White wine

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Glass with white wine

White wine is a wine that is made through the alcoholic fermentation of grapes . The color of the berry skin can be light yellow, yellow-green, green, gray, gray-red and red. The pulp contains very little color. With the exception of the dye grape , a red wine variety, the coloring pigments are only in the berry skin. By squeezing the berry juice early, extraction of the components of the berry skin is largely avoided. In this way, a winemaker achieves the straw yellow to golden yellow color of the wine. The great variety of white wines results from the interplay of the available grape varieties , various processes in winemaking and various residual sugar contents.

The white grape varieties, which are actually green, yellow or even light red in color, are grown in practically all wine-growing regions . To create sweet white wines, the alcoholic fermentation is interrupted before the entire sugar content of the must is converted into alcohol. White wine is also the base wine for the majority of sparkling wines. In sparkling wine , the carbon dioxide produced during fermentation is kept in solution in the wine. After opening the bottle, the carbon dioxide disappears from the wine and foams the wine in the glass.

Compared to the production of a white wine, the process of pressing red wine is technically less complex.



Wine trade in Gallo-Roman times. The sea and the navigable rivers were the most important transport routes.

The ampelographer Pierre Galet published his thesis early on that the white grape varieties originated from a mutation of red varieties. In 2007, Australian researchers identified the switches that determine the color of the grape varieties using the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes. VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 have so far been found in all red grape varieties and thus allow the conclusion of a common origin. The loss of one (especially the VvMYBA1 gene) or both genes results in a loss of red color. The grape varieties Pinot Noir , Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc are examples of nearly identical grape varieties that differ only in the color of the berries. Because of the more complicated production processes for white wines and the later appearance of white varieties, it is certain that the first wines were red wines. It is currently not possible to determine the point in time when white wines were also produced. The earliest evidence of viticulture can be found in the form of berry pits. The purpose of the fruit at that time can be traced back through the analysis of the berry stone, but it does not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the type of wine.

Written evidence of white wine is already available from ancient Greece (→ History of Viticulture in Greece ). Hippocrates of Kos attributed healing effects to wine in general and used it as a disinfectant, as a pain reliever and for cardiovascular diseases. It can be seen from his descriptions that he already made a distinction between a vinous and a bitter white wine.

The Romans later adopted many of the Greek viticulture techniques. The conquest of northern regions led to the creation of vineyards as far as the Rhine and Moselle. Viticulture first came from the Moselle to the basin landscape between Koblenz and Neuwied . There initially flat vineyards were operated, which is proven by archaeological finds in the Miesenheim district near Andernach. In the 4th century the Roman fort Baudobriga was built on the Roman Rhine Valley Road . Venantius Fortunatus , who lived in Metz at the court of King Sigibert I , reports in his poem De navigio suo (“About his ship's journey”) from the year 588 of a trip down the Moselle to Andernach and Leutesdorf with the young Merovingian king Childebert II. (570-595):

“Quickly up to the walls of Andernach's fortress I then drive close, carried on by the boat. If the vines stand in spacious rows on the hills over there, Acker stretches fruitfully to the other shore. "

middle Ages

White wine at the end of the Middle Ages
Reconstructed temperature history of the last 1000 years according to various sources

The motor of European viticulture were the monasteries. In the Middle Ages, wine was mainly grown to ensure the liturgy . Holy Mass without altar wine was impossible. This wine was mainly red wine, but much less often white wine. With the cultivation of wine in monasteries and a favorable climate change from the 12th century onwards, it was possible to produce wine in considerable quantities. Since at that time grape varieties were only differentiated according to the color red, white or black as well as the quality of Hunnic or Frenscher wine and, moreover, were also grown in mixed batches , the color and the taste of the wine was more a matter of luck. In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV officially approved white wine as an altar wine.

The available trade routes were limited to sea routes, navigable rivers and, to a more modest extent, well-developed land routes. In France, the Bordeaux and Charente wine-growing regions benefited from the ports in Bordeaux and La Rochelle . Acid white wines were shipped from La Rochelle to Holland, where they were further processed into brandy . This marketing opportunity later enabled the development of the wine-growing region that worked for the brandy Cognac . Further north of La Rochelle, the appellations Muscadet and Gros Plant du Pays Nantais, belonging to the Loire wine-growing region , formed around the city of Nantes . Large quantities of the red wine called Clairet went from Bordeaux to England. It was called Clairet because it was lighter and lighter than the powerful, dark Spanish and Portuguese wines at the time.

Some areas bordering the Mediterranean benefited significantly from the Crusades. This is especially true of the rival republics of Venice and Genoa . Both maritime powers supported the crusaders and expanded their influence on land and at sea. The republics quickly acquired wealth and power through maritime trade and their factories (trading posts) abroad and their colonies. The Venetians exported the white wine known as Malvasia via the port of Monemvasia and contributed on the one hand to supplying the Crusaders and on the other to making this type of wine known in Europe. In addition, the thesis applies that the Crusaders brought the muscatel vines to Europe. The high-alcohol Malvasia and Muscatel wines were ideal for export because of their high alcohol content and the associated stabilization of the wine.

From the 9th to the 14th century there was also a comparatively mild climate . This period is also called the Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Climate Optimum . Regionally and at different times, the average annual temperature during this time was a few tenths to 1.0 degrees Celsius higher than usual. Favored by the warm climate, the population grew rapidly everywhere. Viticulture flourished throughout Europe. Most of the vineyards were built near the cities in order to be able to supply the local market. Not least because the wine was often cleaner than water because of its alcohol content , its popularity increased even further.

Before the Thirty Years' War, the area under vines in Germany was the largest in history. Extensive vineyards were also laid out in climatically unfavorable areas. Little is known about the quality of the wines of these regions. The existence of these vineyards was due more to the need to have wine as an important liturgical resource than to the quality of the product.


Even the fall of the Spanish Armada could not seriously jeopardize the export of Spanish wines to England.

In the 15th century, the Iberian and Ottoman empires increasingly dominated the Mediterranean. The situation for the republics of Venice and Genoa suddenly deteriorated. Decisive for their decline as trading powers and thus as European power factors was the increasing loss of importance of trade in the Levant in the Age of Discovery and the accompanying rise of new powers. In Spain, the last Moorish fortress near Granada was conquered on January 2, 1492 . With the expulsion of the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula (the so-called Reconquista ) and the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 , Spain temporarily rose to become a Christian world power. The inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in exporting their own wines to England and Holland instead of wines from the eastern Mediterranean. Large quantities of white wine were shipped from the port of Sanlucar de Barrameda . These wines are considered to be the predecessors of sherry . In England in particular, this wine was very popular under the name sack .

Even the war with England and the defeat of the Spanish Armada could hardly weaken the export of Spanish wines to England.

During this time, viticulture began in Mexico, Peru and later also in Chile.

Modern times

A glass of sweet wine
Ratio of vineyards in Germany in 2012
(source: Federal Statistical Office)

The discovery of the use of noble rotten berries in Hungary can be traced back to the middle of the 17th century. The Tokaj was then considered to be one of the best sweet wines in Europe.

The term “ Spätlese” originated in 1775 in the Rheingau . At that time, the wineries there were required to be allowed to read by the communities. An exception, however, was the Johannisberg Castle Estate , which belonged to the Fulda diocese . The Johannisberg monks had to obtain permission for the grape harvest directly from the Fulda prince-bishop . So they sent a mounted messenger to Fulda, but that year the messenger's return was delayed for unknown reasons. Although the monks thought the harvest was lost, they still brought in the grapes. When they tasted the young wine the following spring, they were surprised by its excellent quality.

The deliberate use of noble rotten berries in the Sauternes wine-growing region in Bordeaux can be dated back to 1836 in the Château La Tour Blanche winery . 100 years earlier, the harvest had been scheduled for late dates in order to achieve higher sugar contents.

From 1670, the course was set for the champagne we know today: the originally still white wine became a sparkling wine. In the 17th century, the wine began to be bottled in the growing area in order to maintain its freshness, as the thin and acidic wine did not survive transport in the barrel. Because of the early bottling, the wine continued to ferment in the bottles without this being intended. If the English had not liked this sparkling wine very much, bottling would probably have been abolished. In the 19th century, champagne developed into a luxury drink that was widespread worldwide. The bottle labels, which appeared from 1830, contributed to the branding. In the years that followed, the wine gained more and more friends at the royal courts of France and England.

The Geisenheim research institute was founded in 1872 . Various internationally known scientists have worked there, for example Hermann Müller (1850–1927), the head of the plant physiological station at the research institute. He was also the founder of the Federal Research Institute for Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Horticulture in Wädenswil / Switzerland and in Geisenheim in 1882 he bred the Müller-Thurgau vine, the most successful new variety in the world. Heinrich Birk was a successful cultivator of well-known grape varieties such as Ehrenfelser before and after the Second World War in Geisenheim.

After the Second World War, quality viticulture spread to areas in which winemakers had previously encountered technical difficulties due to excessively high fermentation temperatures. California and Australia were among the forerunners of this trend . In large fermentation tanks in particular, temperatures can rise to well over 35 ° C. From a temperature of 40–45 ° C, however, the yeasts die and there is an undesired, quality-reducing fermentation interruption. Temperature-controlled fermentation has been perfected in California in particular. This technique produces aromatic yet strong white wines. Up until now, this was more naturally reserved for the cool wine-growing regions in the north. Between 1960 and 1990, the Californian methods were also widely used in Europe and thus had a lasting influence on the type of wine we know today.

Wine-growing areas

White wine is produced in almost all wine-growing areas on earth. However, it is a production focus in areas with a cool wine-growing climate. White grape varieties require less heat and light to reach full maturity than red grape varieties. The structure of the anthocyanins of dark varieties devours large amounts of solar energy. On the other hand, the state of ripeness of the tannins in light grape varieties only plays a subordinate role, as the early pressing prevents the tannins from being extracted. In addition, white grape varieties are often harvested before phenolic ripeness in order to guarantee a sufficiently high acid content. The gustatory balance of a white wine is essentially based on the interplay between alcohol and sugar on the one hand and acidity on the other.

In Europe, the proportion of white grape varieties in the variety table in the wine-growing regions of Germany , Austria , Luxembourg and Switzerland is well over 50 percent. The same applies to the northern growing regions of France in Alsace , Champagne , Jura and the Loire . An exception is Spain , where, despite the warm climate, the area under vines for white varieties is very high. There are significant areas in northern Catalonia, where a large part of the wine is processed into Cava sparkling wine . In the centrally located region of Castile-La Mancha there are enormous areas of vines that are planted with the late-ripening variety Airén. The forest density is extremely low because of the drought: While there is one vine per m² in northern areas, a single Airén stock in this region requires between 6 and 10 m². In Italy, the proportion of red and white grape varieties is very balanced across the country.

In the warm areas around the Mediterranean , dry white wines are also produced in rare cases. There is a culture of natural or aufgespriteter sweet wines or nationalized liqueur wines one. These include the French Vin Doux Naturel (with the appellations Banyuls , Rivesaltes , Muscat de Rivesaltes , Maury , Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise , Muscat de Saint-Jean-de-Minervois , Muscat de Frontignan , Muscat de Mireval , Muscat de Lunel , Muscat du Cap Corse and Rasteau ), but also Italian Passito wines, Marsala , Port wine and Madeira .

In Germany, white wine grape varieties were grown on an area of ​​63,723 hectares in 2012. The three most commonly grown grape varieties were Riesling (22.4%), Müller-Thurgau (12.8%) and Silvaner (5.0%) - each as a percentage of the total area under vines. This makes Germany the world leader in Riesling cultivation (22,837 ha) ahead of the USA (4,557 ha) and Australia (4,184 ha).


In the case of white wine production, the freshly pressed must consists exclusively of grape juice . The composition of the juice is very variable and depends on the grape variety, the growing area and the growing practice.


The white wine is made from white or red berries with light pulp. The berries are pressed immediately after the grape harvest. The grape juice (also called must) obtained is pre-clarified and then goes through alcoholic fermentation in the fermentation tank. After fermentation, the wine is clarified, stabilized and, under certain circumstances, fined again .

Grape harvest

The machine-harvested grapes are placed in the transport trailer.
Handpicked Chardonnay grapes in Champagne

The desired degree of maturity of the grapes depends largely on the planned end product. Achieving a high must weight is essential for the production of residual sweet dessert wines . When producing dry white wines, the winemaker places more emphasis on the aromas in the wine. In this case, the berries are harvested a few days before they are fully ripe to maintain a supporting acidity. At this point there is a good balance of acid and sugar. With further ripening, the acidity decreases and the must weight increases. In the case of dry wines, the result is structurally poor and alcoholic wines that lack fresh aromas.

In the case of dry wine in particular, winemakers are increasingly turning to machine harvesting for cost reasons. Since the individual berries are shaken loose from the stem structure in this case, small injuries to the berries occur in the area of ​​the berry stem. It is therefore important that the berries are processed in the wine cellar as quickly as possible, as spontaneous fermentation can occur in the injured areas within a few hours. Since fermentation in this case does not take place in the absence of oxygen, off-tones and wine defects quickly develop . If the distance between the vineyard and the wine cellar is long, the grapes can be cooled with dry ice or transported under an inert nitrogen atmosphere. When harvesting machines, winemakers in warm growing areas in particular benefit from the cool temperatures at night or early in the morning.

The picking of berries for the production of sweet or dessert wines enjoys a special position. Since the berries are not fully ripe on the vine, individual grapes or even berries are often harvested in several readings (the so-called selection). The criterion is a high must weight and / or infestation of the berries with the noble rot Botrytis cinerea . With the terminology of the selection, however, caution is required: the predicate selection anchored in the German wine law does not mean that a selection took place on the vine, but is only an expression of the must weight achieved. Due to climate change and the introduction of early-ripening new varieties, such sugar contents can be achieved without selection.

For the production of quality sparkling wine one is hand-picking recommended. It is absolutely necessary when harvesting red grape varieties intended for the production of Blanc de Noirs .

Work steps before alcoholic fermentation

A unit of several grape presses

When the grapes arrive at the wine cellar, the winemaker can inspect the goods again and remove any unwanted elements (rotten grapes, immature grapes, leaves, ...) before further processing. The subsequent quality of the wine depends on the care taken in this step. However, this is expensive and is therefore not carried out with cheap goods.

The maceration ( double . Macération pelliculaire ) is a method with the purpose of the receptacles of grape flavors, flavor precursors and phenols in the wine extract. It is an adapted variant of the mashing that is used in the preparation of red and rosé wine . Dry white wines with continuous pod maceration are often described as balanced, round and with a pleasant mouthfeel. However, due to the increased aroma yield , they are not always rated as typical of the variety and less fine. The grapes are destemmed and lightly ground, as otherwise the leaching of the stem framework would lead to undesirable off-shades. The resulting mash is either slightly sulphurised or placed under a protective gas such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen . At a low temperature (5 to 20 ° C), the must remains in contact with the pods and seeds for 4 to 24 hours. The low temperature prevents the alcoholic fermentation from starting unintentionally during the pod maceration. The must is enriched with phenols through the pod maceration. It also leads to a deacidification of the must. The pod maceration is stopped before larger amounts of the bitter or coloring phenols get into the must.


Stainless steel fermenter in the UK

The pre-clarified grape juice is placed in the fermentation tank for fermentation. The containers are sealed with fermentation closures like the fermentation tube . The vintner has an abundance of containers available: in addition to the size, the material also varies. In addition to the stainless steel shown, there are also fermentation tanks made of oak wood, epoxy resin-coated concrete, enamelled steel and glass fiber reinforced plastic . Temperature control is particularly important for large containers.

The alcoholic fermentation starts spontaneously and makes use of the yeast that has settled on the berry skin . The uncertain composition of these yeast strains can lead to unpredictable results in terms of quality, even if the so-called “wild fermentation” or spontaneous fermentation is used in traditional house fruit wine-making. Natural yeasts are always a mixture of yeasts. Which yeast will ultimately prevail is therefore uncertain, so the quality and taste of the end product is more or less random. For these reasons, pure yeasts are used , which means that a suitable yeast strain is selected and fermentation is not left to chance.

The main fermentation (also called stormy fermentation) lasts 6-8 days. During this time, the sugar contained in the must is converted into alcohol . During fermentation, the liquid can heat up to over 30 ° C. As a result, the yeasts multiply faster and the wine ferments faster. Most winemakers want to prevent this and control the temperature of the fermentation liquid to achieve temperature controlled fermentation. Most winemakers ferment white wine at 15 to 18 ° C. The longer the fermentation, the fresher and leaner the wine appears; conversely, the wine becomes stronger as the temperature rises. This is due to the tanning and flavoring substances, the carriers of the flavors, which react more with other substances at higher temperatures.

After the fermentation process, most wines reach between 8 and 13 percent alcohol by volume ; there are exceptions, up to 17 percent alcohol by volume can be achieved through fermentation with selected yeast strains. In addition to alcohol, there are around 400 other compounds that affect the smell and taste of wine. As long as the must is in the fermentation process, it is also known as Federweißer in German-speaking countries or as Sturm in Austria. When the must is completely fermented, the result is dry wine. If fermentation is interrupted prematurely ( fermentation interruption ), depending on the amount of unfermented residual sugar, "semi-dry" ("sweet") or sweet wine is obtained.

After alcoholic fermentation, the wine can still go through malolactic fermentation (also called malolactic fermentation or BSA). During this process, triggered by bacteria, the more aggressive malic acid is converted into the milder lactic acid. The malolactic fermentation is only rarely desired in white wine, because the wine becomes rounder and more powerful, but loses a lot of its variety of aromas. In warm wine-growing regions, the white wine loses its structure as the acid breaks down and appears flat. The malolactic fermentation hardly harms some grape varieties and so the wine of Champagne almost always goes through the BSA. The sparkling wine becomes smoother and gains biological stability. In the case of residual sweet wines, malolactic fermentation is also prevented, as otherwise part of the residual sugar would be metabolized.

Mixed drinks and gastronomy

Mixed drinks that contain white wine - often in varying proportions - are e.g. B. Spritzer and lantern measure .

Use in cooking

Wine foam sauce is prepared from dry or semi-dry white wine , which is usually served with desserts . The Palatinate kitchen also uses the sauce for spicy dishes, e.g. B. to slightly salty steamed noodles .

In Italian cuisine , hearty dishes are sometimes extinguished with white wine , such as risotto .

White wine variants

Dry white wine

A dry white wine is a wine with a residual sugar content below 4 g / l. In Germany, this content can also be higher depending on the acid. The dry white wine is difficult to produce because its natural balance is based solely on the parameters of acidity and alcohol content. Among the dry wines you will find aromatic as well as more neutral wines.

Residual sweet wines and dessert wines

The variety of residual sweet and noble sweet wines is enormous and ranges from white wines with a few grams of residual sugar (the "serving" residual sugar) to only slightly fermented noble sweet top wines with a high must weight such as Trockenbeerenauslese or Tokaj essence . The high natural sugar content comes exclusively from grapes. In general, no sugar is added in the case of predicate wines .

To achieve the high must weights, the winemakers have various options:

  • In the late harvest (French: vendange tardive), the berries remain on the vine beyond the time of phenolic ripeness. After reaching full ripeness, the vine no longer builds up sugar, but the water in the berries evaporates. Therefore, the must weight increases. This partial rosinization on the vine can be accelerated by slightly squeezing or kinking the stem of the grape structure. This slows down or prevents the supply of water and nutrients and accelerates the natural increase in sugar. In the rarely used practice of ringing (French incision annulaire), there is also a shift in the flow of substances.
Drying the grapes
  • As straw wine (French. Vin de paille, ital. Passito) is called a wine whose grapes after reading were dried on straw mats or wooden frames, so that its sugar content increases as a result of water evaporation. Only after this treatment are the grapes pressed. The drying methods vary from region to region, but mostly the grapes are shaded or, if there is good airflow, placed on straw mats (hence the name straw wine) or wooden frames and dried for a few weeks, sometimes a few months. The procedure is ancient. A sweet wine called Passum was already known in ancient Rome .
Botrytis cinerea as noble rot on Riesling grapes

The noble rot (also precious maturity ) is called the appearance of the fungus Botrytis cinerea , also known as gray mold, the ripe berries of the grape. Noble rot forms on ripe grapes with a must weight of around 80 degrees Oechsle in warm autumn weather. The moisture required for the noble rot to grow is usually provided by early morning mist, while the days still have to be warm enough to promote the drying of the berries. Only a few wine-growing regions are characterized by such a climate. The mold perforates the peel of the berries with its enzymes . This causes moisture to escape from the berries and evaporate. In addition, the mushroom consumes sugar, acids and nitrogen. It consumes more acid than sugar and releases metabolic products into the berry. This leads to a further concentration of the berry juice and the typical noble rot bouquet or botrytist tone .

  • Pressing frozen berries leads to a concentration of sugar and acid in the juice, as part of the water remains as a piece of ice in the press cake. The ice wine is this underlying principle. Eiswein can only be produced naturally in wine-growing areas where temperatures of −8 ° C or lower can be reliably reached in winter. In some countries (e.g. New Zealand ) a type of ice wine is also made “artificially” by freezing normally harvested berries. This method is also known as cryo-extraction in Sauternes, for example, for high-class, noble sweet white wine: the technical shifting of the natural process of frost into the cold store.

Sparkling wine

The ten most important producers of sparkling wine
country in million bottles (source)
France 480-510
Germany 400-430
Spain 190-220
Italy 180-210
Russia 170-200
United States 85-110
Thailand 70-80
Ukraine 50-70
Poland 40-54
Australia 40-52

Effect on health

Compared to red wine , white wine has a significantly lower histamine content . The relatively low acidity of red wines from warm wine-growing regions promotes high levels of histamine formation, while very acidic white wines sometimes contain practically no histamine.

See also


  • Brockhaus Verlag (Ed.): The Brockhaus Wine. Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus, Mannheim. 2007. 512 pages. ISBN 3-7653-0281-3 (same features as Brockhaus Encyclopedia , 3,800 headwords).
  • André Dominé (Ed.): Wine. Könemann, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8290-2765-6 .
  • Dagmar Ehrlich : The ABC of Wine. Wine dictionary. 400 crystal clear answers to the most important questions. Gräfe and Unzer, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-7742-4111-2 .
  • Wilhelm Flitsch: Wine. Understand and enjoy. 2nd Edition. Springer, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-540-66273-1 (chemical processes in production clearly presented, tips for trying things out).
  • Hugh Johnson : The great Johnson. Encyclopedia of Wines, Vineyards and Winemakers. 17th edition. Hallwag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7742-5151-7 .
  • Hugh Johnson: Hugh Johnson's Wine Story. From Dionysus to Rothschild. Hallwag, Bern / Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-444-10370-0 .
  • Stuart Pigott : Brave new world of wine. On the effects of globalization on the culture of wine. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-16041-3 .
  • Jens Priewe: Wine, the new big school. Zabert Sandmann, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-89883-009-8 (clear, suitable for beginners)
  • Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. Hallwag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7742-0914-6 .
  • Roderick Phillips: The Great History of Wine. Campus, Frankfurt and New York 2003, ISBN 3-593-37390-4 .
  • Michael Broadbent : Check out wines, know them, enjoy them . 3. Edition. Raeber Verlag, Luzern / Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-7239-0040-2 .
  • Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon, Denis Dubourdieu, Bernard Donèche, Aline Lonvaud: Traité d'oenologie, Microbiologie du vin. Vinifications . 5th edition. Dunod, Éditions La Vigne, 2004, ISBN 2-10-007301-X .
  • Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon, Denis Dubourdieu, Yves Glories, Alain Maujean: Traité d'oenologie, Chimie du vin. Stabilization et traitements . 5th edition. Dunod, Éditions La Vigne, 2004, ISBN 2-10-007302-8 .
  • Claude Flanzy (editor and coordinator): Oenology, Fondements scientifiques et technologiques . 1st edition. Lavoisier, Éditions Technique & Documentation, 1998, ISBN 2-7430-0243-3 .

Web links

Commons : White Wine  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: White wine  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. White grapes arose through the mutation of two similar and adjacent regulatory genes. , Walker AR, Lee E, Bogs J, McDavid DA, Thomas MR, Robinson SP., Plant Journal (2007) Issue 49 (5): pp. 772-785; PMID 17316172 , in English
  2. VvmybA1 genotype determines grape skin color (PDF; 384 kB) by A. AZUMA, S. KOBAYASHI, H. YAKUSHIJI, M. YAMADA, N. MITANI and A. SATO
  3. Venantius Fortunatus, Carmen X 9 (ed. Friedrich Leo , MGH Auctores Antiquissimi 4.1, Berlin 1881, pp. 242–244 ), here verses 63–68 (ed. Leo p. 243). German translation and extensive commentary by Paul Dräger : Venantius Fortunatus' two Moselle trips (carmina 6.8 and 10.9). In: Kurtrierisches Jahrbuch, Volume 39, Trier 1999, pp. 67-88, here especially pp. 81 and 83-87.
  4. Cucina e cultura - cultural history of Italian cuisine , by Peter Peter, p. 94, ISBN 978-3-406-55063-8
  5. Figures from the Federal Statistical Office. Accessed May 23, 2013.
  6. German Wine Statistics 2013/2014 ( Memento from April 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on July 19, 2014
  7. Revue des Œnologues, Special Issue 107 April of 2003.
  8. Histamine in wine ( Memento from April 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive )