Treaty of Saint Germain
The Treaty of Saint-Germain (in full: State Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ) regulated the dissolution of the Austrian half of the Austrian Empire ( the kingdoms and states represented in the Imperial Council ) of Austria-Hungary and the conditions for the new Republic of German-Austria after the First World War . The Treaty of Trianon regulated the situation in Hungary , the other part of the former dual monarchy. The contract, handed over to the Austrian delegates on September 2, 1919, was signed on September 10, 1919 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye Castle . It formally came into force on July 16, 1920 and also confirmed the dissolution of Austria-Hungary under international law .
The treaty is one of the Parisian suburban treaties that formally ended the First World War and was signed between Austria and 27 allied and associated members . In addition to Austria, the signatory powers included the USA , Great Britain (with its dominions Ireland , Canada , Australia , New Zealand and India ), France , Italy and Japan as well as Belgium , Bolivia , Brazil , China , Cuba , Ecuador , Greece , Guatemala , Haiti and Hejaz , Honduras , Liberia , Nicaragua , Panama , Peru , Poland , Portugal , Romania , the Serbian-Croatian-Slovenian state , Siam , Czechoslovakia and Uruguay . These were the founding members of the League of Nations.
In May 1919 an Austrian delegation headed by Karl Renner traveled to Saint-Germain-en-Laye. She was refused direct participation in the talks and was only able to submit written proposals. Austria and her allies were identified as the originators of the losses and damage suffered by the Allies, and they were assigned sole responsibility for the war. The Treaty of Saint-Germain corresponded to the Versailles Treaty .
The main provisions of the 381 articles of the Treaty of Saint-Germain are:
- Bohemia , Moravia , Austrian Silesia and some municipalities in Lower Austria (including Feldsberg , Gmünd railway station and other municipalities) go to the newly founded Czechoslovakia , the right of self-determination of the German-speaking population in the Sudetenland ( German-Bohemian and German-Moravian ), which in October 1918 became the independent provinces of German-Bohemia and Sudetenland are not taken into account.
- Galicia goes to Poland .
- South Tyrol , Welschtirol , the Channel Valley and Istria go to Italy . The new border in Tyrol partially ran through the territory of individual communities.
- The Bucovina goes to Romania .
- Dalmatia , Carniola , parts of Lower Styria as well as the Carinthian Miessal and the Zealand go to the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes .
- A referendum is to be held over southern Carinthia on whether it would like to belong to Austria or Yugoslavia in the future .
- German West Hungary goes to Austria and receives the name Burgenland (the name comes from the four counties Wieselburg , Eisenburg , Ödenburg and Pressburg , from whose parts the Burgenland is formed).
- An annexation of Austria to the German Reich and the use of the state name “German Austria” is prohibited.
- Austria and Czechoslovakia are obliged to pay reparations .
- Austria had to forego the exercise of consular jurisdiction .
- General conscription is prohibited. Only a professional army of 30,000 men is allowed. Arms factories and weapons must be destroyed.
- The establishment of the League of Nations and the International Labor Organization (ILO), both steps which clearly distinguish the treaty or the entire Paris suburb treaties from previous peace treaties.
After these areas had been separated off, Austria ( Cisleithanien ) was left with a residual state of around 6.5 million inhabitants. Harsh conditions and reparations were imposed on Hungary, like Austria.
The Constituent National Assembly protested publicly on September 6th against the treaty that denied the German-Austrian people the right to self-determination and the “heartfelt desire”, the “economic, cultural and political necessity of life”: the “union with the German mother country”. One hopes for a possible future unification, the right to unity and freedom of the nation; 3.5 million German Austrians are now being imposed "foreign rule". The responsibility for the future turmoil lies with the "conscience of those powers that will execute the treaty despite the warnings". The economic and financial conditions are "impracticable" and "politically disastrous".
On the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the Republic of Austria, the original of the Treaty of Saint-Germain should have been exhibited in Vienna . The originals, which were kept in France after the signature, could no longer be found in the French archives. During the Second World War , the contract was brought to Berlin and issued there. It was probably destroyed in a bombing raid.
- Isabella Ackerl , Rudolf Neck (Ed.): Saint-Germain 1919. Protocol of the symposium on May 29 and 30, 1979 in Vienna . Publishing house for history and politics, Vienna 1989, ISBN 3-7028-0276-2 .
- Fritz Fellner : From the Triple Alliance to the League of Nations. Studies on the history of international relations 1882–1919 . R. Oldenbourg Verlag , Munich 1994, ISBN 3-486-56091-3 .
- Lajos Kerekes: From St. Germain to Geneva. Austria and its neighbors 1918–1922 . Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1979, ISBN 963-05-1373-0 .
- Jörn Leonhard : The overwhelmed peace. Versailles and the world 1918–1923. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-406725067 .
- Margaret MacMillan : The Peace Makers. How the Versailles Treaty changed the world . Propylaea, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-549-07459-6 .
- Carlo Moos: The German-Austrian peace delegation and the State Treaty of St. Germain , in: ders., Habsburg post mortem. Vienna u. a. 2016. pp. 23–44.
- Text in the legal information system RIS , art text including all changes made up to 1934; the attachments are not found in the individual sections, but collected at the end.
- A scan including a machine-read transcription of the entire contract of the bilingual edition from 1919 in the Digital State Library of Upper Austria also contains the very long "Note accompanying the peace conditions of September 2, 1919"
- Signing of the St. Germain Treaty in the Austrian press (Austrian National Library)
- Georg Wagner (Ed.): Austria. From the state idea to national consciousness. Studies and speeches, with a picture section on the history of Austria. Verlag der Österreichische Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1982, ISBN 3-7046-0017-2 , p. 337.
- Carlo Moos: South Tyrol in the St. Germain context . In: Georg Grote , Hannes Obermair (Ed.): A Land on the Threshold. South Tyrolean Transformations, 1915-2015 . Peter Lang, Oxford-Bern-New York 2017, ISBN 978-3-0343-2240-9 , pp. 27-39 .
- Rundschau. I. Bills of Law. : Legal papers / Legal papers. Eine Wochenschrift / Juristische Blätter united with Rechts-Zeitung , year 1924, p. 30 (online at ANNO ).
- Manfred Alexander: Germany, Italy and Czechoslovakia in the interwar period. In: Bohemia . Volume 38, 1997, No. 1, pp. 56-65, here: p. 57 (digitized version) .
- Austrian consular courts in Egypt. In: Neues Wiener Journal , October 16, 1929, p. 3 (online at ANNO ).
- "Decision of the National Assembly" of September 6, 1919, in: Report on the activities of the German-Austrian peace delegation in St-Germain-en-Laye. Volume 2, pp. 628-631.
- Treaty of St. Germain disappeared. In: ORF.at , November 11, 2008.