Friuli ([ fʁiˈaʊ̯l ], also used with a certain article, so Friuli ; Furlanisch Friûl , Italian Friuli , Slovenian Furlanija ) is a landscape in northeast Italy around the city of Udine and forms the majority of the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia . The landscape includes the former provinces of Udine , Pordenone and Gorizia . Eleven municipalities in the metropolitan city of Venice are also part of the historical Friuli, but politically belong to the Veneto region . Most of the municipalities speak the Friulian language .
The name Friuli is derived from the name of the city Forum Iulii, today's Cividale , which was elevated to a trading city by Gaius Iulius Caesar . The later Longobard city was renamed Civitas Austriae after the conquest by the Franks, but the old name of the city had established itself in a modified form as the name of the region.
Friuli is located between Veneto in the west, the Carnic Alps in the north (border with Carinthia ), the Republic of Slovenia in the east and the Adriatic coast in the south. The half-mountainous country on the edge of the Southern Alps merges in the west into the northern Italian lowlands .
A Dolomite road leads into the Alps and the main route to Austria , the Canal del Ferro and Val Canale (Canal Valley) , with its steep walls and picturesque villages, whose names such as Chiusaforte , Pontebba and Malborghetto also describe the geographical characteristics of the landscape. In the west of the channel valley, on the uppermost Tagliamento, lies the valley region of Carnia (Carnia) with Tolmezzo , which leads towards the Belluno Cadore . At the origin of the Canal Valley in the northeast of the region, the tri-border region Italy-Austria-Slovenia, the ancient trading city is Tarvisio (German Tarvis ) and the watershed of the Danube countries : for wide Drautal ( Tauern motorway , Villach ) and Save source m at the 2863 high Triglav in the Julian Alps . Just across the border are the ski resort of Kranjska Gora and the source of the Isonzo ( called Soča in Slovenia ). From there, the Dolina Soče (Sočatal) stretches deeply through Slovenia back towards the edge of the Alps. The entire Slovenian part of Friuli is called Goriška .
In the coastal plain of the upper Adriatic are the large Furlan cities, the central town of Udine , the old city of Aquileia , Grado , Lignano and Trieste on the coast, Monfalcone , Cervignano del Friuli and Palmanova , Gradisca d'Isonzo and Gorizia / Nova Gorica on the Isonzo, Cividale del Friuli , Tricesimo , Tarcento , Gemona , and Pordenone and Portogruaro towards Veneto.
Friuli is located in a tectonically troubled area. On May 6 and September 15, 1976, two strong earthquakes occurred in the central Friuli region around Gemona and Venzone ; that in May claimed around 1,000 lives. The cathedral of Gemona was seriously damaged, that of Venzone was completely destroyed. In contrast, nearby Udine remained almost unscathed, with the second quake in autumn causing greater material damage than the previous quake in spring. Friuli was also the epicenter of the earthquake of 1348 , which also caused damage in Austria, as well as the Dobratsch landslide near Villach .
The cause of these quakes is the slow movement of the African plate and the Adriatic thorn that has split off to the north. Their pressure on the European plate can build up over a few decades and then suddenly discharge. These crustal movements manifest themselves particularly in the north and northeast of Friuli in the geological faults of the Periadriatic and Sava line .
The region speaks its own language, Furlan , which is closer to Ladin than Italian. There is also a Slovenian minority in Tarvis ( Trbiž ), Malborghetto ( Naborjet ), Pontebba ( Tablja , Furlanisch Pontafe ), Gorizia ( Gorica , Furlanisch Gurizie ) and around Udine ( Videm , Furlanisch and German Udin ). There are also some German-speaking enclaves , especially in the Canal Valley near Tarvis, in Pladen , in Sauris ( Cimbrian Zahre ) and in Timau (Cimbrian Tischlwang ).
After the turmoil of the Migration Period, Friuli was a Longobard Duchy from 586 (see also Duchy of Friuli ), which became a mark of the Franconian Empire in the 9th century . In the late Middle Ages , most of the country was under the rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia until it was conquered by Venice in 1420 , whose history it shares until 1794. A part in the east, however, fell to the Counts of Gorizia , of whom it came to the Habsburgs around 1500 . There the crown land was called Gorizia and Gradisca .
In the Peace of Campo Formio (also written Campoformido , Friulian: Cjampfuarmit) the entire area became Austrian in 1797 and, within the Austrian monarchy, part of the Lombardy-Venetian Kingdom in 1815 . After the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866, most of it was incorporated into the newly founded Kingdom of Italy , the rest in 1919 after the First World War .
The German- and Slovenian-speaking Canal Valley , which fell to Italy in 1919 with the Treaty of Saint-Germain and until then part of Carinthia, did not belong to Friuli . In 1933, the Italians made up eleven percent of the population in the Canal Valley; today they make up the majority.
The Friuli Venezia Giulia Region has had a Statute of Autonomy since 1963 .
The Pact for Autonomy was founded in 2017 .
Sons and daughters
- Paulus Deacon (725 / 730–797 / 799), Longobard historian and monk
- Thomasîn von Zerclaere (* around 1186; † probably 1238), author of the Middle High German poem "Der wälsche Gast"
- Jacob Nicolaus Craigher de Jachelutta (1797–1855) Austrian poet and translator
- Tina Modotti (1896–1942), actress, photographer and revolutionary
- Afro Basaldella (1912–1976), Italian painter
- Boris Pilato (1914–1997), German dancer , choreographer and ballet director.
- Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922–1975), Italian film director, poet and publicist
- Enzo Bearzot (1927-2010), Italian football player and coach
- Dino Zoff (* 1942), Italian football goalkeeper and coach
- Helmut Tributsch (* 1943), German scientist
- Fabio Capello (* 1946), Italian football player and coach
- Hans Kitzmüller (* 1945), Italian-Austrian university professor, publisher, writer and winegrower
- Eva Bakos , Gerold Jung : Friuli - Trieste - Veneto, land behind the beach . Travel properly; DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne 1985. ISBN 3-7701-1712-3 .
- Evelyn Rupperti: Friuli - Venezia Giulia . The Great Travel Guide. Carinthia, Vienna-Graz-Klagenfurt 2006. ISBN 3-85378-593-X .
- Kurt F. Strasser, Harald Waitzbauer : Across the borders to Trieste. Hikes between the Carnic Alps and the Adriatic Sea. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 1999.
- Andrea C. Theil, Christoph Ulmer, Klaus Zimmermann: Friuli and Trieste. DUMONT art travel guide; DuMont Reise Verlag, Ostfildern 2006 (3rd updated edition). ISBN 3-7701-6613-2 .
- Herbert Voglmayr: Friuli. On historical traces to great wines. Verlag 55PLUS, Vienna 2005. ISBN 3-902441-11-9 .
- Aldo Rizzi: Friuli Venezia Giulia. Electa, Milano 1979.
- Gian Carlo Menis, Aldo Rizzi: Friuli lives 2000 years of culture in the heart of Europe . Herder Verlag GmbH, Freiburg 2000.
- Carlo Ginzburg , The cheese and the worms. The world of a miller around 1600. Berlin 1990 (original edition 1976).
- Uwe Ludwig: Between Austria, Venice and Hungary. The "Chronicle of Valvasone" as a testimony to the history of Friuli in the late Middle Ages. In: Sources and research from Italian archives and libraries 89 (2009) pp. 113–182. ( online )
- Archeology online: Castle archeology in Friuli
- The new dawn of Furlan culture and the Church in Friuli - A contribution by the church historian Rudolf Grulich
- Friuli and its saints - a contribution by the church historian Rudolf Grulich
- Friuli on duden.de, accessed on January 18, 2014
- Annone Veneto , Caorle , Cinto Caomaggiore , Concordia Sagittaria , Fossalta di Portogruaro , Gruaro , Portogruaro , Pramaggiore , San Michele al Tagliamento , San Stino di Livenza and Teglio Veneto ; however, this assignment is controversial