|Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol
Provincia autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige
Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan / Bulsan - South Tyrol
|Region :||Trentino-South Tyrol|
|Area :||7,400.43 km²|
|Residents :||532,080 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
(status: 2011 census)
|Population density :||71.9 inhabitants / km²|
|Number of municipalities:||116|
|License plate :||BZ|
|ISO-3166-2 identification :||IT BZ|
|Governor :||Arno Kompatscher ( SVP )|
South Tyrol ( Italian Alto Adige, Sudtirolo; Ladin South Tyrol), officially the autonomous province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, is the northernmost province of Italy and, together with the province of Trento, forms the autonomous region of Trentino-South Tyrol . Since the extended autonomy came into force in 1972, South Tyrol has enjoyed extensive rights of self-government and is accordingly referred to as an “ autonomous province ” or “country”. The area in the middle of the Alps has around 530,000 inhabitants and its capital is Bolzano .
South Tyrol is one of those areas of Italy with a strong regional culture . This can be traced back to the Bavarian and Alpine Romanesque settlement as well as to the historically grown ties to the German linguistic and cultural area, in particular to the northern neighbor Austria , to which it belonged until the dissolution of the dual monarchy Austria-Hungary de facto until 1918 and under international law until 1920. The European unification movement enables cross-border cooperation with the other parts of the historic Tyrol region , which has been at the beginning of an institutional network since the European region Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino was founded.
In terms of linguistic and cultural differentiation, the population currently consists of over 62% German-speaking and around 23% Italian-speaking South Tyroleans. Around 4% of its population, mainly in the Dolomites area , belong to the Ladin language group. Migration within and outside of Europe has led to a further diversification of the population composition , particularly since the 1990s.
South Tyrol, which is largely rural, is one of the wealthiest areas in Italy and the European Union . Economically, the country on the Brenner transit route was primarily characterized by agriculture for a long time . Service sectors such as trade, transport and tourism have played a prominent role since the second half of the 20th century .
South Tyrol is entirely located in the Alps . The country is both the northernmost and, with a total area of 7400 km², one of the largest provinces in Italy. It is traversed in a north-south direction by the important Brenner transit route, which connects Germany and Austria with northern Italy . The nearest megacities are Munich, around 180 km north of Bolzano, and Milan, around 200 km south-west.
South Tyrol lies on both the Italian-Austrian and the Italian-Swiss border . In the north and east, South Tyrol meets the Austrian federal states of Tyrol ( North Tyrol , East Tyrol ) and - in a small section - Salzburg . Since the division of Tyrol after the end of the First World War, the northern border has been largely oriented towards the main Alpine ridge . In the west, South Tyrol joins the Swiss canton of Graubünden . Within Italy, it is in the southwest of the Lombard province of Sondrio , in the south of Trentino and in the southeast of the to Veneto belonging to the province of Belluno surrounded.
State of Tyrol ( Austria ),
part of North Tyrol
|State of Salzburg ( Austria )|
|Canton of Graubünden ( Switzerland )||
State of Tyrol ( Austria ),
part of East Tyrol
Province of Sondrio
province of Belluno
History of names and terms
"South Tyrol" as the designation of a political administrative unit: South Tyrol, politically and legally separated from the larger Tyrolean overall context , only exists as a direct consequence of the First World War : If Tyrol had been a closed part of Austria-Hungary up to then, today's South Tyrol and Trentino became (formerly Welschtirol) awarded to Italy with the peace treaty of 1919 . The fascist administration founded the predominantly German-speaking province of Bolzano in January 1927 . With the First Statute of Autonomy in 1948, it acquired its current geographical scope, but was still officially referred to as the Tyrolean Etschland . The name South Tyrol , which has been common for this area since the 1920s, was officially recognized for the first time with the Second Statute of Autonomy in 1972. Since then, the provincial administration has used the long form Autonomous Province Bozen - South Tyrol or the short form Land South Tyrol as its own name . The Italian equivalent of this is Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige, the Ladin Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan - Südtirol (on Gadertalisch ) or Provinzia Autonoma de Bulsan - South Tyrol (on Grödnerisch ).
"South Tyrol" as a topographical designation: The name "South Tyrol" or its equivalents in other languages (South Tyrol or Tyrol in English, Tyrol du Sud in French) were spread as early as the 19th century, but could refer to various southern areas of the county Tyrol , which included modern South Tyrol only partially or not at all. In the broadest sense, “South Tyrol” was used to describe all Tyrolean areas south of the main Alpine ridge, which were further subdivided into “German-South Tyrol” and “Welsch-Südtirol” (or “Welschtirol”) on the basis of the linguistic majority. After the annexation of the southern part of Tyrol by Italy, a change in meaning took place in the 1920s, through which "South Tyrol" became a synonym for the "Province of Bolzano", which was mainly populated by German-speaking countries.
Origin and use of the Italian names "Alto Adige" and "Sudtirolo": The Italian name Alto Adige (in German "Ober etsch " or "Hochetsch") for the German-speaking parts of Tyrol south of the watershed was at the beginning of the 20th century in the course of the Irredentism coined and spread. The name of the department Haut-Adige (Dipartimento dell'Alto Adige) was used in the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy , which existed from 1810 to 1813 and for the most part is present-day Trentino and some neighboring areas, including the southern part of present-day South Tyrol with the city of Bolzano , included. In the second half of the 20th century, the Italian alternative name Sudtirolo was created, which is becoming increasingly widespread.
The Periadriatic Seam , which separates the Southern Alps from the Central Alps , runs roughly through South Tyrol in a southwest-northeast direction . In South Tyrol, at least three of the four main components of the Alps come to light: The Southern Alps is south of the Periadriatic seam to light, the Eastern Alps north of it and the northern part of the country east of the burner, the Tauern window in which the Penninic and according to some authors also the Helvetic be visible .
In the Southern Alps, the following structure can be roughly seen in South Tyrol: The lowest floor forms the crystalline basement . Multiple igneous events occurred in the Lower Permian around 280 million years ago . At that time, the Brixen granite was formed on the northern border of the Southern Alps, and around the same time there was strong volcanic activity further south, in the greater Bozen area, which formed the Etschtal volcanic complex . A period began in the Upper Permian when sedimentary rocks were formed. At the beginning it was partly clastic sediments , including the Val Gardena sandstone . In the Triassic , mighty carbonate platforms made of dolomite rock emerged ; this process was interrupted in the Middle Triassic by a brief but violent phase of volcanic activity.
The Eastern Alps in South Tyrol mainly consist of metamorphic rock such as gneiss or mica schist with isolated marble deposits (see also Lasa marble ) and metamorphically shaped Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (e.g. on the Ortler or southwest of the Brenner). Various metamorphic rocks emerge in the Tauern window, including Hochstegen marble (e.g. on Wolfendorn ), green slate ( e.g. on Hochfeiler ) or rocks of the central gneiss (mainly in the area of the Zillertal main ridge ).
The state of South Tyrol has placed numerous geological natural monuments under protection. The most famous are the Bletterbach Gorge , a 12 km long canyon in the municipality of Aldein , and the Renon earth pyramids , which are the largest in Europe with a height of up to 30 m.
South alpine rock: dolomite on the Puezkofel
Eastern Alpine rock: mica slate, gneiss and marble on the Lodner
Pennine rock: central gneiss on the Hohe Weißzint
Natural monument: earth pyramids on the Renon
In South Tyrol there is a continental climate with marked seasonal fluctuations, which at lower altitudes becomes relatively mild. Due to its inner-alpine location, shielded by mountain ranges, the country is somewhat protected from northern cold currents and moist air masses from the Mediterranean region . Accordingly, determining weather effects in Central Europe only have a weakened influence, and South Tyrol also has significantly less rainfall than the surrounding areas. The relative duration of sunshine in South Tyrol is considerably high at 55–60%. The winds blow in spring and fall the most, often inversions with it-making winters are usually no wind, the summer many places of circulation valley winds Mountain and marked. The climatic and weather conditions , however, vary considerably depending on the part of the country, exposure and altitude (for example, viticulture and glacier areas can only be separated from each other by a few kilometers). In general, the north and east of the country are comparatively rougher than the milder south and west.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bolzano
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Schlanders
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Sterzing
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Dobbiaco
Summer in Merano
Autumn in Villnöß
Winter in Val Gardena
Vineyards in Bolzano
Übeltalferner on the main Alpine ridge
South Tyrol has according to the Alpine Association division proportion of 13 mountain ranges of the Eastern Alps , of which only the Sarntaler Alps lie entirely within the borders. The other twelve are (starting clockwise in the west): Sesvennagruppe , Ötztal Alps , Stubai Alps , Zillertal Alps , Venediger Group , Rieserferner Group , Villgraten Mountains , Carnic Alps , Dolomites , Fleimstal Alps , Nonsberg Group and Ortler Alps . Particularly prominent are the Dolomites, some of which were recognized by UNESCO as “ World Heritage Dolomites ” in 2009 .
Although isolated massifs come close to the 4,000 m limit and show strong glaciation (especially in the Ortler Alps and on the main Alpine ridge ), the proportion of mountains with altitudes between 2,000 and dominates in South Tyrol by far. Among the multitude of peaks, three stand out due to their alpine or cultural significance: the Ortler ( ) as the highest mountain in South Tyrol, the Schlern ( ) as the “landmark” of the country and the Drei Zinnen ( ) as the center of alpine climbing . Other well-known mountains include, among others. the Königspitze ( ), the Weißkugel ( ), the Similaun ( ), the Hochwilde ( ), the Sarner Weißhorn ( ), the Hochfeiler ( ), the Dreiherrnspitze ( ), the Hochgall ( ), the Peitlerkofel ( ), the Langkofel ( ) and the Rosengartenspitze ( ).
Extensive mountain landscapes, about 34% of the total area of South Tyrol, are alpine pastures (including about 57 km² Seiser Alm ). These are mainly above the tree line and have important agricultural, ecological and now also tourist functions. Along the main valleys, the mountain ranges drop down to the valley floors in many places over gentle terraced landscapes , which represent geological remnants of older valley systems; Located between inhospitable high mountains and formerly swampy or deeply cut valley floors, these areas known as " low mountain ranges " (including, for example, the Sciliar area ) are of particular importance in terms of settlement history.
The three major main valleys of South Tyrol are the Etsch valley , the Eisack valley and the Pustertal valley , which were formed by the Ice Age Etsch glacier and its tributaries. The highest part of the Adige Valley in the west of South Tyrol from Reschen ( ) to Töll (approx. ) near Merano is called Vinschgau , the southernmost section from Bozen to the Salurner Klause ( ) is divided into Überetsch and Unterland . From there the Adige Valley continues in a southerly direction until it rises in the Po plain near Verona . The Eisack Valley flows into the Adige Valley near Bozen. The Eisack Valley stretches from Bozen northeast to Franzensfeste , where it merges into the Wipptal , which leads first to the northwest and then north over the Brenner to Innsbruck . At the town of Brixen , the Eisack valley meets the eastwardly sweeping Pustertal valley, which extends past Bruneck and over the Toblacher Sattel ( ) to Lienz . In addition to the three large main valleys, there are also a large number of secondary valleys in South Tyrol. The more important populated side valleys include (from west to east) among others. Sulden , Schnals , Ulten , Passeier , Ridnaun , the Sarntal , Pfitsch , Gröden , the Gadertal , the Tauferer Ahrntal and Antholz .
In the mountainous South Tyrol, about 64.5% of the total area of the country is above alluvial cones and broad basins . The most densely populated areas are to be found in the Adige Valley, where three of the four largest cities, Bozen, Merano and Laives, are located. The flat valley floors are mainly used for agriculture.and only 14% below . Therefore, a large part of the population concentrates on relatively small areas in the valleys at altitudes between about 200 and - mainly in the area of extensive
The most important river in South Tyrol is the Etsch , which rises on the Reschenpass , covers a distance of about 140 km to the border at the Salurner Klause and then flows on towards the Po Valley and the Adriatic Sea . The Etsch, whose total length of 415 km in Italy is exceeded by the Po alone , drains 97% of the country's area. Its river system also includes the approximately 100 km long Eisack and the approximately 80 km long Rienz , the two next largest rivers in South Tyrol . They are fed by numerous rivers and streams in the side valleys. The most important feeders include the Plima , the Passer , the Falschauer , the Talfer , the Ahr and the Gader . The remaining 3% of the country's area is drained through the river systems of the Drava and Inn to the Black Sea and through the river system of the Piave to the Adriatic Sea.
In South Tyrol there are 176 natural lakes with an area of more than half a hectare, the majority of which are over Kalterer See ( ), the Great ( ) and the Small Montiggler See ( ). The reservoirs in South Tyrol used for energy generation include, among others. the Reschensee ( ), which forms the largest standing body of water in South Tyrol with an area of 523 hectares, the Zufrittsee ( ) and the Arzkarsee ( ).high. Only 13 natural lakes are larger than 5 hectares, only three of them are below altitude: the
To reported from South Tyrol natural monuments include numerous hydrological objects, including streams, waterfalls, bogs, glaciers and mountain lakes such as Lake Prags ( ), the Carezza ( ) or Spronser Lakes (2117- ).
About 50% of the South Tyrolean area is forested, another 40% are above tree line , which varies between 1900 and . More than half of the total forest area lies in terrain with an incline of more than 20 ° and at altitudes between 1200 and . Around 24% of the forest area can be classified as settlements, traffic routes and other human infrastructures preserving protective forests . A hemerobia study from 1997 classified the South Tyrolean forests as approximately 35% near-natural or natural, approximately 41% as moderately modified and approximately 24% as heavily modified or artificial.and thus largely beyond the
The flat valley floor was originally completely covered with alluvial forests, of which only very small remnants have survived along the rivers. The remaining areas have given way to settlements and agricultural areas. On the valley slopes there are sub-Mediterranean mixed deciduous forests up to heights of 800 or , which are mainly characterized by warmth-loving manna ash , hop beech , hackberry trees , sweet chestnuts and downy oaks . From around , instead, red beech forests (less often) or pine forests populating difficult and barren locations can occur. Spruce and fir forests can be found at altitudes between 800 and , while montane and subalpine spruce forests predominate between 900 and . The latter are often mixed with tree species such as larch , rowan berries , white pine and Swiss stone pine . The larch and stone pine forests at the upper edge of the forest belt occupy a relatively small area. Beyond the timberline determine subalpine dwarf shrub societies, alpine meadows and finally alpine tundra as types of vegetation the landscape.
Mixed deciduous forest on the Vinschger Sonnenberg
Spruce and fir stands in the Latemar Forest
Pine and larch stands in the Rasciesa Forest
Dwarf shrubs at Muntejela de Senes
Alpine lawn on Piz Duleda
Flora and fauna
Flora: The current flora in South Tyrol is the result of a sequence of extinction and repopulation phases after the Würm glacial period , which led to a complete glaciation of the Alpine region. Due to the diversity of its geomorphological and climatic conditions, South Tyrol is home to a relatively diverse flora . There are habitats for both xerophilic and hygrophilic plants, warmth-loving plants as well as those adapted to high alpine or even nival conditions. Around 2,500 recent species of fern and flowering plants have been recorded in South Tyrol ; thus the country - on just 0.07% of the total area of the continent - is home to almost a fifth of Europe's known flora . The greatest biodiversity can be found in the Adige Valley between Merano and the Salurner Klause and in the lower Eisack Valley; The Sciliar - Rosengarten area has a special position in terms of alpine flora .
The local flora has been considered to be relatively well researched since the work of the botanists Karl Wilhelm von Dalla Torre and Ludwig von Sarnthein at the beginning of the 20th century. The systematic raster mapping initiated in the 1970s and coordinated by the South Tyrol Museum of Nature since 1998 led to another significant surge in knowledge: the catalog of vascular plants in South Tyrol published in 2006 was able to fall back on around 300,000 individual observations and recorded around 70 indigenous species that had not been recorded before. 84 species, genera or families are protected by state law. In addition, numerous botanical objects have been classified as natural monuments by the state of South Tyrol , including the centuries- old Url larch trees and the Versoaln vine in Prissian .
Fauna: It is estimated that there are at least 32,000 living animal species native to South Tyrol; up to 1996 only around 14,700 of these could be detected (in Germany it was around 48,000 up to 2004). The number of fossil animal species found so far is around 5,000. More than half of the known South Tyrolean fauna is accounted for by the relatively well-researched orders of beetles and butterflies . Around 460 species (excluding domestic animals ) are vertebrates , while around 750 species are known in Central Europe . The avifauna that occurs in South Tyrol includes around 350 species of birds ; the number of native mammals can be estimated at 60 to 80 species, with the brown bear and the wolf, two once exterminated species , having returned in the 2000s .
Vinzenz Maria Gredler is considered to be a pioneer of South Tyrolean zoology , who in the 19th century devoted himself in particular to domestic snails , beetles, ants and amphibians . Since 1996, Die Tierwelt Südtirols has been the first overall representation of the native fauna with a complete list of the species that have been documented to date. 71 animal species or groups are protected by state law. A Red List drawn up in 1994 classified only 59% of the 7,398 animal species examined in South Tyrol as safe; The most frequent causes of threats, especially those affecting lower elevations, were intensive cultivation and the narrowing, construction and traffic development of habitats.
South Tyrol has 116 municipalities , eight of which have city status . Bolzano is the only big city with a population of over 100,000 . As of December 31, 2018, 15 municipalities had fewer than 1,000 inhabitants. The largest in terms of area is the municipality of Sarntal , which extends over 302.50 km², while Kuens is the smallest with just 1.66 km². The municipal area of responsibility includes the drinking water supply, sewage disposal, certain areas of spatial planning , administration and design of the territory as well as cultural services.
December 31, 2019
South Tyrol is subdivided into eight district communities , with the provincial capital Bolzano alone being a district community. Politically, district communities are of subordinate importance; they do not have any directly elected bodies. Its tasks are to coordinate the cultural, social, economic and ecological development of the member communities. In addition, for organizational reasons, various tasks from the Province of South Tyrol or the municipalities are assigned to the district communities. These include the social services and responsibilities in the environmental sector .
|District community||main place||Municipalities||Area (km²)||Population (2018)|
In the province of Bolzano, extensive natural and cultural landscapes (almost a quarter of the total area of the country) in a national park and in seven nature parks are subject to special statutory protective measures. There are also numerous biotopes that are legally protected from environmental interference. In principle, this is intended to ensure the preservation of natural and near-natural habitats so that rare or endangered plant and animal species can be efficiently protected. The special provisions and measures may differ depending on the nature park and biotope type as well as the corresponding protection goals.
|Surname||Area (km²)||founding year|
|Stelvio National Park||534.04||1935|
|Three Peaks Nature Park||118.91||1981|
|Fanes-Senes-Braies Nature Park||254.53||1980|
|Puez-Geisler Nature Park||107.22||1978|
|Rieserferner-Ahrn Nature Park||313.20||1988|
|Schlern-Rosengarten Nature Park||72.91||1974|
|Texel Group Nature Park||313.91||1976|
|Trudner Horn Nature Park||68.51||1980|
According to official population statistics, there were exactly 531,178 people in South Tyrol as of December 31, 2018. The population has been rising steadily for years. This fact is based on a positive migration balance with the highest birth rate in national comparison, but nevertheless declining overall (10 live births per 1,000 inhabitants) and the relatively constant death rate (8.3 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants) . 9.5% of the resident population are foreigners.
43.9% of the people living in South Tyrol live in the seven municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants. In contrast to many other Alpine regions, the rural areas are not affected by widespread emigration . The life expectancy is 86.2 years for women and 81.4 years for men; the average age is 42.8 years.
Development of the resident population from 1910 to 2011
Linguistic diversity: German is the mother tongue of over 62%, Italian of around 23% and Ladin of around 4% of the population. In addition to these autochthonous population groups, there has also been a growing group of people with a migration background , who come from various European and non-European countries and originally do not belong to any of the three linguistic communities mentioned , in the last few decades, analogous to the overall European trend .
German: The Tyrolean dialects are geographically differentiated into different dialect variants. Despite their differences, these South Bavarian dialects are quite similar and mutually understandable. The use of standard German in South Tyrol is largely restricted to clearly defined domains (such as schools and administration). A striking feature of both the South Tyrolean dialects and the customary standard German, which as " South Tyrolean German " represents a standard variety of the pluricentric German language, are the loan translations and other interferences that have been transferred from Italian over the past few decades . Of the 116 municipalities in South Tyrol, 103 predominantly rural municipalities have a predominantly German-speaking population. In 77 municipalities this majority is over 90%, in Martell even 100%.
Italian: In contrast to what is common among German-speaking South Tyroleans, the standard language is the dominant variety in the Italian-speaking community in South Tyrol . Dialects are rarely used, as the Italian language group, which largely emerged in the 20th century, is rooted in immigration movements from various regions of Italy. A Lombard - Venetian dialect is traditionally spoken by a small proportion of the population only in the lowlands . The Italian language group lives mainly in the urban agglomeration around the provincial capital Bolzano . The surrounding communities of Laives , Branzoll and Pfatten as well as Salurn on the southern border are mostly Italian-speaking. The district towns of Meran , Brixen and Bruneck, as well as several municipalities in the lowlands, are home to larger Italian communities.
Ladin: In the everyday life of the South Tyrolean Ladin speakers, the local dialects are predominantly used. The standard language Ladin Dolomitan , created in 1998, is not fully accepted by official institutions either. The Ladin language group, whose situation is strongly characterized by multilingualism , concentrates on the South Tyrolean part of Ladinia - the Val Badia and Val Gardena in the Dolomites . Eight municipalities located there, namely Abtei , Corvara , Enneberg , St. Christina , St. Martin , St. Ulrich , Wengen and Selva , have a Ladin population majority.
Historical development: The extremely heterogeneous Tyrolean place names indicate that the area of today's South Tyrol has always been multilingual. The proportions of the language groups that exist today in the total population have fluctuated several times over the course of history. The roots of the Ladin language group go back to the ancient Romanization of the Alpine region, the German to the Bavarian settlement activity of the early Middle Ages , the Italian to the immigration of day laborers and servants from the 17th century. In the first half of the 20th century, the state-sponsored influx of Italian workers ( Italianization of South Tyrol ) and the politically motivated emigration of German and Ladin-speaking South Tyroleans ( option ) led to massive demographic changes. As a result, the Italian-speaking share of the population rose from around 3% to around 34% between 1910 and 1961, but has been decreasing continuously since then. Some aspects of the settlement history can also be traced back to the South Tyrolean family name .
Since the turn of the millennium, immigration from third countries has made itself felt in the image of society in South Tyrol. As of December 31, 2018, 50,746 foreign citizens were living in South Tyrol, which corresponds to 9.5% of the local resident population. The largest group of South Tyroleans with a direct migration background were Albanians , followed by Germans and Pakistanis . The Italian community of South Tyrol integrates a disproportionately large proportion of non-German-speaking immigrants: the proportion of children with a migration background in Italian primary schools was 25.3% in the 2017/2018 school year, compared to only 9.2% in German schools and Ladin schools Schools at 6.9%.
|Population in South Tyrol by language group (1880–2011)|
|1880||6,884 (3.4%)||186,087 (90.6%)||8,822 (4.3%)||3,513 (1.7%)||205.306|
|1890||9,369 (4.5%)||187,100 (89.0%)||8,954 (4.3%)||4,862 (2.3%)||210.285|
|1900||8,916 (4.0%)||197,822 (88.8%)||8,907 (4.0%)||7,149 (3.2%)||222.794|
|1910||7,339 (2.9%)||223,913 (89.0%)||9,429 (3.8%)||10,770 (4.3%)||251.451|
|1921||27,048 (10.6%)||193,271 (75.9%)||9,910 (3.9%)||24,506 (9.6%)||254.735|
|1931||65,503 (23.2%)||195,177 (69.2%)||n. d.||21,478 (7.6%)||282.158|
|1953||114,568 (33.1%)||214,257 (61.9%)||12,696 (3.7%)||4,251 (1.3%)||345,772|
|1961||128,271 (34.3%)||232,717 (62.2%)||12,594 (3.4%)||281 (0.1%)||373.863|
|1971||137,759 (33.3%)||260,351 (62.9%)||15,456 (3.7%)||475 (0.1%)||414.041|
|1981||123,695 (28.7%)||279,544 (64.9%)||17,736 (4.1%)||9,593 (2.2%)||430,568|
|1991||116,914 (26.5%)||287,503 (65.3%)||18,434 (4.2%)||17,657 (4.0%)||440.508|
|2001||113,494 (24.5%)||296,461 (64.0%)||18,736 (4.0%)||34,308 (7.4%)||462.999|
|2011||118,120 (23.3%)||314,604 (62.2%)||20,548 (4.0%)||51,795 (10.5%)||505.067|
There are three officially recognized language communities in South Tyrol: one German-speaking, one Italian-speaking and one Ladin-speaking. Their respective cultural characteristics are safeguarded in their continued existence by the Italian state by law and by appropriate measures of the public administration.
The languages of the three autochthonous language communities, namely German, Italian and Ladin, are also the official languages in the province of Bolzano , although this only applies to Ladin in the valleys where the majority of Ladin people live. The official multilingualism means that all place and street signs as well as a large part of all public signage are multilingual. The toponomastics in South Tyrol or the official status of the different language toponyms has long been the cause of political disputes.
All civil servants must be able to prove their knowledge of German and Italian (" certificate of bilingualism "), especially in the Ladin communities, additional knowledge of Ladin (" certificate of trilingualism "). The so-called " ethnic proportionality " guarantees that positions in the public service are evenly divided between the three language groups. All applicants must accordingly submit their respective "language group declaration" or "language group declaration".
Catholic Church: The vast majority of the population of South Tyrol is baptized Roman Catholic . Already from the late antiquity are early Christian sites in the area detected archaeologically; During this time, Säben in the Eisack valley developed into an important ecclesiastical center, which was only replaced by Brixen as the bishopric at the end of the early Middle Ages . For centuries, the territory of today's South Tyrol was divided between the dioceses of Brixen , Chur (until 1808/1816) and Trient (until 1964). The most famous bishop of Brixen was the polymath Nikolaus von Kues . Important figures in regional church life in the 19th century were the canonized Bishop of Trient Johann Nepomuk von Tschiderer and the mystic Maria von Mörl . With reference to the modern political borders, in 1964 the diocese of Bressanone, which had lost its extensive North and East Tyrolean territories after the First World War, was expanded to form the diocese of Bozen-Brixen , the extent of which is now identical to that of the province of Bozen. Since then, the faithful have been led by Bishops Joseph Gargitter (1964–1986), Wilhelm Egger (1986–2008), Karl Golser (2008–2011) and Ivo Muser (since 2011). The diocese comprises 28 deaneries and 281 parishes (as of 2014), its bishop churches are the Brixen Cathedral and the Bolzano Cathedral . Kassian and Vigilius are venerated as diocesan patrons . Important reference persons in current discourses in the local Catholic Church are Saint Josef Freinademetz and Blessed Josef Mayr-Nusser .
Other religious communities: The oldest non-Christian religious community in South Tyrol that still exists is the Jewish community of Merano . In the 19th century, several confessional small groups emerged in the spa town, which was developed early for tourism . The Evangelical Lutheran congregation was founded there in 1861 , which, like the somewhat younger congregation in Bozen, belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Italy . Together, as the owners of several churches and preaching places, they look after almost 1,000 believers in South Tyrol and neighboring Trentino. The formation of the Russian Orthodox diaspora in Merano goes back to about the same period . There is also a South Tyrolean community of Jehovah's Witnesses . Due to the increased immigration from the Arab and Asian regions, Muslims have come to South Tyrol in recent years , the number of which was estimated at around 14,000 believers in 2015.
High density of non-profit organizations: The South Tyrolean society is shaped to a considerable extent by the activities of non-profit organizations . In 2011, over three quarters of a total of 4,927 active non-profit clubs and associations were active in the fields of culture, sport, leisure, social affairs, civil protection and environmental protection. For every 10,000 inhabitants there were 97.6 organizations, which by far exceeds the national average of 50.7. Members held around 150,000 institutionalized honorary positions (3,008 per 10,000 inhabitants), which statistically also clearly stands out from the Italian comparative values. The largest associations and clubs in the country include the Association of Sports Associations in South Tyrol , the Alpine Association of South Tyrol , the White Cross , the Catholic Association of Working People , the Regional Association of Voluntary Fire Brigades , the Catholic Young Group , the Association of South Tyrolean Music Bands and the Schützenbund .
Tendency towards ethnic separation: Another characteristic of South Tyrolean society is its relatively strong ethnicization . This is primarily reflected in the institutionalized separation according to language groups (e.g. linguistically separate school systems, allocation of jobs in the public service according to " ethnic proportionality "), but can also be reflected in the economic sector (agriculture and tourism as traditionally " German "domains, public service and industry as the primary economic base of the" Italians ") as well as at the level of non-profit organizations (Italian parallel organizations such as Club Alpino Italiano , Azione Cattolica , Croce Rossa ) and in the area of opinion-forming regional media (German- vs. Italian-speaking). Against this ethnicization, which is essentially based on the differences in economic interests of the linguistic milieus and at times was nationalistically exaggerated, small political opposition groups practiced so-called inter - ethnic counter-concepts, which were first noticed in social discourse in the 1970s ( Alexander Langer , Neue Linke / Nuova Sinistra ). In the 1990s, the ruling local politicians began to partially break up existing parallel structures, for example through the establishment of the multilingual Free University of Bolzano .
Prehistory and early history
The area on the Adige , Eisack and Rienz has been populated since the Middle Stone Age ( Mesolithic ). Back then, most of the summer people stayed in the high mountains above the tree line. This is proven by numerous archaeological sites with finds from the 7th to the 4th millennium BC. In the following Neolithic Age , humans began to colonize the fertile low mountain ranges along the main valleys. Important finds from this period come from Plunacker in Villanders , the hill of Juval Castle in Vinschgau and from Tisenjoch (" Ötzi "). A period of economic boom began in the Bronze Age , mainly due to copper mining. In the late Bronze Age (1300–1000 BC) and the older Iron Age , today's South Tyrol was populated by people who were the bearers of the inner-Alpine Laugen-Melaun culture . The Räter are in the early Iron Age carrier of Fritzens-Sanzeno culture and thus the first known indigenous people of the central Alps.
From 59 BC Until the Migration Period , the area of today's South Tyrol belonged to the Roman Empire . No local city foundations go back to this time, as the area was only a stage, but there are numerous milestones and Roman road stations such as Sebatum in the Pustertal or Sublavione in the Eisack valley. In 2005 a Roman villa from the 4th century was discovered near St. Pauls in the municipality of Eppan and subsequently excavated, which also revealed very well-preserved floor mosaics.
Between the 6th and 9th centuries the area was settled by the Bavarians , who came across the Lombards and the Romanized natives there. Important sites and monuments from this time are the Säbener Berg near Klausen , Castelfeder near Auer , St. Peter in Altenburg near Kaltern and the Church of St. Prokulus near Naturns .
As part of the Duchy of Baiern, first in the Franconian Empire and later in the Holy Roman Empire , the area gained strategic importance because its roads connected imperial Italy . Large parts of the area were given to the bishops of Trient and Brixen as counties (including the Norital ) in 1004 and 1027 .
In the course of the 12th and 13th centuries, the Counts of Tyrol (the Albertines and Meinhardins ) succeeded in making the County of Tyrol the dominant local rulership , starting from Tyrol Castle near Merano . Gradually the valleys south and north of the Brenner Pass took on the name Tyrol . From the late 12th century onwards, a phase of central town founding began along the supra-regional traffic axes , which led to considerable social differentiation and economic densification of the country.
In 1363, after unsuccessful acquisition attempts by the Wittelsbachers and the Luxembourgers , the County of Tyrol was transferred from Margarete von Tirol (later called "Maultasch") to the Habsburgs , who ruled the country almost continuously until 1918, with the consent of the Tyrolean provinces .
Early modern age
At the beginning of the 16th century, the Tyrolean area was also affected by the large-scale political and religious-ideological upheavals. Michael Gaismair led the local peasant uprising around 1525 , which was violently suppressed after the Tyrolean sovereign's first concessions. Gaismair fell victim to a targeted assassination attempt by the Habsburgs in Padua in 1532 .
At the same time, the Reformation found a special resonance in Tyrol in the movement of the Hutterites - a religious association founded by Jakob Hutter in 1528 . The Hutterites faced massive persecution. Jakob Hutter was burned at the stake in front of the Golden Roof in Innsbruck in 1536 . Many of his followers left Tyrol as a result of the repression and found a new home in Moravia , and later in North America.
In the course of the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleon's wars of conquest , there were also upheavals in Tyrol. In 1805 all of Tyrol fell to Bavaria, which was allied with France and became a kingdom in January 1806 . In 1808 Tyrol was divided into three Bavarian districts ( Innkreis , Eisackkreis , Etschkreis ); In 1809 troops for the Bavarian Army were also raised there .
Under the leadership of Andreas Hofer , a resistance movement emerged that violently opposed the secular reorganization imported from France. After the military suppression of the Tyrolean people's uprising , Bolzano and the area south of it, together with Trentino, were annexed to the short-lived Kingdom of Italy for the first time in 1810 , but recently occupied by the troops of the Austrian Empire in 1813 . In the course of the restoration of the pre-revolutionary balance of power in Europe ( restoration ) at the Congress of Vienna , Tyrol was again confirmed as part of the Habsburg monarchy in 1815.
In the first half of the 19th century, the industrial revolution in Tyrol only arrived late and for a long time was essentially confined to the region's small-town conurbations; a social democratic party did not emerge in Tyrol until 1890, but remained largely insignificant. The nationalism of German and Italian characteristics had a lasting effect . The first controversies in this regard had already emerged in Tyrol in the revolutionary year of 1848 ; they strengthened against the background of the Italian Risorgimento (1861) and the foundation of the German Empire (1871).
War years and dictatorships
First World War: The outbreak of the First World War came at a time when the social basis of the multi-ethnic state Austria-Hungary was already deeply divided by the emerging nationalisms. The execution of the Italian irredentist Cesare Battisti in Trento in 1916 is considered the symbolic climax of the Tyrolean nationality conflict . It was preceded by Italy's entry into the war against Austria-Hungary on the side of the Triple Entente in 1915. In this context, Italy had received an assurance from its allies in the secret London treaty that after the victory, inter alia. to be able to annex the southern part of Tyrol as far as the Brenner Pass , thereby reaching beyond the original goals of the irredentism , which was initially concentrated on Italian-speaking areas outside the Italian national territory, and obtaining international support for this.
Separation from Austria: On October 30, 1918, the new state of German Austria was constituted and regarded German South Tyrol as part of its national territory. On November 3, 1918, the Imperial Austrian Army (Hungary considered itself no longer affected since the end of the Real Union on October 31, 1918 and subsequently negotiated its armistice with Italy separately) with the Kingdom of Italy the armistice of Villa Giusti . South Tyrol was quickly occupied by Italian troops.
German Austria proclaimed a republic on November 12, 1918 . However, as part of the losing side of the war, it had little influence on the Treaty of Saint-Germain of September 10, 1919 (which was therefore called the dictate of Saint-Germain at the time), but saw no viable alternative to the conclusion of the treaty. South Tyrol was awarded to Italy under the Secret Treaty of London. The Constituent National Assembly of German Austria ratified the treaty on October 21, 1919; Under international law, it came into force on July 16, 1920. This was followed by the formal annexation of South Tyrol by Italy on October 10, 1920, in which it was initially administered together with the Trentino as Venezia Tridentina .
Italianization: When the fascists came to power in Italy in 1922, a violent policy of assimilation began in South Tyrol with the aim of completely eradicating the old Austrian character of the region. As part one of Ettore Tolomei designed comprehensive Italianisierungsprogramms was u. A. the use of the German language in school lessons and in all public institutions is prohibited; Likewise, the first and last names of the local population were officially translated into Italian. In 1927 Venezia Tridentina was divided into the predominantly Italian-speaking province of Trento and the predominantly German-speaking province of Bolzano. Particularly from the 1930s onwards, the Italian state tried to use targeted housing and industrialization policies to make the German and Ladin-speaking population a minority within South Tyrol through increased Italian influx. Elites from the environment of the Catholic clergy and the conservative German-national German Association opposed this policy of denationalization by setting up illegal catacomb schools . From the beginning of the 1930s, however, South Tyroleans also organized themselves in the National Socialist Völkischer Kampfring Südtirols (VKS).
Resettlement policy: In May 1939, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler signed the steel pact ; the two dictators agreed among other things. on recognizing “the common, for all time fixed border between Germany and Italy”, including that between Tyrol and South Tyrol. To resolve the South Tyrol issue, in line with the National Socialist Heim-ins-Reich doctrine, a resettlement agreement was finally concluded in October of the same year, the so-called option , in which the German- and Ladin-speaking population was given the choice of emigrating to the German Reich or without ethnic minority protection in their homeland. The Völkischer Kampfring of South Tyrol supported this agreement after initial criticism, while a small group around the Andreas-Hofer-Bund opposed the resettlement. 86% of South Tyroleans opted for emigration. Shortly after the start of the Second World War , tens of thousands were resettled in the German Reich .
National Socialist rule: with the fall of Mussolini and the German invasion of northern Italy, the resettlement ended prematurely in 1943; As an operational zone for the Alpine Foreland, South Tyrol came under National Socialist rule until the end of the war in 1945 (see also Bolzano transit camp ). With the invasion of the US armed forces in the spring of 1945, the Italian anti-fascist resistance movement Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (CLN) took over the provisional administration of South Tyrol; at the same time the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) was founded as a gathering party for German and Ladin speaking South Tyroleans.
Post-war period and autonomy
Immediate post-war period: On the fringes of the Paris Peace Conference in 1946 , the Austrian Federal Government Figl I and the Republic of Italy negotiated the basis for a statute of autonomy for South Tyrol and the German-speaking communities in the neighboring Trentino ( Gruber-De-Gasperi Agreement ). The protective function of Austria for South Tyrol was anchored in it, which is still exercised by the Austrian federal government to this day . In 1948 the Italian government expanded the province of Bolzano to include a number of predominantly German-speaking communities that had previously been added to the province of Trento (especially in the Unterland and on the Deutschnonsberg ), but combined the two provinces to form the Trentino-Tyrolean Etschland region. The so-called First Statute of Autonomy settled essential parts of the autonomous competences in this predominantly Italian-speaking region, which brought the political representatives of the German-speaking South Tyroleans into a minority position. Other provisions of the treaty also remained largely unfulfilled in the course of the 1950s. At the same time, Italian economic policy encouraged labor migration from neighboring Italian regions to South Tyrol, against which resistance was building up among the long-established population. The dissatisfaction of large parts of the German-speaking population first culminated in 1957 in the large rally at Sigmundskron Castle .
Bomb attacks: The climate of political and economic marginalization encouraged some separatist -minded South Tyroleans ( Liberation Committee South Tyrol , BAS) in their plan to force South Tyrol to break away from Italy through bomb attacks . After the BAS leadership was arrested as a result of the night of fire in 1961, until the late 1980s, increasingly violent attacks were perpetrated by subordinate groups associated with neo-Nazi circles from German-speaking countries.
Diplomatic solution: Even before the night of the fire, the South Tyrol question was "internationalized" in 1960 with the announcement of the dispute between Austria and Italy by then Austrian Foreign Minister Bruno Kreisky to the UN General Assembly . H. made the subject of attention beyond Austria and Italy. This motivated the Italian government to resolve the political conflict with the South Tyrolean ethnic minority. After the establishment of the Parliamentary Commission of the Nineteen in 1961, Foreign Ministers Giuseppe Saragat (Italy) and Bruno Kreisky (Austria) reached an initial agreement in principle in 1964 regarding the implementation of the package of measures that the Commission had presented. After further renegotiations, the so-called "Operation Calendar" for the implementation of the "South Tyrol Package" was finally approved by the South Tyrolean People's Party and the Austrian National Council in 1969 and passed by the Italian Parliament in 1971 . In 1972 the Second Statute of Autonomy came into force as a constitutional law, which brought about a significant expansion of the autonomy of South Tyrol . In 1992 the Italian government announced to the Austrian that the package and operation calendar had now been fully implemented. Austria then, with the approval of the South Tyrolean and Tyrolean politicians, sent a "Dispute Settlement Declaration" to Italy and the United Nations.
Recent developments: Benefiting from extensive autonomy powers (partly also in budget matters), South Tyrol was able to develop into a prosperous region in Europe and one of the best-off in Italy. The European integration process that was initiated with the Schengen Agreement and the introduction of the common currency, the euro , has made it easier since the 1990s to build on the long historical togetherness of the federal state of Tyrol and the states of South Tyrol and Trentino. With the establishment of the European region Tyrol – South Tyrol – Trentino , the cross-border cooperation with the other parts of the former crown land of Tyrol was institutionalized . The first meetings of high political representatives from both countries on South Tyrolean soil are symbolic of the relaxation of Italian-Austrian relations on the South Tyrolean issue: On September 5, 2012, Presidents Giorgio Napolitano and Heinz Fischer met for consultations in the Merano Kurhaus , which took place on July 5, 2014 Prime Minister Matteo Renzi and Federal Chancellor Werner Faymann take part in a conference at Prösels Castle .
|Blazon : "On a silver background, an old red (Tyrolean) eagle , gold-armored with a red tongue and golden wing clips."|
|Reasons for the coat of arms: The coat of arms is a variant of the traditional Tyrolean coat of arms . It was decided by the South Tyrolean provincial government on July 30, 1982 and approved as a result of the decree of the President of the Italian Republic of March 21, 1983.|
The flag is in the colors white and red, which are taken from the old Tyrolean flag; in the middle it is covered with the state coat of arms. Their official recognition was applied for by the state government on October 7, 1996, and the President approved it on November 22, 1996.
Regional and state autonomy
South Tyrol (i.e. the province of Bolzano) together with the Trentino (province of Trento) form the region of Trentino-Alto Adige , one of the five Italian regions that have extensive legislative powers and are accordingly recognized by the Italian constitution as autonomous regions with special statutes. The First Statute of Autonomy was introduced by constitutional law in 1948 on the basis of the Gruber-De-Gasperi Agreement . However, the political representatives of the German-speaking South Tyroleans felt this solution to be inadequate, since the establishment of a community region with the Trentino de facto created an Italian-speaking majority of the population. This constellation limited the political potential of the German-speaking parties in the elections to the regional council and the formation of regional governments . At the same time, in the course of the 1950s and 60s, the German-speaking population criticized the failure to implement the promised economic and cultural promotion measures.
With the introduction of the second autonomous status after several years of negotiation in 1972 or in the course of the implementation of the package of measures, which lasted until 1992, the autonomous competencies were expanded and almost entirely transferred from the Trentino-Alto Adige region to the two provinces of Trento and Bolzano. The mostly German-speaking province of Bolzano is therefore reserved in the state parliament in the areas of public offices, spatial planning, handicrafts, trade fairs and markets, hunting and fishing, communication and transport, tourism and hospitality, agriculture, kindergartens, school construction and a number of other areas of competence To enact laws, the implementation of which is the responsibility of the state government . Although the Statute of Autonomy is a constitutional law, the autonomous scope of South Tyrol remains subject to selective changes. Some of these changes were brought about by the constitutional reform in 2001 with subsequent judgments by the Italian Constitutional Court . Various responsibilities have been restricted by European law since 1992 . Conversely, through implementing provisions negotiated bilaterally with the Italian government, South Tyrol received a number of powers that were not originally provided for in the Statute of Autonomy. Since 2014, for example, the state has been able to set its own local tax rates (property tax, waste charges, surcharges on state taxes).
In order to enable self-government that corresponds to its competencies, South Tyrol is provided with financial resources from state tax revenues, but remains a net contributor to the Italian state budget. A large part of the taxes paid in South Tyrol (especially sales tax as well as income and corporation tax ) flow back from Rome to the provincial administration. The South Tyrolean state budget in 2015 was around 5.3 billion euros. In comparison, the budget of the Austrian state of Tyrol was around 3.4 billion euros. As a result, the local administration in South Tyrol (as in Trentino) offers numerous services that are taken over by the state administration in other Italian regions or do not exist at all.
Since the end of the Second World War and the constitution of South Tyrol as an autonomous province within the Republic of Italy, the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) has largely determined local political events. It presents itself as an “ethnic collective party” of all German- and Ladin-speaking South Tyroleans and as such was able to achieve an absolute majority of mandates in the South Tyrolean state parliament from 1948 to 2008 without interruption . In the state elections in 2013, it failed to achieve the required number of votes for the first time, but remained the strongest parliamentary group. Accordingly, the SVP has so far provided all governors and always the majority of the members of the South Tyrolean provincial government . At the municipal level, the SVP is the strongest political force in numerous municipalities.
In the national context, the SVP has little political weight due to its clear regional profile, even though it is the only Italian party to have been continuously represented by parliamentarians in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate since 1948 . In line with its regionalist self-image, the party has not yet sought direct participation in government at the state level; Rather, it has been pursuing the goal of transferring legislative and executive powers from the state to the provincial administration since it was founded in order to achieve extensive self-government in South Tyrol (see autonomy of South Tyrol ). In the course of the ongoing negotiation and implementation of South Tyrolean autonomy, the SVP consistently supported the state ruling party Democrazia Cristiana (DC) in the Italian parliament until the beginning of the 1990s . After the transformation of the Italian party system, the SVP entered into strategic partnerships with the federalist center-left alliance L'Ulivo , from which the Partito Democratico (PD) emerged in 2007 .
In addition to the South Tyrolean People's Party, smaller regional opposition parties have also emerged since the 1960s. The Social Progressive Party and the Social Democratic Party of South Tyrol demanded a stronger expansion of social and educational institutions as well as political pluralism within the German-speaking population in the course of the development of regional autonomy in the 1970s. The left-alternative list Neue Linke / Nuova Sinistra set important accents at the beginning of the 1980s to overcome the ethnic separation of the political public into a German / Ladin-speaking and an Italian-speaking camp. In partial continuity with the aforementioned movements, the South Tyrolean Greens advocate an eco-social policy. The parties of South Tyrolean Freedom , Die Freiheitlichen and BürgerUnion , which have been in existence since the 1980s, are fundamentally critical of the autonomous province of Bolzano as an institution. They are calling for South Tyrol to be separated from Italy in favor of various alternative state models (affiliation with Austria , establishment of a South Tyrolean Free State ). Since the 1990s, the Ladins Dolomites have also required greater independence from an ethnic-territorial point of view for the Ladin valley communities.
The radius of action of the national (Italian) parties in South Tyrol is mainly limited to the urban area of Bolzano and Merano , which is home to a large number of Italian-speaking citizens. Until the 1990s, the Democrazia Cristiana was consistently the strongest political party among the Italian population (which comprises around a quarter of the total population of South Tyrol), although the relatively high proportion of industrial workers also secured three of the 35 state parliament seats for the Italian Communist Party . Above all, the implementation of the Second Autonomy Status for South Tyrol and the associated introduction of " ethnic proportionality " unsettled many Italian-speaking voters in the 1980s, who opposed themselves as a result of mostly Italian-nationalist parties such as the neo-fascist and anti-autonomist Movimento Sociale Italiano (MSI), later turned to the Alleanza Nazionale and the Italian center-right camp around Forza Italia and the Popolo della Libertà , respectively . The Italian center-left camp ( Democratici di Sinistra , Partito Democratico ), on the other hand, has always been committed to local autonomy and has been actively involved in shaping it. Accordingly, since the dissolution of the Democrazia Cristiana, parties of this spectrum - as in the Italian parliament - have been the preferred coalition partner of the SVP at the state level and in the larger municipalities. Under the impression of the latent loss of consensus of the Italian center-left parties, the SVP changed its coalition preference at the state level in 2019 and formed a coalition government for the first time with the right-wing populist Lega Nord .
The South Tyrolean Parliament ( Consiglio provinciale in Italian , Cunsëi provinziel in Ladin ) is the representative body of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano. The 35 MPs are also members of the Trentino-Alto Adige Regional Council . The Statute of Autonomy gives the Landtag extensive legislative powers and competencies. Its main tasks are to legislate as well as to elect and control the state government. Members elected to the state government retain their seat in the state parliament, which means that they can have a double function in the legislative and executive branches . The duration of a legislative period is five years. It is chaired by a Landtag President elected for two and a half years, who alternates between the German and Italian language groups or, alternatively, the Ladin language group. Josef Noggler is currently (2021) taking on this task.
State Parliaments since 1948:
The South Tyrolean provincial government (formerly also called provincial committee , Italian Giunta provinciale, Ladin Junta provinziala) consists of a provincial governor and a variable number of provincial councilors. Currently (2021) the state government consists of eight state councilors and the governor. The deputy governor is appointed from the ranks of the regional councils. The current governor is Arno Kompatscher (SVP), his deputies are the regional councilors Arnold Schuler (SVP), Giuliano Vettorato (LN) and Daniel Alfreider (SVP).
The state governor and the state councilors are elected by the state parliament in a secret ballot with an absolute majority. The composition of the state government must in any case reflect the proportional distribution of the German and Italian language groups in the state parliament. In the past, this provision prevented the German-speaking dominated South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) from gaining sole government and enabled the Italian parties to participate in the state government. Since the Ladin language group, with just under 4% of the resident population of South Tyrol, has a low voter potential, its own provision in the Statute of Autonomy enables Ladin representation in the state government regardless of its proportionate representation in the state parliament.
State governments since 1948:
|1948-1952||Karl Erckert||Erckert I.||SVP , DC , PRI|
|1952-1956||Karl Erckert, Alois Pupp||Erckert II||SVP, DC|
|1956-1960||Alois Pupp||Pupp||SVP, DC|
|1960-1965||Silvius Magnago||Magnago I||SVP, DC|
|1965-1969||Silvius Magnago||Magnago II||SVP, DC, PSDI|
|1969-1974||Silvius Magnago||Magnago III||SVP, DC|
|1974-1979||Silvius Magnago||Magnago IV||SVP, DC, PSI|
|1979-1984||Silvius Magnago||Magnago V||SVP, DC, PSDI|
|1984-1989||Silvius Magnago||Magnago VI||SVP, DC, PSI|
|1989-1994||Luis Durnwalder||Durnwalder I.||SVP, DC, PSI|
|1994-1999||Luis Durnwalder||Durnwalder II||SVP, Partito Popolare Altoatesino, PDS|
|1999-2003||Luis Durnwalder||Durnwalder III||SVP, Unione Democratica Altoatesina, DS|
|2003-2008||Luis Durnwalder||Durnwalder IV||SVP, Unione Autonomista, DS|
|2008-2014||Luis Durnwalder||Durnwalder V||SVP, PD|
|2014-2019||Arno Kompatscher||Compatcher I||SVP, PD|
|2019–||Arno Kompatscher||Kompatscher II||SVP, LN|
The Italian state administration is embodied in South Tyrol by the government commissioner for the province of Bolzano ( Commissariato del Governo per la provincia di Bolzano ), which is headed by a government commissioner ( Commissario del Governo ) appointed by the Italian central government in Rome . Vito Cusumano has held this position since May 1, 2017. The government commissioner corresponds to the prefects of the other Italian provinces. Apart from the fact that the government commissioner acts as the official representative of Rome to the state government, the government commissioner has competencies in the areas of internal security, civil protection, immigration and the organization of elections. The authority is based in the Ducal Palace, the former Villa Wendlandt .
List of prefects and government commissioners:
|Official||Term of office|
|Prefects of the Province of Bolzano|
|Bruno De Angelis||1945-1946|
|Vice Government Commissioner of the Province of Bolzano|
|Government Commissioners for the Province of Bolzano|
|Giustiniano de Pretis||1973-1979|
|Giustino Di Santo||2000-2005|
|Vito Cusumano||since 2017|
In 2013, the gross domestic product per capita in South Tyrol was around 40,000 euros (Italy: 26,500 euros; Austria: 38,100 euros; EU: 26,600 euros); In a ranking adjusted for purchasing power, South Tyrol thus positioned itself in 21st place of the 273 NUTS 2 regions in the EU and in 1st place in Italy, ahead of Lombardy . Local consumer prices also exceeded the national and EU-wide average: the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices in 2012 was 3.7 (Italy: 3.3; Austria: 2.6; EU: 2.6). The unemployment rate in 2013 was 4.4% (3.9% for men and 5.0% for women), which corresponds to 11,400 job seekers. These data were well below the national benchmark of 12.2%. In 2017 the unemployment rate was 3.1%.
South Tyrol's economy is primarily characterized by the service sector , from which around three quarters of the local added value came from in 2012 . The most important sectors there are tourism , trade and transport . About a fifth of the local added value was accounted for by the manufacturing industry, especially processing companies ( handicrafts , small and medium-sized industries ), energy supply and construction companies , the remaining 5% by agriculture and forestry . A striking feature is the disproportionate strength of the cooperative system for Italy (on December 31, 2012 there were 955 cooperatives with around 160,000 members), which not only operate in the classic fields of agriculture and banking, but also in areas such as tourism, trade and energy .
On December 31, 2011, 43,059 companies were active in South Tyrol - with a total of 46,396 workplaces with 188,292 employees. The average company size was 4.1 employees per workplace. 58.7% of the employees were blue-collar workers, 33.6% white-collar workers and 2.8% managers or executives. Of the companies with more than three employees, 32.2% were internationally active, 14.4% on the national market and thus 53.4% exclusively locally. The largest employer was the public sector with 43,827 employees in 189 corporations.
In 2012, around 113.5 million euros were spent on research and development in South Tyrol , which corresponded to 0.59% of South Tyrol's gross domestic product. The country was thus well below the national and EU-wide averages, but also below the target of 3% required by the Europe 2020 program. Local politicians have been trying to catch up since the 1990s, for example by founding the Eurac Research center , the Free University of Bolzano and the NOI Techpark . For 2015, for example, the state government provided 110 million euros in public funds for research and development.
The agriculture and forestry dominate the South Tyrolean landscape since time immemorial. In the 1960s, the province of Bolzano was still the most clearly agricultural area in the Italian and Austrian Alps, before industry and tourism became the most important branches of employment in rural areas. In 2010, 20,247 agricultural and forestry businesses were active in South Tyrol, cultivating around 484,000 hectares and generating around 5% of the local added value. With a total usable agricultural area of 240,535 hectares, an average farm had around 11.9 hectares of land and had 88.3% of all working days done by family-owned workers. A strong cooperative system combined with a regional value chain enables these small-scale farms to be competitive. “ Quality South Tyrol ” has its own regional quality mark for agricultural products. The most important interest group in the primary sector is the South Tyrolean Farmers' Association .
The bottoms of the Etsch Valley as far as the upper Vinschgau and the Eisack Valley as far as the Brixen area are mainly used for growing apples . Eleven varieties can be marketed under trademark law as “ South Tyrolean apples ”. In 2010 the total area under cultivation was 18,540 hectares and the harvest amounted to 1,064,639 t. In 2011, more than half of Italian and over 10% of EU-wide apple production came from South Tyrol, where apple cultivation was responsible for 53% of agricultural value added.
The origins of viticulture in today's South Tyrol probably go back to pre-Roman times. The South Tyrolean wine-growing area, protected by DOC , extends on the slopes of the Adige Valley - mainly south of Bolzano along the Wine Route - and the Eisack Valley at altitudes between around 220 and 2012, the entire wine-growing area comprised 5,360 hectares, making it one of the smallest Italian wine-growing regions (about 0.7% of the total area). The high-quality white wines from South Tyrol are counted among the best in Italy, and the red wines have also gained great renown since the early 1990s ; The most important varieties include the white Gewürztraminer , Ruländer and Pinot Blanc , and the red Pinot Noir , Lagrein and Vernatsch .
In the higher areas, pasture and forestry dominate . Pasture farming, which is mostly practiced in conjunction with livestock farming, claimed around 61% of the agricultural land in 2010. In 2013 there were around 130,000 cattle , 47,000 sheep , 23,000 goats , 10,000 pigs (mainly for the production of “ South Tyrolean Speck ”) and 7,000 horses in South Tyrol . The cow milk production in 2012 was around 410 million liters. The total area of the South Tyrolean forests was around 337,000 hectares in 2008, of which around 200,000 hectares were managed as commercial forests. In 2012, 481,763 cubic meters of lumber (mainly fir and spruce) and 287,403 cubic meters of firewood were felled.
A first, still hesitant, industrialization push took place in South Tyrol at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in the larger urban centers. These approaches were intensified by the fascist politics of the 1930s, but were also largely limited to urban areas, such as the extensive industrial area of Bolzano . After the existing operations had declined production figures, a renewed upswing started around 1965, this time on a decentralized basis, which brought significant growth rates with it in the 1970s. In 2012 he was responsible for the manufacturing industry, which includes from entrepreneurs Südtirol his interests can represent a share of about 20% of local value creation.
In 2011, 9,355 companies were active in the secondary sector in South Tyrol (predominantly small and medium-sized companies ), which gave work to around 40,000 employees. In addition to the small structure, the strength of the handicrafts , to which about 81% of the companies in the manufacturing industry were attributable in 2009, is a characteristic of the South Tyrolean economy.
Of particular importance in South Tyrol are the construction and energy industries , which mainly operate with the renewable energy sources hydropower and biomass . In 2012, the net energy produced reached almost 6.4 million kWh (local consumption: approx. 2.9 million kWh), which corresponds to around 2% of the total amount of electricity produced in Italy. By far the largest company in the energy sector is Alperia . Other important sectors are the food industry ( e.g. Forst Brewery , Dr. Schär , Loacker ), metal and wood processing ( e.g. Rubner ), the electrical industry ( e.g. Durst Phototechnik ), mechanical engineering ( e.g. Leitner , Prinoth , TechnoAlpin ) and the textile industry ( about Oberrauch group ).
Around three quarters of the local added value in South Tyrol can be traced back to the service sector . Among the major industries that, among other things by the trade and service Südtirol be represented include tourism , trade and transport .
Tourism plays a central role in the economy of the resource-poor country. Its beginnings in South Tyrol go back to the 19th century, when, for example, the spa town of Merano was heavily visited due to the mild climate. From the 1960s onwards there were enormous growth rates: between 1960 and 1980 alone, the number of arrivals almost quadrupled. Important elements of the upswing at that time were the German guests' weakness of the lira , as well as a boom in “ farm holidays ” and winter sports , which enabled South Tyrol to have a second main season (see also the list of ski areas in South Tyrol ). Since then, the towns in the valleys in particular have developed into tourist centers, while the surrounding mountain areas are used for summer and winter adventure holidays.
In 2014/15, a little less than two thirds of the total tourism volume was concentrated in the summer half-year, and around more than a third in the winter half-year. In 2015, over 10,000 accommodation providers made around 220,000 beds available to tourists; In 2012/13 visitors spent an average of around 120 euros per person a day. With a total of 28.9 million overnight stays, South Tyrol took second place among all Italian provinces in 2011 - behind Venice (35 million), but ahead of Rome (25.8 million) and Rimini (16.2 million).
The trade has a long tradition in the transit country of South Tyrol, to which the Bolzano Exhibition Center continues . The two trading companies Aspiag ( food retail ) and Würth ( wholesale ) were once again the largest private employers in South Tyrol in 2012. In the field of logistics companies, companies such as Fercam and Gruber should be mentioned. Cooperative associations such as the Raiffeisenverband Südtirol provide services for the widespread cooperative system . The most important local banks are the Südtiroler Sparkasse , the Südtiroler Volksbank and the Raiffeisen Landesbank Südtirol . An important knowledge-based service provider is the KlimaHaus certification agency , which has given South Tyrol in Italy a pioneering role in the field of energy-efficient and sustainable construction .
Hotel Palace in Merano
Logo of the Raiffeisen Association South Tyrol
Logo of the certification agency KlimaHaus
South Tyrol has a well-developed road network over 5000 km long. The most important transport infrastructure is the A22 toll motorway , which is part of the European route 45 . It crosses the country in a north-south direction from the Brenner ( ) past Brixen and Bozen to the Salurner Klause ( ). The Brenner Pass is the alpine pass with the highest volume of road haulage . In the first half of 2014, around 936,000 heavy goods vehicles passed through there (compared to a total of around 480,000 passages on the four most important Swiss Alpine passes); about 90% of the trucks were part of the transit traffic . The most heavily used section of the motorway is that between Bozen Süd and Neumarkt: In 2012, an average of almost 38,000 passages per day were recorded here.
The important villages, valleys and passes of South Tyrol are accessed by state and regional roads, which have been maintained and financed by the South Tyrolean regional administration since 1998 without exception. There are also numerous local roads . The roads with the highest volume of traffic are the major state roads, especially in the metropolitan areas. On the SS 38 serving the west of the country , which has been expanded to four lanes as MeBo between Merano and Bolzano, an average of more than 35,000 passages per day were measured in the Bolzano area in 2012. The SS 42 , which opened up the Überetsch from Bolzano , had over 20,000 passages, the SS 12 (“Brennerstaatsstraße”) running parallel to the motorway at the entrance to the Eisack Valley had over 18,000, and the SS 49 in the Puster Valley had over 16,000 in sections.
The mountainous landscape in South Tyrol means that traffic routes require many complex engineering structures . There are around 1,700 bridges and over 200 tunnels on state and state roads alone . The pass roads in the high mountains, which are accessible to general road traffic, are maintenance- intensive, seven of which reach peaks over high, namely those over the Stilfser Joch ( ), the Timmelsjoch ( ), the Sellajoch ( ), the Penser Joch ( ), the Grödner Joch ( ), the Jaufenpass ( ) and the Staller Sattel ( ).
The Brenner railway links as part of the railway axis Berlin-Palermo Innsbruck via Bolzano and Trento with Verona and through the land in north-south direction. The 55 km long Brenner Base Tunnel (BBT), which is currently under construction and which will cross under the Brenner Pass, is scheduled to go into operation in 2028 and primarily relocate goods in transit from road to rail. The west of South Tyrol is served by the Bolzano – Meran railway and the connecting Vinschgau Railway. Of Franzenfeste according Candido leading Pustertal path connects to Drautal web and thus to the Austrian Tyrol forth. In addition, there are a number of smaller rail-bound means of transport that are more of touristic importance, including the Rittner Bahn and the Mendelbahn . Some branch lines , including the Überetscher Bahn and the Tauferer Bahn , were shut down with the advent of automobile traffic between 1950 and 1971.
State and international long-distance passenger transport in South Tyrol takes place exclusively on the Brenner Railway. There is cross- border local passenger transport on the Brenner and Pustertal Railway. The freight will again be unwound completely over the Brenner Railway, 2013, the total transport volume was about 11.7 million tons of cargo.
Bicycle, cable car and air traffic
The supraregional network of cycle routes , which in 2011 comprised distances of around 400 km in length, has been continuously expanding for years . The main routes running through the Adige, Eisack and Pustertal valleys are passable except for a few sections. In the urban area of Bolzano alone, the cycle path network consists of around 50 km of separately designated traffic facilities, over which around 30% of the routes traveled are covered in city traffic.
The Bolzano airport is used by charter flights , the general aviation use and the military. There is also the Dobbiaco airfield , which is primarily used by the military, but is also accessible to private individuals to a limited extent.
The public transport of the South Tyrolean local and regional transport are united uniformly in the Verkehrsverbund Südtirol . More than half of South Tyrol has a South Pass , a contactless - devaluation and trips to all means of transport of the transport network system allows. This includes buses from SAD Nahverkehr , which are particularly active in overland areas, and SASA in the urban areas of Bolzano and Merano; Furthermore, the regional trains operated by SAD and Trenitalia belong to the association, Mendelbahn and Rittner Bahn, as well as the cable cars to Jenesien , Kohlern , Meransen , Mölten , on the Renon and to Verano . In the 2000s, the bus and rail offer was extensively expanded with funding of South Tyrol and tightly timed . With the gradual introduction of the so-called “South Tyrol cycle”, half-hourly or hourly connections, condensed offers at peak times and more precise coordination between bus and train were created on the main lines.
Education and Research
Primary and secondary schools
The South Tyrolean school system is based in its fundamentals on the usual educational system in Italy . As part of the South Tyrolean educational autonomy , this was modified according to local needs through school reforms of the lower and upper grades . The Italian education system distinguishes between primary school (five years), first-degree secondary school (three years) and second-degree secondary (three to five years). Primary and middle schools are designed as comprehensive schools . After completing middle school, students can freely choose from various five-year high schools , including grammar schools , business schools and technical technical schools , or alternatively attend a three- to four-year vocational school. The university entrance qualification is acquired by taking the state final examination .
A special feature of South Tyrol is the coexistence of German, Italian and Ladin schools. The schools for the three language groups differ essentially in the language of the subject teaching . In German schools this takes place in German, in Italian in Italian, in Ladin in roughly equal parts in German and Italian, while Ladin is only used there in a separate subject. In addition to public schools, there are also a number of private schools in South Tyrol, including the Franziskanergymnasium Bozen and the Vinzentinum Brixen . Since 2003 there have been regular evaluations of compulsory school pupils coordinated by the OECD , the evaluation of which is published at the provincial level as separate South Tyrolean PISA results .
In the area of higher education, the University of Innsbruck, founded in 1669, is traditionally regarded as the “state university” for the federal states of Tyrol , South Tyrol, Vorarlberg and the Principality of Liechtenstein . In 1997, the Free University of Bozen (FUB) was also set up in South Tyrol as a separate university. This has three study locations (Bozen, Brixen and Bruneck), where the faculties for economics, computer science, design and arts, natural sciences and technology, as well as for educational sciences are housed. In addition to the FUB, institutions such as the Philosophical-Theological University of Bressanone , the State University of Applied Sciences for Health Professions "Claudiana" and the Conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi" in Bolzano offer subject-specific higher education courses. The largest interest group for South Tyrolean students is sh.asus .
There is a wide range of museums in South Tyrol. Around half of the institutions are privately owned, half by public corporations or church institutions. The eleven South Tyrolean provincial museums with a cultural, natural and historical focus, some of which are spread over several locations in South Tyrol, have a large number of visitors :
- South Tyrol Museum of Archeology
- South Tyrolean mining museum
- Museum Eccel cruiser
- Fortezza Fortress
- South Tyrolean State Museum for Hunting and Fishing
- South Tyrolean State Museum for Cultural and State History
- Museum Ladin
- South Tyrol Museum of Nature
- Touriseum with attached gardens of Trauttmansdorff Castle
- South Tyrolean National Museum for Folklore
- South Tyrolean Wine Museum
The institutions with private, ecclesiastical or mixed sponsorship include, for example, the Messner Mountain Museum initiated by Reinhold Messner on the topic of "Mountain", the Diocesan Museum Bressanone with its collection of Christian art from the Middle Ages and modern times, and the Museion run jointly by an association and the country , the museum for modern and contemporary art in Bolzano.
There are around 280 public libraries in South Tyrol, which are affiliated with numerous privately run institutions in the South Tyrol Library Association . Two academic libraries stand out in terms of their importance and size: the state library “Dr. Friedrich Teßmann ” with its extensive Tyrolean collection and the library of the Free University of Bolzano, which is distributed over three locations . Since 1997 the project " Development of Historical Libraries " has been taking care of the cataloging of the old holdings in South Tyrol .
The most important research institutions in South Tyrol are based at the Free University of Bolzano and Eurac Research . The university is mainly involved in the departments of its faculties, i.e. economics , computer science , natural , engineering and educational sciences , but also houses the center for regional history . The eleven institutes of the Eurac Research research center, founded in 1992, work in an interdisciplinary manner on the topics of autonomy, health, mountains and technologies.
The Laimburg experimental center has practice-oriented agricultural research as its task. An Italian subsidiary of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft founded in 2009 is located in the NOI Techpark in Bolzano. The Source Research serve u. A. the South Tyrolean Provincial Archives , the Bozen State Archives and the Bolzano City Archives . Further research centers exist at the South Tyrolean provincial museums .
Health and social services
The publicly financed facilities of the health system are administered and coordinated centrally by the South Tyrolean medical company. The medical service includes seven hospitals : the central hospital in Bolzano , the main hospitals in Brixen , Bruneck and Meran , as well as the primary care hospitals in Innichen (part of the Bruneck health district), Schlanders (part of the Meran health district) and Sterzing (part of the Brixen health district). In addition, South Tyrol is divided into a number of smaller health districts with local outpatient clinics , in which services in the field of prevention, diagnostics, therapy, rehabilitation and counseling are provided. The medical supply company is by far the largest item in the South Tyrolean state budget: in 2013 it claimed 1.2 billion euros.
In addition to the public hospitals, there are several recognized private clinics in Bolzano, Merano and Brixen .
Public bodies responsible for social affairs in South Tyrol are primarily the district communities , which have taken over this area of responsibility from the municipalities. Most social services (including financial welfare, home care, socio-educational basic care and citizen service) are provided by the social districts spread across the country , whose seats coincide with those of the health districts; For organizational reasons, however, individual services are offered across all districts.
An important element of social policy is the South Tyrolean Housing Institute (WOBI) , which was founded in 1972 - immediately after the Second Statute of Autonomy was passed . The task of this public corporation is the construction and rental of apartments for low-income and medium-sized families, old people, people with disabilities , as well as dormitories for workers and students. In 2015, the WOBI had 13,000 apartments in 112 municipalities.
The independent providers of social services active in South Tyrol include: Church organizations such as Caritas , associations such as the Vinzenzgemeinschaft and Lebenshilfe , as well as a variety of social cooperatives.
newspapers and magazines
The oldest and most widespread daily newspaper is the Dolomites , which appears in German and, to a lesser extent, Ladin , followed by the Italian-speaking Alto Adige . Since their founding in 1945, both newspapers as the leading media of the German-speaking and Italian subculture in South Tyrol have consistently represented opposing positions. In 2016, the largest regional publishing house , Athesia , publisher of the Dolomites, acquired a majority stake in Alto Adige, which until then had always been run by Italian owners.
The local section of the Corriere della Sera (Corriere dell'Alto Adige), which emerged from the former daily newspaper Il Mattino dell'Alto Adige , and the German-language New South Tyrolean daily newspaper are of lesser importance for the press landscape . The Zett is published by Athesia as the German-language Sunday newspaper .
Important regional weekly newspapers are the political weekly magazine ff , the church newspapers Katholisches Sonntagsblatt and Il Segno , as well as the Südtiroler Wirtschaftszeitung . The ff-Media-Verlag also publishes the business magazine Südtirol Panorama . The Union Generela di Ladins , the umbrella organization of the Ladin associations, is the publisher of a weekly newspaper in Ladin, La Usc di Ladins (“The voice of the Ladins”), the texts of which are written in the respective language variety depending on the predominantly treated valley.
The specialist publications include the regional historical periodicals Der Schlern and Geschichte and Region / Storia e regione , the Ladin yearbook Ladinia , and the botanical - zoological journal Gredleriana . Arunda is the most famous South Tyrolean cultural magazine .
In the field of book publishing , in addition to the traditionally dominant South Tyrolean publishing house Athesia and the much smaller Weger Verlag , a number of German-language competing publishers developed in the 1990s with Edition Raetia , Folio Verlag and Provinz Verlag , some of which operate nationwide; The Austrian study publisher also has a branch in Bolzano. The Italian-speaking regional book sector in South Tyrol is mainly served by the publishers Praxis 3 and Alpha Beta . Since the turn of the millennium, some publishers have increasingly started to set up a bilingual program (see also Tyrolean region ).
Among the radio stations especially the public is Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana emphasize that one in Bolzano broadcasting center has three independent editorial departments. Rai Südtirol broadcasts its full German-language program on its own radio channel. The Ladin-language radio programs produced by Rai Ladinia are also broadcast as window programs on the same radio channel . Rai Alto Adige produces Italian language programs of regional content that are broadcast on Rai Radio 1 or Rai Radio 2 . In addition, South Tyrol has numerous local radio stations in all national languages, including via the German-language radio stations Radio 2000 , Radio Grüne Welle , Radio Holiday , Radio Tirol and Südtirol 1 as well as the Ladin-language radio Gherdëina Dolomites . The most popular news program is the Südtirol Journal , which is broadcast by several private stations .
About the standard DAB + are from the Rundfunk Anstalt Südtirol spread following (RAS) channel in two national ensembles: Rai Radio 1 , Rai Radio 2 , Rai Radio 3 , Rai Alto Adige , Bayern 1 , Bayern 2 , Bayern 3 , BR-Klassik , BR Heimat , B5 aktuell , KiRaKa , Deutschlandfunk Kultur , Deutschlandfunk Nova , Radio Swiss Pop , Radio Swiss Classic , Radio Swiss Jazz , Radiotelevisiun Svizra Rumantscha , Rete Due , Ö1 , Radio Tirol , Ö3 and FM4 . There are also other ensembles (DABMedia, Club DAB Italia, Eurodab) with private South Tyrolean or Italian radio stations.
The most important television broadcasters from a South Tyrolean perspective are the Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana and the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation (ORF). Three editorially independent departments operate in the Rai radio station in Bolzano . Rai Südtirol broadcasts its German-language television programs, which include the daily news broadcast , on its own television channel. The same TV channel also broadcasts Rai Ladinia's Ladin-language program , including the TRaiL program with local news. Rai Alto Adige supplies Rai 3 with Italian-language broadcasts of regional content. The ORF maintains a branch of the Landesstudios Tirol in Bolzano , where the regional news program South Tyrol is produced today.
From the Rundfunk Anstalt Südtirol (RAS) are in the standard DVB-T , the Austrian channels ORF 1 , ORF 2 and ORF III , the West German programs First , ZDF , 3sat , BR TV , KiKA and arte and Swiss programs SRF 1 , SRF two and RSI LA 1 broadcast. The Italian public television programs (including Rai 1 , Rai 2 , Rai 3 , Rai News 24 and Rai Südtirol / Ladinia ), Italian private channels (especially the Mediaset programs and La7 ), and smaller regional private channels (such as Video33 and SDF ) can be received.
Online media are becoming increasingly important in regional reporting . The most frequently accessed news website is Südtirol Online (stol.it) - online since 1997 and, like Südtirol News (suedtirolnews.it), operated by the Athesia group. The Neue Südtiroler Tageszeitung (tageszeitung.it), the Alto Adige (altoadige.it) and Rai Südtirol (rai.it/tagesschau) also have websites. The news portals salto.bz , which publishes not only editorially managed content, but also user-generated content in article form, and unsertirol24.com are pure internet newspapers with no connection to print media .
The literatures written in South Tyrol or by South Tyrolean authors are traditionally divided along language borders into German , Italian and Ladin literature . Sometimes German-language works are also included in Austrian literature . South Tyrolean literary prizes are the Meran Poetry Prize , the NC Kaser Poetry Prize and the Franz Tumler Literature Prize . In addition, the South Tyrolean cultural institute occasionally awards the Walther von der Vogelweide Prize to writers.
German-language literature: German-language literature from today's South Tyrol has its roots in the Middle Ages . Arbeo von Freising (approx. 723–784), who came from the Merano area, is considered to be the oldest writer in the German-speaking area. The locally popular thesis that the minstrel Walther von der Vogelweide (approx. 1170–1230) was born in Laion is just one of numerous presumptions of origin represented in German studies . Accordingly, Oswald von Wolkenstein (1377–1445) is considered to be the first significant figure in regional literary history. The 19th century historians and cultural writers Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer (1790–1861) and Beda Weber (1798–1858) are named as “pioneers” of the modern South Tyrolean literary landscape.
The South Tyrolean writers who received national critical recognition in the first half of the 20th century include, in particular, Carl Dallago (1869–1949), Josef Wenter (1880–1947), Joseph Georg Oberkofler (1889–1962), Hubert Mumelter (1896 –1981) and Franz Tumler (1912–1998). The novels by authors such as Hans von Hoffensthal (1877–1914), Albert von Trentini (1878–1933), Luis Trenker (1892–1990) and Maria Veronika Rubatscher (1900–1987) also achieved popular success . Altogether, the literature from South Tyrol in the 1930s and 1940s was dominated by works from the homeland as well as the Nazi-related blood-and-soil literature . There are no known writers from South Tyrol in the context of German exile literature .
A clear break with popular, nationalistic literary tradition took place in the late 1960s, led by Claus Gatterer (1924–1984) and Norbert Conrad Kaser (1947–1978). Herbert Rosendorfer (1934–2012) and Joseph Zoderer (* 1935) received special attention from literary criticism in the second half of the 20th century . Other important representatives of the newer South Tyrolean literary scene include Anita Pichler (1948–1997), Gerhard Kofler (1949–2005), Helene Flöss (* 1954), Sepp Mall (* 1954), Oswald Egger (* 1963) and Sabine Gruber (* 1963).
Italian-language literature: Italian-language literature in South Tyrol did not emerge until the 20th century; their publications were initially sparse. It was not until the 1960s that a more productive writing scene developed. From the 1980s onwards, a stronger regional reference became apparent in the local literary landscape, for which the works of Paolo Valente (* 1966) are exemplary. Among the well-known South Tyrolean authors are Lilli Gruber (* 1957) and Alessandro Banda (* 1963).
Ladin-language literature: The oldest monument of literary quality in Ladinia are the sagas of the Dolomites , which were recorded by Karl Felix Wolff (1879–1966). However, he published it in a late Romantic transformation in German. The first literary texts in Ladin date back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, an increasingly larger author scene emerged, including Adele Moroder (1887–1966) and Max Tosi (1913–1988). The currently best-known Ladin writers are Rut Bernardi (* 1962) and Iaco Rigo (* 1968).
Folk music: The systematic recording of alpine folk music in Tyrol began with the work of Franz Friedrich Kohl in the 19th century. In the years 1940–1942, under the direction of Alfred Quellmalz, the “musical folk estate” of South Tyrol was documented in a comprehensive ethnographic survey on behalf of the research and teaching group “Das Ahnenerbe” . The results of the field research are considered to be the first large music ethnological collection in Europe. As a musical landscape, South Tyrol hardly differs in its folk songs , yodelling , instrumental pieces and practices from its neighboring Alpine regions, but some characteristics can be identified: Many folk songs are tied to customs (often also typical of the region) ; a specialty is the tradition of the church singers , who in some places perform polyphonic chants without instrumental accompaniment at church services; In traditional instrumental music, the country folk predominates as a genre ; Among the musical instruments , the accordion enjoys particular popularity, while the Raffele game has its traditional center in South Tyrol; A South Tyrolean specific feature in brass music is the Bohemian instrumentation type, which consists of around ten wind instruments. The public performance of folk music often takes place in traditional South Tyrolean costume and is usually taken over by the local music bands on church days .
Art music: Minstrels have been recorded from the area of today's South Tyrol since the 13th century , including Friedrich von Sonnenburg and Oswald von Wolkenstein . With Leonhard Lechner (1553–1606) one of the most famous composers of the 16th century comes from the Adige Valley . The most important composers of classical music with South Tyrolean origins were mostly active outside the country: Johann Gänsbacher's (1778–1844) works are primarily committed to the early classical period; the compositions by Johann Rufinatscha (1812–1893), Ludwig Thuille (1861–1907) and Sylvio Lazzari (1857–1944) can be attributed to the music of the Romantic period. Hartmann von An der Lan-Hochbrunn (1863–1914) and Vinzenz Goller (1873–1953) were formative figures in church music . Composers such as Herbert Paulmichl (* 1935), Hubert Stuppner (* 1944) and Eduard Demetz (* 1958) represent modern music. Sepp Thaler (1901–1982) and Gottfried Veit (* 1943) are important representatives of 20th century brass music . Concert performances are relatively frequent events due to the many South Tyrolean music bands and the Haydn orchestra . There are also various music competitions and festivals , including the Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition and the South Tyrol Jazz Festival .
Popular music: The commercially most important current of popular music in South Tyrol is folk hits . In particular, the Kastelruther Spatzen achieved considerable public success in this genre in the entire German-speaking area. On the development of electronic dance music had Giorgio Moroder major international influence in the 1970s and 1980s. Examples of nationally known bands include the pop trio Ganes , the metal band Graveworm and the German rock bands Frei, Wild and Untouchbar .
Dance: The Austrian folk dances handed down in South Tyrol include in particular the Landler , the waltz , the polka and the Boarian ; The Schuhplattler , which was originally a special form of the Landler and developed into the most famous alpine dance, has one of its traditional areas of distribution here. Traditional dances are cultivated today by the numerous groups of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Volkstanz in South Tyrol , which in turn belongs to the Federal Association of Austrian Folk Dance as a regional association .
Music theater: Music theater was first recorded in Bolzano in the 17th century as a performance by Italian artists, but did not establish itself as a permanent establishment there until the 19th century. Today, operas , operettas and musicals are regularly performed as in-house productions by local institutions (such as the Haydn Orchestra , Vereinigte Bühnen Bozen ) in the Bolzano City Theater .
Pre-Romanesque: The remains of pre-Romanesque architecture preserved in what is now South Tyrol are probably linked to late ancient traditions and are largely sacred monuments . These are often archaeologically excavated churches and chapels. Important pre-Romanesque monuments are, for example, the churches of St. Benedict in Mals and St. Prokulus in Naturns, famous for their treasure trove of frescoes .
Romanesque: The Romanesque architecture in today's South Tyrol goes back to the time period from about the year 1000 and the end of the 13th century. An outstanding church building from this period is the collegiate church in Innichen . The construction of castles in the Middle Ages was extremely productive in South Tyrol and is still shaping the landscape today. Important examples are Tyrol Castle (also known for its chapel and palace portal as evidence of Romanesque stone sculptures), Hocheppan Castle , Churburg and Taufers Castle .
The high density of preserved remains of Romanesque wall paintings found in today's South Tyrol is beyond comparison in Europe. For the most part, it is stylistically linked to Byzantine models and ecclesiologically in its pictorial program . Among the multitude of possible examples are the qualitatively outstanding cycle in the Marienberg Abbey , the almost completely preserved paintings of the Hocheppan castle chapel , the bestiary in St. Jakob in Kastelaz near Tramin and the scholastic-mystical frescoing of the Johannes chapel on the cloister in Bressanone. Of the secular frescoes of the Romanesque alone those have to lock Rodenegg obtained the Iwein of Hartmann von Aue illustrate.
Gothic: Gothic architecture did not find its way into today's South Tyrol until the 14th century. The choir of the Dominican Church in Bolzano is one of the earliest examples of Gothic architecture in Tyrol; the tower of the Bolzano parish church , completed in 1519 , is the main monument of the local late Gothic period. Sigmundskron Castle near Bozen is a prime example of late medieval castle construction .
Gothic painting came to the Tyrolean region from the second half of the 13th century. The most important examples of art production from this period include the frescoes in the Brixen cathedral cloister and the profane cycles at Runkelstein Castle near Bozen. In general, wall painting lost its importance in the course of time in favor of panel painting , with carved and painted winged altars taking the place of wall painting in sacred buildings . Leonhard von Brixen headed a formative workshop for local art production . The carving and panel paintings by Michael Pacher , who worked in Bruneck in the 15th century, represent a milestone in European art history and represent the transition from the late Middle Ages to the early modern period .
Renaissance: Due to the upheavals of the peasant wars and the Reformation, the products of fine art in today's South Tyrol were more sparse in the 16th century than in previous epochs. The decline in sacred building activity contrasted with an increased number of aristocratic clients for secular buildings in Renaissance forms, in which old castles were often converted into manorial dwellings with increased living comfort. Examples include Maretsch and in Überetscher style incurred residences . The most important artistic personality of the regional renaissance is Bartlmä Dill Riemenschneider .
Baroque: The baroque architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries in today's South Tyrol was primarily expressed as structural additions or redesigns to existing places of worship, as was the case with the Brixen Cathedral in a particularly opulent manner. In the area of baroque secular buildings, in addition to the expansion of the Brixen Hofburg, the construction of Wolfsthurn Castle represents a local highlight.
Baroque panel painting found its main fields of activity in altar leaves, religious devotional pictures and portraits made primarily for representational purposes. Johann Georg Platzer and Franz Sebald Unterberger were among the most important local artists . Important baroque ceiling paintings are, for example, the Brixen cathedral frescoes by Paul Troger . In the works of Martin Knoller and Joseph Schöpf , a transition from late baroque or rococo to classicism manifested itself in the late 18th century . Examples of locally successful stone and wood sculptors are Gregor Schwenzengast , Dominikus Moling and the artists of the sculpting workshops in Val Gardena that were established in the 17th century .
19th century: Architectural classicism left only a few traces in South Tyrol. The historicism held in the 1830s feeder and stayed in his stylistic pluralism into more powerful until the early 20th century. An exemplary example of neo-Gothic architecture is the mausoleum of Archduke Johann in Schenna . At the turn of the 20th century, Art Nouveau buildings were also built - mainly in the spa town of Merano.
One of the consequences of the Tyrolean uprising was a general decline in public art commissions. In the meantime, numerous painters turned to bourgeois portraiture or landscape painting , including Friedrich Wasmann and Gottfried Seelos . Franz Defregger's realistic painting art popularized historical and peasant genre pictures from the Tyrolean region, which among others. were maintained by the academically trained Josef Moroder-Lusenberg and Karl Anrather . The most important example of the public monument building , which grew in importance towards the end of the century, is the marble Walther monument by Heinrich Natter in Bozen.
20th and 21st centuries: The modern age in South Tyrol first appeared in the field of architecture in the interwar period . In the 1920s and 1930s, the fascist regime in particular promoted rationalist architecture . Numerous regional artists put their work in the service of the fascist and national socialist rulers. The most powerful current of the post-war decades was alpine homeland security architecture of anachronistic style. It was not until the 1960s that architects like Othmar Barth succeeded in opening up the traditional canon of forms.
In painting and graphics include the Art Nouveau and Impressionist -influenced works by Leo Putz , the woodcuts of Carl Moser , nature pictures of Alexander Koester and the tension between Symbolism and Expressionism be resettled oil paintings by Albin Egger-Lienz to signifikantesten works Tyrolean or Early 20th century artist working in South Tyrol. The most popular painters and graphic artists of the second half of the 20th century include: Heiner Gschwendt , Peter Fellin , Paul Flora , Karl Plattner , Robert Scherer and Markus Vallazza . In the field of art photography work protrude Walter Niedermayr out.
Among the traditional dishes or food of peasant cuisine of South Tyrol on cereal-based once included wheat and - oats - Mus , later polenta and spelled - and rye - bread (for example Vinschgauer or Schüttelbrot ). Vegetables that were frequently grown were cabbage , beets , potatoes and green beans . Due to the widespread livestock farming, dairy products could be used extensively . Pork lard served primarily as cooking fat . Meat was typically smoked processed (or about to bacon or smoked sausage ).
With the advent of tourism, there was a renaissance of regional cuisine in the 1960s and 1970s, for example in the context of the rapidly popularized “ Törggelen ” or the somewhat later “Specialty Weeks”, which tried to convey local specialties to tourists. The old Tyrolean fare was adapted to current tastes with modern preparation and processing techniques as well as under the influence of Italian cuisine . In gastronomy, on average, around a third of the offer comes from local cuisine, a third from Italian and a third from standard international cuisine.
South Tyrol provides and has provided internationally successful athletes , especially in winter sports. The skier Gustav Thöni and the artificial track tobogganist Armin Zöggeler were among the best in their discipline with several overall World Cup victories and gold medals at World Championships and Olympic Games. In women's competitions, Isolde Kostner in skiing, Carolina Kostner in figure skating and Dorothea Wierer in biathlon won multiple medals at world championships and the Olympic Games. Christof Innerhofer , Dominik Paris and Manfred Mölgg are currently among the world's best in alpine skiing, Roland Fischnaller is South Tyrol's most successful snowboarder. In winter sports, various world and European cup races in various disciplines ( alpine skiing , biathlon , cross-country skiing , natural track tobogganing and snowboarding ) are held in South Tyrol every year. These include the ski races on the Saslong in Val Gardena and the Gran Risa in Alta Badia , biathlon races in the Südtirol Arena in Antholz and cross-country races in the Nordic Arena in Toblach .
South Tyroleans are and were also successful in summer sports : Klaus Dibiasi won three Olympic gold medals in high diving, Tania Cagnotto numerous medals at world and European championships. Alex Schwazer won an Olympic gold medal in walking. Andreas Seppi is one of the top 100 players in the tennis world rankings . In terms of organization, the athletics event BOclassic , the tennis tournament ATP Challenger Ortisei in Val Gardena and the Maratona dles Dolomites cycle race are among the largest summer sports events .
In team sports, ice hockey and football in particular have a considerable impact, with local clubs and athletes being able to record various national successes. The HC Bozen is 19-time Italian champion in ice hockey and was also international, z. B. as a master in the EBEL 2013/14 and 2017/18 , successful. In football, FC Südtirol currently plays in the 3rd Italian league and CF Südtirol in the 1st women's division. Several football players from South Tyrol were or are under contract with Italian, Austrian and German professional clubs, such as B. Klaus Bachlechner , Michael Cia and Arnold Schwellensattl . The SSV Bozen Loacker and the crews of Brixen and Meran were several times Italian champion in handball .
The largest sports and leisure club in the country for summer and winter sports is the Alpenverein Südtirol (AVS) with over 60,000 members. Reinhold Messner and Hans Kammerlander are among the country's most important alpinists .
Artificial track tobogganist
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