The type of plant from whose fruits wine is made is the noble grapevine ( Vitis vinifera ). Like most cultivated plants , it comes in different varieties , which are known as grape varieties in viticulture . Taste, structure and other properties of a wine such as shelf life and development potential depend on the grape variety, but they are also influenced by the location ( soil properties and climate ), the weather and the development of the vintner .
The grape variety is also called ampelography . It used to have to be limited to the detailed description of the individual varieties. Traditional descriptive features are the shoot tip (shape, hairiness ), the young leaf, the adult leaf ( leaf blade , petiole, perforation of the leaf margin, etc.), grape size and shape , berry size and shape and berry color. Today the ampelographers also deal with the clarification of the relationships between grape varieties on the basis of DNA analyzes .
Since about 5000 BC 8,000 to 10,000 grape varieties were created through breeding from wild vines. Of these, around 2,500 are approved for wine production in the various countries. Many are seldom grown today, and only a few hundred grape varieties are important, even less of national importance.
The individual grape varieties are recorded in a separate list of grape varieties .
Classification according to purpose
When it comes to grapes, a distinction is made between wine and table grapes and grapes for raisin production . There are also ornamental grapes that are not suitable for human consumption.
For winemaking, a distinction is made between red wine and white wine types . Each grape variety has characteristic aromas . That is why two wines, even if they were made in places thousands of kilometers apart, have a great deal in common, provided they are made from the same grape. Not all wines are based on only one type of grape, for example , red Bordeaux usually represents a blend of at least three. In addition, red grapes are not necessarily only used to make red wine, but also white wine, namely the Blanc de Noirs . With many red grape varieties, the pulp is not red, but the red color is only in the skin. Also rose wine comes from red grapes.
Classification according to the time of maturity
Whether a grape variety is suitable for a certain location essentially depends on the time of ripening. From today's perspective, the time of ripening is characterized by an optimal ratio of sugar to acid . Each grape variety can be assigned a minimum period between flowering and maturity. This time is relatively short for early-ripening varieties, and much longer for late-ripening varieties. Early-ripening varieties are used in growing areas to the north. However, these varieties would turn out to be completely inharmonious in southern cultivation areas, as although the sugar content is high enough with sufficient sunshine, other ingredients that are absorbed through the roots cannot be sufficiently enriched. Late-ripening varieties are used here.
Since the terms early and late ripening were used inconsistently in the growing areas, the French Victor Pulliat presented a uniform classification at the end of the 19th century . As a reference grape variety , he took the Gutedel, which ripened very early, and compared other grape varieties with this variety. The must weight was introduced as a yardstick . The basis was the collection of grape varieties as they were created at important scientific institutes. Pulliat chose a scale with five categories:
- The early ripening varieties ( French : cépages précoces ) ripen before the Gutedel.
- The varieties of the first ripening period (French: cépages de première époque ) ripen almost at the same time as the Gutedel, but no later than 10 to 12 days later. These include grape varieties such as Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir and Gamay
- The varieties of the second ripening period (French: cépages de deuxième époque ) ripen for at least about 2 weeks, but no later than 20 to 22 days afterwards. These include grape varieties such as Chenin, Sauvignon, Sémillon, Riesling, Syrah, Cabernet Franc and Merlot.
- The varieties of the third ripening period (French: cépages de troisième époque ) ripen for at least 3 weeks, but no later than 30 to 35 days afterwards. These include grape varieties such as Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon.
- The varieties of the fourth ripening period (French: cépages de quatrième époque ) ripen at least about 4 weeks after the Gutedel.
Each individual period can sometimes be divided into three. In this case, for example, the first ripening period is referred to as the early, middle or late first ripening period. Since each individual ripening period is around a week long, the varieties can be classified in steps of 2 to 3 days.
Newer evaluation models were presented by the Americans Winkler and Amerine from the University of California at Davis. They looked at the heat sums of different growing areas and combined minimum heat sums with the possibility of growing certain grape varieties. According to Winkler, the total heat is the sum of the daily mean temperatures above 10 ° C.
Classification according to resistance
For organic viticulture and integrated viticulture, the division into fungus-resistant and insufficiently fungus-resistant varieties is important. However, this is always only a partial resistance. Since the 1960s u. a. the red wine varieties Regent and Cabernet Cortis as well as the white wine variety Johanniter specially bred for resistance to fungi. The abbreviation " PIWI " is sometimes used for such varieties, but they are also referred to as resistant varieties.
The resistance of these PIWI varieties is always only a higher resistance to an infection of a specific fungal disease and never to all known fungal diseases in the vine. Most often the PIWI varieties show a more or less higher resistance to downy mildew and oidium . The use of pesticides can therefore be reduced against these fungal diseases. With the use of these pesticides, other fungal diseases such as red burner and especially black rot of the vine are also recorded. If the use of these pesticides is reduced, the fungal diseases mentioned can increase. An advantage can therefore also become a disadvantage. These peculiarities are mostly known for the PIWI varieties. Recently, multi-resistant varieties have also been bred.
Other fungus-resistant grape varieties that were cultivated in Rhineland-Palatinate in 2011 on a total of 1768 hectares (= 2.8% of the planted vineyards) are Phoenix , Cabernet Blanc , Solaris , Saphira , Pinotin , Cabernet Cortis , Cabertin , Orion , Muscaris , Prinzipal , Staufer , Helois , Bronner , Bolero , Sirius , Villaris , Prior and Souvignier gris .
Classification according to relationship
Since DNA analysis has become possible, grape varieties can also be grouped according to their genetic relationship.
Grape variety mirror
A grape variety index is the listing of all cultivated grape varieties of a wine-growing country, a wine-growing region or a winery , whereby the vineyards for the individual varieties are usually given.
Ranking list of grapevines (status: 2000)
The following ranking refers to the global viticulture. The worldwide wine-growing area is (as of 2000) about 7.9 million hectares, which corresponds to 79,000 km². Almost 5 million hectares (50,000 km²) of this are in Europe.
It is difficult to rank the most cultivated grape varieties. The figures are based on statistics from different years and were collected using different methods. For example, some varieties are grouped together in some countries and not in others. Individual varieties are also promoted or withdrawn based on preferences or legal requirements. For this reason, caution should be exercised when making such a comparison and it is not possible to create an unreservedly valid list.
- Use: Use as WW = white wine variety, RW = red wine variety. The lines in the table are highlighted accordingly.
- Synonyms: Selection of synonyms for the most common name.
- Main growing countries : the countries with the largest vineyards.
- Year: year of data collection.
|Area (ha)||Grape variety||image||Use||Synonyms||Main growing countries||year|
|440,000||Sultana||WW||Thompson Seedless, İzmir üzümü||Turkey, USA, Iran, Greece, Afghanistan, Chile, Australia, Syria, South Africa, China, Iraq, India, Eastern Europe, Algeria||?|
|308,000||Airén||WW||Lairén, Aidé, Valdepeñas, Manchega||Spain, Morocco||2005|
|250,000||Carignan||RW||Cariñena, Mazuela||France, Spain||1999|
|240,000||Grenache noir||RW||Garnacha tinta, Cannonau||Spain, USA, Argentina, France, Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Turkey||1999|
|223.200||Trebbiano + variations||WW||Ugni Blanc||France, Italy||1999|
|200,000||Merlot||RW||Merlot noir||France, Italy, Switzerland, Chile||2004|
|200,000||Cabernet Sauvignon||RW||Bordeaux, Sauvignon Rouge||France, Italy, Chile, Switzerland||2004|
|175,000||Chardonnay||WW||Arnoison, Beaunois||France, USA, Germany, Chile, Austria, Hungary||2000|
|130,000||Syrah||RW||Shiraz, Hermitage||France, Spain, Switzerland, Australia, South Africa, Chile||2002|
|125,000||Tempranillo||RW||Tinta Roriz, Cencibel, Aragonés, Tinta del Pais, Tinta de Toro, Ull de Llebre||Spain, Portugal||2005|
|120,000||Regina||WW||Regina Bianca, Dattier de Beyrouth||Italy, Turkey||2000|
|96,000||Sangiovese||RW||Brunello, Nielluccio||Italy, France||1999|
|85,000||Monastrell + Mourvèdre||RW||Moristel, Mataro||Spain, France||1999|
|70,000||Isabella||RW||Frutilla, Odessa||Brazil, Georgia||?|
|60,000||Catarratto bianco comune||WW||-||Italy||?|
|60,000||Pinot noir||RW||Spätburgunder, Blauer Burgunder, of which clone : Velvet red (230 ha)||France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria||1999|
|60,000||Riesling||WW||Rhine Riesling, Petit Rhin||Germany, France, Australia, Austria||1999|
|54,000||Chenin blanc||WW||Pineau de la Loire, Steen||South Africa, France||1999|
|52,000||País||RW||Misión, mission||Chile, Mexico||1999|
|50,000||Muscat Alexandria||WW||Muscat d'Alexandrie, Zibibbo||Morocco, Australia||1999|
|47,000||Macabeo||WW||Maccabeu, Viura||Spain, France||1999|
|45,000||Cinsault||RW||Cinsaut, Otavianello||France, Italy||?|
|45,000||Muscat blanc à petits grains||WW||Yellow muscatel, Moscato bianco||France, Bulgaria||1999|
|45,000||Sauvignon blanc||WW||Blanc fumé, fumé blanc||France, Switzerland, Chile||1998|
|45,000||Rivaner||WW||Müller-Thurgau (also Riesling x Silvaner in Switzerland)||Germany, Austria, Switzerland||1999|
|44,000||Cabernet franc||RW||Bouchet, Cabernet Frank||France, Italy||?|
|40,000||Rkatsiteli||WW||Rkaziteli, Baiyu||Georgia, China||1999|
|40,000||Gamay||RW||Gamay noir à jus blanc, Bourguignon noir||France, Switzerland||?|
|35,000||Criolla grande||RW||Criolla, Criolla Sanjuanina||Argentina||?|
|35,000||Welschriesling||WW||Riesling italico, Olaszrizling||Romania, Austria, Hungary||1999|
|35,000||Palomino||WW||Listán blanco, Perrum||Spain, Mexico||1999|
|35,000||Gutedel||WW||Chasselas, Fendant , Gelber Moster, Chaslie||Romania, Hungary, Germany, Switzerland||1999|
|34,000||Semillon||WW||Green Grape, Hunter River Riesling||France, Switzerland, Chile||?|
|30,000||Kadarka||RW||Blue Hungarian, Gamza||Hungary, Serbia||1999|
|30,000||Alicante Bouschet||RW||Alicante-Henri_Bouschet, Alicante nero||France, Algeria||1999|
|30,000||Concord||RW||Dalmadin, Furmin noir||USA, Canada||2000|
|29,600||Colombard||WW||French Colombard, Colombar||USA, South Africa||2002|
|28,000||Cardinal||RW||Apostoliatiko, Rannii Carabournu||Spain, Romania||2000|
|25,000||Zinfandel||RW||Primitivo||USA, Mexico, Italy||2002|
|23,600||Fernão Pires||WW||Maria Gomes, Gaeiro||Portugal, South Africa||1999|
|23,000||Aligoté||WW||Alligotay, Blanc de Troyes||France, Switzerland||1999|
|21,000||Pedro Ximénez||WW||PX, Pedro Jimenez||Spain, Australia||2000|
|20,000||Muscat de Hamburg||WW||Muscat Hamburg, Black Hamburg||France, Greece||1999|
|34,000||Malbec||RW||Pressac, Côt noir||Argentina, France, Chile||2008|
|17,500||Green Valtellina||WW||GV, Weißgipfler||Austria, Hungary||2002|
|17,000||Pinot Blanc||WW||Pinot blanc, White Klevener||Italy, Germany, Austria||?|
|15,000||Catarratto bianco lucido||WW||-||Italy||?|
|15,000||Pinot Gris||WW||Pinot gris, Pinot grigio, Ruländer||Germany, Romania, Italy||?|
|15,000||Aramon noir||RW||Piss-Vin, Ugni noir||France, Algeria||1999|
|15,000||Black Riesling||RW||Miller's vine, Pinot Meunier||France, Germany||1999|
|15,000||Blue Portuguese||RW||Portugalské Modré, Oporto Kék||Germany, Hungary, Austria||1999|
|13,050||Garganega||WW||Garganega Bianca, Garganega Biforcuta||Italy||1998|
|13,000||Melon de Bourgogne||WW||Melon, Muscadet||France, USA||1999|
|12,000||Silvaner||WW||Gamay Blanc, fly grape||Germany, France, Austria||1999|
|11,400||Nero d'Avola||RW||Alabrese, Calabrese nero||Italy||2005|
|11,300||Mencia||RW||Jaén du Dão, Loureiro||Spain, Portugal||?|
|10,711||Chelva||WW||Gabriela, Guarena, Mantuo||Spain||2000|
|10,700||Cayetana blanca||WW||Cayetana, Calegrano||Spain||?|
|10,000||Xarel lo||WW||Xarello, Jaén Blanco||Spain, Portugal||1999|
|8,667||Nuragus||WW||Abbondosa, Granazza||Italy (Sardinia)||1999|
|8,000||Gewürztraminer||WW||Traminer, Roter Traminer, Gelber Traminer||France, USA, Germany, Italy (South Tyrol), Austria||1998|
|6,500||Ruby Cabernet||RW||Argentina, USA, Chile, South Africa, Australia||2007|
|1,100||Vernatsch||RW||Schiava, Trollinger||Italy (South Tyrol), Germany (Württemberg)||2013|
Ranking list of vineyards for various uses (as of 2015)
A grape variety survey by the OIV in 2015 resulted in the following information. For the Kyoho variety, the figures from China were estimated on the basis of press releases. 13 varieties represent approx. 33% of the world wine stock and 33 grape varieties 50% of the vineyard area.
|Vineyards in 1000 (ha)||use|
|Sultanina||300||Table grape, raisins and wine|
|Red Globe||160||Table grape|
- Karl Bauer, Ferdinand Regner , Barbara Schildberger: Viticulture. 9th edition. avBook published by Cadmos Verlag, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-7040-2284-4 .
- Hans Ambrosi , Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, First H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schuhmann: Color Atlas of Grape Varieties. 3. Edition. Eugen Ulmer, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 .
- Janina Maurer, Hartmut Keil: 100 rare grape varieties in Rheinhessen and the Palatinate. Inkfaß edition, Neckarsteinach 2008, ISBN 978-3-937467-56-6 .
- Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. 3. Edition. Hallwag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- Dagmar Ehrlich : The ABC of grape varieties. Vines and their wines. Gräfe & Unzer, 2005, ISBN 3-7742-6960-2 .
- Walter Hillebrand, Heinz Lott, Franz Pfaff: Paperback of the grape varieties. 13th, revised edition. Fraund, Mainz 2002, ISBN 3-921156-53-X .
- Jancis Robinson: grape varieties and their wines. Hallwag Verlag, Bern / Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-444-10497-9 .
- Bavarian State Institute for Viticulture and Horticulture: Important grape varieties
- Small article about grape varieties
- Compilation of all grape varieties in the canton of St. Gallen (CH)
- 300 grape varieties, e.g. Sometimes only in Dutch
- Red wine varieties
- German Wine Institute
- ↑ Duden online: Ampelography
- ↑ Into the climate change with “PIWI grape varieties” , weinbau-oenologie.de
- ^ Christian von Burg: Innovative winemakers: Cheers without pesticides. In: srf.ch . November 22, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2018 .
- ↑ Definition of the grape variety level at wein-plus.eu
- ↑ The figures for Carignan without Eastern Europe and Asia amount to 191,000 ha. With Eastern Europe and Asia the area increases up to 250,000 ha. In France alone there are 100,000 ha (in 2000). Depending on the statistics, either Carignan or Grenache noir are in third or fourth place in the table.
- ↑ For the Regina grape variety, the area data vary between 120,000 and 150,000 hectares.
- ↑ In 1998 DNA analyzes found that Monastrell is identical to Moristel, but not to Mourvèdre, as was long assumed. However, the statistics often only show the varieties together. However, Mourvèdre's share should be very small.
- ↑ In the case of Rkaziteli, some statistics assume a far greater distribution. In view of the decline in vineyards in the CIS, this seems unlikely.
- ↑ a b Pedro Ximénez and Pedro Giménez are usually listed as one species in the statistics. It is likely that they are identical, but Argentine ampelographers deny that they are identical.
- ↑ OIC Focus 2017 Vine Varieties Distribution In The World