The Aare ( French Aar / Arole ; Latin Arula / Arola / Araris ) is the longest river that runs entirely within Switzerland . Its total length is 288 km, the gradient 1665 m, its catchment area 17,709 km² and the mean runoff 560 m³ / s. The Aare is the most water-rich tributary of the Rhine , even before the Maas and the High Rhine itself, and it brings more water than the Moselle and Main together.
The Aare rises in the two Aar glaciers in the eastern Bernese Alps on the Finsteraarhorn , west of the Grimsel Pass in central southern Switzerland. Your run leads through the cantons of Bern , Solothurn and Aargau . First it passes the Aare Gorge, cut into a high rock, and then reaches the plain between Meiringen and the glacial Lake Brienz . Shortly before entering Lake Thun near Interlaken , it is channeled and leaves it northwest into the wide Aare valley . In the area of Bern it flows around the medieval town center and reaches the Wohlensee in a westerly direction . At Aarberg , it is directed over the Hagneck Canal into Lake Biel and, after exiting, follows the course of the Jura Mountains to the northeast . Below Brugg , it takes in the Reuss and Limmat , before flowing into the Rhine at Koblenz (CH).
In the course of geological development, the Aare was successively the upper reaches of the Danube , the Rhone and the Rhine .
The Aar flows from the two Aargletschern ( Oberaar- and Unteraargletscher ) in Grimsel region few kilometers south of Guttannen in Haslital and flows in a northerly direction through the long, partially steep valley to Innertkirchen . Then it passes the Aare Gorge, cut into a high rock, and then reaches the plain between Meiringen and Lake Brienz .
In Brienz Aare flows into the Lake of Brienz . At its western end it then crosses the so-called Bödeli , the wide alluvial plain of the Lütschine near Interlaken , before flowing past the village of Unterseen to Lake Thun . The Kander has flowed into the lake since the river was corrected in the 18th century , and since then its fluctuations in discharge no longer directly affect the middle course of the Aare.
The Aare leaves Lake Thun near the city of Thun and flows through the wide Aare valley between Münsingen and Belpberg to Bern . At Unteraar, the Giesse (also called “Giessen”) comes as a small stream from the hills to the left of the Aare and then flows parallel to it for about ten kilometers, as the bed of the Aare is slightly higher due to sediments from the high mountains. The Giesse absorbs the water of the Aare-Aue and flows in the north of the Belpmoos into the Gürbe , which comes from the edge of the Alps and has sufficient gradient to flow into the Aare.
In the area of the city of Bern, the Aare runs in a deep valley around the old town, which was built in the Middle Ages on a spur of the terrain. With a barrage that has existed for centuries, the threshold, a short commercial canal, the Tych , is derived. A little further downstream, the Aare flows around the Engeh peninsula in another bend in the valley before it reaches the Wohlensee in a westerly direction . This lake was created as a reservoir with the construction of the dam for the Mühleberg hydropower plant.
After the confluence of the Saane near Oltigen south of Aarberg , the Aare flows through the Hagneck Canal, which was built during the first correction of the Jura waters, and into Lake Biel at Hagneck . It leaves Lake Biel near Nidau and flows through the Nidau-Büren Canal . Shortly before Büren it reaches its old river bed again. The stretch of the original course of the river between Aarberg and Büren an der Aare, the so-called Alte Aare , forms a wide, natural area, which is supplemented north of the canal by the wide old course in the so-called Häftli, which was cut off during the river correction .
From Büren an der Aare, the Aare flows in a wide plain, which was created by the silting up of the so-called Solothurn Lake at the end of the last glacial period , along the southern foot of the Jura in a north-easterly direction through Solothurn to Luterbach , where the Emme flows. It flows past Wangen an der Aare , Bannwil , Aarwangen , Wolfwil , Murgenthal , Aarburg , Olten and Aarau and in a gorge- like gorge through Brugg . Then she records the Reuss and Limmat in quick succession . This area is called the water castle of Switzerland , because three of the most water-rich rivers in Switzerland meet there. The landscape to the right of the Aare between Thun and Aarwangen has belonged to the Landgraviate of Burgundy since the Middle Ages . Around 2005, 60 municipalities in the agglomerations of Aarau, Olten and Zofingen formed a regional partnership called Aareland around the network city of Aarau / Olten / Zofingen.
From Brugg onwards, the Aare flows northwards through a wide gorge in the Jura near Stilli . Between the Felsenau district of the municipality of Leuggern and Koblenz (CH) opposite Waldshut (DE) it flows into the Rhine at Rhine km 102,200 .
At 560 m³ / s, the Aare is the richer river (Rhine: 439 m³ / s); From a hydrological point of view, the Rhine is a tributary of the Aare, not the other way around. For the route from Biel to Koblenz, the Aare needs a flow time of around two days at medium water levels.
The water temperature in Bern shows a typical course of the day. It increases by one degree during the day. This reflects the warming on the route from Lake Thun to Bern. Jumps in temperature of more than 5 ° C are rarely observed over a few hours. Presumably they depend on the wind conditions at Lake Thun, which means that deep water is transported from the lake to the outflow.
Aare before Guttannen
Aare near Innertkirchen
Aare in Thun
The Aare near Unterdettigen, just before the Wohlensee
Source and mouth of the Aare
The Aare and its tributaries have two special features compared to the rest of the Rhine system:
- They flow through numerous natural lakes.
- Several of the bodies of water do not arise from a single source, but rather begin with an original glacier.
In its stretched northeast-facing lower section, the Aare traces the drainage line of the foreland depression in the north of the emerging Alps, which has been verifiable for around 30 million years . After the eventful replenishment and eventual lifting of the former narrow Helvetmeeres the area drained alternately west or east until the Pliocene before 3 to 4 million years ago, the upper river system of the ancient Danube emerged. For a while its main source river was even the upper Rhone . In the later Pliocene this Aare-Danube broke out towards the Burgundian Gate and, as the Aare-Sundgau River , formed the main strand of the Ur-Rhone. At the end of the Pliocene, the valley watershed across today's Upper Rhine Graben near the former Kaiserstuhl volcano had sunk so far that the current broke out again and became the main strand of the rapidly expanding Rhine system . It was only around 800,000 years ago that the Alpine Rhine, at that time the main strand of the remaining Danube, was diverted to the west towards today's High Rhine Valley, probably with the contribution of the first large Pleistocene glaciations of the Alpine foothills , but also tectonic changes: Today the mean water of the Danube is in Neu-Ulm 466 , 68 m above sea level NHN , that of Lake Constance at 395.3 m above sea level. NHN .
In the course of its history, the Aare was thus the top hydrological main strand of all three north Alpine river systems.
The course of the Aare essentially consists of three parts:
- First of all, it is an alpine river that drains into two fjord lakes . The originally contiguous lake was divided by sediments from the Lütschine tributary . The catchment area of this alpine section of the Aare largely corresponds to the Bernese Oberland .
- Then it flows northwest from the edge of the Alps to the foot of the Jura Mountains .
- There they followed, as did their einmündender of West Creek, which consists predominantly of the Neuchâtel existing Zihl , the foot of the Jura . East of Brugg it turns north and flows through a wide Jura river to the Rhine.
The route from the Alps to the Swiss Plateau is similarly taken by its left tributary Saane and then the two large right tributaries Reuss (river) and Limmat , which reach the Aare close to each other at the foot of the Jura, 15 and 14 km respectively before its confluence with the Rhine . At 11,709 km², the catchment area of the Aare above the mouth of the Reuss is roughly as large as that of Lake Constance (11,487 km², discharge 78.4 km above the mouth of the Aare). Below the mouth of the Limmat, the mean discharge of the Aare is greater than that of the Rhine before the mouth of the Aare.
Of the tributaries of the Aare in the Swiss Plateau, the southwestern ones gather in the Zihl. The others flow almost parallel to each other and flow into the Aare between Lake Biel and the Reuss.
The major tributaries from the Jura are shaped by the peculiarities of these limestone mountains: the Orbe flows between its upper reaches in a valley bordered on both sides by the catchment area of the Rhone and the lower reaches through a sinkhole . The Areuse receives water from high valleys without surface drainage through two lateral karst springs . The Schüss rises in a karst area north of the Vue des Alpes pass and crosses various Jurassic clusters on its course. In the middle of its course, the Dünne river cuts a lump in the Jura rock and reaches the Mittelland near Oensingen .
River system board
→ Main article: River system board for the Aare
Tributaries with an average discharge greater than 40 m³ / s
Tributaries with a catchment area larger than 500 km²
Tributaries longer than 40 km
In the following, the tributaries of the Aare with a catchment area larger than 50 km² are listed in the order from the source to the mouth. The name, the river code number ( GKZ ), the orographic position of the mouth, the length in km, the size of the catchment area in km², the mean discharge (MQ) in m³ / s, the altitude of the mouth and the mouth is given. The parameters are based on the GIS of the Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo).
in m³ / s
|Gadmerwasser over rock water||569||right||21.6||168.85||11.57||near Innertkirchen||620||The Gadmerwasser is 17.6 km long|
(with Black Lütschine )
|500||Left||29.3||386.38||19.72||at Interlaken||564||flows into Lake Brienz|
|Kander||430||Left||60.7||1094.19||42.60||near Thun||558||flows into Lake Thun|
|Permit||548||right||23.3||88.15||2.40||northwest of Thun||550|
|Chise||548||right||21.0||71.18||2.10||west of the gravels||535|
|Gürbe||471||Left||29.6||143.00||3.08||shortly before Wabern near Bern||505|
|Saane||227||Left||125.9||1892.86||53.30||west of Bern||461|
|Count||207||Left||119.6||2728.00||53.50||at Neuveville||431||flows into Lake Biel as the Zihl Canal|
|Bye||274||Left||43.4||216.27||6.15||in Brügg||429||flows into Lake Biel|
|Ösch||1354||right||28.0||84.50||2.10||northeast of Burgdorf||417|
(with Langete )
|Wigger||507||right||41.0||380.29||7.35||between Rothrist and Aarburg||392|
|Suhre||495||right||34.0||368.29||6.45||east of Aarau||360|
(with Ron )
(with Linth )
|294||right||141.2||2412.38||101.00||at Gibstorf||328||The Limmat alone is 36 km long|
|Aare||37||291.5||17,709.00||558.00||at Koblenz AG||312||flows into the Rhine|
Notes on the table
- ↑ In Switzerland the GEWISS number
- ↑ The length refers to the Gadamer water-rock water strand
- ↑ string of names
- ↑ Total length with the Black Lütschine , the Lütschine itself is 8.6 km long
- ↑ Length: Orbe 63.5 km + Zihl 9.0 km + Lake Neuchâtel 38.3 km + Zihl Canal 8.8 km = 119.6 km
- ↑ Total length with the Langete , the Murg itself is 2.4 km long
- ↑ Overall length with the Ron
- ↑ Total length with Linth and Lake Zurich , the Limmat itself is 36 km long
- ↑ The Aare data for comparison
The mean annual flood of the Aare at the Untersiggenthal measuring point near Stilli is 1574 m³ / s, which means that it contributes 23.59% of the total MHQ of the Rhine (6670 m³ / s).
The highest annual peak measured so far was reached during the flood of the century in 2007 and amounted to 2656 m³ / s.
The flood probability table:
|Discharge (m³ / s)||1518||2221||2446|
|Note to HQN: the number corresponding to the high water flow (HQ = H ochwasser q uantität) in m³ / s, which - repeated with the specified return period (n = number of years) - the average.|
Historic flood of the Aare
The worst recorded flood in the Aare river basin occurred during the Magdalene flood of 1480 , which also affected other parts of the Rhine area , but not as extensive as the Magdalen flood of 1342 . After rainy May and June, a heat wave accelerated the snowmelt in the Alps. Then for days heavy rain fell in the foothills of the Alps. The damage in the cities along the Aare is well documented in the late medieval chronicles . In Solothurn, part of the city and the Aare bridge were flooded.
The Aare caused further extraordinary floods in 1651, 1852, 1876 and 1999.
Usage and cultural history
In the Middle Ages, the Aare was an important border river: it separated z. B. the tribal duchies of Burgundy and Alemannia, was the border section of the Carolingian divisions and also separated Hochburgund from the Roman-German Empire for a while . When the city of Bern was founded at the end of the 12th to the 13th century, the character of the Aare changed, because by the middle of the 13th century at the latest there were bridges over the river and coherent territories developed on both sides of the Aare.
The short border sections, which today deviate from the Aare bed in various places, can be traced back to the earlier natural meanders , which at that time still set the boundary and which have now fallen dry.
For a long time the Aare was important for logging . Wood from the Emmental was transported to the Rhine and up to its mouth in the North Sea. As a reminder of this tradition, there is the cultural and historical Flösserweg between Stilli and Laufenburg .
The Aare route from Nidau to Solothurn is navigable, as is Lake Biel. The Aare has been used for shipping since ancient times, as can be seen from a stone inscription by the Roman sailors in Avenches . Long-distance traffic on the river only came to a standstill at the end of the 19th century after the construction of the railway lines and the first river power plants .
The water from the Aare is used to generate electricity in numerous hydropower plants . The power plant group of Kraftwerke Oberhasli (KWO) is located in the headwaters of the Grimsel . With its storage power stations and pumped storage power stations, it processes the water from the reservoirs Oberaar , Grimsel , Räterichsboden and Gelmer into peak energy , which plays an important role in network control. In the short term, a capacity of 1.3 GW can be called up, which roughly corresponds to the capacity of the Leibstadt nuclear power plant .
From Interlaken to the estuary, the Aare water is used to operate several low - pressure run-of-river power stations.
List of hydropower plants on the Aare :
|Name of the power plant||owner||Type of power plant||location||first commissioning
m³ / s
|Height dif m||turbine||Power MW||Energy per year GWh / a|
|KWO||Storage power plant||Chessitures, Guttannen||1954||8th||536||1 × double pelton||33.6||74|
|KWO||Storage power plant||Chessitures, Guttannen||1974||20.2||142||1 × Francis||32.2||32.8|
|Grimsel 2||KWO||Circulation system||Chessitures, Guttannen||1981||100||4 horizontal machine groups consisting of Francis + motor / generator + single-stage pump, one group with frequency converter||388||600|
|Grimsel Nollen||KWO||small run-of- river power plant in the connecting tunnel Grimselsee - Gelmersee (supply turbine )||Spittelollen, Guttannen||2017||2.5||1 × Francis||1.1||5|
|Handeck 1||KWO||Storage power plant||Handegg, Guttannen||1932||10.5||680||2 × Pelton||45||168|
|Handeck 2 + 2a||KWO||Storage power plant||Handegg, Guttannen||1950||465||5 × vertical pelton||215||262|
( Isogyre )
|KWO||pumped storage power plant||Handegg, Guttannen||1976||14.3||1 × horizontal Isogyre pump turbine||55||39|
|Hopflauenen (Trift)||KWO||Storage power plant||Hopflauenen, Gadmen||1967||23.6||463||2 × double pelton||81.6||245|
|Innertkirchen 1 + 1a||KWO||Storage power plant||Innertkirchen||1943||69||6 × Pelton||394||720|
|Innertkirchen 2||KWO||Storage power plant||Innertkirchen||1967||29.5||242||2 × Francis||54.8||161|
Run-of-river power plant
small historical diversion power plant
|Shipping Canal, Interlaken||1897||30th||3.6||3 × chaplain||0.82||5.1|
|Interlaken doping center||IBI||Endowment center (small power plant)||Aare weir, Interlaken||1996||15th||0.3||1.2|
|AAREwerk62||Energy Thun||Run-of-river power plant ( diversion power plant )||Tuna||1962||125||2 × vertical chaplain||6.32||32|
|AAREwerk94||Energy Thun||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Tuna||1917||49.7||1 × S turbine||2.83||8.4|
|Tuna||RUAG||small run-of-river power plant of the munitions factory||Commercial Canal, Thun||1901||6th||0.44||2|
|mat||EWB||Run-of-river power plant ( diversion power plant )||Matte , Bern||1891||40||2-3||1 × S turbine||1.16||6.8|
|Engehalde endowment center||EWB||Endowment center (small power plant)||Weir power plant Felsenau , Felsenau , Bern||1998||16||0.44||2.6|
|Felsenau||EWB||Run-of-river power plant ( diversion power plant )||Felsenau, Bern||1909||100||1 × bulb turbine||11.5||73|
|Mühleberg||BKW||Run-of-river power plant at the Wohlensee
(Run-through power plant)
|Buttenried, Mühleberg||1919||291||20th||1 × chaplain
6 × Francis
|Niederried-Radelfingen||BKW||Run-of-river power plant ( diversion power plant )||Niederried||1963||170||2 × chaplain||15th||81.2|
|Aarberg||BKW||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Aarberg||1968||170||2 × chaplain||15th||90|
|Kallnach||BKW||Run-of-river power plant||Kallnach||1913||45||1 × bulb turbine||8.1||49|
|Hagneck (old)||Lake Biel
|old run-of-river power plants used as a doping system||Hagneck Canal , Hagneck||1900||40||3 × propellers
2 × chaplain
|Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Hagneck Canal , Hagneck||2015||280||2 × bulb turbine||21st||99|
|Run-of-river power plant
( Bay power plant )
|Nidau-Büren Canal , Brügg||1995||219||2 × bulb turbine||5.2||21.3|
|Flumenthal||Alpiq||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Flumenthal||1970||395||6-8.5||3 × bulb turbine||23.4||147|
|Bannwil||BKW||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Bannwil||1970||435||3 × bulb turbine||28.5||149|
|Wynau||onyx||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Wynau||1996||220||1 × bulb turbine||12||51|
|Black houses||onyx||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Black houses||1923||200||4 × propellers||8.2||41|
|Ruppoldingen||Alpiq||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Boningen||2000||475||4-6.5||2 × bulb turbine||21.1||115|
|Gösgen||Alpiq||Run-of-river power plant||Niedergösgen||1917||380||13-17.4||5 × chaplain||48.5||300|
|Aarau city||Eniwa||Run-of-river power plant||Aarau||1893||394||5.3-7.4||9 × chaplain
2 × propellers
1 × Francis
|Wicked||Axpo||Run-of-river power plant||Aarau||1929||360||3.3-3.5||4 × bulb turbine||9||54|
|Wicked||Axpo||Endowment center (small power plant)||Aarau||2014||40||1.2||8.1|
|Rupperswil-Auenstein||Axpo||Run-of-river power plant||Auenstein AG||1945||492||2 × chaplain||40||221|
|Rupperswil||Axpo||Endowment center (small power plant)||Rupperswil||1945||25th||1.7||10|
|Wildegg-Brugg||Axpo||Run-of-river power plant||Villnachern||1953||410||2 × chaplain||50||290|
|Wildegg-Brugg||Axpo||Endowment center (small power plant)||Schinznach village||1953||11.5||0.6||3.5|
|Beznau||Axpo||Defense power plant||Döttingen AG||2001||140||1 × chaplain||6th||36|
|Beznau||Axpo||Run-of-river power plant||Döttingen AG||1902||418||11 × propellers||20th||120|
|Klingnau||Axpo||Run-of-river power plant (run-through power plant)||Klingnau||1935||810||3 × chaplain||38||230|
Nuclear power plants
The Swiss nuclear power plants Mühleberg , Gösgen and Beznau , whose cooling systems use water from the Aare, are located on the river.
The course of the river was changed in several sections by major construction works. Since the 18th century, the cantons of Bern and Solothurn have tried to secure the banks, which are endangered by erosion, in numerous places and have called in the Graubünden specialist Richard La Nicca . With the first correction of the Jura waters , one of the largest river engineering projects in Switzerland in the 19th century, the federal government and the cantons rehabilitated the boggy and frequent flooding of the Bernese Seeland by diverting the Aare and its sediments into Lake Biel. The Port Regulier weir has been controlling the water balance of the lakes and the Aare in the section at the southern foot of the Jura since 1939 . The water level of the Aare, which is decisive for regulation, is measured at the level station near Murgenthal , because the amount of water supplied by the Emme also has an effect there.
The second correction of the Jura waters improved the effectiveness of the water level regulation around 1960.
The working group for the protection of the Aare , founded in 1964 , campaigned against the expansion of the river road through the planned Transhelvetic Canal .
Today the Bielersee-Schifffahrts-Gesellschaft AG , which emerged in 1966 from a predecessor company and is based in Biel , operates the courses on Lake Biel and the Aare.
Numerous bridges cross the Aare. There are 18 in the city of Bern alone. (→ List of the Aare bridges )
freetime and recreation
Many sections of the Aare are very important for sporting activities. Almost the entire course of the river below Meiringen can be navigated by boat. The river bank is not very rugged and easily accessible in many places, so that you can swim safely in the Aare in spite of the high currents in places. There are bathing beaches with direct access to the river near Thun, Münsingen, Muri, Bern, Solothurn, Wangen, Brugg and Olten.
The river landscape along the Aare is an important local recreation area and has well-marked hiking and cycling trails. The AareLand association supports various projects to coordinate leisure activities and promote sustainable development in the region.
- Johannes Zürcher: Aar correction between Thun and Uttigen (Part 1). In: Allgemeine Bauzeitung , year 1876, pp. 65–67, with two sheets of drawings (online at ANNO ).
- Johannes Zürcher: Aar correction between Thun and Uttigen (Part 2). In: Allgemeine Bauzeitung , year 1876, pp. 79–83 (online at ANNO ).
- Erich Liechti, Jürg Meister, Josef Gwerder: The history of shipping on the Jura waters. Lake Neuchâtel - Lake Murten - Lake Biel - Aare. Meier, Schaffhausen 1982, ISBN 3-85801-035-9 .
- H. Juilard: The expansion of water power in the Oberhasli. In: Schweizerische Bauzeitung. Volume 70, 1952, pp. 707ff.
- Kurt Hasler: The former rafting company on the Aare . In: Oltner Neujahrsblätter. Volume 33, 1975, pp. 35-40.
- Hans von Rütte: Aare. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Aare (Solothurn) , Aare (Bern) and Aare (Aargau) on the ETHorama platform
- Aare temperature
- Navigability of the Aare
- Quiz on the Aare: An ode to Bern's lifeline 20 minutes, 23 June 2015
- Aare card: Thun-Bern route on aareschlauchboot.ch
- AareLand on aareland.ch
- 13 facts about the Aare
- ^ Border river between the Bernese and Uri Alps
- ↑ Geographical names of the state survey (Federal Office for Topography swisstopo)
- ↑ Geoserver of the Swiss Federal Administration ( information )
- ↑ Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland: Object information on the lowest stretch of the Aare
- ↑ Topographical catchment areas of Swiss waters: area outlets. Retrieved May 30, 2019 .
- ↑ Bern measuring station, Schönau 2016 (PDF) , Federal Office for the Environment FOEN
- ↑ Measuring station Brugg 2016 (PDF) , Federal Office for the Environment FOEN
- ↑ Untersiggenthal measuring station, Stilli 2016 (PDF) , Federal Office for the Environment FOEN
- ^ Andres Kristol: Aarau AG (Aarau). In: Dictionnaire toponymique des communes suisses - Lexicon of Swiss municipality names - Dizionario toponomastico dei comuni svizzeri (DTS | LSG). Center de dialectologie, Université de Neuchâtel, Verlag Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7193-1308-5 and Éditions Payot, Lausanne 2005, ISBN 2-601-03336-3 , p. 73.
- ↑ Brochure of the Working Group for the Protection of the Aare
- ^ Flood news service Bavaria: Neu-Ulm gauge
- ^ WSV: Constance gauge
- ↑ Flood probabilities (annual flood), Aare - Untersiggenthal, Stilli. (PDF) Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, Hydrology Department, accessed on June 9, 2020 .
- ↑ Measuring point: Aare - Untersiggenthal, Stilli (2205), on FOEN hydrodata
- ^ Christian Pfister and Oliver Wetter on the floods of 1480
- ↑ CIL XIII 5096
- ↑ Federal Office of Energy (Ed.): Statistics of the hydropower plants in Switzerland . January 1, 2020 ( admin.ch ).
- ↑ Regulation of the lakes at the edge of the Jura during floods ( Memento from May 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Eberle, Iwona. Rubber boat guide Switzerland. Thun: Werd Verlag, 2015, ISBN 978-3-85932-742-9 .
- ↑ Ramajzl, Hans. DKV foreign guide 01: Austria / Switzerland (canoe guide for the waters of the Alpine region). Duisburg: DKV, 2009, ISBN 978-3-937743-19-6 .