Spain ( Aragon , Balearic Islands , Catalonia , Murcia , Valencia ), Andorra , Italy (in Alghero in Sardinia ), France (in Roussillon / Northern Catalonia )
|Official language in||Spain|
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
The Catalan language ( proper spelling català [ kətəˈɫa ] in Eastern Catalan, [ kataˈɫa ] in Western Catalan) belongs to the family of Romance languages . Catalan is the official language in Andorra and, in addition to Spanish , the regional official language in Catalonia , the Balearic Islands and Valencia . It is also one of the regional languages of France (in Roussillon / Pyrénées Orientales).
Some linguists count Catalan among the Gallo-Roman languages , others assign it to Iberoromania . On the one hand, there is a close relationship with Occitan - Catalan has more phonetic and lexical similarities with Occitan than with the other languages of the Iberian Peninsula. On the other hand, Catalan coincides with Ibero-Romance languages in some features, so it is often referred to as the bridging language (llengua-pont) between Gallo-Romance and Ibero-Romance . This may be due to the fact that the domain of the Iberian Visigothic Empire extended as far as Septimania , in the middle of the Occitan language culture area ; conversely, the Frankish influence under Charlemagne went over the Pyrenees to the Catalan counties . The Pyrenees did not form a natural border between the political empires and cultural areas of Gaul and the Iberian Peninsula when the Romance languages were created.
Catalan has around 11.5 million active speakers and around 12.6 million people understand Catalan. The distribution area of the language includes the following regions:
- In Spain, Catalonia , most of the Valencia region - the local variant of Catalan is also called Valencian ( valencià ) -, the Balearic Islands , where the Mallorcan ( mallorquí ), Menorcan ( menorquí ) and Ibizan ( eivissenc ) dialects - combined to form Balearic - are called to be spoken; also a strip of territory in eastern Aragon , the Franja de Aragón with the català ribagorçà
- in southern France the department Pyrénées-Orientales , which is also known as " Northern Catalonia " - the local variety of Catalan is called rosellonès ,
- in Italy the city of Alghero (Catalan L'Alguer , where many people still speak alguerés ) on Sardinia ,
- Andorra .
The Catalan language area as a whole is divided into two dialect groups: on the one hand, Eastern Catalan, which includes the eastern part of Catalonia, the Catalan-speaking part of France, the Balearic Islands and Alguer, and on the other hand the western Catalan dialects. The main criterion for this classification is the pronunciation of the unstressed vowels o, e, and a. While in western Catalan they are always pronounced as they are written, in the pronunciation of eastern Catalan in unstressed positions o to u, e and a become short open vowels or a schwa ( [ ə ] ), the similar sounds like German e in beg e .
The status of the language differs depending on the region. In Andorra, Catalan is the only official language, in Spain it is the regional official language. In the "Language Law of Aragón" ( Ley de Lenguas de Aragón ), passed on May 9, 2013 by the Aragonese regional parliament under the leadership of the Partido Popular , the language for its own government area is designated with the glottonym Lengua aragonesa propia del área oriental (LAPAO) . In the French department Pyrénées-Orientales, a charter for the promotion of the Catalan language ( French : Charte en faveur du Catalan ) was adopted in December 2007 for the protection and further development of Catalan in northern Catalonia. In Alguer, the local language variety is taught in schools by the hour.
Catalan is not a dialect of Spanish, but a language that emerged directly from Vulgar Latin (thus also not a " primary dialect " that would have only preceded the standardization of Spanish; in the case of Spanish, this would only be Asturleonese, Castilian, Navarro-Aragonese). The Catalan language became historically tangible from the 8th to 10th centuries in the counties of the Spanish Mark , i.e. the area of the Carolingian Empire on both sides of the Pyrenees. Catalan words can be found in Latin texts of the 9th century, the first complete written evidence such as B. the anonymous collection of sermons Homilies d'Organyà come from the late 12th century. The writer and philosopher Ramon Llull , who lived from 1235 to 1315, was considered the " Dante of Catalan literature" and gave the language shine and prestige.
In the Middle Ages, the language area of Catalan was still fairly uniform. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Catalan spread south and east in the wake of the territorial conquests of the Aragonese crown ; the language border was determined after the expulsion of the Morisks in 1609–1611 and the subsequent repopulation of the places they had left.
With the expansion of the domain of the Count of Barcelona and the subsequent Catalan-Aragonese federation into the Mediterranean, the Catalan language also gained in importance between the 13th and 15th centuries. One of the first books printed in Catalan to be published in Perpignan in 1502 was a bilingual dictionary , the Vocabolari molt profitos per apendre Lo Catalan Alamany y Lo Alamany Catalan (“A really useful dictionary, through which Catalans can learn Catalan”). The original of this dictionary is kept in the Biblioteca de Catalunya in Barcelona. It was made by the Catalan printer Joan (Johann) Rosembach , who was born in Heidelberg . As early as 1415, the German linguistically gifted poet and diplomat Oswald von Wolkenstein processed the Catalan language in his poems.
At the end of the 15th century, the crowns of Aragón and Castile were united through the marriage of Reyes Católicos , King Ferdinand of Aragón and Queen Isabella of Castile , with Castile having the upper hand from the beginning. As a result, the Castilian language ( Castellano or "Spanish") replaced Catalan as a literary language . As a legal, official and colloquial language , Catalan was initially relatively little pressured.
After the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), Catalonia lost its political independence, and the Bourbon kings drove the development of the Spanish central state in its present form. The Castilian Spanish was as a Spanish official language prevailed, and in 1716 it was drawn up with by law as a language of instruction. In 1779 the authorities went so far that they even banned plays in Catalan.
The 18th century is therefore considered to be the lowest point in the history of the Catalan language, the time of the Decadència . It was not until the Romantic era that Catalan experienced a new boom in the 19th century. In the rebirth, the Renaixença , the language found support again and became the subject of linguistic research. In the 1930s, Catalan flourished, but it was suddenly destroyed by the Spanish Civil War and the victory of the nationalist and centralist Franco dictatorship.
In the early years of the Franco dictatorship , Catalan was suppressed. Many place names in the Catalan-speaking area have been Hispanicized . Sometimes even personal names have been translated into Spanish . It was not until the beginning of the 1960s that the Catalan language was given some space again, initially in the church sector. The Montserrat monastery played an important role here , where masses were celebrated in the forbidden Catalan language even during the Franco dictatorship. After Franco's death in 1975, it was three years before all restrictions were lifted. However, during the decades of oppression, Catalan had lost a lot of ground. In addition, the affluent region of Catalonia had attracted many Spaniards from other parts of the country, who mostly did not learn Catalan or only very hesitantly.
This is one of the main reasons why the Catalan language has received such strong support from the regional government over the past 25 years. This process, called normalització , did not run smoothly, as many of the immigrants and part of the centralized upper bourgeoisie reject Catalan. However, through clever policies, Catalan politicians, as indispensable coalition partners, have succeeded in wresting further concessions from the central government and thus at least partially restoring the former position of the Catalan.
This process is still ongoing and, according to the proponents of Catalan, it should not be completed until everyone who lives in the original distribution area of Catalan has a complete command of this language, at least as a second language.
Today's diglossy situation differs significantly from the situation under Franco: Although more than 95% of those living in Catalonia (including the proportion with a Catalan mother tongue ) can write Spanish ( Castellano ), just 60% of the population can also speak written Catalan . This particularly affects immigrant families and the older generation of Catalan speakers who, due to Franco's school, media and language policy, were never able to learn the written form of their own mother tongue - in contrast to Spanish, which is favored by the centralized system. In almost all official areas of society, however, Catalan has prevailed through the normalització ; a very large majority of the population, including those who speak Castellano, are in favor of Catalan language policy: 90% of school lessons are held in Catalan, most of the lectures in universities are in Catalan, and knowledge of Catalan is required for the entire public service . In recent years there has been a real boom in language schools that issue Catalan certificates. In everyday language use, speakers with a Catalan mother tongue tend to use the other person's mother tongue. Castellano speakers, on the other hand, tend to stick to their own language even when speaking to Catalan speakers. This leads to a strong disproportionate presence of the Castellano in relation to the demographic distribution . However, it is also possible that a conversation is conducted in two languages and the participants in the conversation use their respective mother tongue.
La Plataforma per la Llengua is a civil society organization vouched for by several Catalan intellectuals and well-known personalities. It brings together a large number of bodies and people who are committed to the recognition and dissemination of the Catalan language. Her main activities include the preparation of sociolinguistic studies and continuous monitoring of the political and social position of Catalan. This is done in cooperation with other corporations, foundations and public authorities. For more than 15 years, their activities have received several awards - such as the “Premi Nacional de Cultura” (Culture Prize) from the Catalan government in 2008 for their commitment to spreading the Catalan language.
Grammar and vocabulary
Alphabet and pronunciation
|Letter||Variations||Eastern Catalan||Western Catalan||comment|
|A, a||À, à||[ a ], [ ə ]||[ a ]||In Eastern Catalan: stressed [ a ], unstressed [ ə ], tending towards [ ɐ ]|
|B, b||[ β ], [ b ]||[ b ]||In Eastern Catalan: only in the absolute initial [ b ]|
|C, c||[ k ]||[ k ]|
|C, c (before e and i)||[ s ]||[ s ]|
|Ç, ç (only before a, o, u)||[ s ]||[ s ]|
|D, d||[ ð ], [ d ]||[ ð ], [ d ]||Only in the absolute initial [ d ]|
|E, e||É, é; È, è||[ e ], [ ɛ ], [ ə ]||[ e ], [ ɛ ]||As é [ e ], as è [ ɛ ], in Eastern Catalan unstressed [ ə ], tending to [ ɐ ]|
|F, f||[ f ]||[ f ]|
|G, g||[ ɣ ], [ g ]||[ ɣ ], [ g ]||Only in the absolute initial [ g ], pronounced as - ig [ t͡ʃ ]|
|G, g (before e and i)||[ ʒ ]||[ d͡ʒ ]||tg (before e and i) always [ d͡ʒ ]|
|H, h||The h is not spoken|
|I, i||Í, í; Ï, ï||[ i ], [ j ]||[ i ], [ j ]||In the vicinity of the vowel only as ï and í not [ j ]|
|J, j||[ ʒ ]||[ d͡ʒ ]||Always pronounced [ d͡ʒ ] as tj|
|K, k||[ k ]||[ k ]||Only in foreign words|
|L, l||ŀl||[ ɫ ]||[ l ], [ ɫ ]||Pronounced as ll [ ʎ ] (in the Balearic Islands [ j ]), ŀl is pronounced [ ɫː ] or [ lː ]|
|M, m||[ m ]||[ m ]|
|N, n||[ n ], [ m ], [ ɲ ], [ ŋ ]||[ n ], [ m ], [ ɲ ], [ ŋ ]||Before / b /, / p /, / f /, / v / [ m ], before / g / and / k / [ ŋ ], as < ny> [ ɲ ]|
|O, o||Ó, ó; Ò, ò||[ o ], [ ɔ ], [ u ]||[ o ], [ ɔ ]||As ó [ o ], as ò [ ɔ ], unstressed in Eastern Catalan [ u ]|
|P, p||[ p ]||[ p ]|
|Qu, qu||Qü, qü||[ k ], [ k͜w ]||[ k ], [ k͜w ]||Before a, o, u [ k͜w ], before e, i only as <qü> as [ k͜w ]|
|R, r||[ r ], [ ɾ ]||[ r ], [ ɾ ]||At the beginning of the word and as rr always [ r ], in some regions it is silent at the end of the word|
|S, s||[ s ], [ z ]||[ s ], [ z ]||At the beginning of a word and as ss always [ s ], between vowels [ z ]|
|T, t||[ t ]||[ t ]||Serves for lengthening before l , ll , m , n , ie tl = [ ɫː ] or [ lː ], tll = [ ʎː ], tm = [ mː ] and tn = [ nː ], often silenced after consonants at the end of a word|
|U, u||Ú, ú; Ü, ü||[ u ], [ w ]||[ u ], [ w ]||In the vicinity of the vowel only as ü and ú not [ w ]|
|V, v||[ β ], [ b ]||[ v ]||In Eastern Catalan like b|
|W, w||[ w ], [ β ], [ b ]||[ w ], [ v ]||Only in foreign words|
|X, x||[ ʃ ], [ k͡s ]||[ t͡ʃ ], [ ʃ ], [ k͡s ]||Eastern Catalan: At the beginning of the word, between consonant and vowel, as ix [ ʃ ], between vowels [ k͡s ], in Balearic (especially Mallorcan and Menorcan ) also between two vowels [ ʃ ] ( Caixa (German: bank, cashier): [kaʃə] ("Kasche"), or coll. Also [kɑʃə])|
|Y, y||Occurs only as ny, and is then pronounced [ ɲ ]|
|Z, z||[ z ]||[ z ]||Pronounced as tz [ d͡z ]|
- The written Catalan language, like the Spanish, uses the trema to make the pronunciation of the phoneme / u / clear when it is between g or q and e or i .
- E.g .: lleng ü es 'languages'
- Example: q ü estió 'question'
- In addition, the Catalan uses a so-called punt volat (German center point , literally 'flew point') between two “l” when the pronunciation [l] is to be retained.
- Example: co ŀl ecció 'collection', pronunciation [l]
- in contrast to caste ll à 'Castilian language', pronunciation [ʎ]
The use of this center point is linguistically unique in its meaning. At best, the use of the hyphen to separate “s” and “ch” in Engadine , punt interior (German center point ) in Gaskognischen or punt volat in Franco-Provençal are comparable .
Morphology and syntax
Catalan grammar has a number of similarities to Spanish and French grammar, but also some peculiarities. In the area of nouns, as in general in the Romance languages, there is also a distinction in Catalan between feminine and masculine, case forms only form connected, clitic personal pronouns that also differentiate between the accusative and dative object in the third person. Catalan, like Spanish, but unlike French, is a pro-drop language ; H. allows the omission of subject pronouns and therefore uses unconnected subject pronouns above all contrastively.
The conjugation includes simple (synthetic) tenses in the subjunctive , conditional , past and future tense (which is also formed here, e.g. in French, on the basis of the infinitive forms). There are three verbal classes with regard to conjugation patterns, the first group with the infinitive ending in - ar , the second grouping with - er and - re , and the third with - ir . It is noticeable, however, that not all verbs with the same infinitive ending are conjugated in the same way, there are a large number of exceptions. Els verbs conjugats by Joan Baptista Xuriguera lists 120 conjugation tables.
In the case of compound tenses, there are also frequently encountered passive forms in Catalan with the auxiliary verb “sein” + participle and perfect formations with the auxiliary verb “haben”. In addition, Catalan also has another and very unusual periphrastic past tense (called pretèrit perfet perifràstic ), which is formed with an auxiliary verb anar , go, whose present tense comes from the Latin vadere ( cf.vaig , vas , va , vam / vàrem , vau / vàreu , van / varen ), and the infinitive of the main verb. Example:
El teu germà va venir anit Der dein Bruder „geht“ kommen letzte-Nacht (bzw. heute-Nacht) = Dein Bruder kam gestern Nacht
Compare the outwardly identical French construction (il) va venir , which, however, has the meaning of a future tense (as is Western Romance in general, so also Spanish-Portuguese ir (+ a ) + inf.). Catalan is the only Romance language (and perhaps the only one at all) in which the auxiliary verb “Gehen” denotes a past tense;
Special features can also be found in the word order. Most of the time the word order in the sentence of Catalan (as in the other Romance languages) is given as subject-verb-object (SVO). On closer inspection, however, it is found that, above all, the position of the subject varies significantly depending on the structure of the information: If the subject corresponds to a topic , i. H. absorbs known information, it comes before the verb, but if it corresponds to new information, it must be at the end of the sentence. You can see this in the behavior in the context of questions:
|Què va portar en Joan?||En Joan va portar el llibre.|
|"What did Joan bring?"||"Joan brought THE BOOK".|
|Qui va portar el llibre?||El llibre el va portar en Joan.|
|"Who brought the book?"||"The book (pron) brought JOAN".|
This behavior differs from that in strict SVO languages such as English: What did John bring? - John brought the BOOK . and also Who brought the book? - JOHN brought the book.
Furthermore, one finds with intransitive verbs that it is generally "difficult to determine whether the position of the subject before or after the verb seems more neutral". These and other properties of postulated subjects have led some linguists to consider the subject's position at the end of a sentence (i.e. VOS) to be the basic position. The possibility of a trailing subject ( inversion ) also exists in other Romance languages, but in Catalan (similar to Spanish and Portuguese) it is more extensive than e.g. B. in French or Italian.
Vocabulary compared to other Romance languages
Catalan is very closely related to Occitan within the Romance languages , as can be seen from the vocabulary, among other things.
In contrast to Spanish, there is no extensive diphthongization (from / o / to / we / and from / i / to / je /) in Catalan. There was also the development of moving words starting with f to / h / (today mute), not:
Other etymas serve as the basis for Gallo-Romanic than in Iberor-Romanic. Here, too, the position of Catalan as a transitional language ( llengua-pont ) becomes clear:
|papallona||parpalhon||mariposa||papillon||borboleta / mariposa||farfalla||fluture||butterfly|
Other words, on the other hand, do not indicate any relationship with Spanish or French :
|groc||jaune / cròc||amarillo||jaune||amarelo||giallo||galben||yellow|
|gos / approx||gos / can||perro||chien||cachorro / cão||cane||câine||dog|
A special feature of Catalan is that the final / n / has disappeared in many words. When forming the plural, however, it is again taken into account:
The Catalan lexicon also shows words of Germanic origin that found their way into the language during the migration period . However, they only make up a small part of the vocabulary:
|blue||blue||azul||bleu||azul||azzurro / blu||albastru||blue|
Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Article 1:
"Tots els éssers humans neixen lliures i iguals en dignitat i en drets. Són dotats de raó i de consciència, i han de comportar-se de forma fraternal els uns amb els altres. "
German: All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Catalan appears to be fairly uniform, but it can still be categorized into Eastern, Central and Western Catalan dialects. The standard language is based on the central dialect, the Balearic (e.g. the dialect of Mallorca) belongs to the East Catalan, the Valencia dialect to the West Catalan. Mallorcan and Valencian have a large number of linguistic documents and literature.
Particularly noteworthy are the articles in Majorcan, which, unlike in all other Romance languages and dialects (with the exception of Sardinian), go back to Latin IPSE, IPSA and not to Latin ILLE, ILLA: es, s (masc.), Sa, s (fem.) <lat. IPSE, IPSA, cf. also sard. su , sa "the", "the". In the verbal inflection, the 1st Ps. Sg. Should be emphasized, which corresponds to the verb stem: Latin CANTO> mallork. cant but kat. (Default): canto . The vocabulary also shows some similarities to the Galloromania: cercar "seek" (cf. French chercher , Italian cercare ) but cat./ Spanish buscar , qualque "some" (cf. French quelque , Italian qualche ) but cat ./ Spanish algun .
In Valencian it is noticeable that the final -r (also in the infintive) is spoken in contrast to standard Catalan. The 1st Ps. Sg. Present tense of the verb reads in -e: cante instead of canto "I sing".
- Languages in France
- Languages in Mallorca
- List of Catalan-Spanish place names in the Catalan-speaking area
- The national anthem of Catalonia
- Günter Holtus , Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (Hrsg.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics . 12 volumes. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988-2005; Volume V, 2: Occitan, Catalan. 1991.
- José Hualde: Catalan. Routledge, London 2005.
- Artur Quintana: Manual of Catalan. 4th edition. Editorial Barcino, Barcelona 1997, ISBN 84-7226-671-0 .
- Max Wheeler: Catalan. In: Martin Harris, Nigel Vincent: The Romance languages. Routledge, London 1988. (Reprinted in 2000). Pp. 170-208.
Dictionaries and grammars
- Lluís C. Batlle, Günter Haensch, Tilbert D. Stegmann, Gabriele Woith: Diccionari Català - Alemany / Catalan - German dictionary. 1060 pages, Barcelona 1991 (Enciclopèdia Catalana), ISBN 84-7739-259-5 .
- 2nd expanded and updated edition, 1072 pages, Barcelona 2005, ISBN 84-412-1399-2 .
- Lluís C. Batlle, Günter Haensch, (Eckhard Kockers, Tilbert D. Stegmann from 3rd edition): Diccionari Alemany - Català / German - Catalan dictionary , 659 pages, Barcelona 1993 (= Enciclopèdia Catalana ), ISBN 84-85194-18- 7 .
- 3rd edition, 834 pages, Barcelona 2006, ISBN 84-412-1452-2 .
- Diccionari Català - Alemany / German - Catalan dictionary. (edited by the editors of the Enciclopèdia Catalana, director: Marc Sagristà i Artigas), 551 pages (small dictionary), Barcelona 1996 (Enciclopèdia Catalana), ISBN 84-412-2574-5 (Obsolete. 1998 replaced by Diccionari Bàsic Català – Alemany, Alemany – Català. Latest edition 2008.)
- Andrea Rienitz: Diccionari Català - Alemany / Alemany - Català. (Diccionaris Arimany), 187 pages (small dictionary), Barcelona 1991, ISBN 84-404-6197-6 .
- Langenscheidt's Universal Dictionary Catalan (Catalan - German / German - Catalan) (edited by the editorial team of Enciclopèdia Catalana, headed by Marc Sagristà i Artigas), Berlin / Munich / Barcelona 1996 and 2000 (Langenscheidt / Enciclopèdia Catalana), 553 pages (small dictionary ), ISBN 3-468-18394-1 (out of print, no new edition)
- Institut d'Estudis Catalans : Diccionari de la llengua catalana . First edition (DIEC): 1908 pages, Barcelona / Palma / València 1995, ISBN 84-412-2477-3 . Second edition (DIEC2): 1762 pages, 2007, ISBN 978-84-297-5977-8 . This purely Catalan-language work has normative power and in a sense represents the counterpart to the German Duden.
- Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana: Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana (GDLC). 1824 pages, ISBN 978-84-412-2790-3 . This work is the most extensive dictionary of the Catalan language. Among other things, it contains all entries of the DIEC.
- Institut d'Estudis Catalans : Gramàtica de la llengua catalana . 1st edition, Barcelona, November 2016, ISBN 978-84-9965-316-7 , 1438 pages
- Jenny Brumme: Practical grammar of the Catalan language, Wilhelmsfeld 1997, Gottfried Egert Verlag, ISBN 3-926972-53-X , 430 pages
- Mini portrait Catalan (PDF 343.74 kB)
- - Plataforma per la llengua
- - Homepage of the German Association of Catalans
- - Catalan Studies Homepage of the University of Frankfurt
- - Free online version of the Enciclopèdia Catalana multilingual dictionary
- - Diccionari català-valencià-balear (the DCVB or Alcover after its author ; a 10-volume, monolingual, Catalan dictionary on the Internet)
- - Free GPL German-Catalan dictionary
- - Comprehensive, free online language course
- Són bojos, aquests catalans !? cat. Are they crazy, the Catalans !? - Video (German subtitles) - YouTube
(The short references refer to the works in the literature list above)
- Catalan. In: Ethnologue. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- In her work Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft , Bußmann mentions that Catalan can be seen as a “transition zone” between the Gallo-Roman and Ibero-Roman languages. Hadumod Bußmann : Lexicon of Linguistics (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 452). 2nd, completely revised edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-520-45202-2 .
- Artículo 5b de la Ley de uso, protección y promoción de las lenguas y modalidades lingüísticas propias de Aragón. Retrieved June 3, 2013 (Spanish).
- El 'lapao' y el 'lapapyp', las nuevas lenguas oficiales de Aragón. Antena 3.com, May 9, 2013, accessed May 3, 2013 (Spanish).
- Aragó aprova la llei segons la qual i català Aragonès deixen de dir-se Aixi. (No longer available online.) Europapress.cat, May 9, 2013, archived from the original on February 28, 2014 ; Retrieved May 19, 2013 (Catalan).
- Poems from 1415 by Oswald von Wolkenstein with Catalan influences. In: welovebarcelona.de. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Institut d´Estadística de Catalunya, Enquesta d´usos lingüístics de la població 2008 ( Catalan ) (PDF; 7.0 MB)
- Wheeler (1988), p. 178
- from Wheeler 1988: 305
- z. B. Wheeler 1988, p. 197; Hualde 2005, p. 96.
- Data from Hualde 2005, pp. 97–98.
- Hualde 2005, p. 96, translated from English
- RosseIló, J. (1986): Gramàtica, configuracions i referència: per una alternativa del pro-drop romànic. Dissertation, Universitat de Barcelona.
- Contreras, H. (1991) 'On the Position of Subjects' in SD Rothstein (ed.): Perspectives on Phrase Structure: Heads and Licensing (= Syntax and Semantics, 25), Academic Press, New York.
- Vallduvì, E. (1993): "Catalan as VOS: evidence from information packaging. In: Perissinotto, G., et al. (Eds): Linguistic Perspectives on the Romance Languages . John Benjamin, Amsterdam / Philadelphia. Pp. 335 -350.
- Röntgen, Karl-Heinz: Introduction to the Catalan language , Romanistsicher Verlag, Bonn, 4th edition, 2000, page 90