Spanish language

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spoken in

Spain , Hispanic America , parts of the US , Western Sahara, and Equatorial Guinea
speaker 570 million native speakers ,
(Anuario Cervantes 2016).
Official status
Official language in Europe : SpainEuropean Union
European UnionEuropean Union 
Africa : Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea 
Caribbean :CubaDominican RepublicPuerto Rico(United States)
Dominican RepublicDominican Republic 
Puerto RicoPuerto Rico United StatesUnited States 
North America : Mexico
Central America :
GuatemalaEl SalvadorHondurasNicaraguaCosta RicaPanama
El SalvadorEl Salvador 
Costa RicaCosta Rica 
South America :VenezuelaColombiaEcuadorPeruBoliviaChileArgentinaParaguayUruguay
International organizations :United Nations(UN)African Union(AU)Central American IntegrationSystem (SICA)Union of South American Nations(UNASUR)Community of Latin American and Caribbean States(CELAC)Organization of American States(OAS)Latin Union
United NationsU.N. 
African UnionAfrican Union 
Central American integration system 
Flag of UNASUR.svg
Logo Celac.jpg
Flag of the Organization of American States.svg
Other official status in United StatesUnited States United States ( New Mexico ) USA New MexicoNew Mexico 
Recognized minority /
regional language in
MoroccoMorocco Morocco Philippines
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


  • Spanish as the national language
  • Unofficially, spoken by 25% of the population
  • Unofficially, spoken by 10–20% of the population
  • Unofficially, spoken by 5–9% of the population
  • Spanish-based creole languages
  • Relationships and affinities of the Romance languages  ( Romania )
    Linguistic development of south-western Europe in the 2nd millennium AD

    The Spanish or Castilian language (own designation español [ espaˈɲol ] or castellano [ kasteˈʎano ]) belongs to the Romance branch of the Indo-European language family and, together with Aragonese , Asturleonese , Galician and Portuguese, forms the closer unit of Ibero-Romance . In a broader perspective, Spanish can also be classified together with Catalan , French , Occitan and other smaller Romance languages ​​such as Northern Italian in Western Romany .

    The science that deals with the Spanish language and literature is called Hispanic Studies . The Spanish- speaking area is known as Hispanophonie . Because of historical colonialism, Spanish is the most common mother tongue on the American double continent . B. through its function as the official language of numerous international organizations as a world language . (In Spain itself, however, Spanish is not the only language, see Languages ​​in Spain ). The Instituto Cervantes is entrusted with maintaining the Spanish language worldwide .

    The Spanish Language Academy in Madrid , the Real Academia Española

    Spanish is written with Latin letters . In modern Spanish, the acute accent is also used for vowels and the two characters ñ and ü . In older dictionaries , the ch and ll can still be found as separate letters.

    Portrait of Antonio de Nebrija

    History and background to the Castilian language

    At the end of the Punic Wars , the Roman Empire tried to gradually expand its influence from northeastern Hispania over the entire Iberian Peninsula by defeating Carthage . The Roman military presence on the one hand and the expansion of the Roman administrative structures on the other led to the fact that the Latin language spread almost throughout the entire Iberian sphere of influence. Latin became the official language and thus the dominant lingua franca in the western Mediterranean. Then a regional folk Latin developed, sermo vulgaris or vulgar Latin , which was spoken in the Roman imperial period by military personnel, the legionaries , but also traders, immigrants from other Roman provinces and administrative staff, the officials, but often differed in terms of phonetic , syntactic , morphological and lexical structures differ from the Latin script and standard language . Nevertheless, this colloquial language used was not a clearly defined language with a defined structure.

    A page from the Historia Roderici , in which the deeds of El Cid are told.

    In late antiquity , the political and economic changes ultimately led to the fall of the Roman Empire . In the period between 375 and 568 there was the migration of peoples and the division of the empire and, at the beginning of the 7th century, the transition to the Byzantine Empire in the eastern Mediterranean. This was followed by the phase of Visigothic occupation and the expansion of Islamic rule in the south ( al-Andalus ) of the Iberian Peninsula . The Visigoth culture had far less influence on the Spanish language spoken and emerging by the population than it had been achieved by the Islamic occupiers (see Mozarabic language ). In the period from 711 to 719, the Muslim conquerors ( Arabs and Berbers ) coming from North Africa destroyed the Visigoth empire and conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula ( Islamic expansion ). The Christian rebellion against foreign Muslim rule began in Asturias in 718 and became the starting point for the Reconquista (see also the Reconquista chronological table ). The latter only ended in 1492 with the complete dissolution of the last Muslim area of ​​rule in the Emirate of Granada and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain .

    The first known written document from Spain was written by a monk in the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla . The Glosas Emilianenses , originally written in Latin, appeared in 964 in West Aragonese (also Navarro-Aragonese), an Ibero-Roman language that emerged from Vulgar Latin and is closely related to Castilian . With the Reconquista, the languages ​​of the north finally spread to the south of the Iberian Peninsula; Castilian in the center of the peninsula and Galician in the west were particularly successful (see also Alfons VI ).

    At the beginning of the 12th century, the Historia Roderici was created , which initially told the deeds of El Cid in Latin . Later, in 1235, a handwritten epic written in Old Spanish , El Cantar de Mio Cid, was published .

    Subsequently, with Alfonso X. (the wise), a multifaceted monarch came to power who distinguished himself by writing texts even before his enthronement . During his reign he completed his extensive oeuvre with subjects on science ( astronomy ), history and law. As an intellectual pivot for the consolidation of the Spanish language and its emancipation from Latin or Vulgar Latin, he was the outstanding person in the 13th century.

    At the time of the Catholic Kings , Alfonso Fernández de Palencia created a number of dictionaries with the well-known Latin-Spanish dictionary Universal vocabulario en latín y en romance (1490) . De Palencia relied on the Latin-Latin dictionary Elementarium Doctrinae Rudimentum by Papias , who came from Italy and was written around the years 1040 to 1050, and added Castilian expressions to the Latin lexicon.

    In 1492 Antonio de Nebrija published the Gramática de la lengua castellana ("Grammar of the Castilian Language"). Nebrija's grammar was the first printed grammar of a Romance and non-classical language . The Chilean Andrés Bello also dealt with linguistics. He feared that the Spanish language could develop in the now independent countries of Hispanic America in a similar way to that which Latin took with its splitting into the various Romance languages. His declared aim was therefore to contribute to the unity of the Spanish language with his grammar.

    Esteban de Terreros y Pando , a Jesuit Spanish philologist and lexicographer during the Enlightenment , compiled a Castilian dictionary, the Diccionario castellano con las voces de ciencias y artes , the first volume of which was printed in 1786.

    The Real Academia Española has been the main institution for the care of the Spanish language since 1713. A founding director was Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco . Dictionaries , grammars and orthographic dictionaries appear regularly under the roof of their house . The academy is one of the most important sources of Spanish language history. Its specifications are binding in school teaching and official use in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of America . In colloquial language it is often called Real Academia de la Lengua ("Royal Academy of Language") without the addition of Española . In 1771 the Academy's first grammar was published.

    Origin and name

    Spanish or Castilian developed from a Latin dialect spoken in the border area between Cantabria , Burgos , Álava and La Rioja to become the popular language of Castile (the written language, however, remained Latin for a long time). From this the name castellano (Castilian) was derived, which refers to the geographical origin of the language.

    The other name, español (Spanish), comes from the medieval Latin name Hispaniolus or Spaniolus ( diminutive of "Spanish"). Ramón Menéndez Pidal advocates a further etymological explanation: The classic form hispanus or hispanicus received the suffix -one in Vulgar Latin (as in the terms bretón (Breton), frisón (Frisian) etc.) and changed from hispanione to the Old Castilian españón , “Which soon developed into español through the dissimilation of the two nasals , with the ending -ol, which is not used to denote nations”.

    Historical and socio-economic developments and its widespread use as a lingua franca made Castilian the lingua franca of the entire Iberian Peninsula in coexistence with other languages ​​spoken there: It is believed that around 80% of Spaniards spoke Castilian by the middle of the 16th century.

    With the conquest of America, which was privately owned by the Castilian crown, the Spanish language spread across half the continent, from California to Tierra del Fuego .

    Castellano or Español ?

    In Spanish-speaking countries the terms español and castellano are used in parallel, while in non- Spanish-speaking countries the language is almost exclusively used as "Spanish" ( Spanish , spagnolo , hiszpański ,لغة إسبانية / luġa isbāniyya etc.).

    In South America , castellano tends to be preferred, whereas in Central America , Mexico and the USA español is more common. The constitutions of Spain, Bolivia , Ecuador , El Salvador , Colombia , Paraguay , Peru, and Venezuela use the term castellano ; Guatemala , Honduras , Cuba , Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama español . Both names are common in Spain. The Real Academia Española recommends the use of español except in situations in which it is important to distinguish it from the other independent languages ​​occurring in Spain (Catalan, Basque , Galician etc.) .

    The term castellano is also used as a name for the Romansh dialect spoken in Castile in the Middle Ages (from which modern Spanish arose) and for the dialect spoken in this region today. In Spain, the decision to use one term or another is sometimes politically motivated.


    Spanish is currently (2017) spoken by around 440 million people as their mother tongue , making it the second most widespread mother tongue after Chinese and the second most widespread world language in the narrower sense of its definition after English . Including second-language speakers , the number of speakers (2017) amounts to 512 to 572 million.This means that Spanish - after English , Mandarin and Hindi - ranks fourth among the world's most widely spoken languages. Most Spanish speakers live in Mexico, the Caribbean, South and Central America, and Spain. There are around 58 million speakers in the United States (as of 2017), which puts the United States in second place worldwide after Mexico and ahead of Colombia and Spain. Although the language does not have official status in any state, the number of speakers in some US states in the Southwest such as New Mexico and California , but also in Texas, is over 30%. In Belize (> 55% in 2010 compared to 46% in 2000), Morocco (just under 5% in 2017), Western Sahara and in Trinidad and Tobago , Spanish is spoken by a large proportion of the population. According to a 2015 study ( Ethnologue 2015), Spanish ranks second behind Mandarin with 399 million native speakers. In Portuguese-speaking countries such as Portugal and Brazil , Spanish is often understood due to its linguistic proximity , even if the Portuguese speakers do not speak the language themselves. Conversely, Portuguese is hardly understandable for Spanish speakers who do not speak the language because of its phonetic peculiarities. In linguistic contact zones in South America, mixed dialects have emerged, some of which are referred to as " Portuñol ".

    With over 21 million learners, Spanish is also the second most widely learned foreign language in the world after English (along with French and Mandarin). As a supranational official and working language of Spanish is used in the European Union , the African Union , the Organization of American States , in the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States , the Union of South American Nations , the Central American Integration System as well as the United Nations .

    Institutions for language maintenance of Spanish

    Article 3 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain of December 29, 1978 reproduces the following wording:

    (1) Castilian is the official Spanish language of the state. All Spaniards have a duty to master them and the right to use them.
    (2) The other Spanish languages ​​are also official languages in the respective Autonomous Communities , insofar as their Statute of Autonomy so determine.
    (3) Spain’s richness in linguistic diversity is a cultural asset that is the subject of special respect and protection.

    The Spanish Constitutional Court , Tribunal Constitucional , has decided in a landmark judgment : According to Paragraph 1, every citizen can use Castilian in dealings with any public institution (regardless of whether it is owned by the state, an autonomous community, a province or a municipality) and is entitled to receive an answer in this language. Conversely, according to paragraph 2, it follows from the statute of an additional regional official language that this then applies not only to the authorities of the autonomous community itself, but also to the state authorities in this region. In other words: just as regional authorities are prohibited from not accepting Castilian, the state institutions in the regions (such as the courts, the Policía Nacional or the Guardia Civil) are prohibited from not accepting the respective regional official language.

    In the Kingdom of Spain, the Real Academia Española (RAE) is authoritative for maintaining the Spanish language. Its 46 members are well-known authors in the country who are appointed for life . It cooperates with the corresponding academies of the other Spanish-speaking countries in the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española . The Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española was founded in Mexico in 1951 , but is based in Madrid . It comprises 22 existing national academies of the Spanish language under the leadership of the Real Academia Española. This shows that Spanish is a pluricentric language .

    The Instituto Cervantes was founded in 1991 by the Spanish government with the aim of promoting and disseminating the Spanish language and promoting the culture of Spain and all Spanish-speaking countries abroad.

    The association Asociación para la Enseñanza del Español como Lengua Extranjera (ASELE) is an association founded by professionals on January 30, 1987 in Madrid to promote the Spanish language for non-native speakers.

    The Instituto Caro y Cuervo , it was founded in 1942 by law, is a Colombian research institute for Spanish literature , philology and linguistics , based in Bogotá district La Candelaria .

    Linguistic development

    Spanish can be roughly divided into the following stages of development ( language levels ):

    • Origins of Español ( orígenes de español ), up to 1200,
    • Old Spanish ( español medieval ), from 1200 to 1450,
    • Middle Spanish ( español clásico ), from 1450 to 1650,
    • New Spanish ( español moderno or español contemporáneo ), since 1650.

    In these periods and their run-up, it was subject to several influences. The category of pre-classical Spanish ( español preclásico ), from 1500 to 1560, is partially added.

    Basque influences in the Spanish language

    According to the current state of research, Basque is not genetically related to any other known language . It is what is called an isolated language . In the western Pyrenees of Spain (in the autonomous communities of Basque Country and Navarre ) and France ( French Basque Country ) Basque was able to hold its own against various Indo-European languages , including Celtic , Latin and today's Romance languages. The extent to which its original extent was on the Iberian Peninsula remains hypothetical. Basque is the only linguistic remnant from that era. Some influences seem to have shaped the Romance languages, such as the fact that the two neighboring Romance languages, Spanish but more strongly the southwest Occitan regional language Gaskognisch , show a reduction of the Latin “f” to “h”, which is used in the standard Spanish language today has fallen silent. This phenomenon is attributed to the influence of Basque, for comparison the Spanish place name Fuenterrabia, Basque Hondarribia, High Aragon Ongotituero .

    Basque is an astrate because none of the languages ​​has been abandoned. The following phenomenon can be traced back to the Basque influence: Replacement of the initial "[f]" by "[h]", which however fell away completely in the further course (farina → harina, factus → hecho, filius → hijo, furnus → horno) .

    Celtiberian-pre-Romanesque influence

    Reconstructed language areas around 300 BC Chr.

    The oldest historically determined inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula were the Iberians ( Iberian language ). Around 600 BC Chr. Migrated Celtic tribes ( Celtic languages ) over the Pyrenees , which then with the Iberians to the Celtiberians mixed. If a population, under the influence of a new language, gives up their own language after a period of bilingualism in favor of the more prestigious new language, speaking habits still have an impact on them. The abandoned language is then called a substratum .

    The Celtiberian had the following effects after the adoption of Latin:

    1. Sonorisation of the intervocal plosives “[p]”, “[t]”, “[k]” to “[b]”, “[d]”, “[g]” (amica → amiga / apotheca → bodega) .
    2. Lenization of the nexus “[kt]” via “[çt]” to “[it]”. In Castilian, the nexus developed further. The “t” was also palatalized by the preceding Palatal . Hence noctem → noche .

    Latin influence as the basis

    Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, 218–19 BC Chr.

    In the 3rd century BC The Romans began conquering the Iberian Peninsula. At that time Iberian , Celtiberian , Basque , Tartessian , Lusitan and, especially in coastal towns, Punic and Greek were spoken here. The entire peninsula has been in Roman hands since the emperor Augustus .

    Due to a strong military presence and numerous Roman officials, the Latin language spread very quickly. Latin became the culture-defining colloquial language via vulgar Latin , which gradually pushed back the original Iberian languages. Only in the western Pyrenees did Latin encounter stronger resistance, so that the original language Basque was retained there.

    Germanic influence

    When the Visigoths invaded Spain in 414, Latin was already spoken with a local color throughout the peninsula. Although the Visigoths ruled Spain for the next three centuries, they had little influence on the language and social life (only about two to three percent of the population were Goths). One reason the Romans and Goths did not mix was mainly religious: the Romans were Catholics , the Goths Arians . After King Rekkared I and his people converted to Catholicism in 589 , the Gothic soon disappeared completely.

    However, there are some words in Spanish that are of Germanic origin (e.g. ganso ). It is assumed, however, that these were not brought to Spain by the Goths, but by the Romans, who came into contact with Germanic tribes in Gaul .

    The ending -ez of many today's Spanish family names probably goes back to the language of the Visigoths (see patronymic ). It had the meaning "son of" (cf. Isl. -Son ), so Rodríguez was the son of Rodrigo (Roderich). Exemplary are the kings of Navarre from the house of Jiménez from 905 to 1076: The founder of the dynasty Sancho I. Garcés was successively followed by García I. Sánchez, Sancho II. Garcés, García II. Sánchez, Sancho III. Garcés, García III. Sánchez and Sancho IV. Garcés, the successor being the son of the predecessor.

    Arab influence

    The Moorish conquerors who began their expansion from Africa to the east and north of the peninsula in 711 had a more permanent influence on the vocabulary of Spanish . They occupied the entire Iberian Peninsula with the exception of the Cantabrian Mountains , where groups of the Christian indigenous population sought refuge and from where the later reconquest ("Reconquista") began.

    When this reconquest was completed with the fall of Granada in 1492 , many Arabic words had found their way into Spanish by then. Many of these words did not originally come from Arabic at all, but from other languages ​​and were only conveyed through Arabic. According to an evaluation of the dictionary of the Real Academia Española from 1995, today's Spanish still contains 1,285 borrowings from Arabic, the "Arabisms". Thus, Spanish is the Romance language with the most Arabic loanwords .

    These are not only cultural terms, but also terms for terms used in everyday life, e.g. B. aceite "oil", aceituna (also: oliva ) "olive", alfombra "carpet". Also azafata ( "flight attendant," the word has been reactivated) is of Arab origin. The word ojalá ("hopefully") is a Hispanic form of the Arabic phrase Inschallah (ان شاء الله) and actually means "God willing".

    Arabic loanwords and their derivatives can be found in the following vocabulary areas: administration and political system, army, coinage, natural sciences, agriculture (agriculture, irrigation systems), household items, clothing, food, flora and fauna and others. A considerable part of these words originally comes from Persian , Aramaic , from Indian languages (e.g. ajedrez from čaturaṅga , via the Persian chatrang and the Arabic shatranj ), the Greek (e.g. guitarra via Arabic qiθārā , from Greek κιθάρα ) or even Latin (e.g. alcázar from Latin castra ) and only got into Spanish through Arabic and in Arabic form.

    In contrast to other languages ​​which, when adopting Arabic words, use the Arabic article al (ال), can be found in many loan words in Spanish that al again, for example, with "sugar" (Spanish azúcar , Italian zucchero , Arabicالسكر as-sukkar - here it is(l) of the article assimilated ).

    American indigenous influences

    EU-wide knowledge of Spanish (according to Eurobarometer 2006)

    The Latin American dialects of Spanish in particular contain a variety of indigenous language expressions . Word examples:

    • el aguacate or la palta (the avocado)
    • el ají (the hot paprika, chilli pepper)
    • la batata (the calf)
    • el batey (the village)
    • el bohío (the reed hut)
    • el bohuco (the climbing plant )
    • el cacique (the cacike, chief)
    • el caimán (the caiman, the crocodile)
    • la canoa (the canoe)
    • el casabe (the flatbread)
    • el cayo (the small island)
    • el cayuco (the boat)
    • la chacra (the small estate)
    • el cocote (the neck)
    • el conuco (the garden)
    • la guayaba (the guava)
    • el huracán (the hurricane, cyclone)
    • la lambí (the wing snail )
    • el maíz or el choclo (the corn)
    • el manatí (the manatee)
    • el maní or el cacahuate (the peanut)
    • la papa (the potato)
    • la sabana (the plain)
    • el tabaco (the tobacco)
    • el tiburón (the shark)
    • la yuca (the cassava plant, fruit)

    Inner-Iberian influences up to Spanish today

    From the non-classical Vulgar Latin different Romance dialects developed over time under different geographical and ethnographic influences. One of these dialects, Castilian, originated in a weakly Romanized area of ​​northern Spain, in the border area of ​​today's Spanish provinces of Burgos , La Rioja , Vizcaya and Álava . This dialect of Old Castile is characterized by the fact that it was more strongly influenced by the pre-Romanesque languages ​​and later became the written and national language of Spain due to political circumstances .

    It was especially the counts of Old Castile who, in constant battles against the Arabs, extended their state territory to the south. In the course of this Reconquista movement, Old Castilian pushed like a wedge into the rest of the Romance-speaking area and pushed the other language forms to the western ( Asturian - Leonese and Galician, from which Portuguese later developed) and eastern (Aragonese, Catalan) periphery of the Landes, which increased the range of the Castilian language enormously. In the areas conquered by the Moors, it then displaced Arabic and Mozarabic (Romance dialects that were articulated by Christians in the Moorish-ruled lands, but were written in Arabic script).

    In the second half of the 11th century, Castile was proclaimed a kingdom and Toledo was designated the capital in 1085. As a result, the Castilian dialect established itself as the court and colloquial language of the young kingdom, which is why current Spanish has a Toledan color. The reforms of Ferdinand III are of language-political importance . (1217–1252) and Alfons X. (1252–1282), through whom Latin was abolished in its documentary use and Castilian took over its function. During the end of the Middle Ages, Castilian spread not only as a written medium, but also verbally outside of Castile.

    In 1713, based on the French model, the Real Academia de la Lengua was finally established , which is a recognized authority on language issues. The Diccionario de Autoridades was published between 1726 and 1739, and the first grammar appeared in 1771. Today the Academy publishes the dictionary Diccionario de la Lengua Española and the extensive grammar work Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española in collaboration with the language academies of the other Spanish-speaking countries .

    spelling, orthography

    Spanish spelling pursues the ideal of reproducing the spoken word sound for sound. Foreign words that are often adopted are adjusted in their spelling in such a way that the pronunciation results automatically again (examples: English bacon becomes Spanish beicon or English football becomes Spanish fútbol ). This only applies to the Latin American variants with restrictions (letters are sometimes pronounced differently if the word is of Indian origin, especially ll and x ).


    A special feature of the Spanish language is to introduce questions and exclamation sentences with the ¿ ( signo de interrogación ) or the ¡ ( signo de exclamación , sometimes also signo de admiración ). Otherwise, this only happens in the Asturian and Galician languages . The question mark was introduced by the Real Academia Española in 1754 in the second edition of the orthography.

    Trilingual billboard in Barcelona (detail). The opening exclamation mark is only used in Spanish, not in the regional language ( Catalan ).
    • El español es muy fácil, ¿verdad?
    ¡Por supuesto!
    Spanish is very easy, right?
    • ¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás?
    Bien, ¿y tú?
    Hello! How are you?
    Fine, and you?

    The inverted exclamation mark " ¡ " for the Spanish language is in ISO 8859-1 and Unicode on Code 161 (U + 00A1) and can be generated under Windows on any keyboard via Alt+173 on the number pad or Alt+ 0161. On a Macintosh this is generated by Alt+ 1/!, on Linux / X11 by + AltGr+ 1/!. An inverted, upside-down question mark " ¿ " can be entered as follows; under Windows with German assignment using the key combination Alt+168 , the digits of the so-called number block must be used or Alt+ 0191. On the Macintosh it is created with Alt+ ß/?, on Linux with + AltGr+ ß/?.



    Vowel trapezoid for the Spanish language
    Measurements of the first formants of the Spanish vowels (Bradlow, 1995); in assignment to the frequencies ( Hz ) ( articulation )

    There are five monophthongs in Spanish .

    Monophthongs of Spanish
    front central back
    closed i u
    medium e O
    open a


    Spanish has 24 consonants , whereby the fricatives [β ð ɣ] and the plosives [bdg] are allophones of the phonemes / bdg / . Consonants different from German are ñ and the two digraphs ll and ch .

    Spanish consonants bilabial labio-
    dental alveolar post-
    palatal velar
    Plosives p b t d k g
    Affricates t͡ʃ
    Nasals m n ɲ
    Flaps / trills ɾ r
    Fricatives β f θ ð s x ɣ
    Approximants w j
    Lateral l ʎ

    In dialect, s is sometimes pronounced like h before plosives , e.g. B. España ("Spain") as ɛhˈpaɲa . A distinction between the sounds / ʎ / and / ʝ / or / j / is not made in the entire Spanish-speaking area, especially not in Latin America , which is clear from the Yeísmo . In Spain itself, ll is sometimes pronounced in dialect like d͡ʑ or d͡ʐ .


    Like other Romance languages, Spanish is an analytically inflected language - in contrast to the synthetically inflected languages ​​such as Latin - in which most inflected forms consist of several parts (e.g. el padre , del padre al padre , al padre los padres y las madres ). Spanish has two grammatical genders and over 50 conjugated forms per verb , but a limited inflection of verbs, nouns and determinatives . Despite frequent variations, its syntax usually consists of subject-verb-object and adjectives are usually placed after the noun they refer to. In this context, one speaks of a pro-drop language , in which pronouns can be left out if they are not absolutely necessary for understanding.

    Parts of speech, formation

    Meaning, function ↓ Forms, classes
    flexible flexionless
    Lexically Noun ( sustantivo ) , verb ( verbo ), adjective ( adjetivo ) Adverb ( adverbio ), number word ( nombre numeral )
    Grammatically Article ( articulo ), pronoun ( pronombre ) Preposition ( preposición ), conjunction ( conjuncion )

    For the production of new words from existing words, i.e. word formation , formación de palabras , a distinction is made between two variants: word derivation ( derivation , derivación ) and word composition ( composition , composición ).

    In the area of loan words or borrowing , for example in the terminology of electronic data processing , the English language has a great influence . The Internet vocabulary in Spanish in particular has a high number of Anglicisms or Anglo-American word creations.

    Lexical negation

    By using the following prefixes, words with a negative meaning can arise as an expression of a syntactic negation (see in contrast the adverbs of negation ):

    • a- , des- , in- , i- , im- , ir- . Examples: a- político , DES acertado , in- formal , i- legible , import posible , ir- racional .

    Nouns , adverbs , verbs and adjectives serve as basic lexemes for negative word formation . Parts of speech which all belong to the auto semantics . Some words are able to bind two different prefixes. Example: in-moral and a-moral .

    Varieties of the Spanish language

    Equatorial Guinean Spanish

    Filipino Spanish

    In addition to its spread in Europe, Spanish is also used in Asia, i. H. spoken in the Philippines. Many islands, towns, as well as the Filipinos and the country itself, have Spanish names that come from the colonial era.

    American Spanish

    Spanish is by far the most significant in America, being spoken as a mother tongue in most countries. Since it occupies a very large area there and since centuries have passed since the colonization by the Spaniards , the Spanish language in the Greater Antilles and in the rest of Latin America shows certain deviations from European Spanish. These are not too large in written and lingua franca, whereas the colloquial language and dialects of the individual countries differ considerably, not only in terms of pronunciation, but also in terms of vocabulary.

    The Spanish-speaking world
    The Spanish-speaking world
    Red: official language, blue: official language among others, pink: important language, but not an official language

    In the grammatical area, apart from the peculiarities in the use of the past tenses (dominance of the indefinido ) and the voseo, there are no particularities worth mentioning.

    In contrast, some words have definitely changed their meanings. Some of the deviations can be traced back to the influence of indigenous languages, which varies in intensity in the individual regions. In Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and Venezuela , the influences of US English on the Spanish vocabulary are also noticeable , which are much more pronounced than in Europe. In general, the Latin American vocabulary can be described as archaic compared to the continental European one (i.e. the expression often appears outdated or historicizing to Europeans).

    A characteristic, distinctive feature of Latin American speakers is the language melody, which differs greatly from European Spanish . The differences in this relationship between Andean Spanish , the La Plata dialects, Mexico and Central America, and the Caribbean dialects are practically as great as they are with Continental Spanish , so that general rules are difficult to define.

    Although pronunciation and vocabulary vary greatly between and also in individual Latin American countries, there are some main differences between the language of South and Central America and European Spanish.

    Differences in grammar

    • The past tense Pretérito Perfecto (he comprado) is marginally in use in some countries such as Argentina . Instead, the Pretérito Indefinido (compré) is mostly used , unless one explicitly wants to emphasize the “still-ongoing” of an action.
    • The salutation ustedes (from vuestra merced, for example: "Euer Gnaden"), used in Spain exclusively as a form of courtesy in formal contact (cf. “Siezen” in German ) is the standard language and generally widespread form of address in Latin America, regardless of language level or familiarity. The 2nd person plural is not used at all in the American-speaking world and is always replaced by the address in the 3rd person. Instead of the personal pronoun vosotros , however , ustedes is always used (one of the few rules that apply universally to all of Latin America). In the singular, too, the address in the 2nd person with tú is less common in some areas (or seems harsh or pedantic) and you either use vos or the 3rd person with usted .
    • With the Voseo , which is widespread in many parts of Latin America, the pronoun vos is used in the 2nd person singular instead of the personal pronoun tú or ti and the verbs are conjugated accordingly differently (for example vos sos, standard Spanish tú eres "you are"). The grammatical rules for Voseo are applied differently from region to region, so variants such as vos tomás, tú tomás and vos tomas (standard Spanish tú tomas ) are possible.
      • It can be found practically in Argentina, Uruguay , Paraguay and Nicaragua and, to a lesser extent, in other countries such as Guatemala , the Venezuelan state of Zulia and the Colombian regions of Paisa and Valle de Cauca.
      • Costa Rica is a special case, as tú is not used, but vos and usted alike.
      • A smaller special form of Voseo is common in Chile , where in the informal language in the 2nd person singular a verb form reminding of the 2nd person plural or the conjugation forms of the Voseo is used. The verbs ending in -ar have the ending -ái (s) in the 2nd person singular , whereby the ending -s is not pronounced. The verbs ending in -er / -ir have the ending -ís, with the ending -s only sometimes being breathed in.
        Examples: ¿Cómo estás? becomes ¿Cómo estái (s)? ¿Qué haces? becomes ¿Qué hacís? or ¿Qué hací (h)? or ¿Te acuerdas? becomes ¿Te acordái (s)?
        In this regard, the parallels to Italian are noteworthy , where the ending of the 2nd person singular is always -i . Generally tú is used as pronoun and only rarely vos, which has an even more casual (often aggressive) character.
      • Phonetically , the Voseo in Chile and Venezuela are similar , since the conjugation in this corresponds to the classical form (-áis, -éis, -ís) , but the final-s is breathed in just like in Chile.
        Examples: ¿Cómo estáis? ¿Qué hacéis? ¿Venís? (spoken ¿kómo ehtáih? ¿ké aséih? ¿beníh? ).

    Differences in vocabulary

    There are many discrepancies between the European and Latin American vocabulary and also various semantic peculiarities within Latin America from country to country . They mainly concern colloquial language and terms used in everyday life. Serious communication problems between speakers (and their mental lexicon ) from different European and American sub-areas of the Spanish-speaking area, however, usually hardly exist.

    Some examples
    German europ. Chip. americ. Chip. a Spanish or non-native speaker could understand
    butter mantequilla manteca (Argentina, Paraguay) Lard, fat
    strawberry fresa frutilla (Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay) Fruit
    Icebox nevera refrigerador, heladera (Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay) Cooler; Ice cream seller
    skirt falda pollera (Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) Chicken seller
    Automobile) coche carro (Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, Central America)
    auto (Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay)
    máquina (Argentina; from Italian macchina for car)
    Cart, handcart (carro)

    machine (máquina)
    banana plátano banano, guineo (Caribbean, Central America)
    cambur (Venezuela)
    banana (Argentina, Paraguay)
    Beans judías alubias (Canary Islands)
    caraotas (Venezuela)
    frijoles (Mexico, Peru, Central America)
    habichuelas (Colombia)
    fréjol (Ecuador)
    porotos (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay)
    potato patata papa (Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Central America, Canary Islands) Pope (but then masculine),
    father (if final as papá )
    truck camión troca (northern Mexican states and "Californian slang Spanish", from American-English truck )
    • Depending on the country, there are a different number of words that were borrowed from the respective languages ​​of the indigenous peoples . Some of them have also reached European Spanish. These include a. the terms aguacate ("avocado") and patata ("potato", see table).
    • In particular, names for fruits or vegetables vary greatly among the local varieties in the various Spanish-speaking countries. In the Dominican Republic, for example, “the orange” is called la china , “the mandarin” la italiana , “the papaya” la lechoza , “the banana” el guineo and “the passion fruit” la chinola - expressions that are often used not only in Spain and South America, but even in neighboring countries like Cuba or Mexico are no longer understood. The same applies to terms such as frutilla - "strawberry" ( called fresa in Europe ), ají - "hot paprika" ( European chili ) or palta - "avocado" ( European aguacate ), as they are common in Chile and some other South American countries are.
    • Misunderstandings are most likely to occur with words that have a special colloquial meaning in addition to their general meaning in certain countries.
      • The verb coger (“take, grasp, catch”), which is harmless in Spain and often used for all sorts of situations, is a common expression for sexual intercourse in a few countries in Latin America (especially Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay) . The phrase “I'll take the bus” ( Voy a coger el autobús ) therefore means “I'll fuck the bus” among Argentines. Throughout Latin America, the verb tomar ("take, ingest, drink") is used more often than coger .
      • In the Dominican Republic, Cuba and the Canary Islands, the word guagua denotes an inner-city " bus ", in Andean countries such as Chile, Peru or Ecuador it stands for "crawling" or "toddler" (here: Xenism from the Quechua ), so that in this case too, misunderstandings are predetermined.
      • In most Latin American countries, adjectives such as bonito / -a or lindo / -a are used to describe “pretty” or “beautiful” . The guapo / -a widespread in Spain , on the other hand, is uncommon and in some countries (such as Cuba and the Dominican Republic) means “aggressive” or “wild”. So una chica guapa is a pretty girl in Madrid and an angry girl in Havana .

    Differences in pronunciation

    Global pronunciation differences

    Many Latin American pronunciation peculiarities are reminiscent of southern Spanish dialects and are primarily present because in the 16th and 17th centuries most of the Spanish immigrants came from southern Spain (especially Extremadura and Andalusia ) (see also Andalusian dialect ).

    • The Seseo is typical . While in European Spanish a z is mostly pronounced like a voiceless English “th” , in Latin American articulation it sounds like a voiceless “s” sound . The same applies to the “c” before e and i (e.g. in nación ).
    • The Yeísmo occurs practically in all of Latin America, with the exception of the Andean region and Paraguay. Two special forms are widespread in the Río de la Plata states (Argentina, Uruguay). There the phoneme ll is not pronounced like a German “j”, but voiced like a soft “sch”, increasingly voiceless like a German “sch” (Šeísmo) .
    • Depending on the region, "j" is sometimes pronounced more and sometimes less harshly. The pronunciation varies from the Spanish hard and back “ch” to the German rather softer “ch” (as in Buch “ch”) to the conventional “h”.
    • Regionally differentiated in the expression is the silencing or changing of certain endings.
      • This phenomenon is particularly pronounced in the Caribbean and sometimes leads to severe comprehension problems for inexperienced listeners. In particular, the word ending -ar is pronounced differently as , -al or -ai (e.g. in the north of the Dominican Republic near Puerto Plata ). The infinitive caminar becomes caminá , caminal or caminai - analogously to verbs ending in -er or -ir, poner is often pronounced ponel or ponei .
      • “D” is often not spoken at the end of a word, but the stress remains on the last syllable. Example: ciudad is spoken like siudá . The "d" is usually left out between vowels, for example cansado becomes cansao .
      • "S" in the final syllable or at the end of the word is often spoken as a breath or is completely silent. The tendency, the "s" to breathe (z. B. ehtoy instead estoy ) is found in many coastal dialects and appears again the Andalusian similar.
        1. Due to the factual disappearance of the 2nd person plural in Latin American Spanish, the 2nd person singular can often not be distinguished from the 3rd person singular.
          Example: ¿Qué quiere? (“What does he / she want?”) Could ¿Qué quieres? Before the “s” is omitted. ("What do you want?") Have meant.
          There are exceptions in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, some Central American countries and some regions of Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia.
        2. In large parts of Chile, querís is used in the 2nd person singular instead of quieres . The ending -as is replaced by -ái and -es by -ís , with the ending -s either breathed in or omitted from the pronunciation. In both cases the last syllable is stressed, which sometimes leads to a change in the other vowels within the word.
          Example: ¿Adonde vai? (“Where are you going?”) Instead of ¿Adonde vas? venís ("you are coming") instead of vienes ; podís (“you can”) instead of puedes .
          This also applies to almost all other forms of the 2nd person singular.
        3. In Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, some Central American countries as well as in parts of Colombia and Bolivia, the word quieres querés (also often with a breathy ending -s) is used, which is based on the conjugation form of the old Spanish vos . In these countries, vos is also used instead of , which also means “you”, but has a different conjugation form.
          So it is not called puedes (“you can”), but podés . In contrast to the vosotros form common in Spain, the "i" is not pronounced here.
          The verbs in the -ir conjugation, which correspond to the vosotros form (e.g. vivís ) , are an exception .
        4. The vos- dependent conjugation in Venezuela (state of Zulia) corresponds to that of vosotros ( -áis, -éis, -ís ), although the “final s” is only breathed in, making the verbs aurally similar to the Chilean ones.
        5. Due to the overall strong differences between the 2nd and 3rd person singular, the tendency to weaken the "final s" is put into perspective again.
      • Example of “d” and “s” falling silent in a sentence: estamos cansados (“we are tired”) becomes e (h) tamo (h) cansao when pronounced .
    General 1 Chile Venezuela 2
    podés podís podéis
    querés querís queréis
    ¿Qué hacés? ¿Qué hacís? ¿Qué hacéis?
    ¿Cómo estás? ¿Cómo estái? ¿Cómo estáis?
    ¿Adonde vas? ¿Adonde vai? ¿Adonde vais?
    1 Generally means all other countries with Voseo
    2 In the state of Zulia

    Languages ​​derived from Spanish

    Spanish has e.g. T. other variants and mixed forms developed.

    • Daughter language:
      • Ladino (also "Sephardic language") is the Spanish of the Jews ( Sephardim ) who were expelled from Spain in 1492 ( Alhambra Edict ). Today they live in Israel , Greece , Turkey , northern Morocco and the USA. The number of speakers is estimated at a maximum of 100,000
    • Further individual forms:
      • Lunfardo is a crook language in Argentina, which is also used in tango .

    Language example

    General Declaration of Human Rights :

    Todos los seres humanos nacen libres e iguales en dignidad y derechos y, dotados como están de razón y conciencia, deben comportarse fraternalmente los unos con los otros.

    “All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood. "

    Examples spoken by a resident of Madrid:

    Two examples from the book The Little Prince suggest the differences between European and American pronunciation. They come from two different translations of the French original:

    Language traps: "Falsos Amigos"

    The following articles deal with the typical mistakes that can occur when learning and translating the Spanish language:

    See also



    • Ursula Klenk: Introduction to Linguistics: Spanish. GOEDOC - Document and publication server of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, (2008) doi: 10.3249 / webdoc-1933
    • Reinhard Meyer-Herman: Spanish . In: Thorsten Roelcke (Hrsg.): Variation Typologie / Variation Typology. A Typological Handbook of European Languages ​​Past an Present. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2003, pp. 449–479.
    • Bernhard Pöll, Christopher F. Laferl (eds.): Handbook Spanish: Language, Literature, Culture, History in Spain and Hispanoamerica; for studies, teaching, practice. Schmidt, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-503-09875-0
    • Daniel Reimann: Language description Spanish. University of Duisburg / Essen, Mercator Foundation , proDaZ, December 2016 online

    Spanish Linguistics

    • Helmut Berschin , Julio Fernández-Sevilla, Josef Felixberger: The Spanish language. Distribution, history, structure. 3. Edition. Georg Olms, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2005, ISBN 3-487-12814-4 .
    • Annegret Alsdorf-Bollee, Ingrid Neumann-Holzschuh: Spanish language history. 5th edition. Klett, Stuttgart 2009.
    • Wolf Dietrich, Horst Geckeler: Introduction to Spanish Linguistics: A Text and Workbook. 5th edition. Schmidt, Berlin 2007.
    • Arnim Gassner: The old Spanish verb. Niemeyer, Halle 1897.
    • Johannes Kabatek, Claus D. Pusch: Spanish Linguistics. Narr Francke Attempto, Tübingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8233-6404-7 .
    • Petrea Lindenbauer, Michael Metzeltin , Margit Thir: The Romance languages. An introductory overview. Egert, Wilhelmsfeld 1995.
    • Michael Metzeltin : Las lenguas románicas estándar. Historia de su formación y de su uso. Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Uviéu 2004
    • Ralph Penny: A History of the Spanish Language. Cambridge University Press 2002, ISBN 0-521-80587-2 . ( Partial representation "google-books" )
    • Antonio Tovar: Introduction to the linguistic history of the Iberian Peninsula: Spanish today and its historical foundations. 3. Edition. Fool Francke Attempto, Tübingen 1989.
    • Gesina Volkmann: Worldview and Language. Epistemic relativization using the example of Spanish. Narr Francke Attempto, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-8233-6101-5 .
    • Andreas Wesch: Basic Spanish Linguistics. 5th edition. Klett, Stuttgart 2006.
    • Johannes Kabatek, Claus Dieter Pusch: Spanish linguistics: an introduction (bachelor knowledge). Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8233-6658-4

    Spanish vocabulary

    Spanish grammars

    • Michael Metzeltin: Explanatory grammar of the Romance languages. Praesens, Vienna 2010.
    • Michael Metzeltin: Gramática explicativa de la lengua castellana. De la sintaxis a la semántica. Praesens, Vienna 2009.


    Spanish varieties and dialects

    • Günter Holtus , Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (Hrsg.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics . 12 volumes. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988-2005; Volume VI, 1: Aragonese / Navarre, Spanish, Asturian / Leonese. 1992.
    • Hugo Kubarth: The Latin American Spanish. 1987.
    • Steve Pagel: Spanish in Asia and Oceania. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2010.
    • Hans-Dieter Paufler: Latin American Spanish. 1977.
    • Volker Noll: American Spanish. 2001.

    Web links

    Wiktionary: Dictionary Spanish – German  - explanations of meanings, origins of words , synonyms, translations
    Wiktionary: Spanish language dictionaries  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
    Wikibooks: Spanish  - learning and teaching materials
    Wikisource: Spanish dictionaries  - sources and full texts
    Commons : Spanish language  - collection of images, videos and audio files
    Commons : Spanish pronunciation  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. See comparison of Spanish and Portuguese .
    2. see below a. Symbiosism , Generative Grammar
    3. Compare also Phoenician-Punic language
    4. A term that goes back to Hugo Schuchardt and which he first developed in his dissertation De sermonis Romani plebei vocalibus , published in 1864 .
    5. Latin and its daughter languages. Universität München Lehramt, pp. 1–11, online
    6. Eugenio Coseriu: The so-called "Vulgar Latin" and the first differentiations in Romania. From the Spanish by Wulf Oesterreicher. Unpublished manuscript. Montevideo 1954, pp. 2-43, 135-150, 172-202.
    7. ^ Marcos Roman Prieto: Spanish-Germanic Lehnaustausch. Books on Demand (BoD), 2008, ISBN 978-3-638-94414-4 , p. 6 f.
    8. ^ Wolf Dietrich; Volker Noll (Ed.): Introduction to Spanish Linguistics A textbook and workbook. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-503-13719-0 , p. 15 f.
    9. Leo Trepp: The reconquest of Spain by the Christians - The Inquisition. In: The Jews; People, history, religion. Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-499-60618-6 , pp. 61/62.
    10. Heiner Böhmer: grammaticalization processes between Latin and Iberoromansch. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-8233-6564-8 .
    11. Note for philologists : The word Mio in the work title is an atonal possessive pronoun that no longer exists in modern Spanish (use structurally similar to Portuguese meu , Italian mio and French mon ) and is written without (unlike the modern Spanish word mío ) Acute .
    12. ^ Research by Riaño Rodríguez and Gutiérrez Aja , 2003
    13. Reinhard Kiesler: Introduction to the problem of vulgar Latin. Walter de Gruyter, 2006, ISBN 3-11-091655-X , p. 105 f.
    14. ^ Annegret Alsdorf-Bollee, Ingrid Neumann-Holzschuh: Spanische Sprachgeschichte. 5th edition. Klett, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-12-939624-7 , p. 107.
    15. Medina Guerra: Antonia M a Modernidad del universal vocabulario de Alfonso Fernández de Palencia. E. L. U. A., 7, 1991, pp. 45-60.
    16. Gustav Ineichen: On the position of the Spanish grammar Nebrijas. In: Wolfgang Dahmen (Hrsg.): On the history of the grammars of Romance languages: Romance Colloquium IV. (= Tübingen Contributions to Linguistics, Volume 357). Narr Verlag, 1991, ISBN 3-8233-4212-6 , p. 227 f.
    17. Francisco M. Carriscondo Esquivel: La laboratory lexicográfica de Esteban (Esteban de Terreros' lexicographical work). In: Oihenart. 23, 2008, pp. 13-34.
    18. ^ Emilio Cotarelo y Mori: Diccionario Biográfico y Bibliográfico de Calígrafos Españoles. Volume II, p. 269 in Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia Consultado March 21, 2011.
    19. ^ Alonso Zamora Vicente: La Real Academia Española . Espasa Calpe, Madrid 1999, ISBN 84-239-9185-7 , p. 33.
    20. Ramón Menéndez Pidal , Manual de gramática histórica española , Espasa-Calpe, 1985, p. 181.
    21. Irene Lozano: Lenguas en guerra. Espasa Calpe, 2005, p. 92.
    22. The most spoken languages ​​worldwide (native speakers in millions)., 2017, accessed on February 26, 2018 (English): "437 million"
    23. a b SPANISH: a language of Spain. In: Retrieved on February 26, 2018 (English): "Total users in all countries: 512,991,890 (as L1: 442,384,990; as L2: 70,606,900)."
    24. a b c d Instituto Cervantes (ed.): EL ESPAÑOL: UNA LENGUA VIVA . Informe 2017. 2017 (Spanish, [PDF; accessed on February 26, 2018]).
    25. When defining the “world language”, it is not the number of speakers alone that is decisive, but also the wide distribution across the autochthonous area of origin of the language. Chinese , Hindi and Bengali are therefore not world languages ​​in the strict sense, despite the large number of speakers.
    26. a b c Los hispanohablantes ascienden ya a 572 millones de personas. In: El País. November 28, 2017, Retrieved February 26, 2018 (Spanish).
    27. ^ Helmut Berschin, Josef Felixberger: The Spanish language: distribution, history, structure . Georg Olms Verlag, 2012, p. 19 ( Google Books ).
    28. La lengua española pierde peso e influencia en Marruecos., February 17, 2015, accessed on February 26, 2018 (Spanish).
    29. Ethnologue, 2013 (accessed December 19, 2013)
    30. ^ Judgment of the Constitutional Court v. June 26, 1986, STC 82/1986: PDF ( Spanish )
    31. ^ Mechthild Bierbach: Spanish - a pluricentric language? On the problem of norma culta and variety in the Hispanic world. Pp. 143-170
    32. ^ Franz Lebsanft: Spanish language culture: Studies on the evaluation and maintenance of public language use in today's Spain. Vol. 282 Supplements to the Journal for Romance Philology, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-11-093163-X , p. 83 f.
    33. ^ Johannes Kabatek, Claus D. Pusch: Spanish Linguistics. Gunter Narr, Tübingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8233-6404-7 , p. 253.
    34. ^ Gerhard Jäger : Computational historical linguistics. University of Tübingen, Institute of Linguistics here p. 5 f.
    35. Christian Lehmann: Phonology of Latin and Vulgar Latin. on-line
    36. ^ Ralph Penny: Gramática histórica del español. Editorial Ariel, 2006, p. 31.
    37. See Volker Noll in Romania Arabica ( Memento of January 2, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), Fs. Kontzi , 1996, pp. 299–313.
    38. Volker Noll: The Arabic article "al" and the Ibero-Romanic . In: Jens Lüdtke (Ed.): Romania Arabica. Fs. For Reinhold Kontzi on his 70th birthday . Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 1996, ISBN 3-8233-5173-7 , p. 299–313 ( [PDF; accessed February 1, 2017]).
    39. ^ Roger Chartier: The Author's Hand and the Printer's Mind . Polity Press, Cambridge 2014, ISBN 978-0-7456-5601-4 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
    40. Vowel triangle - frequency position of the first two formants (schematic for sound engineering) (PDF; 230 kB)
    41. SAMPA for Spanish (English)
    42. Irene Balles: The tendency towards the analytical language type from the point of view of Indo-European studies. In: Uwe Hinrichs; Uwe Büttner (Ed.): The European languages ​​on the way to the analytic language type. Volume 1 of Eurolinguistic Works, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-447-04785-2 , pp. 33–54.
    43. Numerals, nombres numerales can be inflected to a limited extent .
    44. ^ Modified from Helmut Berschin , Julio Fernández-Sevilla, Josef Felixberger: The Spanish language. Distribution, history, structure. 3. Edition. Georg Olms, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2005, ISBN 3-487-12814-4 , p. 161.
    45. canoonet - Grammar for German - Word Grammar , accessed on September 23, 2019
    46. Martina Rüdel-Hahn: Anglicisms in the Internet vocabulary of the Romance languages: French - Italian - Spanish. Dissertation . Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf 2008.
    47. ^ Roberto Ibañez: Negation in Spanish. (= Structura series of publications on linguistics. Volume 5). Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich 1972, p. 7.
    48. Constanza Vagnini, Stefan Aechtner: phonetic differences between European and American Spanish. Department of Romance Philology, University of Munich, Dr. phil. habil. Barbara Schäfer-Prieß, HS: “Variety Linguistics Spanish / Portuguese”, 2010/2011.