canton of Grisons


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Canton of Graubünden
Chantun Grischun ( Rhaeto-Romanic )
Cantone dei Grigioni ( Italian )
coat of arms
coat of arms
Canton of the Swiss Confederation
Abbreviation / license plate : GR
Official language : German  (76%),
Romansh  (14%),
Italian  (10%)
Main town : Chur
Accession to the federal government : 1803
Area : 7105.30  km²
Height range : 253-4048 m above sea level M.
Website: www.gr.ch
population
Residents: 198,379 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 28 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners :
(residents without citizenship )
18.3% (December 31, 2015)
Unemployment rate : 2.1% (December 31, 2015)
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Map of the canton
Map of the canton
Political municipalities of the canton
Political municipalities of the canton

Graubünden ( abbreviation GR ; Swiss German Graubünda , Bündnerland , Romansh Grischun ? / I [ ɡʁiˈʒun ], Italian Grigioni [ ɡriˈdʒoːni ], French Grisons ) is a canton of Switzerland and lies entirely in the area of ​​the Alps . The official languages ​​of Graubünden are German , Romansh and Italian . Graubünden is the only canton with three official languages ​​and, along with Ticino, the only one with Italian as the official language. Graubünden is part of the Southeastern Switzerland region and the Greater Region of Eastern Switzerland . The main town and at the same time the largest town is Chur . Audio file / audio sample

Name and coat of arms

The main town Chur; View to the west into the Vorderrhein Valley

The canton of Graubünden bears the name of the formerly politically most important of the three leagues from which it emerged. The Graue Bund ( split shield, black and silver), founded in 1367, was first mentioned in 1442, probably a derisive name for the people of Zurich and Austria, which was adopted by the Bundsmen before 1486. In the 15th century the name appears for what is otherwise known as the three frets. In the 16th century, the name of the Roman province of humanists was Raetia as Rätien transferred to the area of the Three Leagues. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte's leagues were incorporated into the then Helvetic Republic as the canton of Raetia . The name is still used today for institutions such as the Rhaetian Railway or the Rhaetian Museum in Chur , and the name Rhaeto-Romanic for the Graubünden Romance language comes from this. With the act of mediation issued by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803 and the associated constitution of the modern Swiss Confederation, the name of Graubünden became official. The canton's coat of arms is made up of the coats of arms of the three leagues; see also flag and coat of arms of the canton of Graubünden .

geography

Overview

Palpuognasee on the Albula Pass
On the Bernina Pass which lies Lago Bianco

As the largest canton in Switzerland, the canton forms its southeastern part and is mainly characterized by mountain landscapes. Due to the geographical conditions, it is the most sparsely populated canton in Switzerland and, despite its size, ranks 14th in terms of population.

Neighboring areas

Graubünden has common canton borders in the southwest with the canton Ticino , in the west with Uri , in the north with Glarus and St. Gallen . Graubünden forms the border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein as well as Austria (federal states Vorarlberg and Tyrol ) in the north, Italian South Tyrol in the east and Lombardy in the south. Besides Graubünden, only St. Gallen borders on three different neighboring states.

Water geography

Most of Graubünden is drained by the Rhine with its source rivers, the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein, which have their source in Graubünden . The river Inn , which also rises in Graubünden , drains the east of the country, the Engadine . Beyond the main Alpine ridge are the Italian-speaking southern Graubünden valleys that drain to the Po : the Misox with the Calanca valley , the Bergell and the Puschlav . The easternmost part of the country, the Münstertal , drains to the Adige .

The three catchment areas of the North Sea, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea meet not far from the source of the Inn near the Lunghin pass above Maloja , the most important watershed point in Europe. From there the Julia flows to the north , which leads via the Rhine to the North Sea, to the south the Maira , whose water comes into the Mediterranean via the Po , and to the east the Inn, which flows into the Danube and thus flows into the Black Sea .

Landscapes

In the canton of Graubünden there are around 150 valleys, 615 (of a good 1,500 Swiss) lakes and 937 mountain peaks up to Piz Bernina at 4049  m . Graubünden also has the largest prehistoric landslide in the world, which is still visible near Flims . The entire complex of mountain groups around the Rhine and Innquell area is called the Bündner Alps .

fauna and Flora

The canton of Graubünden is known for its abundance of game, especially deer, chamois and ibex. There are so many marmots in the Averstal that a marmot nature trail has been created. The immigration of once exterminated mammal species such as bears, wolves, lynxes, beavers, etc. has enhanced the Graubünden fauna in modern times, but often creates conflicts of interest and use with the populated valleys and the heavily used alpine areas.

Around 300 bird species are known in Graubünden, and they are documented in the reference work “The Birds of Graubünden”.

population

Overview

The inhabitants are called Bündner . As of December 31, 2018, the population of the Canton of Graubünden was 198,379. The population density of 28 inhabitants is below the Swiss average (207 inhabitants per square kilometer). The proportion of foreigners (registered residents without Swiss citizenship ) was 18.3 percent on December 31, 2015, while 24.6 percent were registered nationwide. As of December 31, 2015, the unemployment rate was 2.1 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level.

languages

Former distribution area of ​​the individual Romance idioms in Graubünden

Graubünden is the only canton in Switzerland to have three official languages : German , Romansh and Italian . At the same time, it is the only canton in which Romansh is the official language. Because of this linguistic and cultural diversity and also because of its shape and nature, the canton is referred to as small Switzerland within Switzerland.

The municipalities and districts are autonomous to determine their own official and school languages , but the canton sets guidelines, in particular to support the minority languages ​​Romansh and Italian. According to Article 16 of the Grisons Language Act of 2006, municipalities in which at least 40 percent of the residents speak the ancestral idiom are officially monolingual, and municipalities in which at least 20 percent speak the ancestral idiom are officially bilingual.

The German dialects of Graubünden belong to two groups of Swiss German :

In Graubünden Romansh , which is spoken in different areas of the canton - Surselva , in parts of Central Grisons , in the Engadin and in the Münstertal - there are five regional script dialects (so-called idioms), namely Surselvian (Sursilvan), Sutselvisch (Sutsilvan), Surmeirisch (Surmiran) , Upper Engadin (Puter) and Lower Engadin (Vallader) as well as a uniform written language Rumantsch Grischun , which was only created as an artificial language in the 1980s . Münstertalisch (Jauer) has no written language tradition. Until the introduction of Rumantsch Grischun, lessons in Lower Engadine were taught in the Münstertal schools.

The Italian dialects in Misox and Calanca , Bergell in Bivio and the Puschlav include the Alpine Lombard on.

Since the mid-19th century, when the federal government in the train of the implementation of the law on homelessness the canton of Grisons, a large number Yenish zuwies forcibly Graubünden also has a non-statistical (throughout Switzerland, estimated at 35,000 persons) population Yenish native language . The Yenish is a recognized minority language in Switzerland and thus also in Graubünden, but does not have an official language status.

Resident population by language (2000 census):

  • German: 127,755 (68%)
  • Romansh: 27,038 (14%)
  • Italian: 19,106 (10%)
  • Others: 13,159 (8%)
Languages ​​in Graubünden 1803–2000
year population Romansh% German % Italian %
1803 072,903 36,700 (approx. 50% ) approx. 36% approx. 14%
1850 089,895 42,439 (47.2%) 39.5% 13.3%
1880 093,864 37,794 (39.8%) 043,664 (46.0%) 12,976 (13.7%)
1900 104,520 36,472 (34.9%) 048,762 (46.7%) 17,539 ( 16.8% )
1920 119,854 39,127 (32.7%) 061,379 (51.2%) 17,674 (14.8%)
1941 128,247 40,187 (31.3%) 070,421 (54.9%) 16,438 (12.8%)
1950 137'100 40,109 (29.3%) 077,096 (56.2%) 18,079 (13.2%)
1960 147,458 38,414 (26.1%) 083,544 (56.7%) 23,682 (16.1%)
1970 162,086 37,878 (23.4%) 093,359 (57.6%) 25,575 (15.8%)
1980 164,641 36,017 (21.9%) 098,645 (59.9%) 22,199 (13.5%)
2000 187,058 27,038 (14.5%) 127,755 ( 68.3% ) 19,106 (10.2%)

By 2003, the canton of Graubünden had published its school books in seven languages, in addition to German and Italian in all five Romansh dialects. In 2003 the Graubünden parliament decided to publish the Romance teaching materials only in Rumantsch Grischun. However, this decision was reversed in principle in 2013.

The dialectal and historical vocabulary as well as the folk culture of Graubünden are documented by the Swiss Idiotikon for German, by the Dicziunari Rumantsch Grischun for Graubünden Romance and by the Vocabolario dei dialetti della Svizzera italiana for Italian . The Walser German idiom is supported by representatives of the Walser Association of Graubünden.

Denominations

As a result of the sovereignty of the individual communities, each community was able to determine its confession autonomously in the 16th century. Fläsch was the first Reformed community in the canton, followed by St. Antönien , and later others. Graubünden is thus one of the traditionally equal cantons.

The Vorderrheintal with the Lugnez (without parts of the Gruob and Waltensburg ), the Oberhalbstein (without Bivio ) and the middle Landwassertal (without Bergün ), the Misox , the Calancatal and the Puschlav are predominantly Catholic .

Are reformed mainly the Prättigau , the Schanfigg and Davos , in Hinterrheintal the Schams , the Rheinwald and the obverse , in Vorderrheintal the Safiental , parts of the Gruob and the resort Waltensburg and in Südbünden the Engadin (without Tarasp and Montague ), the Bergell and the Münstertal (without Müstair ).

The regions of Fünf Dörfer and Imboden as well as Domleschg and Churwaldnertal are traditionally mixed .

There are monasteries in Müstair , Disentis , Cazis and Ilanz .

Of the total resident population in the canton of Graubünden, around 80 percent were members of a regional church in 2017 : 91,051 people (46.0 percent) were members of the Roman Catholic Church and 66,533 people (33.6 percent) were members of the Protestant church Reformed Church (100 percent: 197,888 people).

With 81.8 percent today (2015), according to a survey by the Federal Statistical Office (FSO), the majority of the canton's population aged 15 and over is committed to Christianity : 45.1 percent are members of the Roman Catholic regional church , 32.7 percent of the Evangelical Reformed regional church and 4.0 percent belong to other Christian churches. Almost 3 percent belong to other religions: 1.8 percent profess Islam and another 0.8 percent belong to other religious communities. 14.5 percent are non-denominational .

Constitution and Administration

So far, Graubünden has three cantonal constitutions. The earlier valid ones were issued in the years 1854 and 1892, the current one dates from 2003.

For the Federal Assembly, Graubünden, like every full canton, sends two representatives to the Council of States and, depending on its proportion of the population, five members to the National Council.

legislative branch

Grand Council building in Chur, before the facade renovation and redesign of the entrance area

The legislative authority is the Great Council , which has 120 members and is elected for four years by the people in accordance with the majority procedure. The Grisons majority system, however, has been controversial since a federal court ruling in summer 2019 and is a long-running political issue. Since 1937 eight models have been proposed for proportional representation for a referendum. Only once, in 2003, were proponents of proportional representation victorious. However, the vote was repeated after a recount and the supporters of the majority won again. After all, private individuals and small parties filed a complaint with the Federal Supreme Court in 2017. They demanded that the majority voting system in the 39 constituencies for the appointment of the 120-member Grisons Grand Council must be checked for its constitutionality. The Federal Supreme Court came to the conclusion: the majority voting system in Graubünden is partly unconstitutional. According to this, the current system for the election of the cantonal parliament in the smallest constituency Avers and in the six most populous constituencies Chur, Five Villages, Upper Engadin, Rhäzüns, Davos and Ilanz does not meet the constitutional requirements. At the behest of the Lausanne judges, the majority voting system for the general renewal elections from May 2022 is to be changed. According to the Federal Supreme Court, a division of the largest constituencies would be conceivable. Another possibility would be the introduction of a mixed system in which the principle of proportional representation would be applied in the larger constituencies and the majority voting system would remain in the smaller constituencies.

The people are directly involved in legislation: 4,000 voters or one seventh of the municipalities can request an amendment to the constitution, 3000 voters or one eighth of the municipalities can propose a law or a change to the law (popular initiative) and 1500 voters or one tenth of the municipalities can demand that a law passed by the Grand Council or such a change in the law is to be submitted to a referendum. Changes to the constitution are subject to a mandatory referendum.

Political party 120 seats Distribution of seats 2018–2022
FDP.The Liberals (FDP) 36
      
A total of 120 seats
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP) 30th
Bourgeois Democratic Party (BDP) 23
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (SP) 19th
Swiss People's Party (SVP) 09
Green Liberal Party (GLP), non-attached 03

executive

The government (formerly: Small Council ) has five members and is also elected by the people by majority vote for four years. The presidium changes annually in rotation.

Members of the Government of the Canton of Graubünden (2019-2022 term of office)
Government Council Political party department
Peter Peyer SP Department of Justice, Safety and Health DJSG
Christian Rathgeb , Vice President 2019 FDP Department of Finance and Communities DFG
Marcus Caduff CVP Department of Economics and Social Affairs DVS
Mario Cavigelli CVP Construction, Transport and Forestry Department BVFD
Jon Domenic Parolini , District President 2019 BDP Education, culture and environmental protection department EKUD

Head of the State Chancellery since July 1, 2017 Daniel Spadin.

Judiciary

The old building  - seat of the cantonal court in Chur

The highest courts in the canton are the cantonal court and the administrative court . The cantonal court is entrusted with the jurisdiction in the areas of civil, criminal, debt collection and bankruptcy law as well as in some cases administrative and administrative criminal law. The administrative court is both a constitutional and an insurance court and is entrusted with jurisdiction in the field of public law. Lower instance are the eleven regional courts (called district courts before 2017 ).

Before a lawsuit can be submitted to a district court, an arbitration procedure must usually be carried out. The arbitration authorities are responsible for this, the chairmen of which are often called justice of the peace or mediator in common parlance. There are three types of arbitration authorities in the canton of Graubünden (Article 3 Introductory Act to the Swiss Code of Civil Procedure, EGzZPO for short ): Mediation offices (one per district), arbitration authorities for rental matters (one per district) and the cantonal arbitration authority for equality matters (one in the canton).

Administrative units

Graubünden is the canton in which the more than one hundred political municipalities  - in 2001 there were still 212 - have historically probably the most pronounced municipal autonomy in Switzerland.

The districts , which consist of a small number of municipalities or, as an exception, a single municipality, now only function as constituencies for the Grand Council. Until the end of 2015 (in the Upper Engadin until the end of 2017), however, they were autonomous bodies, and some of the major councils were still elected to the traditional rural communities until 2014 .

The eleven regions are purely administrative bodies of the canton and therefore have no internal autonomy. They replaced the previous districts in 2016.

This threefold administrative structure must be seen against the historical background that the political communities in their majority continue the neighborhoods and the districts continue the judicial communities of the former Free State of the Three Leagues , whereas the districts are an institution that was only established by the modern canton of Graubünden in the 19th century.

Economy and tourism

The mountain agriculture, which is indispensable for the permanent settlement of some valleys, survives thanks to niche production, for example from the cultivation of industrial hemp , as well as subsidies. Eight percent of the population work in agriculture and forestry, with 50 percent of the farms being run organically. The greatest growth after the turn of the millennium is in the export industry, with 24 percent of the population working in industry and commerce. The most important branch of the economy is the service sector and especially tourism with a very high share of Graubünden's gross domestic product of around 14 percent.

Scuol ski area

Tourism, originally a summer activity, was supplemented in 1865 by the Graubünden invention of winter tourism ; the focal points are the Upper Engadin , Davos / Klosters , Arosa , Lenzerheide and Flims regions . The spa tourism in Vals , Scuol and Andeer as well as Alvaneu should also be emphasized . Graubünden is the canton with the greatest density of castles and, with the Benedictine monastery of St. Johann in Müstair , the village of Soglio and the church of Zillis, has world-class cultural assets . A new addition is the Rhaetian Railway in the Albula valley . The railway line over the Bernina Pass is also of great architectural importance, while the TectonicArena Sardona is listed as a World Heritage Site . Since 1991 the Salginatobel Bridge on the connecting road from Schiers to Schuders has been Switzerland's only world monument to date . This award was given by the ASCE .

traffic

Road traffic

Propaganda pamphlet for the vote on the cantonal road traffic law of February 20, 1927

Traffic has determined the settlement of the canton since ancient times. Trade was an important economic factor; carts crossed the Julier Pass as early as Roman times . In 1387 the Bishop of Chur commissioned the Bergell nobleman Jakob von Castelmur to develop the Septimerpass into a passable road.

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were roads in the canton of Graubünden with a length of 1000 kilometers, but motorized private transport was vehemently opposed. In 1903, the Small Council (Government Council) only issued a driving license to doctors 'and medical vehicles' cars on Bündner streets. On October 13, 1907, 9,110 voters voted against the registration of cars, 2,074 were in favor. Nevertheless, the council continued its previous approval practice and decided on May 14, 1910 to open the road from the Tardis Bridge near Landquart to Chur entirely to traffic. Another referendum revoked this approval, and an absolute ban was later enforced. In 1919, Postbus courses were also rejected on Bündner streets. Only on June 21, 1925 did the Bündner sovereign just agree to a bill that allowed cars with up to eight seats to drive on the streets.

The registration of cars required the expansion of the road network, for which the canton lacked the financial means. It was not until 1935 that the Swiss Confederation came to the aid of the Alpine cantons and made 126 million francs available, and Graubünden received 35. The four most important Alpine roads were thus expanded; including the "Obere Strasse" over the Julier Pass . The cantonal road network today comprises 597 kilometers of main roads and 826 kilometers of connecting roads. The 166 kilometers of national roads , consisting of the A13 and A28 (Prättigauerstrasse), became the sole responsibility of the federal government on January 1, 2008. The A13 motorway crosses the canton in a north-south direction.

The most important passes between north and south today are the San Bernardino between the Rhine Forest and the Misox and the Julier Pass into the Engadin. The degree of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 575 in 2019.

railroad

The Swiss Federal Railways run on standard gauge via Landquart to Chur. The most important valleys and tourist areas in Graubünden are served by the Rhaetian Railway on meter gauge. The Rhaetian Railway also runs on the Bernina Express line .

history

The Free State of the Three Leagues until 1797

During the Iron Age there were mainly Celtic , Rhaetian and Lepontic cultures in what is now Graubünden . Apart from the southern Italian valleys, the area belonged to the Roman Empire from about 15 BC to the 5th century (province of Raetia , later province of Raetia I ). Around 536/537 Raetia (the area of ​​the former province Raetia I ) fell to the Franconian Empire . Around 806/807 the Diocese of Chur was reclassified from the Archdiocese of Milan to the Archdiocese of Mainz .

In the 10th and 11th centuries Raetia was part of the Duchy of Swabia . In the course of the High Middle Ages, territorial formation took place. The Bishop of Chur and the Disentis Monastery grew to be the most important territorial lords . Smaller territories were trained or acquired by various counts and lords. In the south the Visconti family achieved a strong position (later the Duchy of Milan ).

The late Middle Ages are characterized by the political independence of many (judicial) communities, which were able to bind many sovereign rights to themselves. They united in several leagues ( Gotteshausbund 1367, Oberer or Grauer Bund 1395, Zehngerichtebund 1436). From 1450 these federations came together to form an independent state structure ( Free State of the Three Federations ). Through various treaties (since 1497), the leagues became equal partners of the Swiss Confederation (formally as an assigned location ). From 1512 onwards, the confederations had the subordinate areas of Chiavenna , Valtellina and Bormio to the south .

The Graubünden subject areas fell to the Cisalpine Republic in 1797 . In 1799/1800 the remaining area came to the Helvetic Republic as the canton of Raetia , and in 1803 as the canton of Graubünden to Switzerland.

On March 5, 1972, women’s right to vote and suffrage was introduced.

Administrative division

Political communities

Places in the canton of Graubünden

According to the Office for Municipalities of the Canton of Graubünden, there are currently 105 political municipalities (as of January 1, 2020). The following municipalities in the canton had more than 4,000 inhabitants as of December 31, 2018:

Political community Residents
Chur , main town 35,897
Davos 10,899
Landquart 08889
Domat / Ems 08038
St. Moritz 04928
Ilanz / Glion 04756
Scuol 04591
Klosters-Serneus 04451

Regions

The canton of Graubünden has been divided into 11 regions since January 1, 2016.

Regions of the Canton of Graubünden since 2016
region Population
(December 31, 2018)
Area
in km²
Number of
municipalities
BFS no.
Albula 08120 0683.51 07th 1841
Bernina 04629 0237.30 02 1842
Engiadina Bassa / Val Müstair 09200 1196.66 05 1843
In the ground 20,970 0203.81 07th 1844
Landquart 25'157 0174.67 08th 1845
Maloja 18,259 0973.61 12 1846
Moesa 08566 0496.03 12 1847
Plessure 42,315 0285.31 06th 1848
Prättigau / Davos 26,083 0853.40 11 1849
Surselva 21,483 1,373.54 17th 1850
Viamala 13,597 0627.59 25th 1851
Total (11) 198,3790 7105.43 1120

Former classification - districts and districts

Former districts of the canton of Graubünden
Former districts of the Canton of Graubünden

As of December 31, 2015, the canton of Graubünden was divided into 11 districts and these in turn were divided into 39 districts.

district Number of
municipalities
Circles
Albula 16 Alvaschein , Belfort , Bergün , Surses
Bernina 02 Brusio , Poschiavo
Hinterrhein 24 Avers , Domleschg , Rheinwald , Schams , Thusis
In the ground 07th Rhäzüns , Trins
Inn 05 Sur Tasna , Ramosch , Suot Tasna , Val Müstair
Landquart 09 Five villages , Maienfeld
Maloja 12 Bergell , Upper Engadin
Moesa 14th District of Calanca , Misox , Roveredo
Plessure 05 Chur , Churwalden , Schanfigg
Prättigau-Davos 13 Davos , Jenaz , Klosters , Küblis , Luzein , Schiers , Seewis
Surselva 18th Cadi / Disentis , Ilanz , Lumnezia / Lugnez , Ruis , Safien
Total (11) 1250 39

Culture

Graubünden cuisine

The canton of Graubünden has developed its own cuisine that differs from other Swiss regional cuisines. Typical regional products are air-dried Bündnerfleisch and other dried meat specialties such as Salsiz or Andutgel. Typical dishes are capuns , plain in pigna, pizokel , maluns , the Bündner nut cake and the Bündner barley soup. Röteli is a typical Graubünden drink . The wines from the Bündner Herrschaft , the largest wine-growing region in the canton, are well known.

Between 1559 and 1610, the cookbook Ein Schön Kochbuch 1559 , which is considered to be the oldest cookbook in Switzerland, was created in Chur at the Bischöfliches Schloss .

literature

There is a Rhaeto-Romanic literature written in different idioms ; Well-known representatives were and are Clo Duri Bezzola , Cla Biert , Arno Camenisch , Göri Klainguti and Tresa Rüthers-Seeli .

See also

Portal: Graubünden  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Graubünden

literature

Web links

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References and comments

  1. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  2. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  3. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  4. ^ Rhaetian name book. Founded by Robert von Planta. Volume 2: Etymologies. Edited and edited by Andrea Schorta. Bern 1964, pp. 713 f., 810 f.
  5. ^ Adolf Collenberg: Rätien. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  6. According to information from Graubünden Tourism.
  7. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  8. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  9. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  10. ^ Language law of the Canton of Graubünden of October 19, 2006.
  11. Swiss Confederation, Federal Office of Culture: Travelers - Recognition as a national minority. ( Memento from December 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Renata Coray: From Mumma Romontscha to the test tube baby Rumantsch Grischun: Rhaeto-Romanic language myths. Institute for Cultural Research Graubünden ikg, Chur 2008, ISBN 978-3-905342-43-7 , p. 86.
  13. ^ Georg Jäger, Florian Hitz: Graubünden. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  14. Local idioms instead of Rumantsch Grischun . News from July 26, 2011.
  15. SPI St. Gallen: Church membership in the Roman Catholic and Evangelical Reformed Church by cantons (2017) | Table 1.4. 2018, accessed September 5, 2019 .
  16. Since 2010, the FSO's data on religious communities in Switzerland have been based on a sample survey for which 200,000 people over the age of 15 are surveyed across Switzerland. (See census in Switzerland # structural survey .) Since the last census in 2000, there are no more figures on the religious affiliation of the total population (of all ages). Exceptions are the Roman Catholic and Evangelical Reformed Churches, whose members are officially registered (among other things due to the church tax).
  17. Permanent resident population aged 15 and over by religion in the canton of Graubünden and Switzerland, 2010–2015. (XLS; 62 kB) (No longer available online.) Office for Economics and Tourism Graubünden, formerly in the original ; accessed on June 4, 2016 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.gr.ch  
  18. ^ Constitution of the Canton of Graubünden. In: admin.ch . Swiss Federal Chancellery , accessed on June 22, 2015 .
  19. ^ Council of the Canton of Graubünden. Law firm Graubünden, accessed on April 23, 2019 .
  20. a b Government of the Canton of Graubünden. Law firm Graubünden, accessed on April 23, 2019 .
  21. a b c Territorial reform will be implemented for 2016 - media release by the Bündner Standeskanzlei from January 15, 2015.
  22. Ursina Straub: The Alpine pioneers get everything out of the hemp nuts. In: suedostschweiz.ch . January 31, 2019, accessed February 4, 2019 .
  23. Economic development of the regions since 1990 ( Memento of August 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  24. Invention of winter tourism in St. Moritz ( Memento of the original dated November 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kulmhotel-stmoritz.ch
  25. Bündner Calendar 2010, p. 116.
  26. Cantonal road network in: gr.ch, accessed on February 26 2020th
  27. bfs.admin.ch
  28. Permanent and non-permanent resident population by year, canton, district, municipality, population type and gender (permanent resident population). In: bfs. admin.ch . Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 31, 2019, accessed on December 22, 2019 .
  29. The Office for Municipalities is a cantonal office. It fulfills its tasks in the context of community supervision, community reform and financial equalization. As a cantonal authority, it oversees the financial budget of the municipalities and advises them on fundamental questions of budget management as well as on general administrative issues. It also advises the municipalities on structural reforms and supports them, for example, during a merger project. During the implementation phase of a merger, the cantonal authorities advise the municipalities on legal, organizational and financial issues. The canton of Graubünden tries to support, reform or, if necessary, restructure smaller and financially weak political communities with a centralized administration from Chur, which has led to a large reduction in the number of small communities in recent years. In principle, the municipalities have a large number of tasks that affect the residents who live there in everyday life. Just as the canton has to implement federal regulations, the municipalities first have to perform tasks as part of the canton (e.g. the areas of education, civil status, fire brigade, civil defense, etc.). But a Graubünden municipality has to organize a lot on its own - even if it has only a few village residents and scarce financial resources. In the remote and structurally weak alpine regions in particular, this led to a loss of resources (including personnel or finances) and ultimately to the municipal mergers required by the canton of Graubünden.

Coordinates: 46 ° 44 '  N , 9 ° 36'  E ; CH1903:  765737  /  177379