|Residents||85,760 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1,559 inhabitants / km²|
|Popular name||Trevigiani or Trevisani|
|Patron saint||San Liberals|
Treviso , in Venetian Trevixo [ tre'vizo ], is the capital and administrative seat of the province of the same name in the Veneto region . The city has 85,760 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) and is about 40 kilometers northeast of Padua and about 30 kilometers north of Venice .
Antiquity and the Middle Ages
In prehistoric times there was a Bronze Age settlement in the same place. The city of Tarvisium was founded in 49 BC. BC Roman municipium (recognition of city rights). In 396 the existence of the bishopric is mentioned for the first time.
Under the Goths and later the Lombards , who made Treviso a duchy (first documented in 602), the city experienced its first heyday. In 539 the Eastern Roman general Belisarius succeeded in briefly recapturing Treviso in the course of the conquest of the Ostrogoth Empire, but in 540 they were conquered again by the Goths. In 568 or 569 the city became Lombard, like most of northern Italy. In 602, after the Lombards had conquered Padua , the diocese was able to expand its jurisdiction into Paduan territory.
Under the Carolingians , Treviso became the capital of a mark with its own coin in the 9th century. In 777 Fortunatus became bishop, who sided with the Franks and fought against Byzantine influence. A county of Treviso is mentioned for the first time in a document from Louis the Pious in 815; Fortunatus had to go into exile in 820. The city received the right to mint and was the seat of the county, which was reduced in size in 828. Treviso was destroyed by Hungarians around 900 , on January 9, 905 the Bishop of Berengar I received the right to collect customs duties and taxes at the port. The county seat was moved from Berengar to Verona .
In Treviso, the Collalto family was dominant and traced back to Longobard roots. But the feudal fragmentation of the rule meant that other noble families, such as the Da Romano , were able to enforce their dominance in the area between Brenta , Musone and Valdobbiadene . Finally, the Da Romano and the Camposampiero gained dominance in the city and its surroundings alongside the bishop and the chapter . Below this layer, a service aristocracy increasingly established itself , which appeared in Treviso primarily as Avogadro . Initially the dei Tempesta rose, but the family died out. Ultimately, the Azzoni took the lead in the office, which had long been hereditary and was bestowed for life. The aristocratic families of Franconian, Lombard and Roman provincial origins increasingly mixed in the High Middle Ages . The Valvassors rose against the Capitani, the newer families against the old.
Emperor Otto III. 999 met next to numerous bishops and other greats of the empire, among them Count Raimbald von Treviso. Otto rejected their demands against Venice and instructed Bishop Rozo of Treviso to change his behavior. In doing so, the diocese recognized Venice's claim to Heracliana.
Pope Eugene III. tried in a bull to lay down the ownership of the diocese and to decree a clearer administration. This is how the four administrative units Cornuda, Mestre, Quinto and Godego came into being, which were subordinate to archpriests . Treviso was recognized as a free commune by Friedrich Barbarossa in 1164 . But in the same year the city joined the Lombard League and fought against the emperor in the Battle of Legnano .
Between the struggles for spiritual and secular rule, between old and new aristocratic groups, the commune held its own as early as the 12th century. It was run by Consoli from around 1150 to 1216 , and from 1176 a podestà was added, which was mostly brought from abroad. Internal administration and power-sharing was based on four quarters (Oltrecagnan, Riva, Mezzò, Dom), which in turn were divided into municipalities. These consisted of regole . The municipal statutes were recorded around 1250. The Nova Domus Communis , the Council Palace and the Loggia dei Cavalieri were built , and the city wall was significantly expanded. Franciscans and Dominicans also settled in the city in the 20s and 30s of the 13th century .
In 1214 Treviso allied with Padua against Venice and the war for the Castello d'amore began , which Venice won. The deeper cause was the demand of the Republic of Venice for greater freedom of trade and permeability of the territory of Treviso and Padua.
Ezzelino III. da Romano became Podestà of the city, he allied himself with Frederick II in 1232. But in 1235 the Trevisans drove out the imperial ones. From 1237 the city came under constantly changing foreign rule. The da Romano continued to fight for the Ghibellines, but party changes took place several times. Only the combined armies of Venice, Treviso, Vicenza , Verona, Mantua and the troops of Pope Alexander IV defeated them in 1259 at Cassano d'Adda . Alberico da Romano was captured in 1260 and burned in the Treviso market square. The castles of the Ezzelini were burned down.
But the internal conflicts did not end there. In 1268 Gherardo de 'Castelli murdered his opponent Brancaleone de' Ricchi. On November 15, 1283 the da Camino under the leadership of Gherardo da Camino were able to banish the Castelli. Gherardo was appointed Capitano generale by the Grand Council . He fought the Patriarchate of Aquileia from 1292 to 1296. When Gherardo died in 1306, he was followed by his son Rizzardo, who received the title of Imperial Vicar from Henry VII . In 1312, the Collalto and the Azzoni rose up in a conspiracy against the unrestricted power of Rizzardos. Rizzardo was killed, his brother Guecellone could only hold out for a short time.
At first there seemed to be a rebirth of the commune as it had existed in the 13th century. In 1318 the city was able to repel an attack by Cangrande I della Scala . In 1328 the factional battles intensified and Guecello Tempesta established a dictatorship, which came to an end with the conquest of Cangrande the following year.
In 1339 Venice allied with Florence against Cangrande and also occupied Treviso. In 1344, the city council also formally transferred power to the Republic of Venice. The first Venetian rule in Treviso lasted until 1381.
As an ally of King Louis I of Hungary, Francesco da Carrara of Padua besieged Treviso in 1356 in the fight against Venice. Several Doges made podiums from Treviso during these years before being elected to office. In 1358 Venice was defeated in the Battle of Nervesa, Venice lost Dalmatia to Hungary. Negotiations with Charles IV for the Margraviate of Treviso also ended in favor of Venice. In 1392 the Scaligeri strove to win back Treviso and other cities, just as the city was affected in the Chioggia War . In 1381 Venice, which was besieged by Genoa , was forced to give Treviso as a pledge to Leopold III. by Austria to gain military support. Three years later the Carrara bought Treviso. By means of an uprising in 1388 Venice succeeded in driving out the Carrara and regaining Treviso; However, it fell again briefly to the Carrara in 1392. The city remained Venetian for four centuries. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Treviso and its territory became more economically dependent on Venice, particularly due to the acquisitions of large estates by Venetian patricians.
The fact that Treviso was part of Venice's dominion also meant that it was drawn into wars against the various alliances that were formed against Venice, such as the League of Cambrai . Maximilian I invaded Italy in August 1509 and besieged Padua and Treviso for 40 days. The leader of the defenders in Treviso was Renzo degli Anguillara da Ceri. After the French king, who was allied with the Habsburgs, withdrew on October 15, the imperial troops also ended the siege.
In 1797 the French occupied the city under Mortier , for which Mortier received the title of Duke of Treviso in 1808. The French ceded Treviso to the Austrians in 1798. Here, on January 16, 1801, an armistice between France and Austria took place. In 1803, when the Venetian was reorganized, Treviso became one of the seven provinces, but when Austria ceded the Venetian to the Kingdom of Italy in 1805, Treviso became the capital of the Tagliamento department. On May 5, 1809, a battle between the Austrians and the French took place here. When the Venetian came back to Austria in 1814, Treviso became one of the eight delegations of the Venice Governorate of the Lombard-Venetian Kingdom .
On March 21, 1848 an uprising broke out in Treviso, whereupon the weak Austrian occupation had to evacuate the city. On May 11, 1848, the Austrians won a battle over the Piedmontese near Treviso, whereupon the city was shelled by Count Nugent . A second twelve-hour bombardment under Ludwig von Welden resulted in the capitulation to Austria on June 14, 1848. Treviso was still owned by Austria until 1866, when the Peace of Vienna permanently became the Kingdom of Italy that year.
During the First World War, after Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 21, 1915, Treviso was attacked from the air for the first time on the night of April 17-18, 1916, ten people were killed in two attacks, a person died a few days later. On March 27, Austrian planes dropped bombs on the Piave, albeit without causing any major damage, on the same day another squadron dropped meningococci over Verona. Since Treviso had neither a means of defense nor an alarm system, the only thing left was complete blackout between 10 p.m. and sunrise, as ordered on May 25th. But at the end of the year, as in many cities, it was lifted again. Word of the destruction in Belgium had spread, and as a precaution, thousands of paintings and sculptures were taken to underground shelters. Some of them had already been brought to Florence before the war began, and later to Bologna. The director of the Borgo Cavour library , Luigi Bailo, who was appointed curator of the municipal art gallery on June 16, 1915, was in charge. After the Tiepolo ceiling in the Scalzi Church collapsed during a bombing of Venice on October 25th, the search for storage possibilities was intensified, but even when Verona and Vicenza were bombed in April there was still no solution. But now the first structures were protected with sandbags and the paintings were transferred. When bombs fell on Treviso again on July 16, albeit without causing any damage, and at the same time the front had moved within a few kilometers, numerous works of art were brought to the Vatican. Even works were removed from the church walls, such as paintings by Lorenzo Lotto or Tommaso da Modena from San Nicolò. At the same time, however, members of the commission tried to enrich themselves by appropriating or selling works of art, mercenaries and art connoisseurs from Berlin and Vienna carried out raids, such as in the Museo Civico of Oderzo , as Bailo knew (p. 77). The near front caused about two thirds of the Trevisans to leave the city (p. 103). From November 1, 1916, there were not only air raids, but also direct fire from artillery. The city, which was mainly occupied by soldiers, was again attacked from the air on December 22nd, then for three days from December 28th to 30th, and again on January 26th and 27th. The city's art gallery was also hit. Ten air strikes took place in February alone. The last air raid took place on the night of October 22nd to 23rd, 1918. The destination was Santa Maria del Rovere on the outskirts, where many English and American soldiers camped. The war ended for Italy on November 4th. Altogether Treviso was attacked from the air 32 times, 1526 bombs fell in the area within the city walls, where two thirds of the buildings were damaged. At least 30 people died in total (p. 112).
From 1942 to 1943 the Italian concentration camp Monigo existed near Treviso for the internment of Yugoslav and mainly Slovenian civilians.
Treviso is considered a stronghold of the Lega Nord , which consisted of the mayor from 1994 to 2013. Gianpaolo Gobbo was elected mayor in May 2003 and confirmed in office in April 2008.
In the election in June 2013, however, the candidate of the Lega Nord Giancarlo Gentilini was defeated by the challenger from the Partito Democratico , Giovanni Manildo, who was elected mayor with 55.5% in the runoff election. Since then, his center-left alliance has provided 20 of the 32 municipal councilors.
The city's best-known politician is Giancarlo Gentilini, also Lega Nord, who was mayor of the city from 1994 to 2003 and has been deputy mayor ever since.
In its annual report, Caritas named Treviso the most successful city or province in Italy with regard to the integration of migrants.
The place is in the center of a heavily used agricultural area (grain, vegetables, wine), but is also an important industrial location (glass, ceramics, paper, textiles, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemistry). The main companies in the region are: Benetton Group , Zoppas ( Electrolux ), DeLonghi , Geox and the bicycle manufacturer Pinarello .
The Treviso airport , which is mainly served by low cost airlines, is 3 km southwest of the city.
Culture and sights
The old town and the well-preserved old town fortifications with walls ( renewed by Fra Giocondo from 1509 ), bastions and canals are worth seeing . Because of the many canals that criss-cross the city, Treviso is also called “città delle acque”.
The most important building in the old town is the cathedral from the 12th century. Century was completely renewed. Later it was repeatedly rebuilt and badly damaged in 1944. The restoration lasted from 1951 to 1955. The Romanesque crypt and the frescoes by Pordenone and paintings by Titian are interesting .
There is also the Church of San Francesco, which was built between 1255 and 1283 and expanded in the 14th century. A son of Dante Alighieri and a daughter of Francesco Petrarch were buried in the church.
The construction of the former Dominican Church of San Niccolo began in 1282 and was expanded until 1389. In the chapter house of the associated monastery, the frescoes from around 1352 by the painter Tommaso da Modena show the earliest representation of glasses .
Also worth seeing is the Palazzo dei Trecento (built from 1207, also destroyed in 1944, restored from 1951).
On some town houses there are façade paintings from the 15th / 16th centuries that are worth seeing. Century.
Monument to Mario del Monaco
With Sisley Volley Treviso , the city has one of the strongest volleyball clubs in the world. The club is 8-time champion in Italy's A1 league, which is considered the strongest in the world, as well as 8-time European Cup winners (3 × European Champions League, 1 × TopTeams Cup, 4 × CEV Cup), 4 × Coppa -Italia winner.
Other important sports clubs in the city are the Pallacanestro Treviso basketball club , better known as Benetton Treviso , and the rugby union club Benetton Rugby Treviso , which are also among the best teams in Italy.
The city maintains the following cities partnerships :
|Caen||Normandy, France||2007||Treviso Province partnership|
|Orleans||Center-Val de Loire, France||1959||with interruption|
|Sarasota||Florida, United States||2007||Treviso Province partnership|
The city of Leonding in Upper Austria refrained from a planned city partnership after protests by the population and the regional homosexual organization HOSI Linz as a result of statements by Giancarlo Gentilini in summer 2007. For the same reason, Orléans initially terminated its twinning with Treviso on December 18, 2007.
sons and daughters of the town
- Benedict XI. (1240–1304), Pope of the Catholic Church (1303–1304)
- Bartholomäus Querini (* before 1287 † 1307), Roman Catholic Bishop of Trento
- Niccolò de 'Rossi (* around 1290; † after 1348), poet and lawyer
- Francesco Bissolo (around 1470, † 1554), Venetian painter of the Italian Renaissance
- Giovan Battista Ramusio (1485–1557), humanist, historian and geographer
- Girolamo da Treviso (probably around 1497–1544), painter and sculptor
- Paris Bordone (around 1500–1570 / 1571), painter
- Sergio Pola (1674–1748), Roman Catholic Bishop of Famagusta
- Domenico Dalla Bella (* around 1680; † around 1740), cellist and composer
- Carlo Lasinio (1759–1838), draftsman and engraver
- Paolo Pola (1773–1841), poet and opera librettist
- Domenico Agostini (1825-1891), cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
- Luigia Codemo (1828–1898), writer
- Pier Andrea Saccardo (1845–1920), botanist (mycologist)
- Giuseppe Toniolo (1845–1918), economic historian, sociologist
- Rodolfo Renier (1857–1915), Romance studies and literary scholar
- Louis von Giacomelli (1858–1918), Austrian-Italian architect and civil engineer
- Luigi Vianello (1862–1907), civil engineer
- Arturo Martini (1889–1947), sculptor
- Luigi Stefanini (1891–1956), philosopher and educator
- Giovanni Comisso (1895–1969), writer
- Cesco Baseggio (1897–1971), actor
- Alberto Ancilotto (1903–1971), short film director
- Pietro Pavan (1903–1994), theologian and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
- Emma Baron (1904–1986), actress
- Giuseppe Caron (1904–1998), politician, Vice President of the EEC Commission
- Bruno Visentini (1914–1995), politician and manager
- Leonida Rosino (1915-1997), astronomer
- Roberto Bruni (* 1916), actor
- Luigi Bettazzi (* 1923), Roman Catholic bishop
- Marco Antonio Mandruzzato (1923–1969), fencer
- Luciano Vincenzoni (1926-2013), screenwriter
- Luigi De Marchi (1927–2020), film director, screenwriter and painter
- Antonino Rocca (1928-1977), wrestler
- Cesare Pinarello (1932–2012), track cyclist
- Franco Prete (1933–2008), initiator of the multinational artist group and the Origine publishing house
- Luciano Benetton (* 1935), billionaire and co-founder of the Benetton fashion company
- Renato Casaro (* 1935), painter and illustrator
- Nazzareno Zamperla (1937-2020), actor and stuntman
- Luis Morao Andreazza (* 1939), emeritus Roman Catholic Bishop of Chalatenango
- Francesco Lanata (1940-2018), diplomat
- Francesco Tullio Altan (* 1942), children's cartoonist
- Renzo Sambo (1942-2009), rower
- Primo Baran (* 1943), rower
- Kuki Gallmann (* 1943), author
- Giovanni Battista Coletti (* 1948), fencer
- Margherita Mussi (* 1948), prehistoric
- Gian Paolo Gobbo (* 1949), politician
- Giuliano Carmignola (* 1951), violinist
- Mirco Zuliani (* 1953), General of the Air Force
- Adriano Cevolotto (* 1958), Roman Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Piacenza-Bobbio
- Giovanni Renosto (* 1960), racing cyclist
- Marco Goldin (* 1961), art historian, curator, author and entrepreneur
- Andrea Marcon (* 1963), organist, harpsichordist and conductor
- Andrea Zanoni (* 1965), politician
- Giorgio Furlan (* 1966), cyclist
- Rocco Benetton (* 1969), manager and entrepreneur
- David Borelli (* 1971), politician
- Lara Favaretto (* 1973), sculptor and installation artist
- Chiara Simionato (* 1974), speed skater
- Denis Marconato (* 1975), basketball player
- Luigi Sartor (* 1975), football player
- Marco Carraretto (* 1977), basketball player
- Giorgio Sernagiotto (* 1981), racing car driver
- Matteo Tagliariol (* 1983), sword fencer
- Mattia Pesce (* 1989), swimmer
- Matteo Ton (* 1990), soccer player
- Jacopo Riccati (1676–1754), mathematician
- Vincenzo Riccati (1707–1775), mathematician
- Paolo dalla Torre (1910–1993), Conte from Sanguinetto
- Giuseppe Dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto (* 1943), legal scholar and general governor of the Order of Knights of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
- Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto (1944–2020), literary scholar and Grand Master of the Order of Malta
- Rino Bellio: Storia di Treviso. Cierre Grafica, 2010.
- Livio Vanzetto, Ernesto Brunetta (Ed.): Storia di Treviso. 4 vols., Venice and Padua 1988–1991 (vol. 2 Il Medioevo , only reaches up to 1339).
- Dieter Girgensohn : The dependent city in Italy in the late Middle Ages. Jurisdiction in Treviso under the rule of Venice (1338–1944). In: Sources and research from Italian archives and libraries 91 (2011) 66–134. ( online )
- Angela Möschter: Jews in the Venetian Treviso, 1389–1509. Dissertation. Trier 2004, Hahnsche Buchhandlung 2008.
- Giovanni Bonifacio: Historia Trivigiana. Treviso 1591 (oldest overview).
- Giuseppe Maffioli: La cucina trevigiana. Storia e ricette. TARKA, Mulazzo 2013.
- Max river : Tarvisium . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IV A, 2, Stuttgart 1932, Col. 2452 f.
- Official website (Italian)
- “The Clean Man's Paradise”, critical examination of the city's political situation. In: Die Zeit , No. 32/2002
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Riccardo Predelli : Documenti relativi alla guerra pel fatto del Castello di amore , in: Archivio Veneto , ns Vol. 15, Vol. 30,2 (1885) 421-447.
- Michael Edward Mallett, Christine Shaw: The Italian Wars 1494-1559. War, State and Society in Early Modern Europe , Routledge, 2014, p. 102 f.
- Treviso , in: Heinrich August Pierer (ed.): Universal-Lexikon der Gegenwart und Past , 4th edition, 17th volume (1863), p. 798.
- Treviso . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 15, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 823.
- Treviso , in: Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon , 14th edition, 1892-96, vol. 15, p. 977.
- Mirko Sernaglia: Treviso in guerra. Le Difese dai bombardamenti 1915-1918 , tesi di laurea, Venice 2015, p. 55 f.
- Mirko Sernaglia: Treviso in guerra. Le Difese dai bombardamenti 1915-1918 , tesi di laurea, Venice 2015, p. 64.
- Mirko Sernaglia: Treviso in guerra. Le Difese dai bombardamenti 1915-1918 , tesi di laurea, Venice 2015, pp. 74-76.
- Luigi Reale: Mussolini's Concentration Camps for Civialians. Vallentine Mitchell 2011, ISBN 978-0-85303-884-9 , p. 79.
- Elezioni comunali 2013. La Repubblica , June 10, 2013, accessed on 10 June 2013 .
- Migrants, well integrated in Veneto . In: La Repubblica , March 22, 2006
- The miracle of Treviso: In the Lega Hochburg the best integrated migrants . In: La Repubblica , February 12, 2008
- Progetti Internazionali Treviso - Consiglio Generale del Dipartimento del Calvados. Retrieved November 23, 2019 .
- ORLÉANS TORNA A TREVISO. Retrieved November 23, 2019 .
- Trévise (Italie) ǀ Orléans Métropole. Retrieved November 23, 2019 .
- Progetti Internazionali Treviso - Città di Sarasota. Retrieved November 23, 2019 .
- Gemellaggi, Rocco e Tocchetto a Timisoara. Retrieved November 23, 2019 .
- Mattia Pesce in the Sports-Reference database (English; archived from the original )