (-III), SA08R (-II), SA05R (-I),
SA03L (Talsp.)
47, 0344 003.8
right Help majeure Noyelles-sur-Sambre D0150650 069.1 0329 003.9
right Help miners Maroilles D0130700 51, 0275 003.8
right Bocq Yvoir MM29R (-II), MM28R (-I) 45, 0230 002.2
right Lesse (m. 1 100 m [air line] as a sinkhole ) above Dinant LE ... 89, 1 343 19th,
right Lomme Éprave LE01R 46, 0480 007.4
Left Hermeton Hermeton, whether. Hastière M21R (-III), M19R (-II), M18R (-I) 32, 0167 001.9
Left Viroin from: Vireux-Molhain B71-0200 22/66
Left Eau Blanche Viroinval MM06R (-II), MM05R (-I) 33, 179.5
↑ right Eau Noire FR: B71-0200 , BE: MM03R 44,
right Semoy (F) ← Semois (B) Monthermé FR: B6-0100 ,
BE: SC37R (-IV), SC28R (-III),
SC23R (-II), SC08R (-I)
210, 0 1,350, 029.2
right Vierre Chiny SC22R (-III), SC18R (-II), SC17R (-I) 46.7 267 5.6
Left Sormonne Warcq B55-0200 056.5 0411 006.4
Left Vence Charleville-Mezieres B53-0200 032.6 0132 002.2
Left bar 7 km below Sedan B51-0200 061.1 0425 005.6
right Chiers Oberh. Bazeilles FR: B4-0100 , BE: SC38R about 140 2222, 030.6
Left Loison under Montmédy B45-0200 052.8 0357 004.0
Left Othain above Montmédy B43-0200 67, 0257 29,
right Clay or clay 6 km up. Montmédy B4230430 32, 0318 05,
Left Crusnes Longuyon B41-0200 32, 0266 003.2
right Vair vs. Domrémy-la-Pucelle B12-0200 065.3 0460 005.2
right Mouzon Neufchâteau B10-0200 063.3 0425 004.8
right Anger ob. Cirourt-sur-Mouzon B10-0210 027.9 0124 001.4

The Walloon numbering is not about watercourse but about water body numbers. If a river is divided into several water bodies, the authority has differentiated their names with Roman numerals, order downstream. Where larger inflows of these waters have been defined as separate water bodies, the total catchment area can be larger than the sum of the water bodies listed here. Conversely, due to the fact that smaller tributaries are included, the length of the water body specified for a water body is often greater than the length of the section of its main water body. For a list of all water bodies in Wallonia, see the environment portal.

Shorter tributaries to choose from
Left tributaries Right tributaries

Cities on the Meuse

- Downstream sequence -
France Belgium Netherlands


Sailboats on the Meuse


In the French section, the Meuse was canalized and as a shipping route it bears the name Canal de la Meuse ( formerly: Canal de l'Est - branche Nord ). The canal runs between the Franco-Belgian border at Givet and Troussey . Due to the dimensions of the locks and bridges, it is only navigable for Pénichen in Freycinet dimensions, as well as for sport boats and houseboats . In Dom-le-Mesnil between Charleville-Mézières and Sedan , the Canal des Ardennes branches off and, after crossing the watershed at Le Chesne, follows the Aisne to the île de France around Paris . Upstream the Meuse is navigable to Troussey . Here the Canal de la Marne au Rhin crosses the river and connects it westward with Paris and eastward near Toul with the Moselle and near Strasbourg with the Rhine .

Across the Moselle and further in the Canal des Vosges (formerly Canal de l'Est, branche Sud) you can reach the Saône and the Rhone , on which you can get to the Mediterranean .

Recreational skippers from Northern Europe prefer to take this inland route on their trip to the Mediterranean than the much longer and more demanding route around Spain.

Belgium, Netherlands

Bulk carrier on the Maas in Maastricht
Tanker and power station Clauscentrale near the canal junction between Heel and Maasbracht

In the Belgian and Dutch sections, the Meuse has been developed for large-scale shipping.

The uppermost Belgian connecting water is the Sambre , from which the Canal de la Sambre à l'Oise in France leads to the Oise . In Belgium you can get from the Sambre to the Charleroi-Brussels Canal (to the Senne ), from which the Canal du Center branches off to the west , as a connection to the Scheldt .

In Liège, the Albert Canal , which opened on July 30, 1939, branches off from the Meuse to Antwerp, which must be taken by Maas shipping, as it is not possible to sail the Meuse any further here. At Lanaye the Kanaal van Ternaaien connects the Albert Canal with the Meuse again. In Maastricht, the Zuid-Willemsvaart connects , which reaches the Meuse again at 's Hertogenbosch .

In the Dutch section, with a total of seven barrages, a minimum fairway depth of three meters is guaranteed.
Since 1822, the Grensmaas , the section of the river between Maastricht (NL) and Ohe en Laak (northeast of Maaseik), has no longer been navigable for non-stop shipping.
From there, shipping from Maastricht to Maasbracht takes the Juliana Canal, which was laid out parallel to the Maas between 1925 and
1935 . Also in the Netherlands near Roermond the 8.9 km long lateral canal Linne-Buggenum between Heel and Buggenum shortens the Maas (navigable there).

The Maas-Waal Canal connects the Maas near Nijmegen with the Waal (Rhine).

Maass closure 2016

Stuwaanvaring door Benzeentanker bij Grave.pdf

In December 2016, part of the Meuse was completely closed to shipping for a period of 4 weeks after the German tanker Maria Valentine of Reederei Gefo GmbH broke through and destroyed the weir at Grave with 2.5 million liters of gasoline in the fog. This reduced the water level on the Maas between the barrages Sambeek and Grave to 27 km, and in the Maas-Waal canal to the Nijmegen lock by three meters. Around 9,000 ships operate on this section of the route every year. Due to the closure, larger ships (class III) were diverted via Antwerp, smaller ships (class II) via the Zuid-Willemsvaart . In January 2017, the responsible ministry announced that until the final repair of the system, which is estimated at half a year, a temporary structure would be built from a rubble wall below the weir. This should make shipping traffic possible again by raising the water level and provision should be made for a rise in the water level in the event of flooding, by then lowering the dam again within 48 hours. The water level could be raised again by the emergency dam, so that on January 23, 2017 the first cargo ship was allowed to sail again on the blocked route between the Grave and Sambeck locks. Since January 24, 2017 there are no longer any restrictions on navigation on the Maas. The repair of the barrage was completed in July 2017. Rijkswaterstaat puts the damage at min. 20 million euros.


When the Frankish Empire was divided among the sons of Louis the Pious , the Meuse became the border between the West Franconian Empire under Charles the Bald and the Middle Kingdom under Lothar I. The geographical name of Lorraine is derived from his name .

Domrémy-la-Pucelle , the birthplace of Joan of Arc, is located on the upper reaches of the Meuse .

The Geldrische areas west of the Meuse joined Prussia at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands from. Since then they have belonged to the Province of Limburg . Even today, the so-called cannon line forms the border between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands . The east of the Meuse, part of the then newly created province of Limburg , which was divided between Belgium and the Netherlands in 1830 , belonged to the German Confederation as the Duchy of Limburg despite Dutch sovereignty . The well-known geographical description " ... from the Maas to the Memel  ... " of the first stanza of the Deutschlandlied from 1841, with which the western border of the German cultural nation was attempted, relates to this . In addition, the Dutch were considered part of the German people for a long time, and the Dutch language was considered a Low German dialect.

The Walloon Meuse valley between Namur and Liège has been industrialized since the 1820s.

The Meuse and the mountain ranges to the left and right of the Meuse influenced some military actions in the First and Second World Wars. For example, it was an important natural barrier at the Battle of Verdun from February 1916, which had an impact on the course of the front or was the front line in some sections. On May 12, 1940, the third day of the western campaign , Wehrmacht troops reached the Meuse near Sedan; in the following days they defeated the French troops located there (" Battle of Sedan ").

On January 2, 1926, the highest water level on the Meuse was measured at 29.91 meters above NAP , which was around nine meters above the average water level.

In December 1930, around 60 people died in the Maas Valley between Huy and Seraing in the so-called Maas Valley disaster when, as a result of an inversion weather, the exhaust gases from the factories could not rise and toxic concentrations occurred in the air layer close to the ground.

The asteroid of the main outer belt (3016) Meuse is named after the Meuse.


  • Ludwig Zöller (Hrsg.): The physical geography of Germany . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-534-26868-9 , 6 River History of Central Europe - Change, Surprise, Crime. 6.4 The daughter older than the father - the Moselle and Maas system, pp. 124–134.

Web links

Commons : Maas  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Meuse  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d H. E. J. Berger, A. L. Mugie (Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Rijkswaterstaat, Rijksinstituut voor Integraal Zoetwaterbeheer en Afvalwaterbehandeling): Hydrologische systeembeschrijving Maas , Den Haag 1994
  2. a b Rijkswaterstaat, Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee / RIKZ: Tienjarig overzicht 1981–1990 , The Hague
    Note: The most
    quoted value of 260 m³ / s relates to the Borgharen gauge on the Belgian-Dutch border.
  3. Note:
  4. Albert Pissart, Leendert Krook, Dominique Harmand: La capture de l'Aisne et les minéraux denses of alluvions de la Meuse dans les Ardennes , Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, vol 325,. 1997, pp. 411-417, doi: 10.1016 / S1251-8050 (97) 81158-5 .
  5. D. François et al .: Characteristics and cross-border cooperation within the river basins of the FLOOD-WISE project ( Memento of the original from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.6 MB) , Maastricht 2010
  6. Cf. Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon in 25 volumes , 1975, volume 15, page 383: "890 km long, according to other information between 860 and 971 km"
  7. ↑ Discharge measurement not in Gennep, but in Goch
  8. Drawn GPS track, upstream
  9. General Directorate for Agriculture, Natural Reserves and Environment - DGO3 / SPW: Environmental goals of waters (detail) with a complete list of water bodies including numbers
  10. Data from Essent on the Maasbracht gas power plant
  11. Vaarwegenoverzicht des Rijkswaterstaat with information on the navigability of the Meuse, accessed on November 19, 2016 (Dutch)
  12. Inventory of Maaseik Monuments (Dutch)
  13. Andreas Gebbink: Ship rams lock - water loss in Maas and Niers. In: WAZ. January 2, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017 .
  14. ^ Kleve: German ship crashes into bridge near Nijmegen. In: RP ONLINE. Retrieved January 7, 2017 .
  15. Aanvaring stuwcomplex Grave. Rijkswaterstaat - Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, accessed January 24, 2017 (Dutch).
  16. Scheepvaart op de Maas vanmiddag fully presented. Rijkswaterstaat - Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, accessed January 24, 2017 (Dutch).
  17. ^ Rainer Liedtke: The industrial revolution . Böhlau, Cologne 2012. ISBN 978-3-8252-3350-1 , pp. 50-52.
  18. ^ Art. Maastal disaster . In: Otto Ahlhaus, Gerhard Boldt, Klaus Klein (eds.): Pocket dictionary environmental protection . Schwann, Düsseldorf, 10th edition 1986, ISBN 3-590-14362-2 , p. 142.
  19. ^ Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp.  186 (English, 992 pp., [ONLINE; accessed October 2, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1981 EK. Discovered 1981 Mar. 1 by H. Debehogne and G. DeSanctis at La Silla. "