Dante Alighieri

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Portrait of Dante Alighieri , Sandro Botticelli , around 1495

Dante Alighieri ( Italian [ ˈdante aliˈɡi̯ɛːri ] Italian pronunciation ? / I ; * May or June 1265 in Florence , † September 14, 1321 in Ravenna ) was an Italian poet and philosopher . With the Divine Comedy, which was written in Old Italian (or Tuscan), he overcame the previously dominant Latin and led Italian to a literary language . Dante is one of the most famous poets of theAudio file / audio sample Italian literature as well as the European Middle Ages .


Dante's biography is not extensively documented in contemporary sources and can therefore often only be inferred from literary statements or allusions in his works. On the other hand, the prominence is evident in the considerable space that the contemporary Giovanni Villani granted him in his Nuova Cronica on the occasion of death.

Origin and family

Casa di Dante in Florence

Dante was born in Florence . The "House Dante" (Casa di Dante) visited by tourists today was built at the approximate location of the house where he was actually born, but structurally has nothing in common with it. The date of Dante's birth is not certain. According to his own account in the Commedia he was the fictitious date of his next world tour, Holy Week in 1300, about 35 years old and was under the sign of the twins born, so a date of birth between 14 (18) May 13 (17 .) June 1265 would result. In several manuscripts of the Commedia that are important in text history , 1260 is instead given as the year of birth. On the other hand, the date of his baptism on Holy Saturday (March 26, 1266) is considered certain, which would speak against the correctness of the year of birth 1260 mentioned in the manuscripts. He was baptized according to the consistent statements of Filippo Villanis and Dante's son Jacopo Alighieri with the name Durante , which was then shortened to Dante in the pronunciation . The surname Alighieri, which is documented in the most varied of spelling variants, goes back to the father Alighiero II. And the grandfather Alighiero I and was also continued by Dante's sons.

His family, whose nobility seems to be due to the ancestor Cacciaguida (* 1091) who met in Paradiso , the great-great-grandfather of Dante on his father's side, and whose participation in the Second Crusade , belonged to the Guelfish -minded city nobility. (The Alighieri family named themselves after their wife Cacciaguidas). Dante's father Alighiero II worked, among other things, as a moneylender. His first marriage was to Dante's mother Bella and after her early death (between 1270 and 1273) he was married to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi and died in 1281/1282. Dante passed his parents and stepmother over in silence in his work, as did his wife Gemma di Manetto Donati (dowry contract 1270, marriage around 1285) and the four children from this relationship, his sons Pietro, Giovanni and, named after the three preferred apostles of Christ Jacopo and his daughter Antonia.

His relationship with Beatrice, whom he met for the first time at the age of nine at the age of nine, and after another nine years (in 1283) awakened a pure and ideal love in him, and who over her untimely death (1290), is attested only in literary terms through his works. determined his life. The artful veiling (Provencal velar ) of the identity of the beloved has been one of the common strategies of medieval love poetry since the Provencal trobadors , who were worshiped by Dante, and is justified by Dante in Vita nova through the narrative that he was another lady to mislead the audience pretended worship, illustrated very impressively. The identity of Beatrice, in which Bice Portinari , a daughter of the rich merchant and neighbor of the Dante Folco Portinari family , has often been recognized since Boccaccio , is just as controversial in Dante research as the question of whether Beatrice is a historical person at all or just existed as Dante's literary fiction.


Painting by Giotto di Bondone in the chapel of the Bargello Palace in Florence. This is the oldest portrait of Dante, it was painted even before he left his hometown for exile.

It is not known with certainty how and at which training centers Dante acquired his unusual education and scholarship. From his poems and Vita nova it can be seen that he was in literary contact early on with highly cultivated vernacular poets such as Guido Cavalcanti and Cino da Pistoia . In the Inferno he presents Brunetto Latini as a kind of teacher, which in later research led to some embellishments, but may have an actual background, as Dante was important of the works of Brunetto Latini and his general endeavors to popularize Latin scholarship in the vernacular Received suggestions.

In the convivio , Dante mentions that at times he attended “ le scuole de li religiosi, e le disputazioni de li filosofanti ”, ie “the schools of the monks and the disputations of the philosophers”. What is meant is a Studium generale at the Dominican and Franciscan schools in Florence, where important teachers such as Remigius Girolami and Petrus Johannis Olivi worked in his time . His commentators have also accepted study visits to the universities of Bologna and (since Boccaccio) Paris , which can be seen as possible, but is not backed up by historically reliable evidence. In any case, due to the style and style of his Latin works and also of the Convivio, it is very likely that Dante attended university , even if he can be said to have special autodidactic abilities.

Political career in Florence

Statue in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Dante's life was characterized by the political conflicts that were current at the time. He took part in the fight of the Guelfan militia in the Battle of Campaldino (1289-1290), in which the Florentine Guelphs inflicted a heavy defeat on the Ghibellines, who had come to power in Arezzo and Pisa in the previous two years , and in the capture of the Caprona fortress . His actual active participation in the political conflicts in his hometown was not documented until a few years later. In 1295, Dante enrolled in the guild of pharmacists and doctors, thereby creating a formal requirement for being able to take on political office. From November 1, 1295 to April 30, 1296 he is a member of the council of the Capitano del Popolo (roughly "City Governor"), from May to September 1296 he is a member of the Council of Hundred , 1297 a member of another, this time not exactly determinable advice. In May 1300 he was on a diplomatic mission in San Gimignano , and from June 15 to August 15, 1300 he was one of six members of the Priory, the city's highest body. From April 1 to September 30, 1301 he was again a member of the Council of Hundred, and in October / November 1301 he was presumably in Rome as a member of an embassy to negotiate with Pope Boniface VIII .

Italy was torn at this time by violent political battles between the partisans of Ghibellines and Guelphs , the former, to put it very simply, representing the claims of the emperor and the latter those of the pope. The lines of conflict ran not only between Italian cities, but also within the city-states. In Florence, around 1300, the Guelphs split up into compromise-ready “whites” (led by the Cerchi), who campaigned for the city to be autonomous from the Pope, and “blacks” (led by the Donati), who pursued an uncompromising policy towards the emperor represented. During the time of Dante's political office, the events in Florence took on a turbulent development, and there had been new shifts and divisions in the mixed situation between the parties, which from today's point of view was hardly manageable.

On the occasion of a visit by the papal legate Matteo d'Acquasparta , unrest broke out in the summer of 1300, and Dante and his co-regents in the priory, contrary to the legate's express wishes, not only banished representatives of the whites, including Dante's friend Guido Cavalcanti, but also Representatives of the blacks, including their leader Corso Donati . Florence was then the excommunication occupied, and the Pope called Charles of Valois as a "peacemaker" to Italy to make use of the Black papal sovereignty over Florence and Tuscany incorporate once and for all the Papal States. On November 1, 1301, Charles moved into Florence, and the blacks who invaded with him took revenge on their opponents in the city, and Dante's house is also said to have been destroyed.

On January 27, 1302, Dante was sentenced in absentia to a fine and expulsion from public office. Since he stayed away from Florence and did not pay the fine, his property remaining in the city was subject to confiscation . In March 1302 he and 14 other whites were sentenced to death by burning if he returned to the city or if he was otherwise arrested. His wife did not follow him into exile, while his sons had to leave Florence at the age of 13.


Cenotaph in the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence

External documents are almost completely missing for the years of exile , on the other hand Dante's work is so rich in allusions to places, people and contemporary processes that biographically oriented research has opened up an inexhaustible field for more or less plausible assumptions about Dante's further life. apart from the fact that hardly any town or small town in Italy would want to do without the honor of having been visited by Dante once. It is likely that from 1302 he stayed mainly in northern and central Italy and temporarily in Verona with Bartolomeo della Scala (1303/1304), in Treviso with Gerardo da Camina (1304-1306) and in the Lunigiana (an area in Massa Carrara in the north of Tuscany) was received and supported by the Counts Malaspina (1306 and a.).

The Luxembourgish Henry VII, who was crowned Roman-German King in Aachen in January 1309 and enthusiastically welcomed by Dante as the savior of Italy and world empire, went to Italy in October 1310. In several northern Italian cities he tried to pacify the warring parties and restore the rights of the Roman-German Empire. Dante himself might have met the future emperor personally, or at least he was addressing his seventh letter to him. Henry was crowned emperor in Rome on June 29, 1312, but the conflict between him and the papacy and the king of Naples, Robert of Anjou , had already flared up. Henry's resources were limited, and a siege of Florence failed in the autumn of that year (Dante had already urged Henry to take action against Florence before the imperial coronation).

Dante's tomb in Ravenna

After Heinrich's death (on August 24, 1313), whom he stylized as alto Arrigo in his Divine Comedy , Dante's political hopes were dashed. Dante turned down a shameful offer from his hometown to be allowed to return to Florence on payment of a fine and public atonement, whereupon his condemnation was renewed (October 15, 1315). In the following period he seems to have stayed temporarily again in Verona at the Scala court and from 1318 in Ravenna with Guido Novello da Polenta . During a mission on behalf of Guido in Venice, he fell ill and died on his return on the night of September 13-14, 1321 in Ravenna; he is buried there to this day. The city of Florence tried several times over the centuries to bury Dante in the city, which led to a heated argument between Ravenna and Florence. In Florence in 1829 a monumental cenotaph was built for him in the Basilica of Santa Croce .

Dante as a writer and philosopher

Dante's work confidently draws on the theology, philosophy and the other sciences ( artes liberales ) of his time. It artfully refers to models in Italian, Provencal, Old French, and Latin poetry. Dante combines erudition and literary education with a high degree of independence in intellectual appropriation and in linguistic and poetic expression.

Like no other poet before him, he places his own person as a lover and sufferer, as a wanderer and a learner, at the center of his works. He does not simply express himself in a confessional manner and does not simply make himself a chronicler of his personal development, but rather stylizes the ego of his works - their lyrical, narrative or instructive self and the experience it brings to the language - according to precise intended effects in the framework an "autofiction" (Hausmann) developed from work to work.

He combines this approach with the high ethical claim to offer the reader, the political society and even the church of his time a mirror for self-knowledge and a model on the way to improvement. For him, the goal of this path is personal (as well as political and ecclesiastical) in conformity with the divine world order, as it is revealed, according to his conviction, in the Bible and its inspired interpretation by the early teachers of the church , and partly also in the works the ancient poet ( Virgil ) and philosopher ( Aristotle ) is mapped out.



The lyric poems by Dante, written around 1283, are referred to as rime . There are around 90 poems on various topics, the majority of them on the subject of love, plus 30 more (rime dubbie) , of which Dante's authorship is doubtful. Dante took over individual poems or groups in the Vita nova and the Convivio and explained them there, but otherwise, as far as is known, did not put together a large collection of his poems himself. The main genres encountered are sonnet and kanzone , as well as ballad and sestine .

Dante's early poetry ties in with the Occitan trobadord poetry and its Italian imitators in the Scuola Siciliana and is primarily indebted to Guittone d'Arezzo among his contemporaries . Together with younger poet colleagues such as Guido Cavalcanti , Dino Frescobaldi and Cino da Pistoia , Dante developed a style that is referred to with a term he coined as Dolce Stil Novo and in which the theme of love - the divine power of Cupid and the lady who gives the lover leads to the divine - philosophically exaggerated and presented with sought-after means of linguistic and rhetorical enigma for a small elite of knowledgeable like-minded people. In terms of content, due to their deviation from the ideal of "high minne", the crude obscene Tenzone with Forese Donati (Rime 73–78) and the so-called Rime petrose (Rime 100–103), the latter a group of four poems which singing about unfulfilled desires for a donna Petra , which is apostrophized as "stone" because of her inaccessibility , and increasing to a fantasy of violent sexual satisfaction.

Vita nova

The work, which is titled in the text itself by an embedded Latin phrase as vita nova ( Incipit vita nova : "It begins the new life"), in research mostly cited in Italian as Vita n uo va , was created between 1292 and 1295 and presents itself as an autobiographical, From the “Book of Remembrance”, as it were, a copied story of the inner changes that the narrator went through in the wake of his first childlike encounter with Beatrice, whom he has since adored beyond death. The stylization of one's own passion with dream faces, impotence and conversion experiences, but especially the transfiguration of Beatrice into a redeeming figure with Christ-like attributes, applies style patterns from the spiritual and hagiographic tradition to one's own biography in a highly unusual way. The work is dedicated to the primo amico Guido Cavalcanti , the audience is primarily intended to be the "Faithful Cupids " (fedeli d'Amore) in the sense of dolce stil novo , including women, provided they have the necessary (soul) Nobility and understanding for love (intendimento d'Amore) are endowed and are not “just women” ( e che non pure sono femmine , Vn 19,1).

Formally it is a prosimetrum , i. H. A composition alternating between prose and text, which has a formal model, especially in the Consolatio philosophiae by Boethius , but was also inspired by the song manuscripts of the Occitan Trobadors , in which the songs of the Trobadors are retrospectively embellished with anecdotal stories (razos) of theirs Life circumstances and love stories were explained. The Vita nova takes up 31 lyrical poems by Dante (25 sonnets or double sonnets, 5 kanzonen or kanzonenstanzen, a ballad) and provides them with divisioni (explanatory structures of the content) and ragioni (narrative narratives of the conditions of creation) in the prose parts . The division of the entire work into 42 or 43 chapters, which is common today, is not authentic. H. not guaranteed by the manuscripts, but goes back to the first printing of 1576 and the edition by Alessandro Torri (1842).


Il Convivio , approx. 1303–1306 ( German  Gastmahl , 1845) is an unfinished but extensive treatise in Old Italian in its Tuscan version on the use of philosophical wisdom based on some comments on Dante's canzones .

De vulgari eloquentia

De vulgari eloquentia , ca.1304 (German Two Books on the Expressive Power of Folk Language , 1845) is an unfinished treatise on the use of spoken language in high (or tragic) style poems.


Dante in a series of frescoes by Andrea del Castagno , ca.1450 ( Uffizi )

De Monarchia libri tres (German three books on the monarchy ), Dante's main philosophical work, preserved in 21 manuscripts (one of which can no longer be found since 1950) and an early print from 1559, is a political treatise that the divine determination of the Roman Empire World domination and its independence in worldly matters from the domination of the Pope, which is restricted to the spiritual, wants to prove. The dating of the work is controversial: The creation is partly associated with the conflict between Henry VII and Clemens V and then set as 1308/09 ( Bruno Nardi ) or 1310/12 (Gustavo Vinay), or one goes, among other things because the first book already refers to the Paradiso , from a later date such as 1317 and then assigns it to the beginning dispute between John XXII. and Ludwig to Bavaria .


As Eclogae refers to a correspondence in four Latin hexameter poems 1319/20 between Giovanni del Virgilio were exchanged and Dante on the question whether Dante as Giovanni del Virgilio accuses him of his talent in the vernacular poetry of the common people of Italy only wasting instead of gaining fame among scholars of all countries and times with Latin poems. Dante's two response poems are written as role poems in dialogue form in the bucolic style of Virgil's eclogues and, despite their negative attitude in terms of content, demonstrate Dante's mastery through an art exercise that foreshadows the humanistic poetry of the following two centuries, which was only just emerging. The exchange of poems has therefore sometimes been suspected of being a later forgery by Giovanni Boccaccio , with which the latter aimed at a kind of humanistic salvation of Dante's honor.

Quaestio de aqua et terra

The Quaestio de situ et forma aquae et terrae ("Investigation of the position and shape of water and earth") is a lecture that Dante gave on January 20, 1320 in the Chapel of Saint Helena in Verona on an issue that had previously arisen in Mantua . This study, which sees itself as a scientifically oriented (non est extra materiam naturalem) work of philosophy, deals with the question of why the earth, as the lowest of the four elements, is not completely covered by water.

Commedia (also La divina commedia )

Dante and his famous epic ( fresco by Domenico di Michelino in Santa Maria del Fiore , Florence 1465)

Dante's best-known work is the Divine Comedy , written around 1307-1320 . Originally simply titled Commedia , which referred to the happy ending of the story, the Italian language and the changeable style of the work, the title was extended to Divina Commedia after Dante's death by his admirer Giovanni Boccaccio , with the epithet "divine" merely referring to the work is intended to commend and is not related to the content.

Lucifer torments the three traitors Judas , Brutus and Cassius . Dante, Commedia , 14th century, Italy (Codex Altonensis, ex Bibliotheca Gymnasii Altonani, Hamburg)

The work depicts his journey through hell ( Inferno ) , to the Cleansing Mountain ( Purgatorio ), all the way to paradise (Paradiso) . Hell and Paradise are each divided into layers (in nine concentric circles each ). The closer one gets to the smaller circles, the more sinful or holier the dead souls are. The divine comedy is also seen today as the main poetic symbol of scholasticism . This made Dante so famous that a fresco was created in his honor in one of the main churches in Florence in the 15th century , which is shown here.


A number of Latin and in some cases also vernacular letters have been attributed to Dante over the centuries, twelve of which are believed to be authentic in Latin . In a thirteenth letter, the so-called dedication letter to Cangrande, in which the author dedicates the Paradiso to the Cangrande della Scala and offers a commentary introduction to the work, Dante's authorship is controversial. The letter was partly accepted in full and partly only in the dedication part as a product of Dante, or else wanted to reject it completely as a forgery. In addition to historical and stylistic reasons, the main reasons for the rejection were content-related objections to the method of multiple allegorical textual interpretation mentioned in the comment section of the letter.

Fiore and Detto d'Amore

Il Fiore ("The Flower") is a narrative allegorical poem in 232 sonnets, based on the two parts of the old French rose novel (completed around 1280) and in a single Tuscan copy close to the autograph in the manuscript H 438 of the University Library of Montpellier is preserved. The author calls himself (ser) Durante in two places , that is, with a name common in Romania, the syncopated pet form of which the name Dante was already used in Dante's own time . Whether Dante is the author or perhaps borrowed individual verses of Fiore from the Vita Nuova or the Commedia is the subject of the research discussion. Linguistically, the work shows a not uncommon for the Italian literature of the Dante period, but otherwise not to be found in Dante's works to this degree by the Old French and can be dated to the period from about 1285-1290 due to contemporary historical references. The attribution of the work to the young Dante, which was rejected by Michele Barbi and others and since then particularly represented by Gianfranco Contini , is one of the particularly contentious problems of Dante research. New perspectives for the study of this question have been made recently by the thesis of Maurizio Palma di Cesnola that as a writer native of southern France, particularly Latin as the author of compilations for Dekretalistik and liturgy known lawyer Guillaume Durand had to watch the in Modena as Professor worked, held various offices at the Roman Curia since 1263, ruled as the highest papal provincial official (Rector) of Romagna from 1284–1285 and died in Rome in 1296 as Bishop of Mende (from 1286). On the other hand, Domenico De Robertis does not necessarily infer a non-Italian based on the linguistic characteristics.

The Detto d'Amore ("Poem about love" or about Cupid) is a didactic poem in 480 pair-rhymed seven-syllables , which is preserved in four leaves from the same manuscript in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence. Since it is assumed that both works come from the same author, the authorship of the young Dante is also up for discussion for the Detto .


Dante pleading with Emperor Heinrich VII , illustration by Hermann Plüddemann in the journal Die Gartenlaube , 1865
Gustav Klimt : Dante bust in old Italian art , in the staircase of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (1891)

No other poet before and after Dante was commented on so often, so extensively and with such an expenditure of erudition, a development that began shortly after his death with the glossing and public commentary on the Commedia . His own sons and, since the middle of the 14th century, Giovanni Boccaccio have also contributed to it, including through the Trattatello in laude di Dante . The humanism and the Renaissance emerging in Italy at this time received Dante's work partly with critical rejection, but also with admiration for his supposed anticipation of their own guiding principles.

In more recent times, Dante's rediscovery was initially under the sign of a romantic interest in the Middle Ages and the appropriation of his work for the development of a new political and cultural self- image of the Italian nation emerging in the Risorgimento . Progressive as well as conservative or reactionary, Catholic as well as Protestant, but also esoteric or anti-church milieus have claimed Dante for their purposes and added some distortions to the understanding of his work.

For the scientific constitution of Dante philology and Dante research, German, English and, more recently, American researchers have provided significant impulses since the 19th century. Research has been able to clear up many misunderstandings, but has also passed on some bias in the pre- and non-scientific operations to the present day.

The asteroid of the inner main belt (2999) Dante and the lunar crater Dante are named after him.

Statues, monuments and coins (selection)

Editions and translations

  • 1 sonnet. 30 translations. Ed. Judith Kasper, Andrea Renker and Fabien Vitali. Turia & Kant, Vienna 2021. ISBN 978-3-98514-005-3
  • The letter to Cangrande. Latin-German, ed. by Thomas Ricklin . Meiner, Hamburg 1993. ISBN 978-3-7873-1124-8
  • Disputation on water and earth. Latin-German, transl. and ed. by Dominik Perler . Meiner, Hamburg 1994. ISBN 978-3-7873-1125-5
  • About eloquence in the vernacular. Latin-German, transl. by Francis Cheneval. Meiner, Hamburg 2007. ISBN 978-3-7873-1126-2
  • The feast. Book I. Introduction. Italian-German, transl. by Thomas Ricklin. Meiner, Hamburg 1996. ISBN 978-3-7873-1298-6
  • The feast. Book II. Italian-German, trans. by Thomas Ricklin. Meiner, Hamburg 1996. ISBN 978-3-7873-1299-3
  • The feast. Book III. Italian-German, transl. by Thomas Ricklin. Meiner, Hamburg 1998. ISBN 978-3-7873-1300-6
  • The feast. Book IV. Italian-German, trans. by Thomas Ricklin. Meiner, Hamburg 2004. ISBN 978-3-7873-1302-0
  • Dante, The Divine Comedy . Italian and German. Translation and commentary by Hermann Gmelin . 3 volumes and commentaries. Velcro-Cotta, 1954.
    • Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy . Translated by Hermann Gmelin. (1954) With notes and an afterword by Rudolf Baehr . Reclam, Stuttgart 1987 (= Universal Library. 796), ISBN 3-15-000796-8 .
  • The Divine Comedy . German by Ida and Walther von Wartburg , with 48 illustrations by Gustave Doré , Manesse Verlag, Zurich 1963, ISBN 3-7175-1086-X
  • La Commedia / The Divine Comedy . I. Inferno / Hell, Reclam, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-15-010750-8 .
    La Commedia / The Divine Comedy. II. Purgatorio / Läuterungsberg. Reclam, Stuttgart 2011. ISBN 978-3-15-010795-9 .
    La Commedia / The Divine Comedy. III. Paradiso / paradise. Reclam, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-15-010796-6 . - Three volumes together: ISBN 978-3-15-030045-9 (bilingual editions in the Reclam Library series , new translation and commentary by Hartmut Köhler ).
  • Dante, Commedia . In German prose by Kurt Flasch . With drawings by Ruth Gesser. 2 vols. (Vol. 2 under the title: Kurt Flasch, invitation to read Dante ), S. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 2011, ISBN 978-3-10-015339-5 .
  • Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy , translation by Hans Werner Sokop in original terzines with explanations. 100 pictures by Fritz Karl Wachtmann. Akad. Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 2014, ISBN 978-3-201-01994-1 .
  • Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy . Staged reading, speaker Till Firit , translation by Hans Werner Sokop. Audio CD, ISBN 978-3-903020-13-9 .


  • The Bibliografia dantesca internazionale is a joint open access database of the Società Dantesca Italiana and the Dante Society of America. Its aim is the most complete and ongoing collection of all literature relating to Dante.
  • Francis Cheneval: The reception of the Monarchia Dantes up to the Editio princeps in 1559. Metamorphoses of a philosophical work (= humanistic library. Series 1: Treatises. Volume 47). Fink, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7705-3047-0 .
  • Siro A. Chimenz:  Alighieri, Dante. In: Alberto M. Ghisalberti (Ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 2:  Albicante – Ammannati. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 1960.
  • E. Gigas: Dante (egl. Durante), af Slægten Alighieri . In: Christian Blangstrup, Jens Braage Halvorsen (ed.): Salmonsens store illustrerede Konversationsleksikon. En nordisk Encyklopædi . 1st edition. tape 4 : Canadian River – Dase . Brødrene Salmonsen, Copenhagen 1895, p. 1119–1125 (Danish, rosekamp.dk [PDF]).
  • Ralf Jeremias: Reason and Charisma. The founding of political theory in Dante and Machiavelli - in the view of Max Weber (= Konstanzer Schriften zur Sozialwissenschaft. Volume 66). Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 2005, ISBN 3-86628-004-1 (also: Konstanz, University, dissertation, 2003).
  • Robert L. John: Dante. Springer, Vienna 1946, (also later paperbacks).
  • Kurt Leonhard: Dante. With personal testimonials and picture documents (= Rororo 50167 Rowohlt's monographs ). 9th edition, 36th – 37th edition Thousand. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-499-50167-8 .
  • Karl Maurer : Phylosophie domesticus et predicans iustitiam. The political self-image of the poet Dante. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller , Karl Stackmann (eds.): Life lessons and world designs in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Politics - Education - Natural History - Theology. Report on colloquia of the commission for research into the culture of the late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen: philological-historical class. Volume III, No. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7 , pp. 9-51.
  • Bruno Nardi: Dal “Convivio” alla “Commedia”. (Sei saggi danteschi) (= Studi storici. Fasc. 35/39, ISSN  0391-8475 ). Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo, Rome 1960.
  • Bruno Nardi: Dante e la cultura medievale. Nuovi saggi di filosofia dantesca (= Biblioteca di cultura moderna. No. 368, ZDB -ID 9804134 ). 2 edizione riveduta e accresciuta. Laterza, Bari 1949.
  • Rudolf Palgen : Dante and Avicenna. In: Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-histor. Great. Volume 88 (12), 1951, pp. 159-172.
  • Ulrich Prill : Dante (= Metzler Collection. Volume 318). Metzler, Stuttgart et al. 1999, ISBN 3-476-10318-8 .
  • Karlheinz Stierle : The great sea of ​​meaning. Hermenautical explorations in Dante's Commedia. Fink, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7705-4026-6 .
  • Karlheinz Stierle: Time and Work. Proust's “À la recherche du temps perdu” and Dante's “Commedia”. Hanser, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-446-23074-3 .
  • Karlheinz Stierle: Dante Alighieri. Poets in exile, poets of the world. Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66816-6 .
  • Winfried Wehle : Poetry about poetry. Dante's "Vita Nuova". The lifting of minstrels in the epic. Fink, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-7705-2427-6 , ku-eichstaett.de (PDF; 6.83 MB).
  • John Took: Dante. Princeton University Press, Princeton / Oxford [2020], ISBN 978-0-691-15404-6 .
  • Winfried Wehle: Return to Eden. About Dante's science of happiness in the "Commedia". In: German Dante Yearbook. Volume 78, 2003, pp. 13-66, doi: 10.1515 / dante-2003-0103 , ku-eichstaett.de (PDF; 306 kB).
  • Heinz Willi Wittschier : Dante's "Divina Commedia". Introduction and manual. Narrated transcendence (= basics of Italian studies. Volume 4). Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 2004, ISBN 3-631-38401-7 .
  • Heinz Willi Wittschier: Dante's “Convivio”. Introduction and manual. Written immanence (= basics of Italian studies. Volume 9). Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-55044-1 .

See also the information in the article of the " BBKL " or the " Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy " (see web links). Important information can also be found in the Lexicon of the Middle Ages (Article Dante , various authors, Volume 3, Col. 544 ff.) And in the Encyclopedia Philosophy and Philosophy of Science (Thorsten Gubatz, Article Dante , Volume 2. Metzler, Stuttgart & Weimar 2005 [2 . Ed.], Pp. 108-115).

Web links

Commons : Dante Alighieri  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Biographies and information about the work

Research companies and projects

Texts and illustrations available online

Wikisource: Dante Alighieri  - Sources and full texts
Wikisource: Dante Alighieri  - Sources and full texts (Latin)


  1. Alighiero ( it ) In: Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia . Rai . Retrieved April 19, 2014 .; Max Mangold : Duden, pronunciation dictionary (= Der Duden. Volume 6). 6th, revised and updated edition. Dudenverlag, Mannheim et al. 2005, ISBN 3-411-04066-1 .
  2. Rudolf Baehr: Afterword. In: Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy. Translated by Hermann Gmelin. (1954) With notes and an afterword by Rudolf Baehr . Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1987 (= Universal Library. Volume 796), ISBN 3-15-000796-8 , pp. 533-541, here: p. 533.
  3. Rudolf Baehr: Afterword. In: Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy. Translated by Hermann Gmelin. (1954) With notes and an afterword by Rudolf Baehr . Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1987 (= Universal Library. Volume 796), ISBN 3-15-000796-8 , pp. 533-541, here: p. 534.
  4. Dante Alighieri: life data. German Dante Society
  5. ^ Guglielmo Gorni: Dante prima della "Commedia" (= Letteratura italiana antica. Saggi. 1). Cadmo, Florence 2001, ISBN 88-7923-232-0 , pp. 254 f .; Michele Scherillo: Il nome di Dante. In: Journal for Romance Philology . Volume 20, 1896, pp. 15-26, here p. 23, digizeitschriften.de (PDF; 1.31 MB).
  6. Domenico De Robertis: Dal primo all'ultimo Dante (= Studi danteschi. Quaderni. 13). Le Lettere, Florenz 2001, ISBN 88-7166-568-6 , p. 49 ff., P. 62.
  7. See also Gotthard Strohmaier : Dante, il maladetto fiore and the Orient. In: From Democritus to Dante. Preserving ancient heritage in Arab culture. Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 1996 (= Olms Studies. Volume 43), pp. 487–498.
  8. Maurizio Palma di Cesnola: Questioni dantesche. Fiore, Monarchia, Commedia. Longo, Ravenna 2003, ISBN 88-8063-368-6 , p. 30 ff.
  9. Domenico De Robertis: Dal primo all'ultimo Dante (= Studi danteschi. Quaderni. 13). Le Lettere, Florenz 2001, ISBN 88-7166-568-6 , p. 57 f.
  10. ^ Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed September 30, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1981 CY. Discovered 1981 Feb. 6 by NG Thomas at Anderson Mesa. "
  11. bibliografia.dantesca.it