|Metropolitan city||Venice (VE)|
|Local name||Venezia (Venè (s) sia / Venèxia)|
|Residents||259.150 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Patron saint||Markus (April 25)|
Grand Canal as seen from the Ponte dell'Accademia
Venice ( Italian Venezia [ veˈnɛʦːi̯a ], Venetian Venesia [ veˈnɛsja ]) is a city in northeast Italy . It is the capital of the Veneto region . The metropolitan city of Venice is nicknamed La Serenissima ("The Most Serene"). The historic center (centro storico) is located on more than 100 islands in the Venice lagoon .
The total area of Venice is 414.6 km², of which 257.7 km² is water. On December 31, 2019, the city had 259,150 inhabitants, of which 179,794 in the districts on the mainland, 52,996 in the historic center and 27,730 within the lagoon. The lagoon extends for about 50 km between the mouths of the Adige ( Etsch ) rivers in the south and Piave in the north into the Adriatic Sea .
Venice was the capital of the Republic of Venice until 1797 and one of the largest European cities with over 180,000 inhabitants. Up until the 16th century it was one of the most important trading cities, through which most of the trade between Western Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean was carried out. Venice maintained most of the merchant and warships. The respective doge was elected head of state in a complicated electoral process, first by the popular assembly, then by the urban nobility . The latter monopolized the higher offices and profited from trading in luxury goods, spices, salt and wheat, while the rest of the population was largely excluded from long-distance trade. Venice developed into the largest financial center and dominated a colonial empire that stretched from northern Italy to Crete and at times to Cyprus . After French and Austrian rule between 1798 and 1866, Venice became part of Italy. In 1929 the industrial complex Mestre - Marghera was incorporated into the Comune di Venezia , just like most of the places in the lagoon before. The Jewish part of the population was deported to Germany during the Second World War by the National Socialists , who occupied Italy, and most of them were murdered. By 1950, the number of residents of the historic center increased to around 185,000 due to war refugees. In the years 1965 to 1970 the city as a whole had the highest population with almost 370,000 inhabitants. Since then, it has decreased by more than 100,000 (January 2021: 255,609).
Venice and its lagoon are on the since 1987 UNESCO list of World Heritage . They particularly inspired the artists and Venice became one of the most visited cities by tourists. For a century, the economic structure of the old town has been one-sidedly geared towards tourism , while industrial activity is mainly concentrated around Mestre and Marghera on the western mainland.
The settlements that made Venice lie on alluvial land that was created by post-glacial rivers. The lagoon created in its estuary covers an area of about 550 km² and is delimited from the Adriatic by about 60 km long sandbanks. Only about three percent of this area is covered by islands, the rest consists of mud flats and marshland, the barene , which cover over 90 km², then about 92 km² of fishing grounds, the Valli da pesca . The barene are criss-crossed by natural canals called ghebi. Around 1900 the Barene covered more than 250 km². In contrast to the often flooded Barene, the Velme, shallows, have only little vegetation because they only appear when the water level is very low.
The lagoon was formed from around 4000 BC. By deposits of the Brenta and other rivers and streams in northern Italy. These river sediments cover a lower Pleistocene layer of clay and sand that is between 5 and 20 m thick. During the last glacial period , the sea level was about 120 m below the level of 2012, but rose to around 5000 BC. At 110 m. Since then, the water level has continued to rise slowly with strong fluctuations.
Around AD 400, Venice was still around 1.9 m below sea level in 1897. From the High Middle Ages , the lagoon was exposed to profound changes, such as the diversion of tributaries to regulate the water level and avoid silting up. Since the early 20th century, numerous canals have been deepened and widened, bringing significantly more salt water into the lagoon and increasing current speeds.
The city is located in the temperate climate zone . The average annual temperature is 13.5 ° C. The warmest months are July and August with an average of 23.1 and 22.6 ° C, respectively, the coldest month is January with 3.0 ° C. The average maximum daily temperature in July and August is 27 ° C. The Venetian lagoon is shaped by the maritime climate of the northern Adriatic . This explains the precipitation peaks in the course of the onset of late summer, since at this point in time the continental climate from the Eastern European mainland, in particular the Carpathian Mountains ( Bora winds ) and the subsequent reversal of the weather situation from the south side of the Central European Alps . The average annual precipitation is 770 mm. Most precipitation falls in November with an average of 86, the lowest in January with an average of 53 mm.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Venice
Flora and fauna
The northern part of the 550 km² large lagoon contains mainly fresh water and is hardly affected by the tide change , which reaches around 418 km². It is therefore called Laguna morta (dead lagoon). The salt water lagoon, whose water level falls and rises with the ebb and flow of the tide and which is washed more strongly by seawater, is called Laguna viva (living lagoon). The Barene provide a favorable habitat for a large number of species, but they have been greatly reduced in size. In 1900 they covered 20 percent of the lagoon area, in 1930 it was only 13 percent, and now it is only 47.5 km². When another industrial area was to be developed in the 1960s, the Casse di colmata , as they were called, were withdrawn from any commercial use in order to develop them into an industrial area. Large amounts of mud and concrete were poured in there, creating new islands that protruded an average of 2 m above the water. But the project came under fire after the catastrophic flood of November 4, 1966, was stopped in 1969 and finally ended in 1973. In the meantime, these areas have become of great importance for migratory birds, their core covers 11.54 km². The World Wide Fund For Nature declared the area to be one of the most important protected areas for migratory birds in Europe, including the fishing grounds.
The flora and fauna of the Venetian waters are characterized by great biodiversity. Therefore, here eel , mullet , sea bass , sea bream and other fish species on the market. They come from the lagoon's fishing grounds, where birds, mammals and reptiles also live.
Over 60 species of birds breed in the lagoon alone. On stationary birds are found mallard , marsh harrier , moorhen , coot , snowy plover , tern , Beutelmeise , as well as purple heron , night heron , redshank and grebes . Great crested grebes and black-necked grebes , great egrets and various ducks also spend the winter here . More than half of the dunlins who winter in Italy do so in the lagoon.
Mammals include the harvest mouse , water shrew , polecat , stone marten , large vole , mouse weasel , but also brown-breasted hedgehog . The yellow-green angry snake , grass snake and dice snake also live here . There are also numerous species of insects and spiders.
There are numerous species of plants from the genera of samphire , sea lavender and salt plumes . The vegetation below the water level is formed by two communities of seed plants that are of great importance for duck birds, namely dwarf seaweed , which belongs to the seagrass, and the seaweed , which belongs to the balances and which is found mainly in areas with lower salt concentrations finds stable ground. There are also reeds , cattails, especially the broad-leaved cattail species . Most of these species live in the fishing grounds, not in the open lagoon, because the swamps (paludi) have been largely destroyed. For several years there has been discussion about the partial opening of the Valli in order to spread the species present there again outside the fishing grounds.
Of the original forests, only the park of Villa Matter in Mestre and the 230 hectare forest of Carpenedo remain. There are mainly hornbeam and English oak to be found there . Mestre is now surrounded by forests, including the Bosco dell'Osellino, the Bosco di Campalto and the Boschi Ottolenghi. In 1984 the population turned against the construction of a hospital directly opposite the Carpenedo forest and gradually pushed through the expansion of the forests. In addition, the huge rubbish dump between Mestre and the lagoon, which covers an area of 7 km², will be converted into a park, the Parco San Giuliano. There is also the Parco Albanese between Mestre and Carpenedo, which covers 33 hectares.
Expansion, location and administrative structure
Venice is the capital of the metropolitan city of Venice , which emerged from the Province of Venice on January 1, 2015. The city of Venice comprises the historic center with an area of around 7 km² and most of the Venice lagoon with its more than 60 islands (1). In addition, there are the elongated islands of Lido and Pellestrina (2), which demarcate the lagoon from the Adriatic Sea, as well as the mainland districts of Favaro Veneto (3), Mestre (4), Chirignago and Zelarino (5) and Marghera (6).
The city has been divided into six districts or Municipalità since 2005 . The Municipalità Venezia-Murano-Burano (1) includes the historic center, i.e. what is often called the old town in German. This in turn is subdivided into six sestieri , three of which are to the left and right of the Grand Canal, which flows through the old town in the form of a broad question mark from west to east. In the direction of flow to the right, approximately to the west and south of the Grand Canal, are the three Sestieri San Polo , Dorsoduro , which also includes the islands of the Giudecca on the southern edge of the old town , and Santa Croce . On the left, generally east and north of the Grand Canal, lie the Sestieri San Marco , which also includes the island of San Giorgio Maggiore , Cannaregio and Castello . Traditionally, the sestieri to the left and right of the canal were designated from the viewpoint of the Doge's Palace , that is, the sestieri on this side of the canal were designated as citra (this side), those on the other side of this main waterway as ultra . In addition to the six sestieri of the old town, the district includes the central and northern part of the lagoon with numerous islands, the most important of which are the glassblower island Murano , the northeastern island trio Burano , Mazzorbo and Torcello as well as the vegetable islands Sant'Erasmo and Vignole .
The Municipalità Lido Pellestrina contrast, occupies the eastern part of the lagoon with that of Chioggia to Jesolo reaching Spit one who enters into the lagoon to the Adriatic Sea through. The two long, narrow sandbanks extend over 20 km south of Venice. The northern Lido di Venezia developed into a fashionable seaside resort with luxurious hotels and a casino in the 19th century ; Pellestrina , on the other hand, lives mainly from fishing and mussel fishing. Chioggia, on the southern edge of the lagoon, does not belong to Venice.
In addition to these two island municipalities, there are four more on the mainland. The Mestre-Carpenedo district was incorporated into Venice in 1926 and is home to more than half of the city's residents. Attempts to outsource Mestre from the Venice municipality failed in five referendums. After 2003 (48% for the division), another referendum failed on December 1, 2019. The turnout was extremely low at 21 percent, the Lega and five-star movement initiated the referendum. The industrial district of Marghera is also on the mainland and is characterized by the petrochemical industry. The district of Favaro Veneto is located northeast of Mestre and includes Marco Polo Airport . The Municipalità Chirignago-Zelarino includes the districts Chirignago , Cipressina , Zelarino , Trivignano and Gazzera , the western suburbs, and is the only Venetian Municipalità that has no access to the lagoon.
Structure of the old town
The old town of Venice is made up of 118 islands with canals of different widths running between them . Many of these islands have a communication, traffic and trade center with a parish church. However, changes from the early 19th century onwards overlaid this structure, such as the construction of the wide Strada Nova or the Via Eugenia (now: Via Garibaldi).
In addition to this basic structure, some districts have very different structures due to various historical functions, for example around St. Mark's Square, the former center of power and representation of the city. The largest square in the city, 175 m long and up to 82 m wide, is characterized by the adjoining state buildings, in particular the Doge's Palace and the Procuraties . There are also libraries and museums, the Markuskirche and the Campanile , but also four large cafés. On the other side of the Grand Canal, Campo San Polo is the largest square.
In the east, the arsenal , in which the shipbuilding industry, which is important for Venice, was located and is the restricted military area, has more area than St. Mark's Square . Its surroundings have typical characteristics of an industrial district, in this district over 10,000 workers were employed at times. Ship production there is reminiscent of "industrial assembly line production in terms of its principles of standardization and systematization". The workers lived around the arsenal in this largest factory of the Middle Ages, the "arsenalotti".
Since the middle of the 19th century, the west of the city has been most strongly characterized by the connection to the mainland. This is where the large bridge to the mainland joins, the Ponte della Libertà , which was built in 1931 as a road bridge next to the railway bridge completed between 1841 and 1846. The train station expands at its head , at the end of the Ponte della Libertà there is a parking garage and a bus stop in Piazzale Roma . Further south-east, a track ends at the Stazione Marittima, from which the rail freight traffic is connected to the small port. In addition, with Tronchetto, an artificial park island over 18 hectares was raised.
On the south side of the city, the Zattere extend from the aforementioned Stazione Marittima in the west to the Grand Canal, then further eastwards the Riva degli Schiavoni from the Doge's Palace to the site of the Biennale . This south side is used as a promenade. The same applies to the opposite north side of the Giudecca , which is almost the only one that still has industrial structures, such as the Stucky mill . This building was built in 1895 according to the plans of the architect Ernst Wullekopf from Hanover .
The more mixed social structure has been preserved in many neighborhoods, but some of them have developed into slums, such as Sacca Fisola . The area around the Arsenal to Via Garibaldi can be seen as a typical working-class district. Although the Serenissima often settled members of different nations in their own streets, as can often be read from the names of the streets (Calle dei Greci, etc.), little of this division can still be felt. Only the ghetto , the quarter in which the city's Jews lived from 1516 to the early 19th century, has its own structure and construction of the houses. All Venetian Jews were forced, divided into "nations", to live there. In addition to them, the commune had an impact on local conditions through the responsible office holders, the Cattaveri, but also the Christian owners of the houses and wells where the Jews lived for rent - as the decree of March 29, 1516 expressly states, should the previous tenants leave their houses and the new tenants pay a rent that is one third higher. This soon resulted in houses with up to eight floors, often with very low ceilings. In addition, the living conditions were very cramped overall - in 1552 there were 900 residents in an area of around three hectares, in 1611 there were 5500 - the ghetto soon had to be expanded. From 1633, next to Ghetto novo and Ghetto vecchio, Ghetto novissimo (the new, old and newest ghetto) was created.
Streets with the same functions were already established here and there in the late Middle Ages, such as in the area of the Rialto Market and around the Carampane , the former prostitute's quarter , around the arsenal and the Doge's Palace, but this was difficult to reconcile with the island structure. The dominance of water traffic is evident on the Grand Canal, which is only partially accessible by pedestrians. This is especially possible around the Rialto Bridge, the former commercial center of the city. Instead, the representative palace buildings of the city nobility, the palazzi or case (houses) (hence names such as Ca 'Foscari) , have been clustered on the canal since the late Middle Ages . These cases were owned by large families of the same name, such as the Contarini, but they fell into several dozen branches that had little to do with each other. Therefore, their palaces are not only referred to with Ca 'Contarini, but also more closely with the name of the associated parish, sometimes the name of later owners or conspicuous features. This is how names come about like Palazzo Barbarigo della Terrazza (it has a large terrace) or Palazzo Grimani di San Luca, which was built in the 16th century in the parish of St. Luke.
Around this core area of the city are numerous islands, which were assigned various tasks as early as the Middle Ages: a cemetery island ( San Michele ), one for the glassblowers ( Murano ) or one for the production of vegetables ( Sant'Erasmo ), others were used for military security Lagoon.
The places in the lagoon were built on millions of wooden stakes that were driven into the ground. It was discovered early on that under the mud deposit there was solid clay soil, the caranto (late Latin caris, rock) and that buildings could be built on stakes that were driven into this layer. The so-called zattaron, a kind of pontoon made of two layers of larch planks, which were attached with bricks , rested on this first level . The foundation walls and finally the above-ground masonry are supported on the Zattaron. In order to save weight, the buildings themselves were built from light, hollow clay bricks, the mattoni.
Despite visible efforts, many buildings are in poor condition. The reasons for this are, on the one hand, the rise in the water level, which makes the bottom floor of most buildings uninhabitable. On the other hand, maintenance measures on buildings and canals have been neglected since the end of the Republic of Venice . The currents in the lagoon, triggered by the ebb and flow of the Adriatic, were reinforced by the dredging of deep channels for the overseas ships heading for the port of Marghera, so that the foundations were washed away. After all, apartments in the old town are considerably more expensive than on the mainland and are therefore often uninhabited.
Streets, alleys and squares
The Venetians very carefully differentiate between footpaths and squares. The main streets Rughe (from the French rue ) and the Salizade, the first cobbled streets from the second half of the 13th century, are limited in number. The narrow streets are called calle and the streets along the canals, which also serve as the foundation for the buildings, are called fondamenta . Lista is the part of the way near the important palaces and embassies, which enjoyed a special immunity. Mercerie are the streets with shops (merce = goods), the Rive (shores) run along the side channels. A rio terà is a filled-in canal, a ramo (branch) is a short street that branches off from a calle or a campiello , a small square. A campo is a place with a church, a larger open space that used to be a vegetable garden or pastureland for horses. Campiello is a square surrounded by houses, onto which the Calli flow, Corti are the inner courtyards of the houses. Paludo recalls that this area used to be swampy , instead of the pissins there were ponds where you could swim and fish. The Sotoportego goes under the houses ( the room on the first floor is called Portego , so the path leads under this room) and connects Calli, Campielli and Corti .
The squares (campi) and cookies (campielli) are differentiated from the piazza, with which the Piazza di San Marco, St. Mark's Square , is meant, even if there was a Piazza di Rialto . Just as Piazza means St. Mark's Square, the Piazzetta refers to the square in front of the Doge's Palace , which connects St. Mark's Square with the Molo, the landing stage at the lagoon. The Piazzetta dei Leoncini is the part of St. Mark's Square north of St. Mark's Basilica, named after the two lion figures that are erected there. The square with the bus station, however, is called Piazzale Roma . There is only one single street, the Strada Nova, plus three vie (Via 25 Aprile, Via Vittorio Emanuele and Via Garibaldi).
Canals and bridges
Venice has around 175 canals with a total length of around 38 km. The main artery is the Grand Canal , and there are also many waterways outside the historic center. The tide difference used to be 60 cm. A system of water regulation ensured a constant circulation that purified the city and the water. The canals were originally designed to be about 1.85 m deep. From the end of the 18th century, however, they were no longer cleaned until the 1990s. In addition, numerous canals have been filled in or shut down since the 18th century, which can often be seen from the name “rio terà”. The broad Via Garibaldi, for example, was created by filling in a canal, and in 1776 the Rio de le Carampane was filled in. There is a small square there.
There are 398 bridges in the city . Until about 1480 they were mostly made of wood, later they were replaced by stone bridges. In the meantime only two of them are without a railing, one of them is the Devil's Bridge (Ponte del Diavolo) on the island of Torcello , the other opens up a private house in Cannaregio (3750). Many were built very flat in order to make them accessible or drivable for horses and carts. The Rialto Bridge was the only bridge over the Grand Canal until the middle of the 19th century. In the meantime, three more have been added, namely the Ponte degli Scalzi near the train station, which replaced an iron previous bridge from 1856 in 1932, and the Ponte dell'Accademia at the eponymous cultural institute , which was established from 1854 and was replaced in 1933. A fourth bridge, the Ponte della Costituzione , was inaugurated in 2008. This bridge connects Piazzale Roma with the bank (Fondamenta S. Lucia) east of the Santa Lucia train station .
One of the most famous bridges, the Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri), connects the former state prisons on the ground floor, the so-called Pozzi , with the Doge's Palace. The straw Bridge (Ponte della Paglia), which spans the Rio di Palazzo at the Doge's Palace, is so named because there docked laden with straw boats. Other bridges are named after the spanned Rio, a nearby palace or church, often after a saint. The name Ponte storto, which appears ten times in Venice, refers to a bridge that crosses a Rio diagonally.
The bridge over the Grand Canal, which connects the churches of Santa Maria del Giglio and Santa Maria della Salute , is a specialty of the year on November 21st . A procession takes place on it in gratitude for the redemption from the plague of 1630/1631. The same thing takes place on the Saturday before the third Sunday in July with the building of a bridge over the Canale della Giudecca to the church of Il Redentore . With this Festa del Redentore one expresses one's gratitude for the salvation from the plague of 1575/1576.
By far the longest pair of bridges forms the only dry connections from the mainland to the islands of the Centro Storico: The railway bridge (Ponte Vecchio, Old Bridge, Ponte della Ferrovia) was built between 1841 and 1846, connecting the Mestre train station with the Santa Lucia train station (in the district Cannaregio) in the Centro Storico. It is 3605 m long. It is electrified and has an island with trees roughly in the middle on its northeast side. The road bridge, which was not built until 1931 to 1933, largely very close (southwest) and running parallel, was renamed the Liberty Bridge ( Ponte della libertà ) after the Second World War , in memory of the liberation from fascism. It is 3,623 meters long, connects Mestre with Cannaregio and Santa Croce and rests on 222 stone arches. (The total length of 3850 m according to Structurae includes the right curve to Santa Croce.)
Structures of mainland cities
The cities on the mainland, which are much larger in area, appear considerably younger than the lagunar towns, even if Mestre , Chirignago , Gazzera , Asseggiano , Carpenedo , Zelarino or Favaro have their own historical centers . However, they are often overlaid by industrial structures and settlement and building forms of the 20th century . Their expansion took place mostly along traffic routes, such as the railway lines and arterial roads, but also in the vicinity of large clinics and company settlements, so that a structure called "confused" emerged. The result was an extremely inconsistent cityscape, which is also heavily affected by traffic flows and noise, for example from the airport. Therefore, city bypasses are to be created to relieve the local centers.
Despite the often unsystematic urban structures, the mainland cities, which date back to antiquity and the early Middle Ages, have central urban elements that are constitutive for Italian cities. For example, there are central squares and town halls. The center of Mestre is the Piazza Ferretto near the Marzenego river , the former fortress city can still be seen in the streets. Marghera, on the other hand, was right on the edge of the lagoon , so that it had similar waterway networks as the islands, which also applies to Favaro. There was also a Palazzo municipale, a town hall, built in 1873 on Piazza Pastrello. Similar to Mestre, Chirignago was an independent municipality (1798 to 1927) and was incorporated into Greater Venice at the time of the fascists. In the Second World War, however, the place was largely destroyed, mainly by the bombings of October 6, 1943 and March 28, 1944.
The early settlers on the islands of the lagoon, whose traces can be traced back to the Etruscan period, now even as far as the Neolithic , came from northern Italy during the migration of peoples . The Venetians who lived here gave their name to the Venetia region .
Ostrogoths, Lombards and Franks occupied Italy, but from around 540 the places in the lagoon remained the westernmost outpost of the Byzantine Empire . They developed their own ruling structure with tribunes and, according to legend, from 697 onwards, a doge at the head. In 811 the Doge's residence was moved to Rialto . This shift came at a time when Byzantium and the Frankish Empire were fighting under Charlemagne over the legal successor to the Roman emperors . This contrast led to the formation of parties and power struggles within the city, to which some Doges also fell victim. At the same time, the most powerful families strived for sole rule with the help of the Doge's office, whereas the other families allied themselves. In this way they prevented the formation of a dynasty and the core of Venice's complicated constitution took shape. All male adults of the noble families had a seat and vote on the Grand Council . At the same time, supervisory bodies with almost unlimited powers, such as the Council of Ten or the Senate, were of considerable importance. The most powerful families dominated politics and profitable long-distance trade. Skilful traversing between the great powers brought Venice favorable trade agreements, which earned it an almost monopoly in trade between Western Europe and Byzantium. At the same time it developed its relations with the Muslim rulers early on.
In 828 the bones of the Evangelist Mark were stolen from Alexandria . In his honor and a worthy place for its relics which originated St. Mark's Basilica . The two columns on the piazzetta bear the figure of St. Theodore and the winged lion , the symbol for the evangelist Mark, who ousted Theodore as patron saint. The lion of St. Mark became the coat of arms and emblem of Venice, omnipresent both in the city and in all areas ruled by Venice .
An important source of the lagoon city's wealth was the salt monopoly, which was of the utmost importance for the preservation of meat and fish. Venice also played a decisive role in the import of the staple food grain, so that the supply of northern Italy depended on its storage facilities until the early modern period - a frequently used means of political blackmail. Important goods and luxury goods from Asia and Africa such as silk , furs , ivory , spices, dyes and perfumes were transshipped via the Levantine and North African ports. In return, trade in goods from Western and Northern Europe was carried out via Venice - such as gold , silver , amber , wool, wood, tin and iron , but also cut jewels, glassware, medicines and slaves. In order to safeguard maritime trade, Venice built a shipyard, the Arsenal , from 1104 , which was expanded several times. The fleets built here accompanied the regular merchant convoys and were at the same time a means of curbing piracy and expanding the colonial empire, initially in the Adriatic. As early as the 8th century, Venice made itself increasingly independent from Byzantium, even if the Byzantine fleet lay in Venice several times from 806 to 810 to defend the city against the Franks. In 815 the two empires formally recognized each other. Venice also followed Constantinople's request in 828 to provide support against the Arabs off Sicily , again about two years later. Emperor Lothar I endowed Venice with numerous rights in 840, which amounted to a confirmation of its independence. Other sovereign treaties with the kings of Italy followed, such as 888 with Berengar I , 891 with Wido of Spoleto , 924 with Rudolf of Burgundy and 927 with Hugo I of Provence . At the beginning of the 10th century Venice appears for the last time as part of the Byzantine Empire in a Byzantine source. Between 842 and 846, however, the Slavs advanced as far as Caorle , and 875 the Saracens as far as Grado; Attacks by the Hungarians, who penetrated the lagoon in 900, forced Venice to surround the islands of Rialto with walls, and a chain protected the entrance to the Grand Canal.
Rise to great power
The policy of Emperor Otto II broke with the tradition of his predecessors, which had existed since 812, of respecting Venice's affiliation with Byzantium. As a result, the pro-Ottonian Dog dynasty of the Candiano was overthrown in 976, and a fire destroyed the Doge's Palace. When the Coloprini family, still loyal to Otto, got into an open dispute with the pro-Byzantine Morosini and Orseolo, they turned to Emperor Otto for help. From 981 he responded with trade blockades, but he died in 983, so that the possibly imminent submission to the empire did not take place. Now there was a rapprochement between the two empires. In 992 Venice received a first trading privilege from the Byzantine emperor Basil I , the Roman-German ruler Otto III. took over the sponsorship of the doge's son in 996. His fleet enforced the political supremacy of Venice as far as Ragusa . Venice had become a great power under Doge Pietro II Orseolo , but the dynastic policies of his successors brought them into conflict with both empires in the 1020s. Between 1132 and 1148, the dominance of the Doge was contrasted with a council body from which the Grand Council developed. Representatives of the noble families had a seat and vote in it.
In the high and late Middle Ages, Venice's social order was closely linked to the division of labor. The nobility was responsible for politics and high administration as well as for warfare and naval management. The Cittadini, the bourgeois merchants, provided funds and added value through trade and production, the Popolani, the majority of the population, provided soldiers and sailors, were responsible for all forms of manual labor and ran the retail trade. At the end of this development, the long-established nobility ensured that the Great Council was sealed off from newly rising families (Serrata, from 1297) and the older forms of popular participation in power were disempowered. Although the Serrata was only one stage in the increasing isolation of the Venetian oligarchy, it is undisputed that “at the end of the 13th century and in the first half of the fourteenth there was a class division between nobles who were politically active and the rest of the people”.
Outwardly, the Normans, who established themselves in southern Italy, threatened the supremacy of Venice in the Adriatic. At the same time, Byzantium lost large parts of Anatolia when Turkish groups built up dominions from the 1050s and increasingly from the 1080s. Venice supported the near collapse empire by keeping the Normans in check, who were also trying to conquer Constantinople. For this, Venice received a far-reaching trade privilege from Byzantium in 1082. During the course of the first crusades , Venice often supported the crusaders with its fleet, and the Doge was even offered the royal crown of Jerusalem. Venice forced Byzantium to renew the trade privilege of 1082, which now increasingly endangered the economic independence of the empire.
Under Manuel I , the hostilities between Venetians and Byzantines in Constantinople increased until the Venetians had to leave the capital in 1171. At the same time, Byzantium approached Hungary, which made Venice controversial for control of the Adriatic. Friedrich Barbarossa expanded the field of conflict when he got involved in Italian politics. Venice allied against him in 1167 with the Lega Lombarda , a northern Italian city federation, which was supported by the Pope. Even with the Normans of southern Italy, Venice was now in league, while Frederick fought the Italian ambitions of the Byzantine emperor, who temporarily controlled Ancona on the Adriatic. In 1177, Frederick I and Pope Alexander III agreed . a peace treaty in Venice.
Fourth crusade, conflict with Genoa, uprisings
The Doge Enrico Dandolo directed the Fourth Crusade in 1202, first to Zadar , whose uprising was suppressed, and then to Constantinople, which was conquered in 1204. Countless art treasures found their way to the West in this way, including the bronze quadriga of St. Mark's Church. In addition, Venice expanded its colonial empire to include numerous bases, above all Crete , which, however, defended itself in a chain of uprisings against the settlers that Venice brought to the island. However, this “coup” also resulted in an ongoing conflict with Genoa , which was the cause of four devastating wars. In 1261 the Greeks regained control of Constantinople, where they now played off their Genoese allies against Venice. Venice, for its part, allied itself with Charles of Anjou, who had conquered southern Italy in order to retake Constantinople. It was not until 1285 that Venetians were allowed to trade in the Byzantine capital again. In 1310 a nobility revolt led by Baiamonte Tiepolo shook the republic, in 1355 the Doge Marino Falier attempted a coup and from 1363 to 1366 the Venetian settlers on Crete revolted against Venice's rigid policies. In 1379, in alliance with Hungary, the Genoese managed to conquer Chioggia for a year, but the Peace of Turin (August 8, 1381) heralded a new phase of prosperity, especially since Genoa, weakened by internal struggles, no longer represented a great danger. In contrast, another danger did not let the city rest for three centuries. The plague of 1348 caused the population of Venice to collapse from around 120,000 to perhaps 60,000. From April 1348 the numerous dead were brought to two islands, San Leonardo Fossamala and San Marco in Bocca Lama . This wave of plagues was followed by another 25 epidemics into the early 16th century. In 1423, the Lazzaretto Vecchio was the first plague hospital.
In the years from 1402 Venice brought large parts of northern Italy and Dalmatia under its control (→ Terraferma ). Venice challenged the King of Hungary and the Empire Sigismund of Luxembourg in two places, because Aquileja, threatened by Venice, was an imperial fief and, as King of Hungary, Sigismund had a claim to the cities of Dalmatia. A first war from 1411 to 1413 was followed by a second from 1418 to 1420, but Venice prevailed at the end of 1433.
Metropolis between the world powers
After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Venice had to gradually cede its positions in the eastern Mediterranean to the Ottomans . At the same time, it waged several wars against Milan, and from 1494 France and the Holy Roman Empire intervened militarily in Italy. Venice had conquered the so-called Terraferma - especially from 1405 - and ruled over Veneto , Friuli and a large part of Lombardy at the end of the 15th century . The reasons for the expansion of power to the mainland were the competition of the Ottomans, the growing importance of trade routes through the Po valley and across the Alps to Central and Northern Europe, and the possibility of producing food on their own estates. North of the Alps, the Nuremberg Stock Exchange was an important trading center for goods from Venice. It served as a link to other European economic centers such as Lyon and Antwerp . Nuremberg merchants used the Fondaco dei Tedeschi as a trading office in Venice . Conversely, Venetian merchants settled in Nuremberg. This included the wholesale merchant Bartholomäus Viatis . With perhaps 180,000 inhabitants, Venice almost reached its highest population after 1550, with around two million people living in its colonial empire. In 1509 Venice suffered a heavy defeat against a confederation of states. Emperor Maximilian I reclaimed the Terra Ferma as an alienated imperial territory, Spain the recently occupied Apulian cities, the King of France Cremona , the King of Hungary Dalmatia. There followed changing coalitions in which Venice was able to assert itself.
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
The Roman Catholic Patriarchate of Venice, established in 1451, had conflicted relations with the Roman Curia again and again. Traders, merchants, craftsmen, intellectuals and clergy from all over the world lived in Venice and promoted a more cosmopolitan and humanistic climate. Around 500 publishers and printers worked here in the 16th century. From 1520 the writings of the German reformer Martin Luther spread in Venice and then throughout Italy. It was not until 1524 that reading or possession of Protestant literature was punished with excommunication from the Catholic Church. The forbidden books were now passed on in secret and discussed among open-minded people in private homes. Small evangelical denominations emerged, but they hardly appeared in public.
The Franciscan Bartolomeo Fonzi (1502–1562) preached Luther's ideas about the Reformation, and the German traders in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi were particularly keen listeners. In 1531 he fled to Augsburg and stayed there for three years, where he translated Luther's well-known text from 1520 "To the Christian nobility of the German nation from improving the Christian status" into Italian. In 1534 he returned to Venice, increasingly feeling drawn to the more radical Anabaptist groups .
As part of the Counter Reformation , the Inquisition was established in 1542 . Many people oriented towards the Reformation then left Venice and fled mainly to Zurich , Basel , Strasbourg and Geneva . In 1550 the Anabaptists held a synod in Venice, but soon after they were discovered and persecuted by the Inquisition. Fonzi was also captured in 1558, condemned as a heretic after four years, and drowned in the lagoon. All Protestant circles were destroyed by 1600. Only in the Palazzo Fondaco dei Tedeschi were German traders and merchants allowed to celebrate a closed German-language Protestant church service under strict conditions.
Decline, class order
Venice's importance declined more and more as a result of the shift in world trade to the Atlantic . The monopoly on the spice trade with the Levant was finally lost in the course of the 17th century. The sea battle of Lepanto , in which Venice succeeded for the last time in playing a role between the world powers of the Spaniards and Ottomans and providing the largest fleet, is considered to be the turning point . The loss of Cyprus (renunciation in 1573) was followed by further losses, until Crete was also lost in 1669.
In its foreign policy, the republic relied on diplomacy and an efficient information system. Pragmatism, precise arithmetic and rationality were usually the basis of political action. They stayed out of the ideological and religious disputes as much as possible. Venice had neither permanent problems with Muslims nor with Jews; rather, people knew how to ensure their benefits. At most there were problems with the Pope because of the striving for political supremacy and the territorial policy of the Curia .
No other city in Europe has made such decisive use of its class structure for the division of labor as Venice. The nobility took care of politics, high administration, as well as warfare and naval management. The bourgeois merchants (around 3 to 4 percent of the population) provided funds, added value through trade and the production of luxury goods. The majority of the population provided soldiers and sailors and did manual labor. In the era of the rise, the aristocratic families were involved in the economy and administration of the city: They traded, managed offices, commanded galleys and fleets and were involved in the numerous bodies of the state in the - temporary - offices, the costs of which they bore themselves and which they filled out without any special training.
From the late 16th century onwards, competitors from Northwestern and Western Europe developed superior credit and trading techniques. Their economic policy also took on strongly protectionist features. Now the luxury industry (especially glass production ) took over the role of the declining Levant trade, as did tourism. Venice was able to keep Dalmatia and temporarily the Peloponnese under its sovereignty, but in 1718 the Peloponnese was finally lost. The economic decline of the city in the 17th and 18th centuries is more likely to be interpreted as a falling back against the faster growing competitors than as a shrinking process. Nevertheless, it was possible to expand the existing defenses in the lagoon between 1744 and 1782.
Belonging to France and Austria, struggle for independence (1848–1849)
In 1797 the aristocratic republic dissolved and was occupied by the French under Napoleon Bonaparte , then annexed to Austria from 1798 to 1805 . After it had been part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy from 1805 to 1814 , it came back to Austria in 1814 and 1815 as part of the Lombardy-Venetian Kingdom . In 1830 the city received a free port and in 1845 it was tied to the mainland by the Bridge of Freedom (Ponte della libertà).
In the revolutionary year of 1848, the Repubblica di San Marco was proclaimed under Daniele Manin on March 23 , which was able to maintain its independence against the Austrian besiegers for over a year. On August 22, 1849, the city, which was additionally affected by the cholera , had to capitulate, and on August 27, Austrian troops marched in. The state of siege was not lifted until 1854. During this time the Motta di Sant'Antonio fortress was demolished.
Proclamation of the Repubblica di San Marco on March 23, 1848 (lithograph by Nicola Sanesi, approx. 1850)
"Daniele Manin e Nicolò Tommaseo liberati dal carcere e portati in trionfo in Piazza San Marco" ('Daniele Manin and Nicolò Tommaseo freed from prison and brought to St. Mark's Square in triumph'; painting by Napoleone Nani (1841–1899), approx. 1876, Fondazione Querini Stampalia)
Kingdom of Italy
As a result of Austria's defeat by Prussia in the war of 1866 , in which the newly founded Kingdom of Italy was an ally of Prussia in 1861 , Venice became part of Italy in accordance with the Treaty of Vienna on October 3, 1866. Giobatta Giustinian , who had opposed Austrian rule, became the first mayor . The first glass-blowing factories emerged, especially Salviati & C. Under his successor Giuseppe Giovanelli (1868–1875), plans arose to build the Strada Nova, a wide street in Cannaregio. In the decades that followed, cultural organizations were developed and numerous palaces were bought up by the municipality and modernized the port facilities.
Industrialization, tourism, World War I
Social stagnation and long economic decline occurred throughout northern Italy. By 1890, 1.4 million people had emigrated from the Veneto alone. Mayor Dante Di Serego Alighieri (1879–1881 and 1883–1888) pushed through the motorization of public shipping by introducing the vaporetti . But it was not until Mayor Riccardo Selvatico (1890–1895) that there was increased industrialization and the construction of new and affordable apartments. His successor Filippo Grimani (1895-1919) continued these efforts as the leader of a conservative government, with the municipal area of the commune being expanded. The driving force behind these changes was the so-called " Gruppo veneziano ", to which Giuseppe Volpi and Vittorio Cini belonged. In 1917 the port of Marghera was opened, which strengthened the division of labor between the industrial edge of the lagoon and the old town, which mainly focused on tourism. During the First World War, Austro-Hungarian planes attacked Venice from the air more than forty times.
Fascism, World War II, annihilation of the Jewish community
The fascists tried, in conjunction with the Gruppo veneziano, to make Venice an industrial metropolis. Alongside Genoa, it was to become the most important port in Italy. To do this, they extended the city's borders to the mainland (Greater Venice). From 1926 the industrial complex Mestre-Marghera belonged to Venice, three years later a car bridge with a parking garage was built ( Piazzale Roma ), a train station and artificial islands like Tronchetto . No consideration was given to local building traditions. The mayors no longer carried the official title Sindaco , but again the medieval title Podestà ; they were no longer elected, but appointed. With the fall of Mussolini , the German Reich took power in Venice, with the National Socialists having the remaining members of the Jewish community deported to the extermination camps.
Post-war coalitions, dispute over the lagoon and mainland industry
The resistance fighter Giovanni Ponti was mayor from 1945 to 1946, followed by the communist and partisan Giobatta Gianquinto until 1951. This was followed by a series of center-right governments, which were replaced by socialist ones in the mid-1970s. Until well into the 1970s, industrial policy took precedence, so that the lagoon became a sewer, which was exposed to more and more devastating floods due to the widened passages to the Adriatic Sea and the destruction of the ecological balance , such as in 1966. At the same time, the population decreased in the Old town to under 60,000, its obsolescence increased.
Under Mayor Massimo Cacciari (1993–2000 and 2005–2010) the government subsidized the restoration of the houses, developed flood protection projects, had all sewers cleaned and tried to move European institutions to Venice. The expansion of the university also contributed to the rejuvenation of the population.
In the Veneto , but also in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region , in Trentino and in Istria , a language of its own is spoken in addition to Italian, which is known as Venetic . Since March 28, 2007 it has been recognized as a language - at least by the Veneto Regional Council. An important variety of this language is venesiàn (Venetian) spoken in Venice . Venetian is one of the Western Romanic languages and differs greatly from standard Italian in terms of pronunciation, sentence formation and vocabulary. It was also the language of the Republic of Venice .
Around 1300 the Venice of the lagoon alone probably had around 85,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, a number that rose rapidly and possibly reached 140,000 before the first plague wave of 1348. Around 1600 one can reckon with around 150,000 to 160,000 inhabitants, but the 200,000 mark has probably never been exceeded.
The Italian city initially shrank, but recovered in the course of industrialization, from which the historic center also initially benefited. In the meantime, around one in three Venetians lives in the lagoon, only one in four in the center.
On the mainland, the Terraferma, the city counted 179,794 in 2019, in the Centro Storico 52,996, in the lagoon (Estuario) 27,730 inhabitants, a total of 260,520. The proportion of women is 136,432, that of men 124,088.
The inhabitants were distributed among the Municipalità and its Quartieri as follows:
|Population by district|
|Favaro Veneto||Favaro Campalto||23,852|
|Mestre Carpenedo||Carpenedo Bissuola||38.006|
|Mestre Carpenedo||Mestre Centro||50,473|
|Chirignago Zelarino||Cipressina Zelarino Trivignano||15,122|
|Chirignago Zelarino||Chirignago Gazzera||23,824|
|Marghera||Marghera Catene Malcontenta||28,517|
|Venezia Murano Burano||S.Marco, Castello, S.Elena, Cannaregio||31,655|
|Venezia Murano Burano||Dorsoduro, S.Polo, S.Croce, Giudecca||21,341|
|Venezia Murano Burano||Murano S.Erasmo||4901|
|Venezia Murano Burano||Burano Mazzorbo Torcello||2644|
|Lido Pellestrina||Lido Alberoni Malamocco||16,474|
|Lido Pellestrina||Pellestrina S. Pietro in Volta||3711|
Age structure and population decline
The proportion of under 18-year-olds is between 12 and 14 percent in most quarters, although the proportion in the quarters of the lagoon, including the old town, is not significantly lower, contrary to what appears to be. However, the proportion of at least 65-year-olds, who make up almost 30 percent of the local population, is noticeably higher. However, here too the proportion on the mainland is only slightly lower (by 27 percent). But while the population on the mainland is growing again, albeit very slowly, the lagoon is losing around 1 percent of its population every year.
As of December 31, 2010, 29,281 people were expected to be foreign nationals, of which 4,373 lived in the historic center, 1,323 in the lagoon area and 23,585 on the mainland. Africans made up a total of 1929 immigrants. Immigration from Asia is considerably higher, especially from Bangladesh with 4740, then China (2163), the Philippines (1212), Sri Lanka (590) and Pakistan (189) as well as India (116). A total of 9,862 people came from Asia. In contrast, only 1,109 immigrants came from America, of which 282 came from Brazil, 170 from the USA, 136 from Peru, 117 from the Dominican Republic, 114 from Cuba. The largest groups came from Eastern and Southeastern Europe: Moldova (4565), Ukraine (2242), Romania (3315) and Albania (1455) as well as Macedonia (1419). A total of 16,347 immigrants came from European countries including the EU, the rest came from Australia and Oceania (21) or were of unknown nationality (13).
The Venetians are predominantly Catholic, their head is the Patriarch of Venice , who has had this title since 1457. Francesco Moraglia has been the incumbent since 2012 . In his official area, the Archdiocese of Venice, 348,922 of the 376,399 inhabitants, or 92.7%, were Catholic.
As early as 1520 there were a growing number of supporters of the German reformer Martin Luther in Venice , because his writings were also printed and distributed here. At the time of the Counter Reformation , with the introduction of the Inquisition in 1542, the Evangelicals were persecuted, driven out and drowned. Only in the Palazzo Fondaco dei Tedeschi of the German traders and merchants was the celebration of German-speaking Protestant services tolerated. In 2017 there was a Lutheran , a Waldensian Methodist , an Anglican , a Baptist , an Adventist church, Pentecostal churches and other Christian special groups in Venice.
The important Jewish community was largely destroyed by the National Socialists. It now consists of around 500 members again, most of whom live in the ghetto , the city district whose name was later transferred to all ghettos . They have lived there since 1516.
It is difficult to pin down the Muslim community, which consists of North Africans and Bengalis and which so far has no official mosque. You probably have more than three thousand members.
Mayors and political bodies
The mayor or sindaco are supported by eleven assessors who together form the Giunta comunale, the city government. The city council (Consiglio comunale) has 40 councilors, each elected for five years (most recently in 2010), whose task is the control of the government. The council, in turn, has eleven permanent commissions that collect and process information and create templates. The venue is the Ca 'Loredan in the San Marco sestiere . The incumbent from April 2010 until his resignation due to corruption allegations in June 2014 in connection with the MO.SE lock project was Giorgio Orsoni . From July 2, 2014, Venice was provisionally ruled by Vittorio Zappalorto , Prefect of the Province of Gorizia . On June 14, 2015, Luigi Brugnaro was elected mayor of the city.
Each municipalità in turn has a kind of district council (Consiglio di Municipalità). Chirignago-Zelarino has 18 councilors, Venezia Murano Burano 29, Mestre Carpenedo 29, Favaro Veneto 25, Marghera 18 and Lido Pellestrina 18.
Special features of the conflict lines
On the one hand, the political lines of conflict reflect the social contradictions and party conflicts. In addition, there is the contrast between the needs of the lagoon locations and those of the mainland. Environmental and financial policy are increasingly in the foreground at the local level. The necessary maintenance and renovation measures, but above all the flood protection, which alone devours around 650 million euros, threaten to bring the city to the brink of insolvency against the background of the global economic crisis.
Venice has partnerships or cooperation agreements with the following cities and institutions. The year of establishment in brackets. Partnerships
- Dubrovnik , Croatia (2012)
- Istanbul , Turkey (1993)
- Sarajevo , Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994)
- Suzhou , China (1980)
- Tallinn , Estonia
- Yerevan , Armenia (2011)
- Saint Petersburg , Russian Federation (2013)
- L'Associazione Centrale dei Comuni e delle Comunità della Grecia (KEDKE), Greece (2000)
- Nuremberg , Germany (1999)
- Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2001)
- Qingdao , China (2001)
- Thessaloniki , Greece (2003)
The partnership between Venice and Nuremberg was concluded in 1954. On September 25, 1999, on this basis, it was only decided between Venice and Nuremberg to “re-establish their friendly relations”.
The economic structure is divided into two parts. While the mainland is characterized by industrial structures, the area of the lagoon is heavily influenced by tourism, trade and the construction industry. Numerous small businesses determine the picture, up to the most common form, the one-person company, as they are usually portrayed by the gondoliers. At the end of 2015, there were 24,699 independent economic enterprises in the province of Venice in trade alone, almost 19,243 in handicrafts, 10,200 in tourism, and construction and transport based on more than 12,075 and over 4,100 units respectively. There were also service companies. In total, the economic area of the province of Venice had approx. 89,000 companies, of which only 8,347 were in agriculture and fishing (see Valle da pesca ). Since 2009, the number of companies has decreased from 91,000 to 89,000 at the end of 2015.
Agriculture and fishing
As early as 2001, only around 760 people were still working in lagunar agriculture, but they use it to supply the old town markets with food, mainly from S. Erasmo . The situation is completely different on the mainland part of the city, especially south and west of the coastal industrial belt.
Only 366 sole proprietorships are still working in the field of marine animal capture. On the one hand, mussel fishing plays an important role, on the other hand, fishing and breeding. In the lagoon this happens in the Valle da pesca , fish cultures delimited by reeds, rows of stakes or dams, which cover a total of 92 km² of the 550 km² lagoon.
Glass has been produced in the Venice area since late antiquity, but the boom in handicrafts only began with the complete relocation of the glass furnaces to Murano at the end of the 13th century. Angelo Barovier succeeded in discoloring glass in the middle of the 15th century. The Crystallo, a soda-lime glass decolorized with manganese oxide, became the leader in Europe. The artistry in this area was almost unrivaled until around 1600, and even after that, glass à la façon de Venise was considered unsurpassed in the German-speaking world. Baroque chopped glass did not break the priority of Venice until the 18th century.
The establishment of a glass school on Murano (1860) and the founding of a company by Antonio Salviati (1866) consciously followed on from the art tradition with its thin-walled wing glasses, thread and net glasses (reticella) . The Fratelli-Toso glass vessels of the 1950s and 1960s represent the Art Nouveau style in Millefiori decors, and their color and decor are based on Expressionism ; colorful stripes and geometric Op Art decors in vetro pezzato technique are typical of the designs by Paolo Venini , Fulvio Bianconi and Ercole Barovier. His son Angelo Barovier sometimes refers to Vasarely .
The Murano glass industry is still important among the manufacturing trades. The Consorzio Promovetro Murano, which promotes glass companies, lists 66 companies here alone, the oldest of which is Pauly & C. - Compagnia Venezia Murano , which Salviati co-founded and which has existed since 1866.
Industrial companies, port city of Marghera
Larger companies exist mainly on the mainland part of the city, where companies in the chemical and oil industries, shipbuilding and the two airports are the largest employers. Most of the population lives there.
For this purpose, land was expropriated on a large scale in the years before and after the First World War, and the emerging communities were merged with the cities of the lagoon to form the city of Venice. In 1933 the bridge from the mainland to the old town was expanded, the train station and parking lot along with artificial islands were created, and the passages into the Adriatic were widened and deepened. Mestre had only 9,950 inhabitants in 1881 and 35,860 in 1931. Metal processing, chemical and shipbuilding companies have settled in the port of Marghera. Between the Stazione Marittima and the port, the wide and deep Canale Vittorio Emanuele II was built in 1922, and in the following year the Canale Nord and the oil port, and finally the Canale Brentello.
After the Second World War, companies like Montedison or EniChem Agricoltura (until 1994), which produced fertilizers and pesticides, or shipbuilders like Fincantieri settled in Marghera . In Mestre, petrochemicals and the port dominated, and numerous workers moved from the old town to the mainland. In 1939 there were 15,000 employees here, and 20 years later there were already 35,000. In 1963 the city already had over 200,000 inhabitants. With the expansion of the motorway towards Pavia , a stronger economic connection to the mainland was achieved, but the shipbuilding and chemical industries fell into a serious crisis in the 1960s. In 1999 Mestre had only 180,000 inhabitants and only 28% of the jobs were offered by industry and 71% by the service sectors.
Between 1995 and 2005 the annual economic growth was 3%. But between 2008 and 2009 industrial production collapsed by 19.5%, in the neighboring province of Padua even by 27.9%. In 2014, 456,000 TEU containers were handled in the port , and it is also the starting point for RoRo ferries to Greece and cruise ships .
Tourism is by far dominant for one of the most visited cities in Europe, in which every third person who spends a year is a tourist. Venice attracted around 30 million visitors in 2011, three times as many as Rome; In 2007 it was only 21 million. The previous number of overnight stays of 11 million has apparently been declining for years due to the sharp rise in prices. In 2010 there were more than 8.5 million overnight stays compared to more than 8.8 million overnight stays in 2007. However, the number of overnight guests increased slightly from 2007 to 2011 - from 3.6 million in 2007 to 3.7 million a year 2010 - the average length of stay, namely 2.4 days in 2007, fell slightly to 2.3 days in 2010, which led to an overall decrease in the number of overnight stays. More visitors stayed overnight in Venice for a shorter time than before. In 2011 more than a million visitors came to the carnival alone, bringing in a total of 40 million euros for the city.
While the historic Venetian Carnival ended abruptly in 1797, this lost tradition was revived for tourism in the 1980s, transforming the traditionally weak February occupancy into an additional high season that is important for occupancy. The carnival bobbed away both under the Austrians and after the annexation to Italy in 1866. In 1914, the patriarch Aristide Cavallari warned of the sinfulness of tango in time for the carnival. In 1924, the fascist city government banned the wearing of masks during Carnival, only to finally ban it in 1933. Such attempts regularly failed, however, only in 1979 the opportunity was seen to expand the carnival primarily under the aspect of tourism promotion.
In 1999, the flow of tourists led to an unusual action by the city administration: posters warned of Venice. This action was directed against day tourists, who bring little in the city besides stress. This poster campaign by Oliviero Toscani warned of the ugly side of Venice with drastic photos of rats, polluted canals and decaying palaces in order to deter those visitors who were expecting a postcard idyll. In 2015, Mayor Brugnaro considered restricting access to St. Mark's Square and special access for locals to the clogged vaporetti. Because while mass tourism, and especially day and cruise tourism, continues to increase, the number of inhabitants of the lagoon city is falling continuously (2015: 56,300 inhabitants), second home ownership is increasing sharply, local supply is collapsing and quality tourism is reporting vacancies. 2012, this issue was in the film The Venice principle of Andreas Pichler discussed. One speaks of overtourism , under the motto #EnjoyRespectVenezia, one urges tourists not to sit on the floor, and many other things and lists fines of up to 500 euros.
At the beginning of 2019, the city administration, led by Mayor Brugnaro, presented a concept with which day tourists should also make a contribution to the costs they incur, such as urban waste disposal, which annually burdens the city's citizens with 30 million euros. This concept provided for the gradual introduction of an entrance fee for day tourists from May 2019, but was postponed to July 2020 due to problems with the establishment of the sales outlets. The plan is to have an entrance fee that is staggered depending on the number of visitors, ranging from 3 to 10 euros at peak times. From 2022, booking in advance will also be mandatory for day trippers.
While the traffic on the mainland part of the city corresponds to that of a medium-sized city, it is organized completely differently in the lagoon part. Water and pedestrian traffic predominate here.
In the inner-city area, loads are transported by land using handcarts ( carrelli ). Due to the many bridges, these have a special shape. The load rests mainly on the main axle, the front support wheels are used to push the cart over the depth of the next higher steps until the wheels of the main axis can be placed on the previous, lower steps.
The most famous means of transport in Venice is the gondola , which is mainly used for tourism. The traghetti (gondola ferries) are an exception. They cross the Grand Canal in eight places and bring their passengers, mostly standing, from one side of the bank to the other. This shuttle service is one of the obligations of every gondolier and is performed in turn. It dates from the times when only the Rialto Bridge crossed the canal. In order to limit the lavish splendor in the construction of the gondolas, the Senate, or a facility to combat waste (Provveditori sopra le pompe) ordered in 1562 that the gondolas had to be uniformly black. Their length was limited to almost 11 m, their width to 1.75 m, their weight to 700 kg. In 2012, for example, gondolas were 1.4 m wide and weighed a little more than half. At that time 10,000 gondolas are said to have existed, now there are perhaps 3000 again, even if hardly more than 400 licenses were issued. The predominant type of gondola was developed by the boat builder Domenico Tramontin, his oldest surviving boat dates from 1890. There are at least three shipyards that also build gondolas.
The gondola family includes the Barchéta da traghetto, Disdotona (driven by 12 rowers), Gondolin (a small gondola), Gondolon (a large one), Balotina and Mussin (with a forward-sloping bow, otherwise similar to the gondolin ). They are all connected by an asymmetrical design. The boats lean slightly to the right to compensate for the pressure of the rudder on the right with steering to the left and the weight of the gondolier on the left. The Gondolino da regata is only driven during the Regata storica , a regatta through the Grand Canal. There are also a large number of traditional watercraft.
There are several hundred private motor boats in Venice, but their waves endanger the substance of the houses. There are also around 200 water taxis and other hotel boats. In August 1995, the gondola drivers blocked the Grand Canal to protest against the high waves of the motorboats. The screws of the ship's engines also enrich the water with oxygen and thus contribute to the formation of putrefactive bacteria that decompose the wooden foundations. In November 2001 the Italian government declared Venice a state of emergency. In addition to private boats, there are public ones, such as those used by the police and fire brigade, but also municipal garbage disposal.
Police (Polizia), fire brigade ( Vigili del Fuoco ) and various hospitals and their ambulances maintain their own boat fleets, similar to garbage disposal and the post office. When it comes to the police, a distinction must be made between the state police ( Polizia di Stato ), the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza . There are also the Coast Guard ( Guardia Costiera ), the Polizia locale , provinciale and lagunare.
Water buses ( vaporetti ) were introduced from 1881 against the resistance of the gondoliers who blocked the Grand Canal with a chain and who protested again in 1887. The municipal transport company ACTV (Azienda Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano) is responsible for its operation . These ships have a very shallow hull, which reduces their draft . So the house facades should be spared, against which the waves slosh with enormous forces. This is one of the reasons why strict speed limits apply in Venice and no vaporetto is allowed to turn in the Grand Canal. The vaporetti also travel to the neighboring islands and the mainland in a dense network of routes.
Since 2010 a new tram has been running between the endpoints in Mestre and Piazzale Roma in the historic old town (T1). A special feature is that this tram runs according to the Translohr system without conventional rails; For this purpose, a rail recessed into the ground is used for track guidance in the vehicle center line. See Venice tram .
There are two important train stations in Venice, namely Venezia Santa Lucia as the terminus in the historic center and the Venezia Mestre junction in the mainland district of the same name. To the west of it is a disused marshalling yard , which is still used for local freight traffic . Around 82,000 travelers arrive in Santa Lucia every day, with around 450 trains running, a total of 30 million passengers per year. The architect Angiolo Mazzoni suggested the construction in 1924 . Ten years later, a competition was announced, which Virgilio Vallot won. In 1936 it was agreed that Mazzoni - Vallot should carry out the construction, the completion of which was interrupted in 1943. After the war, Paolo Perilli brought it to an end.
Mestre train station, which opened in 1842, has slightly higher passenger numbers. Around 500 trains run here every day.
Under Mayor Paolo Costa (2000-2005) the creation of a subway line with direct exit on St. Mark's Square and Murano was pushed. Costa's predecessor and successor in office, the philosopher Massimo Cacciari , as well as his other successors, however, did not give the project any priority, further plans are not known.
A funicular built by Doppelmayr , the People Mover , runs between the island of Tronchetto and Piazzale Roma . In addition to the two head stops, the line, which is built on an average of seven meter high stilts, also serves the ferry port via the Marittima stop . The 822 meter long route is covered in three minutes.
Venice has three airports: Venice Marco Polo Airport, Treviso Airport , which is served by some low-cost airlines, and a small landing pad for private planes on the Lido. In 2006, the Marco Polo handled 7.7 million passengers; in the first nine months of 2008 there were already 6,786,000. This makes the airport the fourth largest in Italy after Rome and the two near Milan. However, the number of passengers fell slightly in 2008, but Treviso Airport increased by 10%. Together, the airports form the third largest complex in Italy.
Ferry and cruise port
Venice is the starting point for RoRo ferries to Greece and the destination of numerous cruise ships . These ships usually used the Giudecca Canal with the touristic voyage past St. Mark's Square and docked at the harbor in the west of the old town near the train station. This route has been forbidden since the beginning of 2014 because the constantly growing ships with their waves are particularly endangering the buildings. Instead, a new ferry terminal in Fusina on the mainland with four berths was built with EU funds. From November 2014, cruise ships over 40,000 t were to be banned completely from the lagoon. In March 2014, however, the Venice Administrative Court declared the decision to be unlawful as there were no alternative routes available. The ferry connections have been using the new Fusina ferry terminal since June 2014.
Environment, lagoon, gardens
Given the special circumstances of Venice, environmental issues are more related to the lagoon. The most urgent problem is the increasingly frequent flooding of the city, but also the destruction of the lagoon itself, which is inextricably linked with it. The urban areas on the mainland are also very densely built up, but there are parks such as the Parco Alfredo Albanese or the Parco di San Giuliano in Mestre, which are 33 and 74 hectares in size. In addition, there is the Querini forest with around 200 hectares. The Republic of Venice had specifically protected such forests in order to secure high trees and wood supplies. However, they fell victim to industrialization and agriculture after 1797. Venice's old town has numerous private gardens, the majority of which are walled, most of which are not open to the public. This relies on the Giardini Papadopoli , the Biennale site and the Giardini Reali , the garden that Napoleon had laid out around 1810 between the New Procuraties and the basin of San Marco.
The city is often affected by floods ( acqua alta ) . On November 4, 1966, the highest flood recorded so far occurred, a storm surge with a height of 194 cm above normal level. On December 1, 2008, a flood reached 156 cm. On November 12, 2019, shortly before midnight, the level rose to 187 cm above sea level . Gusts of wind put some vaporetti and other boats ashore. "St. Mark's Basilica has only been flooded with similar severity five times in its history since the 9th century." In the Fenice Theater there was water ingress, the power supply and the fire alarm system failed.
The sea level in the lagoon was 23 cm higher in 2012 than it was around 1900, partly because of the lowering of the land at that time due to the now stopped water abstraction and partly due to the general rise in sea level. Since the end of 2004 is on MO.SE project ( mo dulo s perimentale e lettromeccanico) built. It consists of 78 lock gates on the sea floor that can be erected using compressed air. At the beginning of October 2020, the system was used for the first time as an actual protection of Venice during a flood with a forecast height of 130 cm.
Critics argue against the project that the sea level could rise even further due to global warming and the ecology in the lagoon city could be adversely affected by the locks. Indeed, a major problem is the ever-deepening port entrances to meet the needs of the oil industry (Porto Marghera industrial port) and tourism (cruise ships).
Rainwater used to be collected in cisterns and wells, the pozzi; In 1322 alone, the Senate ordered the construction of 50 such cisterns. In 1858 there were well over 6,000 Pozzi, but only a fraction of them were open to the public. In addition, water was brought in barrels from rivers, such as from the Brenta. The water was transported by the guild of the Acquaroli, who brought drinking water to the city with their wooden boats, the burchi , when there was not enough of it.
The republic frequently arranged for the drilling of artesian wells . In 1848, the company entrusted with the search for water decided to drill a hole on Riva Ca 'di Dio. When they came across a layer of fresh water after 145 m, they were so euphoric that they continued drilling. However, this damaged the sealing reservoir of the freshwater found and made it unusable.
At the suggestion of the London company Ritterbant & Dalgairns to lay a water line from the Seriola into the city (1875), the river from Moranzani to the Brenta near Strà was extended so that it also carried the water of this river. In 1885 the water pipeline was put into operation. Ritterbant & Dalgairns then drew up a further plan and a contract was signed in 1889, which was fulfilled in 1891 with the commissioning of a new, sublagunar pipeline. In 1897 Murano, in 1900 the Giudecca, the Lido and other small islands were connected to the aqueduct. On July 18, 1911, however, a ship tore open the main pipe of the water pipe and within a very short time all of the drinking water was rendered unusable by the brackish water that had penetrated . Extensive repair and cleaning work did not remove the damage sufficiently, so that work on the construction of a new water pipeline began in 1912. It was completed after the end of the war. The line ran over a length of more than 20 km from Sant'Ambrogio ( Scorzè ) to S. Giuliano on the edge of the lagoon. A double pipe, partly at the bottom of the lagoon, supplied Venice with sufficient drinking water from the Sant'Ambrogio springs.
After the Second World War , not least due to the demands of increasing mass tourism, new sources were constantly tapped and water pipes laid on the mainland.
The 'Caparossolanti', the mussel men, as they are called in the Venetian dialect, cause disaffection between Venice and Chioggia. At the end of the 1980s, breeders introduced the Philippine clams (Tapes philippinarum), the 'black gold of the lagoon', which displaced the native mussels. It particularly thrives in waters polluted and heated up by industrial wastewater. The Caparossolanti catch them with iron baskets in restricted areas and tear up the lagoon floor in the process. Over 1000 of these mussel men fished in the waters between Chioggia and Venice in 2006 and earned significantly more than the traditional fishermen, whose livelihoods they endanger. In just 15 years, the new type of shell has shaken the lagoon's water world. The Caparossolanti are fought by the financial police in their boats called 'yellow flames'. Five mussel men have already died in the process. There is a sophisticated information system between the fishermen, which works via cell phones and computers and is mainly used at night.
For the residents of Chioggia, the Filipino clam has boosted the city's economy; basically replacing one form of crime with a new one ( environmental crime ).
Arts and Culture
Throughout the Middle Ages, Venice was strongly influenced by Byzantine culture and, like Florence , received renewed impulses from the East in the late Middle Ages , which were an important prerequisite for the Renaissance . Refugees from Constantinople brought ancient works to the West, and libraries were searched for classical writings. The idiosyncratic artistic development of Venice goes back to early history and so the Gothic style of Venice differs very strongly from the otherwise common term of Gothic .
In terms of art history , Venice was of the greatest importance during the Renaissance and Baroque periods : Venetian painting formed a “counterpoint” to the art of Florence and Rome. It included many important artists such as Carpaccio , Giorgione , Giovanni Bellini , Tizian , Veronese , Tintoretto , and later Sebastiano Ricci , Piazzetta , Giovanni Battista Tiepolo , Guardi and Canaletto .
Venice is rich in churches (124) from the Romanesque (crypt of San Zaccaria ) to the Baroque , whereby the bell tower (campanile) standing next to the church stands out from the outside - it can be found in the entire formerly Venetian area as far as Cyprus. Venetian sacred architecture is conservative and self-confident in relation to Roman-European trends.
The symbol of Venice as a city and formerly a republic is St. Mark's Basilica , the shrine originally built in the Byzantine style for the remains of St. Mark the Evangelist , and at the same time the state and palace church of the Doges. In the years 976 to 1094, after the previous building was destroyed, a cross-domed church based on the model of Constantinople was built. The basilica on Torcello, Santa Maria Assunta was built even earlier . It goes back to the 7th century. San Giacomo di Rialto is considered to be the oldest church in Venice , although here, as in most churches, major structural changes have been made. In San Giovanni Decollato ( San Zan Degolà ), too , the original substance is still extensively preserved, as is the case in San Giacomo dall'Orio , which, however, mainly dates from the 14th century.
San Polo , built in the 9th century, was rebuilt in the Gothic style in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Gothic portal on the south side is partly attributed to Bartolomeo Bon (before 1410–1464 / 67), who also built the Ca 'd'Oro . In 1804, however, the church was largely rebuilt.
With the mendicant orders of the Dominicans and Franciscans coming to Venice in the 13th century , prayer rooms and finally large buildings such as Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (Frari, where the State Archives are located ) and Santi Giovanni e Paolo (Zanipolo), which are 101 m long, were built and 35 m height is Venice's largest church and was the favorite burial place of the Doges. Another Gothic church is Madonna dell'Orto (completed after 1377, 15th century facade). The church of San Zaccaria of the Benedictine nunnery of the same name in the Castello sestiere already shows transitional forms to the Renaissance in the first construction period, possibly under the influence of Florentine stonemasons who - initially under the master builder Michelozzo di Bartolomeo in 1433/1434 - during the construction of the first library, which later burned down of the monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore , also belonging to the Benedictines .
The first religious building of the Renaissance, which was implemented in Venice mainly by Bartolomeo Buon since the 1460s, is San Michele in Isola (1468–1479) built by Mauro Codussi . The facade of San Zaccaria , which was also completed under Mauro Codussi 1483–1504, refers to this. The church of Santa Maria Formosa , also built by Mauro Codussi, is probably one of the most famous Renaissance churches in Venice, with a Renaissance and a Baroque facade. From 1492 onwards, Santa Maria dei Miracoli was built . An example of the recourse to the cross-domed church is the church of San Giovanni Crisostomo , built around 1500 . The largest church building of the early 16th century, San Salvatore, refers to San Marco. The technique of incrustation found its ultimate perfection at Santa Maria dei Miracoli.
Outstanding architects such as Jacopo Sansovino have San Zulian , San Martino and the interior of San Francesco della Vigna designed Scarpagnino designed San Sebastiano . Andrea Palladio built pioneering buildings with San Giorgio Maggiore , Il Redentore and the facade of San Francesco della Vigna; Le Zitelle can no longer be assigned to him. The facade of San Pietro di Castello is in the footsteps of Palladio, his formal language appears long after his death in buildings such as San Trovaso , San Stae and further into the 19th century.
In San Giorgio Maggiore , the Sala del Conclave commemorates the conclave that began here on December 1, 1799 and ended with the election of Pope Pius VII on March 14, 1800. Because of the occupation of Rome by Napoleonic troops, the conclave had been moved to Venice as a precaution.
In thanks for the end of the plague , the church of Santa Maria della Salute was built between 1631 and 1686 , the most important baroque church in Venice, designed by Baldassare Longhena . Some church facades of this century remained unfinished, such as Santi Apostoli , San Marcuola , San Lorenzo or San Pantalon.
The facade of the Pietà on the Riva degli Schiavoni was only completed in the 20th century, the facade of the Gesuati Church (only in Venice there was this order, which should not be confused with the Gesuiti ( Jesuits ), the Santa Maria Assunta dei Gesuiti built) could only be brought to an end with the donation of a wealthy patrician. Such funds also flowed to the churches of San Moisè and Santa Maria Zobenigo , which guard the corresponding tombs of the donors. Other financiers were secular societies, such as the Pinzocchere Carmini, as Tertiarierinnen the Carmelite Order belonged - from them that went Scuola dei Carmini forth. They ensured that the church of Santa Maria dei Carmini was built between 1286 and 1348 .
Other faith groups, such as the Orthodox Greeks, were also allowed to build churches in the city in the 16th century. So in 1498 the Scuola di San Nicolò dei Greci was built , which from 1548 had the church of San Giorgio dei Greci built. The Protestants were also allowed to build a church.
In the years 1706–1714 the Theatine Church of San Nicola da Tolentino, begun by Scamozzi , was shown a Corinthian pronaos . In 1760 the classical Maddalena Church was built . In the circular exterior there is an octagonal interior. Among the churches characterized by Napoleonic classicism , one should highlight San Maurizio . San Silvestro was only begun in the fourth decade of the 19th century, in classicist design language like the Accademia .
A palace is commonly referred to as a casa (abbreviated Ca ′ ) in Venice . In the public perception there were only two palaces in the city that were labeled as such: the Doge's Palace (Palazzo Ducale) and the residence of the Patriarch of Venice, the Palazzo Patriarchale.
There are only a few of the so-called Byzantine palaces left and these were largely changed in the 19th century. The Fontego dei Turchi gives a good impression of the palace construction of the 13th century, the name of which suggests a Turkish trading house, but which goes back to a city palace. Much of the old substance is still preserved on the Ca 'da Mosto , which was built in the 13th century. The decorative details of the Loredan and Farsetti complex , now the town hall and local government, largely date from the 19th century. Nevertheless, the facade composition of a typical casa-fondaco (derived from the Arabic funduq = storage room) can still be clearly read: a row of arcades on the ground floor, which was suitable for loading and unloading goods, and a piano nobile that was also torn open throughout . In the floor plan, this is expressed in a central hall that widens in a T-shape towards the facade .
In the course of the Gothic period , the proportions of the hall became steeper and the T-shaped floor plan was given up in favor of a slightly L-shaped hall that was later only straight through. The so-called gotico fiorito used tracery on the Grand Canal in the 15th century, which was derived from the Doge's Palace. The largest building is the Ca 'Foscari at the first bend of the Grand Canal . For the Ca 'd'Oro (Golden House) a colored painting in blue and gold has been proven. Pictures, especially by Vittore Carpaccio and Gentile Bellini , reveal an intense polychromy of Gothic architecture.
Important houses of the 16th century are the two palaces of Mauro Codussi , the Ca 'Vendramin and the Palazzo Corner Spinelli , the former with a recourse to a T-shaped hall. As far as secular building is concerned, in contrast to sacred buildings , Andrea Palladio was never able to gain a foothold in Venice.
Just after design by Jacopo Sansovino resulting Ca 'Corner , one situated on the Grand Canal palace of the Cornaro family, is an epoch-making construction of the High Renaissance, with a square courtyard on the Roman model. Another important architect of the Cinquecento , Sebastiano Serlio , was able to realize some of his ideas in cooperation with the patrician Francesco Zeno for his new palazzo to be built.
Up until the 18th century, palace construction remained largely faithful to the traditional building type. The last major buildings are the Ca 'Pesaro , the Ca' Rezzonico and the Palazzo Grassi and are used as museums. In addition to the baroque Palazzo Grassi Baldassare Longhenas , there are also examples of classical palace construction by the architects Antonio Diedo and Andrea Tirali .
The Libreria Vecchia
The most important work of the architect Sansovino is the old library opposite the Doge's Palace, the Libreria Vecchia from around 1540. In the design of the facade, Sansovino took up an idea that Mauro Codussi had exemplarily carried out between 1481 and 1509 , namely at the Palazzo Vendramin-Calerghi . The aim was to establish a connection between the row of arcades customary in Venice and the colonnade structure of the Florentine Renaissance.
Scuole (houses of guilds and lay fraternities)
The guilds, but also lay brotherhoods, which were dedicated to charitable and spiritual tasks, were called scuoles . They were organized according to nationality, but also according to professional groups.
The Scuole grandi stood out among them, entering into an architectural and artistic competition that threatened to override their charitable and job-specific tasks. The Scuole Santa Maria della Carità (approx. 1260) and San Teodoro (1258) are the oldest of the six Scuole grandi in the 16th century , followed by the Scuola Grande di San Marco and the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista in 1261 . The latter owed its rise to the fact that it received a cross relic from the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1369. The (unfinished) Scuola Grande di San Rocco and della Misericordia (both 1478) are equally gorgeous . Master builders such as Pietro Lombardo and Mauro Codussi , but also Jacopo Sansovino , were involved in the buildings erected or rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries . When it came to the interior, it was mainly Tizian and Jacopo Tintoretto . The Scuola Grande dei Carmini was added in the 17th century .
In the 15th century, between 200 and 400 guilds and other lay communities, of which there were at least 925, owned meetinghouses, some of which still exist. In contrast to the grand schools, the nobles had no access to them. They were also partly organized according to nations, but mostly according to artisanal corporations. There are also some of the meetinghouses of the Piccole School, for example the house of the Scuola dei Varotari, i.e. the tanners , on Campo Santa Margherita , or that of the Scuola dei Calegheri , the shoemakers' guild , on Campo San Tomà .
Hardly anything is left of the early houses, mostly made of wood and reeds. In the course of the late Middle Ages, brick construction largely prevailed, if only because of the city fires that raged around 1105. At the same time, the need for wooden stakes increased, because with the development, more and more boggy terrain was penetrated. Nevertheless, the expansion was carried out under strict control, so that despite the narrow spaces and paths remained, and occasionally even demolitions or house underpasses were forced. As early as 1294, for example, eaves had to be approved and balconies are comparatively rare and often very small. Therefore, only a few houses protrude from the narrow streets.
As a result, people often go to the roofs to get sunlight ( altana ). At the same time, the construction height was limited, which in turn resulted in lower floors, especially in the ghetto . The living conditions were and are often cramped, even if impressive rooms are often hidden behind the façades. The dampness on the lower floors and the high rents are causing the greatest problems, which has been accelerating migration for decades. In addition, little is invested in the inconspicuous buildings. In addition, many houses were bought by non-Venetians who are rarely present. In addition, many owners are not interested in renting out their apartments.
Most hotels in Venice underline their pride in having established their home in one of the numerous palaces. It was different in the 1940s. The former Hotel Bauer-Grünwald (2012 Bauer) near San Moisé is an example of how ruthless action was taken against the existing building fabric by enforcing a modern architectural style. The same applies to the savings bank, the Cassa di Risparmio . In 2011, plans became known according to which Pierre Cardin wanted to build a 240 m high hotel tower. In any case, it cannot be said that modern hotels have their own architectural style, even if their institutional tradition goes back to the High Middle Ages.
Only a few buildings in Venice date from a time when one can speak of public buildings. Buildings for exercising power or for general storage were by no means open to the public. On the other hand, some buildings from the 20th century, such as the Santa Lucia train station, but also the multi-storey car park or the bus station through which most visitors reach Venice, are more likely to be regarded as such buildings. They take practically no consideration of the historical building structure and - in accordance with specifications developed elsewhere - have been driven into the existing structure, as it were. Most of the city's authorities and institutions, including the town hall, are located in older buildings, often city palaces and trading houses, which are the most likely to have enough space.
In Venice, most of the buildings were built in connection with shipbuilding. In addition to the arsenal , which practically represented a district of its own, the city was interspersed with numerous, small shipyards, the Squeri, of which only one is still active. It can be found near San Trovaso not far from the Zattere.
Of the three granaries that ensured the supply of the population with the basic foodstuffs wheat and millet , later corn and rice , two are still preserved: the millet granary (1423) at S. Stae (an elementary school in 2012) and the granary for the arsenal and the Fleet, the Maritime Museum. The third was where the Giardini Reali are, a small park behind the procuraties . Napoleon had the building torn down, which was as high as the Zecca, and which was mainly erected in this place to testify to the care and welfare of the late medieval state. Just as centralized as the grain storage was that of the flour. The granary is located on the Grand Canal, opposite the Patriarch's Palace, on the Rio terà San Silvestro o del Fontego. From the 16th century, smaller granaries were added, such as the one on Campo Santa Margherita, which is not easy to find.
Founded in 1228 and rebuilt in 1505 after a conflagration, the German trading house (Fondaco dei Tedeschi), located near the Rialto Bridge, housed the main post office until a few years ago. Similar trading houses were the Fontego dei Turchi and others. Finally, on the Rialto market, there is also the building of the fish market, which was built in the 19th century in the Gothic style. In addition, in the 16th century there was the building of the Ministry of Finance, which is also located on the Rialto Bridge, and the building of the Banco Giro in Piazza di Rialto , which has since been restored.
Is located at the entrance of the Grand Canal, the former customs building for the goods that came from the sea, therefore Dogana da Mar said. The most expensive goods such as pepper and saffron , but also salt, were stored here . For the goods that came from the mainland, i.e. from northern Italy, there was a corresponding Dogana da Terra . Today, the Dogana da Mar is home to a private museum for contemporary art, the Punta della Dogana .
The Zecca , from which the words Zeche and Zecchine are derived, was the place where the coins of Venice were minted until 1797. Probably the largest building, which can only be partially referred to as a farm building, are the procuraties . This is where the procurators resided, who not only had administrative, but also financing tasks.
Music and theater
Venice has been one of the centers of Western music since the 16th century, initially in the field of church and instrumental music. In the Renaissance and early Baroque periods, some of the most important musicians of their time worked in St. Mark's Basilica, from Adriaen Willaert to Claudio Merulo , Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli to Claudio Monteverdi . Their music formed a counterpoint to Roman church music with Palestrina as the most important exponent.
Then in the 17th century the lagoon city became the first center of the reimagined opera and theater. The population had had access to public opera since 1637, while in other cities only the aristocracy initially enjoyed this expensive art. In addition to Monteverdi, the most important Venetian opera composers of the 17th century included: Francesco Cavalli , Pietro Andrea and Marc'Antonio Ziani , Carlo Pallavicino , Giovanni Lefini and Carlo Francesco Pollarolo . The composers Barbara Strozzi and Antonia Bembo also worked at the lagoon .
Among the numerous opera houses in Venice, the Teatro di San Giovanni Grisostomo , which opened in 1678, was the largest and most beautiful opera house in the city - and thus in the world. It was rebuilt in the 19th century and renamed the Teatro Malibran after the famous mezzo-soprano Maria Malibran .
Since it opened at the end of the 18th century, the Teatro La Fenice , which has been rebuilt after several fire disasters, has been one of the most important opera houses in the world. Symphony concerts are held here all year round ; the opera season lasts from December to June.
Musical attractions for Venetians and travelers to Venice from the 16th century to the end of the Republic were the concerts in the churches of the four Ospedali Grandi , which were performed exclusively by instrumentalists, singers and soloists . The ospedali are considered to be the forerunners of the conservatories of the 19th century. The teachers and composers who worked for the Ospedali include the most renowned musicians of their time, from Lenzei, Vivaldi and Porpora to Galuppi and Hasse . Among the composers of the time, the brothers Alessandro and Benedetto Marcello , Antonio Caldara and Tomaso Albinoni should be mentioned in particular .
But Venice also produced famous artists in the music of the 20th century, such as Luigi Nono , whose life's work has had its own archive since 1993. In 1778 the first theater was built in Mestre, designed by the Venetian architect Bernardino Maccaruzzi. But with the end of the republic, the theater disappeared again, and it was not until 1840 that Moisè D'Angeli erected a small building, which was named Garibaldi after 1866 . But this theater also had to close in 1908. The brothers Domenico, Marco and Giovanni Toniolo built the house named after their family between Via Castelvecchio and the Sabbioni from 1912 to 1913.
The Venice Biennale is one of the most important international art exhibitions and has been held every two years since 1895 - with several years of interruption during the war years - between June and November. There is now a division into art, music, dance, theater, film and architecture. The art biennale takes place in the odd years, the architecture biennale in the even years. The film festival as well as the festival for music, dance and theater take place annually.
The film festival that has been taking place on the Lido since 1932 at the end of August / beginning of September is considered the oldest and, alongside the Cannes film festival and the Berlinale , one of the three most important film festivals worldwide.
Education and research institutions
School and College
Only about 10 percent of all Venetians have a university degree; at the same time, 100 patents per million inhabitants were registered in 2005. This is related to the fact that traditional companies are more likely to be classified as knowledge-intensive and require less research and development. With the decline in the share of traditional companies in total production and, above all, in the share of jobs, the level of training in the global economic crisis has also been recognized as a labor market problem since around 2007.
A general school system was only introduced in Venice towards the end of the republic with the Scuole dei Sestieri , neighborhood schools for the non-noble boys, which mostly emerged from the Latin schools. Schoolchildren from the age of 6 attend (mostly after the Scuola materna ) a Scuola elementare for five years , which is followed by a three-year Scuola media .
Venice has three universities . In addition to the Università Ca 'Foscari , founded in the 19th century, there is the Venice International University and the University of Architecture IUAV . The Ca 'Foscari emerged from the first business school in Italy, the Scuola Superiore di Commercio, founded in 1868. Linguistics were not added until 1939 and 1954 , followed by literary studies / philosophy and industrial chemistry in 1969, a year after the Ca 'Foscari had been promoted to a full university. Around 10,000 students are enrolled. The Accademia di belle arti di Venezia art college is also located here .
Further research institutions
Institutes and foundations traditionally play an important role. Above all, the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti , the Deputazione di Storia Patria per le Venezie , the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti and the museum association, the Musei Civici Veneziani, should be mentioned. The Scuola di musica antica di Venezia deals with the history of music . Archeo Veneto deals with the archeology of the region. There are now 40 institutions in the Venezia Laboratorio di Cultura. There are also research institutes such as the German Study Center in Venice , which are dedicated to the history and culture of the city and also promote scientists and artists. The International University is mainly accompanied by the British Warwick University .
Museums and libraries
Venice has a large number of museums, most of which are art museums - mostly in buildings that themselves represent architectural works of art. The best known are the Gallerie dell'Accademia , the Doge's Palace itself and the Galleria G. Franchetti alla Ca 'd'Oro . There is also the Ca 'Rezzonico - Museo del Settecento veneziano , which focuses on the 18th century with the Museo Querini Stampalia , the Museo Correr , which is dedicated to the history of the Republic of Venice , and the Ca' Pesaro - Galleria Internazionale d'Arte Moderna , with the main emphasis on modern art. There are also numerous exhibitions in the Palazzo Grassi , which focuses on painting, and in the Peggy Guggenheim Collection . There are also museums for oriental art, for fabrics, the maritime museum , and finally the palaces themselves, some of which have been converted into museums, such as the Ca 'Mocenigo. Glass art exhibits are presented in the Museo del Vetro in the Palazzo Giustinian. Many of them have a scientific library, the boundaries between which and general libraries are sometimes blurred.
On the mainland, too, attempts are being made to present the local focus as a museum. So south of the driveway to the Freedom Bridge , which leads into the historic center, the VEGA (VEnice GAteway for Science and Technology), a technology park that deals with nano and information technology as well as environmentally friendly economy, was created. With the M9 museum , a museum of the 20th century was created in Mestre. In Favaro Veneto, on the other hand, a Civiltà Contadina museum was built . of rural culture.
The Biblioteca Civica di Mestre, founded in 1952, has been Venice's central library since 1980. Another 18 libraries within Venice belong to the library system.
The art of printing , above all Aldus Manutius , dates back to the 15th century in Venice. But it was not until the annexation to Italy in 1866 that there was a strong expansion of the press. Every political grouping tried to influence public opinion through the mass media of the era, the newspaper. In addition to the conservative Gazzetta di Venezia, which merged with the Giornale di Venezia , there was the radical Adriatico, the socialist Secolo Nuovo, and finally the Catholic Difesa . Even Murano had a newspaper: La voce di Murano - Giornale nell'industria vetraria .
The Italian press is dependent on either a political party or a corporation. The most important paper, alongside the national newspapers, is Il Gazzettino , founded in 1887 , which was printed in Venice until the 1990s, but whose editorial department moved to Mestre as early as 1977. It has been published in Venice since 1887. In 1983, the Società Editrice Padana (SEP) was established as the publishing company . In 2006, however, Caltagirone Editore took over the majority of the shares, the third largest media group in Italy. At the end of the year, the company already owned more than two thirds of the shares. 70% of the shares in Caltagirone are indirectly owned by the family of the same name, 34% directly. The circulation, which in 1997 was over 136,000 copies, fell to barely more than 96,000 by 2006 and is around 80,000 in 2012. There is a local editorial office in Mestre.
The oldest rowing companies date back to around 1900, such as the Compagnia della Vela founded in 1911 . The regattas themselves can be traced back to the late Middle Ages . It was first mentioned on a city map by Jacopo de 'Barbari in 1500. The regatta is a Venetian invention.
In 1907 the Venezia Calcio club, more precisely the Società Sportiva Calcio Venezia , was founded, which played successfully in the Italian league, especially in the 30s and 40s. In 1987 she united with the team from Mestre, with the club colors black and green being supplemented by the local orange. In 2005 the association was insolvent, but was re-established.
Venice has two well-known basketball clubs, Umana Venezia and Priolo from Mestre. The basketball club Reyer Venezia Mestre , founded in 1872 under the name Società Sportiva Costantino Reyer , which was national champion in 1942 and 1943, is also successful . After a long crisis, they were promoted back to the first division (A 1) in 2011/12.
Before the Second World War, Italy ranked behind France as the most important European rugby country, but after the war the sport was considered "fascist" because it was promoted by Mussolini's party. Now the Anglo-Saxon troops reintroduced rugby, which was considered politically unsuspicious, so that in 1948 the Venezia Rugby Football Club was founded. Padua was soon seen as a rugby stronghold, but it wasn't until 1965 that Rugby Mestre came into being . The Venetians nicknamed themselves Dogi (doge). The Venezia Mestre Rugby club emerged from the merger of the two clubs in 1986 . Berlusconi promoted his Milanese club and from there the professionalization of sport started. In 2009 two Italian clubs reached the Celtic League, the highest European league.
Numerous personalities from Venice have had an impact on the city and some far beyond. On the political level, well over a hundred doges can be mentioned, of which Enrico Dandolo is probably the best known, but also eight popes, most recently John Paul I. In the cultural field in particular, the city provided strong impulses from outstanding artists especially painters, musicians and writers such as Titian , Tintoretto , Veronese , Giovanni Gabrieli , Claudio Monteverdi , Antonio Vivaldi , Giacomo Casanova or the comedy poet Carlo Goldoni . After all, Marco Polo for Asia and Giovanni Caboto for North America are among the most famous explorers.
- Caroline Fletcher, Tom Spencer (Eds.): Flooding and Environmental Challenges for Venice and its Lagoon. State of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge / New York 2005, ISBN 0-521-84046-5 ( limited preview in Google Book Search)
- Giampaolo Rallo: Guida alla natura nella Laguna di Venezia. Itinerari, storia e informazioni naturalistiche (= Viaggi e natura. ). Muzzio, Padova (Padua) 1996, ISBN 88-7021-735-3 .
- Fabrizio Fabbri: Porto Marghera e la laguna di Venezia. Vita, morte, miracoli. Un libro di Greenpeace (= Di fronte e attraverso , 599; Terra-terra ). Jaca Book, Milan; Alce nero, [Isola del Piano] 2003, ISBN 88-16-40599-6 ( preview in Google book search)
- Mauro Bon, Emanuele Stival: Uccelli di laguna e di città. L'atlante ornitologico nel comune di Venezia 2006-2011 , Marsilio, 2013.
- Sergio Barizza: Storia di Mestre (= Città nelle Venezie dall'unità ai nostri giorni , 9). Il Poligrafo, Padova (Padua) 1994, ISBN 88-7115-065-1 .
- Martin Bundi : Venice. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . April 30, 2015 .
- Riccardo Calimani : The merchants of Venice. The history of the Jews in the Lion Republic. Translated by Sylvia Höfer. Claasen, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-546-41699-6 .
- Peter Feldbauer, Gottfried Lidl, John Morrissey: Venice 800–1600. The Serenissima as a world power (= expansion, interaction, acculturation , 18). Mandelbaum Verlag, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-85476-348-2 .
- Arne Karsten : A Little History of Venice. C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57640-9 .
- Reinhard Lebe : When Markus came to Venice - Venetian history under the sign of the lion of St. Mark. Edit by author. New edition Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-421-06344-3 .
- Götz Freiherr von Pölnitz : Venice. Georg D. W. Callwey, Munich 1951, OCLC 5260213 .
- Gerhard Rösch : Venice. History of a Maritime Republic. With a foreword by Peter Johanek . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Berlin / Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-17-014547-9 .
- Gerhard Rösch: Venice and the Empire. Trade and transport relations in the German Empire (= German Historical Institute in Rome : Library of the German Historical Institute in Rome , 53). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1982, ISBN 3-484-82053-5 .
- Alvise Zorzi : Venice. The history of the lion republic. Translated by Sylvia Höfer. Claassen, Düsseldorf 1985, ISBN 3-546-49974-3 ; 2nd edition: Claasen, Hildesheim 1992, ISBN 3-546-00024-2 .
- Ennio Concina (text), Piero Codato, Vittorio Pavan (photo): Churches in Venice. Art and history. Translated by Peter Schiller. Hirmer, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-7774-7010-4 .
- Italian OT: Le chiese di Venezia. L'arte e la storia. Magnus Edizioni, Udine 1995, ISBN 88-7057-153-X .
- Richard J [ohn] Goy: City in the lagoon. Living and building in Venice. Translated by Sieglinde Denzel. Knesebeck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-89660-030-3 .
- Norbert Huse: Venice: About the art of building a city in water. C. H. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52746-9 ; (= Beck series , vol. 1784). 1st edition [sic!], C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-54821-5 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Giandomenico Romanelli (Ed.): Venice. Art & architecture. 2 volumes. Translated from the Ital. and Engl. by Ulrike Bischoff. Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft, Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-89508-592-8 .
- Italian OT: Venezia l'arte nei secoli. Magnus Ed., Udine 1997 ( title recording, vol. 1 in the Google book search).
- Giandomenico Romanelli (text), Mark E. Smith (photo), Cesare M. Cunaccia (picture texts): Venice. Translated by Klaudia Murmann. Hirmer, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-7774-7390-1 (Italian OT: Ritratto di Venezia ).
- Franz Peter Waiblinger (Ed.): Venice. A literary travel guide. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3-534-16589-6 .
- Brigitte Wormbs , Wolftraud de Concini: Venice , dtv, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-423-03718-0 ; 4th update and revised Ed., Ibid. 1992, ISBN 3-423-03718-0 .
- Robert C. Davis, Garry R. Marvin: Venice, the Tourist Maze. A Cultural Critique of the World's Most Touristed City. University of California Press, Berkeley 2004, ISBN 0-520-93780-5 ( preview in Google Book Search).
The following list shows a selection of films and series shot completely or partially in Venice:
- Sehnsucht (original title: Senso ), 1954, 117 minutes, director: Luchino Visconti
- Dream of my life (original title: Summertime ), 1955, 100 minutes, director: David Lean
- See Venice - and inherit ... (Original title: The Honey Pot ), 1967, 131 minutes, director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz
- Death in Venice (original title: Morte a Venezia ), 1971, 130 minutes, director: Luchino Visconti , music: Gustav Mahler
- When the gondolas bear mourning (Original title: Don't Look Now ), 1973, 105 minutes, director: Nicolas Roeg
- The puppeteer (original title: Le Guignolo ), 1980, 90 minutes, director: Georges Lautner
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Original title: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade ), 1989, 122 minutes, directed by Steven Spielberg
- Bread & Tulips (original title: Pani e tulipani ), 2000, 114 minutes, director: Silvio Soldini
- Donna Leon (20-part TV series by ARD Degeto based on the crime novels with the Venetian police officer, Commissario Guido Brunetti by Donna Leon ), from 2000, 90 minutes each, directed by Christian von Castelberg and Sigi Rothemund
- The Italian Job , directed by Felix Gary Gray , 2003
- Treason in Venice (original title: Secret Passage ), Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, 2004, 91 minutes, director: Ademir Kenović, with John Turturro
- Casanova , 2005, 108 minutes, directed by Lasse Hallström
- Lord of the Thieves , 2006, 108 minutes, director: Richard Claus
- Ten winters (original title: Dieci inverni ), 2009, 99 minutes, director: Valerio Mieli
- The Tourist , 2010, 103 minutes, director: Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck
- 6 x Venice (original title: Sei Venezia ), 2010, 95 minutes, director: Carlo Mazzacurati
- The Venice Principle , documentary, 2012, 82 minutes, script and direction: Andreas Pichler
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- Internet presence of the city of Venice
- UNESCO Venice Office
- Branson De Cou: Hand-colored glass slides from Venice 1920 to 1941 (The De Cou Archive, University of California, Santa Cruz)
- Kurt Zangger: Art trip to Venice. September 30, 2010 (private page with Venetian painting)
- Hans-Jürgen Hübner: Timeline of the history of Venice , in: geschichte-venedigs.de (with literature and sources)
- Maps of Venice. on the municipality's website
- Link catalog on the topic of Italian pages at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Terra Antica - Website of the Venetian cultural organization of the same name on the history and culture of the Venetian mainland
- Venice on the ETHorama platform
- Thomas Morawetz: Venice - foundation in the lagoon. (mp3 audio; 22 MB; 23:44 minutes) In: Bayern2 broadcast “ radioWissen ”. March 22, 2021 .
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Michele Brunelli: Dizsionario Xenerałe de ła Łéngua Vèneta e łe só varianti. (PDF; 1.2 MB) December 8, 2006, archived from the original on December 16, 2006 ; accessed on June 21, 2016 : “stèto Venesia? = vivi a Venezia? "
- Gina Fasoli titled her story of Venice with La Serenissima (= Novissima enciclopedia monografica illustrata. Vol. 67). Florence 1937, OCLC 8460813 (Italian).
- Superfici amministrative. (PDF; 17 kB) In: venezia.it. Città di Venezia, February 20, 2018, accessed June 16, 2019 (Italian).
- Comune di Venezia: Populazione residente e movimenti demografici dal 31/12/2017 al 31/12/2018 per sesso e quartiere (OpenOffice; 34 kB).
- Freddy Thiriet is still fundamental : La Romanie vénitienne au Moyen Age. Le développement et l'exploitation du domaine colonial vénitien (XIIe – XVe siècles) (= Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, 193). E. de Boccard, Paris 1959, OCLC 345168 ; 2nd edition, Édition-Diffusion de Boccard , Paris 1975, OCLC 848364692 (French).
- Venice and its Lagoon. UNESCO , accessed on June 16, 2019 (Unesco World Heritage List No. 394).
- Hans-Jürgen Hübner: The Venice Lagoon , in: geschichte-venedigs.de , Section Barene , accessed on March 14, 2017.
- Laura Carbognin: Cenni sulla geologia della Laguna di Venezia e sul processo di subsidenza , in: archeosub.it. September 26, 2003, accessed November 25, 2016; (quoted by Hans-Jürgen Hübner, see above).
- Albert J. Ammermann, Charles McClennen, Maurizia De Min, Rupert Housley: Sea-level change and the Archeology of Early Venice , in: Antiquity 73 (1999) 303-312, here: p. 307, doi: 10.1017 / S0003598X00088268 .
- Venice lagoon. Entry "what is the lagoon", then "from '300 to' 900: the evolution of the lagoon" ( memento from September 13, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ). In: salve.it, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- According to Venice, Italy Monthly Weather Forecast. , in: weather.com, accessed November 25, 2016.
- acqua e terra: alcuni dati ( memento of October 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), in: salve.it, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- Mauro Bon, Danilo Mainardi, Luca Mizzan, Patrizia Torricelli: The Biodiversity in the Venice Lagoon as the Basis of a Sustainability Project , in: Ignazio Musu (ed.): Sustainable Venice. Suggestions for the Future , Springer Science & Business Media Netherlands, Dordrecht 2001, pp. 27–60, here: p. 35.
- barene, velme e fondali ( Memento from July 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), in: salve.it, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- Venice islands ( memento of March 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), in: veniceinitaly.com, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- This section follows Hans-Jürgen Hübner: The Venice Lagoon. , in: geschichte-venedigs.de, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- Caroline Fletcher, Tom Spencer (Eds.): Flooding and Environmental Challenges for Venice and its Lagoon. State of Knowledge , Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 574 ( preview in Google Book Search).
- Mauro Bon, Danilo Mainardi, Luca Mizzan, Patrizia Torricelli: The Biodiversity in the Venice Lagoon as the Basis of a Sustainability Project , in: Ignazio Musu (ed.): Sustainable Venice. Suggestions for the future. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht 2001, pp. 27–60, here: p. 34.
- On this forest area see Michele Zanetti: Il bosco di Mestre , Nuova Dimensione Edizioni, Portogruaro 2008, ISBN 978-88-89100-49-3 .
- Istituzione Bosco e Grandi Parchi , in: venezia.it, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- Suddivisioni amministrative. (No longer available online.) In: venezia.it. Comune di Venezia, archived from the original on June 16, 2016 ; Retrieved May 22, 2019 (Italian, originally accessed November 25, 2016).
- map of the municipality. In: venezia.it, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- After the failed quorum, Venice and Mestre remain united. In: The Standard. December 2, 2019, accessed on April 17, 2020 (beginning of article).
- Interactive maps of the Municipality of Venice , in: istitutoveneto.org, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- On the building history: Strada Nova / Via Vittorio Emanuele II , in: venedig.jc-r.net, accessed on November 25, 2016 (German).
- Arne Karsten: A short history of Venice. C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57640-9 , p. 233 ( preview in Google book search).
- Arne Karsten: A short history of Venice. C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57640-9 , p. 121 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Arne Karsten: A short history of Venice. C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57640-9 , p. 235 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Jürgen Julier : Il Mulino Stucky a Venezia . In: Centro tedesco di studi veneziani / German Study Center in Venice (ed.): Quaderni (= documentation volume for the conference in the German Study Center in Venice on December 9, 1975 ). tape 7 , 1978, , p. 18th f . (Italian, dszv.it [PDF; 14.0 MB ; accessed on May 14, 2018]).
- Vincent Lemire : Les puits du Ghetto. Conflits de mémoire et logiques d'appropriation (Venise, 1450-1650). In: Histoire urbaine 4 (2001) , pp. 105–125, here: pp. 105–107 ( PDF; 1.7 MB ; French; German: Die Brunnen des Ghettos. Memory and logical conflicts of appropriation ).
- Dennis Romano: Gender and the Urban Geography of Renaissance Venice. In: Journal of Social History. Vol. 23, No. 2 (1989), pp. 339-353, JSTOR 3787884 .
- Arne Karsten: A short history of Venice. C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57640-9 , p. 85 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Cesare Rizzetto: Ma che cos'è questo "caranto?" In: Veneto Geologi. January – March 2004, p. 18 ( archeosub.it [Archeologia subacquea, accessed November 26, 2016]).
- Margaret Anne Doody: Tropic of Venice (= Personal takes ). University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2007, ISBN 978-0-8122-3984-3 , pp. 182 f. ( Limited preview in Google Book Search), and Richard John Goy: Building Renaissance Venice: patrons, architects and builders, c . 1430-1500. Yale University Press, New Haven 2006, ISBN 0-300-11292-0 , p. 87 ( preview in Google Book Search).
- Basic on building a house: Richard J. Goy: Venetian Vernacular Architecture. Traditional Housing in the Venetian Lagoon. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 1989, ISBN 0-521-34581-2 , passim ; New edition Cambridge University Press, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-521-15490-1 ( preview in Google Book Search).
- Elke Sallach: Studies on the Venetian vocabulary of the 15th and 16th centuries (= supplements to the magazine for Romance philology , 249). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1993, ISBN 3-484-52249-6 , p. 184 (Zugl .: Saarbrücken, Univ., Diss., 1991); Nachdr. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-094357-3 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Hermann Schreiber: The ship made of stone. Venice and the Venetians. List, Munich 1979, p. 153; New edition ibid 1992, ISBN 3-471-78753-4 ( snippet view of the edition (= List Taschenbuch ). Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1981, ISBN 3-423-01670-1 in the Google book search).
- Thomas Oehler: Freedom that I mean! With the motorcycle between everyday life and the Mediterranean. epubli, 2012, ISBN 978-3-844-24411-3 , p. 80 ( preview in Google book search).
- Ingo Kowarik, Uwe Starfinger, Ludwig Trepl (eds.): Dynamics and Constance. Festschrift for Herbert Sukopp (= Federal Agency for Nature Conservation [Hrsg.]: Series of publications for vegetation studies. Issue 27). Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster 1995, ISBN 3-89624-000-5 , p. 98.
- Map with the names of all channels ( Memento from August 19, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (English).
- This and the following according to: Tiziano Rizzo: I ponti di Venezia. Una romantica passeggiata nella intelaiatura, unica al mondo, di calle, rii e canali. Personaggi storici e leggendari, maschere e festivities dell'antica tradizione veneziana rivivono nell'incanto magico della laguna (= Quest'Italia. Vol. 52). Newton Compton, Rome 1983, OCLC 11621848 ; 2nd ed., Ibid. 1986, OCLC 310893746 .
- Ponte della Costituzione. Il quarto ponte sul Grand Canal. (No longer available online.) In: venezia.it. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016 ; accessed on May 22, 2019 (Italian, website of the city of Venice for the inauguration of the Ponte della Costituzione; originally accessed on November 30, 2016).
- Emilio Franzina: Venezia (= Storia delle città italiane; Storia e Società [Editori Laterza] ). Laterza, Bari 1986, ISBN 88-420-2751-0 , p. 264.
- Piano di assetto del territorio. Sintesi della bozza del Documento Preliminare allegato alla Deliberazione di Giunta Municipale n. 533 of 05/10/2007. Sistema insediativo. Comune di Venezia, Assesorato all'urbanistica.
- Storia della Parrocchia di Chirignago , in: chirignago.altervista.org, accessed on November 30, 2016 (on the history).
- Wladimiro Dorigo : Storia delle dinamiche ambientali ed insediative nel territorio lagunare veneziano ( Memento of August 13, 2019 in the Internet Archive ). Università degli Studi di Venezia May 10, 1994, in: venezia.it, accessed on November 30, 2016.
- The work of Ernesto Canal was groundbreaking in the field of archeology .
- Fundamental to the history of events and of great source knowledge is still: Heinrich Kretschmayr : History of Venice , 3 volumes, Gotha 1905 and 1920, Stuttgart 1934; 2nd reprint, ibid 1986, ISBN 3-511-01240-6 ; electron. Resource: Salzwasser Verlag, Paderborn 2013, ISBN 978-3-8460-0657-3 ( 1st vol. 1: Until the death of Enrico Dandolo; snippet view in the Google book search; 2nd vol .: The blossom; snippet View in Google Book Search; Volume 3: The decline; limited preview in Google Book Search).
- This and the following in essential features according to Donald MacGillivray Nicol: Byzantium and Venice. A study in diplomatic and cultural relations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York 1988, ISBN 0-521-34157-4 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Antonio Rossi: La Cronaca Veneta Detta Altinate di autore anonimo in latino preceduta da un commentario del Prof. Antonio Rossi (= Archivio Storico Italiano . VIII). Gio. Pietro Vieusseux, Florenz 1845, OCLC 12357922 , p. 20 ( facsimile in the Google book search) (Latin, Italian).
- Acta et capitularia Venetica ( Hlotharii I. ). In: Capitularia regum Francorum (= Monumenta Germaniae Historica , Legum, Sectio II). Edited by Alfred Boretius , Victor Krause. Volume 2. Hahn, Hannover 1897, OCLC 3387603 , pp. 130-135, No. 233, [octavo kal. Marcii = February 23] 840 (Latin; digitized ).
- Theodor Schieder : Handbook of European History. Vol. 1: Europe in the transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-12-907530-5 ( facsimile in the Google book search); 4th edition. 1996, p. 394.
- Constantinus Porphyrogenitus : De administrando imperio (= Corpus fontium historiae Byzantinae, 1; Dumbarton Oaks texts, 1). Greek text edited by Gyula Moravcsik; engl. Translation of R [omilly] J [ames] H [eald] Jenkins. New, 2nd, revised. Ed. Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Trustees for Harvard Univ., Washington, D. C. 1967, OCLC 883692737 ( digitized in Google Book Search); Reprint 2006, ISBN 0-88402-021-5 , pp. 116-119.
- On the Venice policy of the Ottonians, see Wolfgang Giese : Venice politics and the idea of an empire among the Ottonians. In: Georg Jenal (Ed.): Dominion, Church, Culture. Contributions to the history of the Middle Ages. Festschrift for Friedrich Prinz on his 65th birthday (= monographs on the history of the Middle Ages , 37). Among employees by Stephanie Haarländer. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-7772-9321-0 , pp. 219-243.
- Hubertus Seibert: A great father's hapless son? The new politics of Otto II. In: Bernd Schneidmüller , Stefan Weinfurter (Hrsg.): Ottonische Neuanfänge. Symposium on the exhibition "Otto der Grosse, Magdeburg and Europe". von Zabern, Mainz 2001, ISBN 3-8053-2701-3 , pp. 293-320, here: p. 309.
- Cf. Gerhard Rösch : The Venetian nobility up to the closure of the Great Council. On the genesis of a leadership class (= Kiel historical studies , 33). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1989, ISBN 978-3-7995-5933-1 , pp. 134-141 (Zugl .: Kiel, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1986).
- Gerhard Rösch: The Venetian nobility up to the closure of the Great Council. On the genesis of a leadership class. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1989, p. 16.
- Franz Dölger (Ed.): Regest of the imperial documents of the Eastern Roman Empire from 565-1453. Part 2: From 1025–1204. Beck, Munich 1925, , , May 1082; 2., ext. and verb. Ed. Ed. By Peter Wirth with supplements to Regesten Faszikel 3. Beck, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-37020-9 ( snippet view in the Google book search).
- John Danstrup: Manuel I's coup against Genoa and Venice in the light of Byzantine commercial policy. In: Classica et Mediaevalia 10 (1948) 195-219.
- On Enrico Dandolo: Thomas F. Madden: Enrico Dandolo & the Rise of Venice. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2003, ISBN 1-4356-9219-5 ( preview in Google Book Search).
- general on the Venetian commercial privileges in Byzantium see Julian Chrysostomides: Venetian commercial privileges under the Palaeologi. In: Studi Veneziani . 12 (1970) 267-356.
- Sally McKee : The Revolt of St Tito in fourteenth-century Venetian Crete: A reassessment. In: Mediterranean Historical Review 9 (1994) 173-204, doi: 10.1080 / 09518969408569670 .
- On the politics and economy of Venice in the 14th century: Roberto Cessi: Politica ed economia di Venezia nel trecento. Saggi (= Storia e letteratura [Edizioni di storia e letteratura]. Vol. 40). Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, Rome 1952, OCLC 12234869 ( snippet view in Google book search) (Italian).
- Vittorio Lazzarini: La presa di Chioggia. in: Archivio Veneto 81 (1952) 53-64.
- Mario Brunetti: Venezia durante la peste del 1348. in: Ateneo Veneto 32 (1909) 289-311.
- On this war waged across Europe: Wolfgang von Stromer: Landmacht gegen Seemacht. Emperor Sigismund's continental blockade against Venice 1412–1433. In: Journal for historical research 22 (1995) 145-189, JSTOR 43571804 .
- German stock exchange history. With contributions from Rainer Gömmel, Friedrich-Wilhelm Henning , Karl Heinrich Kaufhold , Bernd Rudolph , Rolf Walter . Ed. On behalf of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Institute for Bank History Research by Hans Pohl . Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-7819-0519-5 , pp. 54–56 ( snippet view in the Google book search).
- Hajo Lindstadt: With Nuremberg trinkets through all the country. Of trade routes, merchant trains and modern transport infrastructure , in: In the sign of the scales - 425 years of Nuremberg Commercial Director 1560-1985 - economy and society in transition, accompanied by organs of economic self-administration. Edited by the Nuremberg Chamber of Commerce and Industry with Gerhard Pfeiffer . Nürnberg 1985, , pp. 72-81, here p. 72.
- Frederic C [hapin] Lane even names 190,000 inhabitants for the year 1570. Ders .: Maritime Republic of Venice. Translated from the English by Peter de Mendelssohn et al. Prestel, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-7913-0406-2 , p. 512 (OT: Venice, a maritime republic ).
- For population development see Karl Julius Beloch : Population history of Italy. Vol. 3: The population of the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, Piedmont, Genoa, Corsicas and Sardinia. The total population of Italy. De Gruyter, Berlin 1961, OCLC 185652499 , Section VII The Republic of Venice ( snippet view in Google book search).
- Bernhard von Breydenbach : Illustrations de Opusculum sanctorum peregrinationum ad spulcrum Christi venerandum. E. Reüwich de Trêves, Mayence 1486 (Latin, French; gallica.bnf.fr, accessed December 3, 2016).
- On the importance of Venice in the history of the Reformation, see the section on churches and the city portrait of the project “Reformation Cities of Europe”: Reformation City Venice. Italy. Invisible Church. In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on June 16, 2019, as well as the city portrait of the project “European Station Path” : Venezia ( Memento from June 29, 2019 in the Internet Archive ). In: r2017.org/europaeischer-stationweg, accessed on June 16, 2019.
- Luigi Brugnaro: Reformation City Venice - Invisible Church. In: reformation-cities.org, accessed on May 14, 2018.
- Angus Konstam : Lepanto 1571. The greatest naval battle of the Renaissance (= Campaign. Vol. 114; Osprey campaign series. Vol. 114). Illustr. by Tony Bryan. Osprey, Oxford 2003, ISBN 1-84176-409-4 ( title included in Google book search).
- Susanna Grillo: Venezia. Le difese a mare. Profilo architettonico delle opere di difesa idraulica nei litorali di Venezia (= Techné. Vol. 7; Scaffale veneziano ). Arsenale Ed., Venice 1989, ISBN 88-7743-074-5 ( snippet view in Google book search).
- On Napoleon's relationship to Venice: Amable de Fournoux: Napoléon et Venise 1796–1814. Éditions de Fallois, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-87706-432-8 ( snippet view in Google book search) (French).
- Rolf Petri: La zona industriale di Marghera 1919-1939. Un'analisi quantitativa dello sviluppo industriale tra le due guerre (= Centro tedesco di studi veneziani / German study center in Venice [ed.]: Quaderni. 32, repository.dszv.it ; Italian). ). Venice 1985 (
- Thomas Steinfeld : First World War in Venice. The world has been going under for a long time. The Austrians wanted to transform Titian's pictures into tarpaulin. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . November 10, 2014, accessed on December 3, 2016: “Tiepolo in a hail of bombs: The Venice Photo Museum shows how Austrian air raids changed the image of the Italian city during the First World War. The consequences can still be felt today. ”(Report on a photo exhibition entitled“ Venezia si difende, 1915–1918 ”).
- "Tutela, valorizzazione e promozione del patrimonio linguistico e culturale veneto". Regional Law of April 13, 2007, No. 8, adopted on March 28, 2007 by the Consiglio regional del Veneto a larghissima maggioranza; Quoted n .: Camera dei Deputati: Atti Parlamentari, XVI legislatura, Disegni di legge e relazioni, Documenti, N. 5246. S. 2, Sp. 1 ( camera.it [PDF; 141 kB, accessed on December 3, 2016 ]).
- addition to this, Sandra Ellena: The role of the northern Italian varieties in the "Questione della lingua". A diachronic investigation into language awareness, language knowledge and language assessment (= Journal for Romance Philology / Supplements to the Journal for Romance Philology. Vol. 357). de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston, Mass. 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-025265-1 (Zugl .: Würzburg, Univ., Diss., 2008) ( limited preview and snippet view in Google book search).
- Rembert Eufe: "Sta lengua ha un privilegio tanto grando" - Status and use of Venetian in the Republic of Venice (= VarioLingua , 26). Lang, Frankfurt a. M./Berlin et al. 2006, ISBN 3-631-53754-9 , passim (Zugl .: Munich, Univ., Diss., 2004 and d. T .: Mercantile maritime expansion and linguistic roofing ).
- All information according to Comune di Venezia.
- Hans-Jürgen Hübner: The city of Venice, an overview. As of December 31, 2010, accessed December 4, 2016.
- See the list of patriarchs and more detailed here: Patriarchal See of Venezia. In: gcatholic.org. Retrieved December 4, 2016 .
- Patriarchate of Venezia (Venice). In: Catholic Hierarchy. Archdiocese of Venezia, accessed December 4, 2016.
- Evangelical Free Churches in Veneto. (No longer available online.) In: fontedivita.it. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019 ; Retrieved May 22, 2019 (Italian, originally accessed May 14, 2018).
- There are only a few studies on this group, see Alessia Mongelli: Oltre il ponte: vite di donne nel bidesh. Storie di ricongiungimenti ed integrazione nella comunità bangladese di Venezia, tesi di laurea, Università Ca 'Foscari, Venice 2018 ( online ).
- The current list can be found at Consiglieri comunali , in: venezia.it, accessed on December 4, 2016.
- The meetings can be followed there, in: venezia.it, accessed on December 4, 2016.
- Paolo Pradolin: Comune di Venezia commissariato, è arrivato Vittorio Zappalorto. In: lavocedivenezia.it. La voce di venezia, July 3, 2014, accessed on December 4, 2016 (Italian, Vittorio Zappalorto becomes new Commissario prefettizio).
- Biography of Luigi Brugnaro in: venezia.it, accessed on July 30, 2015.
- On the Consigli see Municipalità , from there via Governo to the committees.
- Venice is looking for a new sponsor , in: Kronenzeitung , March 3, 2009, accessed on November 4, 2016.
- Gemellaggi e Accordi. In: comune.venezia.it, accessed on April 17, 2020 (Italian; town twinning and agreements).
- Camera di Commercio Venezia on documenti ( Memento of February 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ): Venezia Indicatori n. 3/2012, p. 1; Camera di Commercio Venezia Rovigo Delta lagunare : Venezia Indicatori 2016 - Dati anno 2015 e aggiornamento I trim 2016, p. 4/5.
- Valli da pesca ( Memento of February 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), in: istitutoveneto.it. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti , accessed December 4, 2016.
- Hans-Jürgen Hübner: The Venice Lagoon , in: geschichte-venedigs.de , section Valli da pesca , accessed on March 14, 2017.
- Abstracts. Summaries of the contributions to the conference of the New York Colgate University “Venice before San Marco. Recent Sudies on the Origin of the City “from 5./6. October 2001, in: colgate.edu , accessed December 4, 2016.
- Salvatore Ciriacono: Industria e artigianato in: Il rinascimento società ed economia. Edited by Alberto Tenenti , Ugo Tucci (= Gino Benzoni, Antonio Menniti Ippolito [Ed.]: Storia di Venezia dalle origini alla caduta della Serenissima. Vol. 5). Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, Roma 1996, pp. 523-592, here 570.
- Quattro aziende del vetro salvano lo storico marchio della ( Memento of January 7, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), in: promovetro.com. Consorzio Promovetro Murano. July 21, 2006, accessed December 4, 2016, Il Novecento , in: promovetro.com. Consorzio Promovetro Murano. June 1, 2006, accessed on December 4, 2016, and [former] homepage Pauly & C. CVM ( Memento from December 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: pauly.it, accessed December 4, 2016 (English, Italian).
- Storia del territorio: ieri e oggi. Mestre e la Terraferma: dalle origini ad oggi. (No longer available online.) In: venezia.it. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016 ; Retrieved May 22, 2019 (Italian, past and present of Mestre and Terraferma).
- OECD Territorial Reviews . (PDF) Rapporto su Venezia Metropoli. (No longer available online.) In: oecd-ilibrary.org. Fondazione Venezia 2000, formerly in the original ; Retrieved May 14, 2018 (Italian). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Translated from the English by Anita Taroni. Marsilio, Venice 2010, ISBN 978-88-317-0734-3 (PDF), p. 42 ( online ) (Italian), doi: 10.1787 / 9788831707343-it ; OECD Territorial Reviews: Venice, Italy 2010. OECD, Paris 2010, ISBN 978-92-64-08352-3 (PDF); ISBN 978-92-64-08349-3 (print) (English), doi: 10.1787 / 9789264083523-en .
- More containers in the port of Venice. In: THB - Deutsche Schiffahrts-Zeitung . April 28, 2015, p. 13: “The Italian Adriatic port of Venice handled over 125,000 TEU between January and March. That was 17.7 percent more than in the first quarter of 2014. "
- Fondazione Venezia 2000 (ed.): OECD Territorial Reviews. Rapporto su Venezia Metropoli. Marsilio, Venice 2010, ISBN 978-88-317-0734-3 , p. 85, doi: 10.1787 / 9788831707343-it ( oecd-ilibrary.org ).
- Tilmann Kleinjung: The death of Venice. A swan song for the city on the lagoon. In: deutschlandfunk.de. Deutschlandfunk , July 19, 2012, accessed on December 4, 2016 .
- Marion Mayr: The tourist city of Venice. Master's thesis, University of Vienna 2012, p. 51, doi: urn: nbn: at: at-ubw: 1-29772.10267.492555-0 ( PDF; 2.92 MB ).
- According to the statistics page of the Città di Venezia. (No longer available online.) In: venezia.it. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015 ; accessed on May 22, 2019 (Italian, Excel spreadsheets).
- According to the Süddeutsche Zeitung. May 14, 2007.
- Festa record, un milione di turisti ( Memento of March 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). In: gelocal.it. La Nuova di Venezia e Mestre. March 9, 2011, accessed December 4, 2016.
- Dirk Schümer : A spectacle - reinvented for tourists. In: The world . February 7, 2016 ( online ), accessed December 4, 2016.
- RJB Bosworth: Italian Venice. A history. Yale University Press, 2014, p. 132.
- Advertisement - Ugly Venice . In: Der Spiegel . No. 21 , 1999 ( online - May 24, 1999 , on anti-advertising by Oliviero Toscani). Quote: "It will deter day-trippers from traveling to Venice in the future." Accessed December 7, 2016.
- Cf. Irene Helmes: Trend city trip and the consequences. Are tourists suffocating the most beautiful cities? In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . March 17, 2016 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed December 7, 2016]).
- Cf. Dirk Schümer : How we vacationers kill our most beautiful cities. In: The world. July 30, 2015 ( online ), accessed December 7, 2016.
- #EnjoyRespectVenezia. In: veneziaunica.it. Venice City Council, 2018, accessed August 25, 2018 .
- Dal 1 maggio, i turisti mordi-e-fuggi pagheranno per visitare Venezia. Il nuovo ticket in 5 punti. nuovavenezia.gelocal.it, February 4, 2019, accessed February 5, 2019 (Italian).
- Venezia, via libera al ticket. Esenzioni e polemiche. Si parte con lo sconto. corrieredelveneto.corriere.it, October 25, 2019, accessed on October 30, 2019 (Italian).
- Willy Klapheck: Venezia Curiosa. A collection of curiosities from forays through Venice. J. H. Röll Verlag, Dettelbach 2008, ISBN 978-3-89754-271-6 , p. 82 ( preview in Google book search).
- Descriptions and blueprints from Gilberto Penzo: Venetian Boats. In: venetia.it, accessed on December 4, 2016.
- Erdmann Braschos: Venetian gondola - Luca, Stefano and the crooked business , in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . Technik & Motor, August 27, 2007, accessed December 4, 2016.
- According to information from the Italian State Railways ( Memento from December 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: grandistazioni.it, accessed on December 4, 2016.
- Il People Mover di Venezia ( Memento from December 16, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ). In: apmvenezia.com, accessed December 5, 2016.
- Operating company SAVE: Press release of November 10, 2008 (PDF; 140 kB) SAVE - Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo SpA: The Board of Directors approved the interim directors' report at September 30, 2008 . (No longer available online.) In: grupposave.it. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016 ; Retrieved December 5, 2016 (Italian). .
- Venice relocates passenger traffic · Anel Line serves new ferry terminal in Fusina · Relief for lagoon · Up to 400 calls planned annually. In: Daily port report . June 24, 2014, pp. 1, 13 ( limited preview ).
- Italy bans cruise ships in Venice. In: DiePresse.com. November 5, 2013, accessed December 5, 2016.
- No ban on cruise ships in Venice ( Memento from May 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: bote.ch. Bote der Urschweiz , March 18, 2014, accessed on December 5, 2016 (source: SDA).
- Fusina Terminal at ANEK ( Memento from August 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 550 kB). In: anek.gr, accessed December 5, 2016 (Italian).
- Named after the police chief Alfredo Albanese, who was murdered by the Brigate Rosse in 1980 (cf. data sheet from Alfredo Albanese ( Memento of October 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: vittimeterrorismo.it. Associazione Italiana Vittime del Terrorismo e dell'eversione contro l ' ordinamento costituzionale dello Stato, accessed on January 14, 2019).
- Gianni Berengo Gardin (photos), Cristiana Moldi-Ravenna, Teodora Sammartini (texts): The secret gardens of Venice. Foreword by Vittorio Fagone. From the Ital. by Ulrich Keyl. Diederichs, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-424-00992-X , passim ( OA : Giardini segreti a Venezia. Venice 1988); 2nd edition Diederichs, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-424-00992-X .
- Venice floods: 1st December 2008 . In: italyheaven.co.uk, accessed December 6, 2016.
- Highest level since 1966 - record flood in Venice. In: srf.ch . November 13, 2019, accessed November 13, 2019 .
- Flood: "Apocalyptic Destruction" in Venice. In: orf.at, November 13, 2019, accessed November 13, 2019.
- Venice uses the "Mose" flood system for the first time - ZDFheute. In: zdf.de. October 3, 2020, accessed October 5, 2020 .
- Titus Arnu: Invasion of the Sea Monsters. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . May 17, 2010, accessed January 14, 2019.
- Alberto Rizzi: Vere da pozzo di Venezia. I puteali pubblici di Venezia e della sua laguna = The well-heads of Venice. Public well-heads in Venice and the islands of its lagoon. 3rd, revised. and exp. Ed. Filippi, Venice 2007, OCLC 249488372 , p. 18 ( snippet view in Google book search) (text in Italian and English).
- Andrea Rosemann: The Church of San Zaccaria in Venice. Berlin 2001, p. 17 ( gwdg.de [PDF; 4.2 MB, accessed on December 6, 2016]) (Diss., TU Berlin, 1992).
- Jan-Christoph Rößler: San Zaccaria , in: jc-r.net. Architecture in Venice, accessed December 6, 2016.
- Andrea Rosemann: The Church of San Zaccaria in Venice. Berlin 2001, p. 120 f. ( PDF; 4.2 MB, accessed on December 6, 2016 ) (Diss., TU Berlin, 1992).
- Norbert Huse, Wolfgang Wolters: Venice. The art of the renaissance. Architecture, sculpture, painting 1460–1590. 2., through and additional edition. Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-41163-0 , p. 19 ( snippet view in the Google book search).
- Jan-Christoph Rößler: San Giorgio Maggiore , in: jc-r.net. Architecture in Venice, accessed December 6, 2016.
- Walter Saller: Pest in Venice. The great dying. In: Spiegel Online , December 15, 2007, accessed on December 8, 2016 (“No European metropolis of the early 17th century was better prepared for the plague than Venice: strict hygiene regulations, a health authority that controls incoming ships, the first quarantine station in the World. And yet it came to a catastrophe. ").
- They also appear under the names scuole d'arte, suffragi, sovvegni, fraterne and confraternite . See Gastone Vio: Le scuole piccole nella Venezia dei Dogi. Note d'archivio per la storia delle confraternite veneziane (= Cultura popolare veneta. Ser. 3, vol. 1). Angelo Colla Editore, Costabissara (Vicenza) 2004, ISBN 88-900990-3-8 ( snippet view in Google book search). Gastone Vio: Le Scuole piccole nella Venezia dei dogi. Indici. Edited by Paola Benussi. F. Serra, Pisa / Roma 2012, OCLC 929809838 (excerpt from: Studi veneziani. New episode. 64, 2011, (online), (print), pp. 434-625, limited online for subscribed institutions ).
- Roberta Maccanico: Turismo di lusso e hotel 5 stelle a Venezia. Il caso dell'Hotel Bauer, tesi di laurea, Università Ca 'Foscari, Venice 2018 ( online ).
- Pierre Cardin builds a hotel tower in Venice ( Memento from July 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), in: Kleine Zeitung , June 29, 2011, accessed on December 6, 2016: “Pierre Cardin builds a hotel tower in Venice. The French fashion designer wants to crown his life with a tower project. "
- There are numerous works on this, from a socio-historical point of view Robert C. Davies: Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal. Workers and workplace in the preindustrial city (= Johns Hopkins University studies in historical and political science. Ser. 109, Vol. 1). Baltimore, London 1991, ISBN 0-8018-9609-6 ( preview in Google Book Search).
- Filippo Maria Paladini: Arsenale e museo storico navale di Venezia. Mare, lavoro e uso pubblico della storia (= Novecento a Venezia le memorie le storie. Vol. 11). Il poligrafo, Padova (Padua) 2008, ISBN 978-88-7115-574-6 ( snippet view in Google book search).
- Norbert Huse: Venice: From the art of building a city in the water. C. H. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52746-9 ; (= Beck series. 1784). 1st edition [sic!], C. H. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-54821-5 , p. 91.
- Fondazione Archivio Luigi Nono. (No longer available online.) In: luiginono.it. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012 ; accessed on May 14, 2018 .
- 1912. Il primo Teatro di Mestre ( Memento of 23 August 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: culturaspettacolovenezia.it, accessed on December 6, 2016.
- OECD Territorial Reviews . (PDF) Rapporto su Venezia Metropoli. (No longer available online.) In: oecd-ilibrary.org. Fondazione Venezia 2000, formerly in the original ; Retrieved May 14, 2018 (Italian). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Translated from the English by Anita Taroni. Marsilio, Venice 2010, ISBN 978-88-317-0734-3 (PDF), p. 55 ( online ) (ital.), Doi: 10.1787 / 9788831707343-it ; OECD Territorial Reviews: Venice, Italy 2010. OECD, Paris 2010, ISBN 978-92-64-08352-3 (PDF); ISBN 978-92-64-08349-3 (print), doi: 10.1787 / 9789264083523-en .
- L'Ultima fase della serenissima (= Gino Benzoni, Antonio Menniti Ippolito [Ed.]: Storia di Venezia. Vol. 8), Rome 1998, OCLC 885588334 , p. 781 ( snippet view in the Google book search) (ital .).
- Website of the technology park Vega Parco Scientifico Tecnologico di Venezia scarl, in: vegapark.ve.it, accessed on December 6, 2016 (Italian).
- Mestre 900 per il museo della città. Un laboratorio per mestre. (No longer available online.) In: venezia.it. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016 ; accessed on May 22, 2019 (Italian).
- Biblioteca civica Mestre ( Memento of December 9, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: venezia.it, accessed December 7, 2016.
- Rete Biblioteche Venezia (RBV). In: venezia.it, accessed December 7, 2016.
- Sergio Barizza, Giorgio Ferrari: L'Archivio Municipale di Murano 1808/1924 (= Ricerca [Portogruaro, Italy] , 12). Nuova Dimensione Edizioni, Portogruaro, Ve 1990, ISBN 88-85318-10-X , p. 88 ( title entry in Google book search) (Italian).
- Homepage. In: ilgazzettino.it. Il Gazzettino, accessed December 7, 2016.
- Azionisti di Riferimento ( Memento of September 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), in: caltagironeeditore.com. Caltagirone Editore SpA, August 2016, accessed December 7, 2016.
- La storia dell 'AC Venezia ( Memento of February 5, 2005 in the Internet Archive ), in: veneziacalcio.it , AC Venezia 1907, accessed on December 7, 2016 (“The History of AC Venezia”).
- Gherardo Bonini: Rugby Union Football, Italy , in: John Nauright, Charles Parrish (ed.): Sports Around the World. History, Culture, and Practice , Vol. 2: British Isles and Europe , Abc-Clio, Santa Barbara, Denver / Oxford 2012, pp. 422–424 ( title included in Google book search).
- Review of Irmgard Fees . In: Connections. A Journal for Historians and Area Specialists. April 13, 2012 ( clio-online.net ), as well as in: H-Soz-Kult ( hsozkult.de ), accessed on December 7, 2016.
- Review by Achim Landwehr . In: sehepunkte.de , accessed on December 7, 2016.
- Esther Knorr-Anders : The unprecedented rise of a republic. When Markus came to Venice. With cunning and a sense of mission to power and wealth. (No longer available online.) In: Die Zeit . July 3, 1987, archived from the original on July 2, 2013 ; accessed on June 16, 2019 (review of the new edition 1987).
- Donna Leon page. In: daserste.de. ARD , accessed on December 7, 2016.
- Elisabeth Hoffmann, Karl-L. Heinrich: Behind the scenes of Commissario Brunetti. The Venetian film locations from the popular TV series. Harms-Verlag, Lindhöft 2013, ISBN 978-3-86026-201-6 ( title recording in the Google book search) (description of around 200 locations in Venice).
- Dieci inverni film page ( Memento of November 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 7, 2016 (Italian).
- page from Sei Venezia. In: vimeo , accessed on December 7, 2016. Film review of You are Venice (6 × Venice). In: venedig-ebb.blogspot.de, March 31, 2012, accessed on December 7, 2016.
- page of The Venice Principle. In: venedigprinzip.de, accessed on December 7, 2016.