|Synonyms||Garnacha Tinta, Tocai Rosso - for more see the Synonyms section|
|Art||Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )|
|List of grape varieties|
The Grenache is a red wine variety and the fourth most cultivated in the world with an estimated cultivated area of at least 240,000 hectares . In France it is also called Grenache noire, in Spain Garnacha, in Catalonia Garnatxa and in Sardinia Cannonau. Other growing areas are the Italian regions of Tuscany (under the name Alicante ), Sicily , Calabria and the island of Ischia (where the Guarnaccia variety is called). Grenache is also grown in Australia (2011 hectares, as of 2008), Argentina and California .
The wine made from the Grenache grape is poor in tannins and color. It can therefore deliver good fruity wines and is also pressed as white or rosé wine.
Under extreme climatic conditions (drought, heat, wind) and with very low yields, the Grenache also delivers concentrated, extremely storable red wines.
Grenache is often blended with tannic varieties such as Tempranillo (especially in Rioja ) or with Syrah and Mourvèdre (in the southern Rhône ). The simple reason for this is the characteristics of the vine: Their wine is usually rich in alcohol, yet soft.
With over 100 km² of vineyards, Cannonau is the most important red and second most widely grown variety in Sardinia. The Sardinian DOC red wine Cannonau di Sardegna is made from it.
There is a white variant called Grenache Blanc or Garnacha blanca, which is used in France and Spain for blending wines (such as the white Châteauneuf-du-Pape and Rioja variants). There is also the Grenache Gris , but with a rapidly decreasing importance, as well as the very hairy version, the Lledoner Pelut .
See also the main article Viticulture in Spain .
With around 86,600 hectares of vineyards, it is the third most important Spanish red wine variety under the name Garnacha after the Tempranillo and Bobal varieties. It is mainly grown in the east and north of Spain in many growing regions such as Ampurdán-Costa Brava, Bierzo , Calatayud , Campo de Borja, Cariñena , Costers del Segre , La Mancha , Navarra , Penedès , Priorat , Ribera del Duero , Rioja , Somontano , Tarragona , Terra Alta , Utiel-Requena and Vinos de Madrid . See also the article Viticulture in Spain .
See also the main article Viticulture in France .
In France, the Grenache variety occupies a total of 97,171 hectares (as of 2008). The largest vineyards are located in the departments of Vaucluse and Drome in the wine region Rhône . An example of this are the wines from Châteauneuf-du-Pape and the Costières de Nîmes , which are mainly and sometimes even exclusively made from Grenache. Grenache is often blended with Syrah , which results in particularly rich cuvées.
Grenache is also an important component of the sweet, fortified Vin Doux Naturel like Banyuls , Beaumes-de-Venise , Maury , Rasteau and Rivesaltes . See also the article Viticulture in France .
Other growing regions
The variety is also grown in Italy (called Cannonau or Tocai Rosso ), Greece , Israel , South Africa and Chile . See also the articles Viticulture in Australia (2011 hectares, as of 2008), Viticulture in Argentina and Viticulture in the United States . In California alone (→ viticulture in California) 6,962 acres = 2,784 hectares of vineyards were surveyed in 2008 .
Ampelographic varietal characteristics
In ampelography , the habitus is described as follows:
- The shoot tip is open. It is very hairy whitish with a very slightly reddish tinge. The green, slightly bronze-colored young leaves are slightly hairy.
- The medium-sized leaves (see also the article leaf shape ) are usually five-lobed and only moderately thick. They are light green in color and very shiny. The stem bay is U-shaped open. The leaf margin is finely serrated. The teeth are small compared to the grape varieties. The leaf surface (also called blade) is smooth.
- The cone-shaped grape is medium to large in size and has dense berries. The round or slightly oval berries are medium-sized and black in color. The skin of the berry is thick. The berries are juicy; the juice is colorless.
The grape variety sprouts relatively early. In damp weather during flowering, the Grenache tends to trickle down .
Grenache is mostly with the goblet method educated . It is quite resistant to powdery mildew . It is susceptible to downy mildew , eutypiosis and raw rot . Therefore, the yields can vary between 20 hectoliters / hectare and 80 hectoliters / hectare.
So far, 20 clones have been selected and recognized in France. The most common are the clones n ° 70 (very high yielding), n ° 362 (results in alcohol-rich wines, suitable for the Vin Doux Naturel), n ° 224 (high yielding), n ° 134 (high yielding, very light color), n ° 135 (poor yield, good quality) and n ° 136 (also good quality with poor yield).
The Grenache ripens approx. 30 days after the Gutedel and is resistant to drought. It also provides high must weights with a comparatively low yield of anthocyanins (colorings) and tannins.
An interesting new breed has emerged from Grenache x Cabernet Sauvignon : the Marselan . The crossing took place in 1961 by the French ampelographer Paul Truel in the Domaine de Vassal, a branch of the Institut National de la Recherche en Agronomie of the University of Montpellier, who tried to combine the finesse of a Cabernet Sauvignon with the heat resistance of a Grenache. The Marselan has established itself particularly in the region of the Costières de Nîmes and is very popular as a balanced and fruity red wine with an emphasis on tannins .
The Caladoc , Chenanson and Portan varieties were also produced in Montpellier . Already in the middle of the 19th century, the Alicante Bouschet variety was created, a dye grape that is one of the oldest consciously carried out new breeds.
In the United States, Harold Olmo used the Grenache to develop the Carnelian and Centurian grape varieties .
Because of its widespread use, the list of synonyms is long. Grenache is also known by the following 146 names: Abundante, Abundante de Reguengos, Aleante, Aleante di Rivalto, Aleante Poggiarelli, Alicant Blau, Alicante, Alicante de Pays, Alicante di Egua, Alicante di Spagna, Alicante Grenache, Alicante Noir, Alicante Roussillon, Alicantina, Alikante, Aniga di Lanusei, Aragonais, Aragones, Aragones Macho, Aragonesa, Bernacha Negra, Black Spanish, Black Valentina, Blaue Alicante, Bois Jaune, Cananao di Sardegna, Cannonaddu, Cannonadu, Cannonadu Nieddu, Cannonao, Cannonatu, Cannonau, Cannonau di Villasor, Cannonau Nero, Cannono, Canonao, Canonao Nero, Canonazo, Carignan Rouge, Carignane, Carignane Rosso, Carignane Rousse, Crannaxia, D'alicante, Elegante, Espagnin Noir, Francese, Gamay, Gamay Perugino, Garnaccho Negro, Garnaccia, Garnacha , Garnacha Comun, Garnacha de Aragon, Garnacha de Rioja, Garnacha del Pais, Garnacha Fina, Garnacha Negra, Garnacha Negra del Pais, Garnacha Pais, Garnacha Roja, Garnachilla, Garnacho, Garnacho Negro, Garnatxa Ne gra, Garnatxa Ni, Garnatxa Pais, Garnatxa Tinta, Garnaxa, Gironet, Granaccia, Granacha, Granacha Fina, Granache, Granaxa, Granaxia, Granaxo, Granazzo, Grenache, Grenache A Fleurs Femelles, Grenache Black, Grenache Crni, Grenache de Alicante, Grenache de Cosperon, Grenache Nero, Grenache Noir, Grenache Rouge, Grenas Crni, Grenash de Kaspero, Grenash Noar, Guarnaccia, Iladoner, Kek Grenache, Licante, Lladoner, Lladoner Aragonase, Lladoner Negre, Lladoner Negro, Lladonet, Mencida, Navaro, Navarra, Navarre de La Dordogne, Navarro, Negra, Negru Calvese, Ranaccio, Ranconnat, Red Grenache, Redondal, Retagliadu Nieddu, Rivesaltes, Rivos Altos, Rool Grenache, Rousillon Tinto, Roussillon, Rouvaillard, Sans Pareil, Santa Maria de Alcantara, Schwarze Alicant grape, Tai Rosso, Tentillo, Tinta, Tinta Aragoneza, Tinta Menuda, Tintella, Tintilla, Tinto, Tinto Aragon, Tinto Aragones, Tinto Basto, Tinto de Navalcarnero, Tinto Menudo, Tinto Navalcarnero, Tintore di Spagna, Tintore osso, Toccai Rosso, Toledana, Uva di Spagna, Vernaccia di Serrapetrona, Vernaccia Nera, Vernatxa, Vidueno Negro, Vrannaxia.
- Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon . 3. Edition. Gräfe and Unzer, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- Pierre Galet : Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages . Hachette, Paris 2000, ISBN 978-2-01-236331-1 .
- Grenache in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)
- ↑ a b Areas of vines and grape production by variety - 2007-08. In: Annual Report 2008–2009. Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation, 2009, p. 89 , accessed November 25, 2014 .
- ↑ Les Cepages noirs dans le Vignoble ( Memento of January 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), statistics on red grape varieties per greater region, part 1, publication by the Office National Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des Legumes, des Vins et de l'Horticulture - ONIVINS for short , As of 2008
- ↑ Les Cepages noirs dans le Vignoble ( Memento of March 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), statistics on red grape varieties per greater region, part 2, publication by the Office National Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des Legumes, des Vins et de l'Horticulture, as of 2008
- ↑ California grape acreage report, 2008 crop ( memento of the original from March 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.1 MB), published April 2009 by the California Department of Food and Agriculture
- ↑ Grenache in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English), accessed on August 11, 2020