|Synonyms||see section synonyms|
|Art||Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )|
|List of grape varieties|
Tempranillo is the most important red wine variety in Spain . The name of the grape variety is derived from the Spanish temprano "early". Literally translated, tempranillo "little early" because the Tempranillo grapes are smaller and some are mature earlier than Garnacha grapes. It is often blended with the Garnacha grape variety, for example Rioja wine, a blend with Garnacha and Mazuelo , which typically consists of 60–90% Tempranillo grapes and is deep red, spicy and has a long shelf life.
The origin of the grape has been clarified today. For a long time it was assumed that the Tempranillo comes from Pinot Noir. After Spain was recaptured from the Moors , Cistercian monks settled in Rioja and planted the first vines. The young viticulture benefited from the monks' constant exchange of experience with French Burgundy , where viticulture already had a long tradition back then. Genetic studies from 2012 showed that Tempranillo is a spontaneous crossing of the white grape variety Albillo Mayor with the red Benedicto. In addition, only a purely autochthonous, white mutation of Tempranillo was discovered, Tempranillo Blanco.
The best known growing areas are:
- Spain :
- La Rioja (on the banks of the Ebro )
- Ribera del Duero (on the banks of the Duero River, east of Valladolid )
- La Mancha , where large areas are grown, especially in Almansa and Valdepeñas .
- Navarra , where it is mainly blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and occasionally with Merlot .
- It is traditionally expanded under the name Tinto Fino in Toro , which is e.g. B. in Rioja and other Spanish growing areas has only recently happened.
- Portugal :
- Under the name Tinta de Roriz on the Douro and Aragonez (or Aragonês) in the Alentejo , as a table wine and part of the port wine and as a blend wine in the Dão .
In France, a planted vineyard area of 882 hectares was surveyed in 2007. Smallest populations have been surveyed in Switzerland (0.2 hectares, as of November 2015)
The cultivation area in the world was 232,544 ha in 2010.
Ampelographic varietal characteristics
- The tip of the shoot is very woolly, tomentose, colored greenish white with a slightly pink tinge.
- The young leaves are five-lobed, bronzed, slightly downy and with white wool to tomentose hairs on the underside with a red border. The adult leaf is medium-sized, five-lobed and the stalk bay is lyre-shaped and overlapping. The leaf blade is wavy and blistered.
- The grape is large, loose, elongated and usually double shouldered. Berries are medium-sized, black-blue in color, scented with a thick berry skin and firm berry flesh and a slightly herbaceous taste.
The wines are strong and have a fragrant, fruity character. They are moderately alcoholic (approx. 11–13% by volume) and have great aging potential in the wood. They are characterized by elegant softness and mild tannins , which is why, unlike the Cabernets, they can be drunk as young wines. Its strength only comes into its own in the barrique development . So that good quality can be produced, the harvest yields should not exceed 60 dt / ha .
There are many other names for this grape variety, depending on the region and country:
- in Ribera del Duero : Tinta del País, Aragonés, Tinto Fino
- in the Douro area in Portugal : Tinta Roriz
- in the Alentejo (east of Lisbon ): Aragonês or Aragonêz
- in La Mancha and Valdepeñas : Cencibel
- in the Toro wine region : Tinto Fino or Tinta de Toro
- in Catalonia : Ull de Llebre or Ojo de Liebre
- in Argentina : Tempranilla
Albillo Negro, Aldepenas, Aragon, Aragones, Aragonez, Aragonez 51, Aragonez Da Ferra, Aragonez De Elvas, Arauxa, Arganda, Arinto Tinto, Cencibal, Cencibel, Cencibera, Chinchillana, Chinchillano, Chinchillana, Acano, Escobera, Cupani, Dejidera, Cup , Garnacho Fono, Grenache De Logrono, Jacibera, Jacibiera, Jacivera, Juan Garcia, Negra De Mesa, Negretto, Ojo De Liebre, Olho De Lebre, Palomino Negro, Pinuela, Sensibel, Tempranilla, Tempranillo, Tempranillo Crni, Tempranillo De La Rioja, Tempranillo De Perralta, Tempranillo De Rioja, Tempranillo De Rioza, Tempranillo Rioja, Tinta Aragones, Tinta Corriente, Tinta De Madrid, Tinta De Santiago, Tinta De Toro, Tinta Del Pais, Tinta Do Inacio, Tinta Do Pais, Tinta Fina, Tinta Madrid , Tinta Monteira, Tinta Monteiro, Tinta Roris, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Santiago, Tinto Aragon, Tinto Aragones, Tinto Aragonez, Tinto De La Ribera, Tinto De Madrid, Tinto De Rioja, Tinto De Toro, Tinto Del Pais, Tinto Del Toro, Tinto Fino, Tinto Fino De Madrid, Tinto Madri d, Tinto Pais, Tinto Ribiera, Tinto Riojano, Tinto Tempranillo, Ull De Liebre, Ull De Llebre, Valdepenas, Verdiell, Vid De Aranda.
- Pierre Galet : Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages. Hachette, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-01-236331-8 .
- Richard Mayson: Port and the Douro. Completely revised and updated edition. Mitchell Beazley, London 2004, ISBN 1-84000-943-8 .
- Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. 3rd, completely revised edition. Hallwag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (Research Institute for Vines and Wine) and the Madrid Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario (Institute for Rural Development, Agriculture and Food)
- Genetic parents of the Tempranillo grape identified in: wein-aus-spanien.org, as of September 27, 2012
- Les cépages noirs dans le vignoble (PDF) ( Memento from January 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), statistics on red grape varieties per greater region, publication by the Office National Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des Légumes, des Vins et de l'Horticulture (ONIVINS) , As of 2008
- The 2015 , 2016 wine year (PDF)
- Kym Anderson, Nanda R. Aryal: Which Winegrape Varieties are Grown Where? National and Global Winegrape Bearing Areas by Variety, 2000 and 2010 ; Wine Economics Research Center, University of Adelaide, South Australia, December 2013, revised July 2014. engl.
- Hans Ambrosi , Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, Ernst H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schumann: color atlas grape varieties. 300 varieties and their wines. 3rd, completely revised edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 .
- As of March 5, 2015 Tempranillo in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English)