Aromas in wine
The determination of the aromas in wine is extremely complex , both in terms of taste and chemical analysis. On the one hand, the aromas are the result of a long chain of biochemical , oenological and viticultural processes. On the other hand, the number of flavors or flavor precursors identified to date is over 500.
The concentration of the individual substances can range from a few nanograms to a few milligrams. By using the latest technologies such as mass spectrometry , HPLC , FTIR spectrometer or NMR spectroscopy , a number of these substances could be identified. Since the 1980s, the flavor precursors, the bound substances, have increasingly moved into the focus of oenologists .
Aromas are mostly used to describe volatile compounds that are essentially perceived with the nose. During the aging of the wine , the aroma of changing wine initially rapidly and contributes later bouquet of the wine in.
Aroma in the sensory system
The taste impression arises when you inhale through the throat while tasting. Aromas heat up in the throat and reach the nose receptors via the throat-nose connection.
The tongue can only recognize five flavors (sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami ). “Hot” (pepper, chilli peppers) is mainly perceived through pain sensors. In contrast, the receptors of the nasal and olfactory mucous membrane in humans perceive slightly more than four hundred different fragrances. In conjunction with the sense of smell, we can use our taste sensors to differentiate between over ten thousand different aromas and millions of fragrances.
Classification of flavors
The variety of aromas in the wine is influenced by the grape variety and its clones, the vintage , the terroir , the growing conditions (yield, ...), the conditions of the grape harvest as well as the care taken in the selection of the grapes , the alcoholic fermentation and the aging of the wine . In oenology, a basic distinction is therefore made between primary aromas that come from the grape itself or treatment / processing before fermentation, and secondary aromas that arise from fermentation and aging of the wine:
- Primary aromas are essentially influenced by the grape variety and its growing conditions. The berries of most grape varieties have a rather neutral taste, so that the aromas typical of the variety are only available in small proportions, but mostly in aroma precursors. These include glycosides of terpenoids - alcohols ( linalool , nerol , geraniol , α- terpineol ), carotenoids and phenolics . Free aromatic substances are mainly esters , hydrocarbons , alcohols, carboxylic acids and aldehydes .
- Secondary flavors are formed during alcoholic fermentation by yeast and lactic acid bacteria . These aromas are present in almost all wines in a similar form and ensure the wine's character.
- Tertiary aromas arise during aging in the barrel and in the wine bottle. This process is lengthy, is influenced by the selection of the aging (e.g. barrique , micro-oxygenation ) and can take more than 10 years for individual types of wine.
The enzymatic degradation of odorless and tasteless terpenoid glycosides from the group of primary aromas can in principle already take place before alcoholic fermentation by the grape's own enzymes ( glycosidases ), but is of secondary importance due to the suboptimal reaction conditions. Therefore, either appropriate yeasts, such as Hansenula species, or pure glycosidase enzymes are added during winemaking .
The flavors in the tasting
In the wine language , cross-references to flavor carriers with a well-known varietal characteristic are often used. In the early 1980s, the aroma wheel was developed to have a standardized register of terms .
The wine aroma wheel consists of three concentric circles:
- The inner circle is divided into 12 odor classes (e.g. fruity, chemical, woody).
- The middle circle has 29 subdivisions that further subdivide the 12 inner ones (e.g. citrus fruit, sulfur compound, resinous).
- The outer one is further divided into 94 individual aromas (e.g. grapefruit, gum, cedar wood).
It uses the classic descriptions of different types of wine.
- In the area of fruity aromas , comparisons to red and black berries such as blackberries , raspberries , strawberries , blueberries and black or red currants are often used to describe red wines . But cherry and plum are also among the fruits that can be identified in certain wines. When it comes to white wine , names such as grapefruit, lemon, orange zest, apricot , peach , apple , pear , pineapple , mango or passion fruit predominate . Lychee or muscatel flavors are also cited more specifically. Wine lactone creates a coconut-like odor.
- The floral aromas include traces of geranium , violet , rose , orange blossom and linalool .
- Depending on the aging of the wine, there are typical wood tones of cedar or oak as well as vanilla .
- The spicy notes that are mostly found in red wines include liquorice or anise , black pepper or cloves.
- Depending on the degree of ripeness of the grapes, aromas of fresh cut grass, paprika , eucalyptus , mint , hay or straw, tea or tobacco mix in the wine.
Grape varieties and their aromas in wine
The following table lists some of the most important grape varieties with their typical aromas:
|Aglianico||red||Plum, chocolate (source, page 4)|
|Aleatico||red||Nutmeg flavor (source, page 8)|
|Aligoté||White||very neutral, hazelnut, lemon|
|Bacchus||White||Nutmeg aroma, currant (source, page 56)|
|Barbera||red||Sour cherries, plums, violets, tar, smoke (source, page 60)|
|Blaufränkisch||red||Blackberry, cherry, sour cherry, elderberry, plum, pepper (source, page 79)|
|Blue Portuguese||red||Strawberry, raspberry, lingonberry, red currant, sour cherry|
|Bonarda Piemontese||red||Black currant, plum, cherry|
|Bourboulenc||White||Rockrose, juniper (scent of garigue )|
|Cabernet Franc||red||Strawberry, raspberry, violet, liquorice, green paprika, pepper, almond, truffle, smoke|
|Cabernet Sauvignon||red||Raspberry, black currant, blueberry, plum, green paprika, pepper, hot peppers, liquorice, leather, tobacco, vanilla, cinnamon, chocolate|
|Carignan||red||Black currant, blueberry, liquorice, cinnamon, tobacco, vanilla, cinnamon, humus, bay leaf, rosemary|
|Carménère||red||Chocolate, leather, tobacco, black berries|
|Chardonnay||White||Peach, apple, tropical fruits, hazelnut, vanilla, oak, butter (source, page 135)|
|Chenin Blanc||White||Apple, pear, apricot, quince, nuts, honey, lemon, freshly cut grass, linden blossom (source, page 140)|
|Cinsaut||red||Strawberry, raspberry, currant, blueberry, violet, rose, liquorice, humus|
|Cortese||White||Apple, pear, banana (source, page 159)|
|Corvina Veronese||red||Cherry (morello), almond, strawberry|
|Dolcetto||red||Blackberry, cherry, liquorice, almond, liquorice|
|Dominatrix||red||Blackberry, sour cherry, green pepper, elderberry|
|Dornfelder||red||Blackberry, sour cherry, green pepper, elderberry, plum|
|Ehrenfelser||White||Apple, peach, apricot, grapefruit|
|Fiano||White||Hazelnut, lemon, pine needles, honey|
|Freer||White||Apple, gooseberry, quince,|
|Pinot Noir||red||Blackberry, wild berry, raspberry, black currant, cherry, smoke|
|Gamay||red||Strawberry, raspberry, cherry, banana (at Beaujolais Nouveau )|
|Garganega||White||Acacia, lemon, almond|
|Yellow muscatel||White||Roses, oranges, bergamot, raisins, spicy notes, acacia, melon, honey, passion fruit|
|Gewürztraminer||White||Rose blossom, acacia, orange jam, lychee, apricot, peach, cinnamon, clove|
|Pinot Gris||White||Pear, apple, honey, pineapple, peach, grapefruit, dried fruit, raisins, almonds, smoke|
|Grenache||red||Raspberry, pepper, hay, black currant, blackberry, cherry, bay leaf, liquorice|
|Gros Manseng||White||Honey, vanilla|
|Green Valtellina||White||green apple, citrus, pepper, spicy|
|Gutedel||White||Pears, apples, fine tones of nuts and almonds|
|Huxelrebe||White||Honey, oranges, melon, passion fruit, jasmine, black currant, peach, muscat aroma|
|Kerner||White||Apple, currant, pear, raisins, honey, apricot, light muscatel clay|
|Lagrein||red||Violets, cherries, blackberries, dark chocolate.|
|Marsanne blanche||White||floral aroma, acacia, quince, apricot, dried fruits, honey, almonds|
|Malbec||red||Violets, pepper, currant.|
|Mauzac||White||Apple, dried fruit, honey|
|Melon de Bourgogne (Muscadet)||White||subtly flowery, hay, pear, apple, lemon, grapefruit|
|Merlot||red||Cherry, plum, black currant, blueberry, mushroom, caramel, leather|
|Mondeuse||red||Currant, cherry, raspberry, strawberry, fig, plum, iris, violet, humus.|
|Morio nutmeg||White||Muscat flavor|
|Mourvedre||red||black currant, blueberry, cherry, liquorice, pepper, tobacco|
|Müller-Thurgau||White||Apple, lemon, light muscat aroma|
|Muscadelle||White||slight muscat aroma|
|Nebbiolo||red||Rose, violet, cherry, plum, truffle, liquorice, smoke, cocoa, tar|
|Negroamaro||red||Plum, black currant, cherry, blackberry, spicy|
|Ortega||White||Pear, apricot, quince, banana, honey.|
|Petite Arvine||White||Grapefruit, pineapple, mango, violet.|
|Petit Manseng||White||Exotic fruits (pineapple, lychee), spicy, lemon peel, peach, mango|
|Petit Verdot||red||Blackberry, spicy, black currant|
|Pinotage||red||Plum, sour cherry, spicy|
|Rieslaner||White||Apricot, grapefruit, passion fruit.|
|Riesling||White||Apple, grapefruit, orange, peach, apricot, quince, pineapple, mango, honey, herbs, petrol tones|
|Roussanne||White||Vineyard peach, apricot, honey, hawthorn blossom|
|Velvet red||red||Blackberry, raspberry, cherry|
|Sangiovese||red||Violet, blackberry, lingonberry, leather, vanilla, elderberry, cherry, plum|
|Savagnin||White||very spicy, apple, nutty|
|Sauvignon Blanc||White||freshly cut hay, black currant, gooseberries, iris, lemon, flint (especially with Sancerre)|
|Scheurebe||White||Black currant, peach, grapefruit, mango|
|Schioppettino||red||Violet, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, pepper|
|Black Riesling||red||Blackberry, wild berry, raspberry, strawberry, cherry, plum, smoke|
|Semillon||White||Butter, honey, preserved fruit (pear, apricot, quince, peach), lemon, linden blossom|
|Silvaner||White||Apple, gooseberry, quince, dried fruit, hay, hare bells, acacia|
|Pinot Noir||red||Raspberry, strawberry, black currant, cherry, violet, rose hip, clove, rarely coffee notes, smoke, leather|
|Syrah||red||Black currant, raspberry, blackberry, violet, cedarwood, pepper, cloves, truffle, leather, liquorice, licorice, tar|
|Tannat||red||Raspberry, blackberry, tobacco, spice notes|
|Tempranillo||red||Blackberry, black currant, blueberry, cherry, leather|
|Trebbiano||White||subtly flowery, citrus fruits (lemon, grapefruit), nutty|
|Viognier||White||Apricot, peach, apple, acacia, violet, anise, honey, hay, roasted almonds, lime, hawthorn blossoms|
|Pinot Blanc||White||Apple, pear, quince, banana, apricot, caramel, citrus fruits (lemon, grapefruit), nutty|
|Zinfandel||red||Black currants, blackberries, plums, pepper, caramel, spicy,|
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