The land of Carniola , Slovene [ Dežela ] Kranjska ("Land of Carniola") (Latin and English Carniola , French: Carniole ) was around 973 (according to other sources 976) a mark upstream of the Duchy of Carinthia . After the decoupling from Carinthia around 1002, Krain became an independent border march with its own margraves . From 1364 it was a duchy and from 1849 it was Austrian crown land . After the end of the First World War in 1918, the Krain became part of Slovenia , which belonged to the SHS state , which was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( Kraljevina Jugoslavija ) in 1929 by King Aleksandar I. Karađorđević . Today the former Duchy of Carniola is part of the Republic of Slovenia, but not a local authority . The former capital of the duchy, in German Laibach, in Slovenian Ljubljana (after 1918 only the Slovenian version was used in Slovenia), is now the capital of Slovenia.
origin of the name
The name Krain is said to have originated from the Celto-Roman carniola and the Slovenian krajina . In late antiquity, from a geographical point of view, Carniola , the 'little Carnia', only meant the greater part of the later Upper Carniola with the town of Carnium / Krainburg / Kranj. The 'big' Carnia is today's neighboring Friuli (after which the Carnic Alps are called; the name Cjargne in Friulano, Cjargna / Cjargno in Friulano carnico is still common). The certainly younger krajina means in all Slavic languages 'area, landscape, region' and 'mark, borderland' in the sense of the Franconian marchia (see e.g. Ukraine ). According to today's opinion, it should have served as a support for the old Latin room name in name research, but not as a root. The Latin form itself is a borrowing from the Celtic , * karno generally means 'top, hill, hill, cairn', thus roughly a simple mountain name 'stone mountains' for the Southern Limestone Alps (the historical concept of Alpe Carnicae is more comprehensive than today ).
The coat of arms of Carniola and their national colors
The heraldic animal in the coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola is an eagle that can be traced back to the Counts of Andechs-Meranien , the former margraves of Carniola. A white eagle in a blue field is narrated . Also Ottokar II. Přemysl led as "dominus Carniole" 1269 the Krainer eagle in his Münzsiegel.
With the beginning of the rule of the Habsburgs , the coat of arms took on concrete forms, but with changing tingings . The color of the eagle has always been blue since then, but the field initially alternates between silver (white) and gold (yellow) until the gold prevails. Since then, blue and gold have also been the national colors of Carniola. The clasp , also known as moon called on the chest of the eagle, which could be seen even at Ottokar Premysl, was red-silver geschacht . The colors of the clasp changed later between red-gold and red-silver.
In 1463, Emperor Friedrich III improved . the coat of arms of Carniola as thanks for the relief and military aid of this country on the occasion of its siege at the Vienna Hofburg in 1462 in the inheritance dispute with his brother Albrecht VI. The blue eagle, now in a golden field and a red and gold clasp on its chest, got the imperial crown on its head. At that time the clasp was sometimes still shown in red and white.
The colors were determined around 1915: a blue eagle in a golden field covered with a red and gold breast clasp.
The depiction of the coat of arms next to it shows the red-armored ( reinforcement : claws, beak), blue eagle with a clasp made of red and gold on the chest and the imperial crown on the head in a gold cartouche with the prince's hat .
The national colors were always blue and gold, never red and gold. Only in 1916 were white-blue-red (the Pan-Slavic colors ) officially introduced as the national colors. These colors can also be found in the current coat of arms of the Republic of Slovenia .
Territorial division of the country
The territory of the duchy has undergone frequent changes throughout its history. At the time of the greatest expansion of Carniola, it included large parts of the Trieste Litorales , northern Istria and even Castau ( Kastav ), Khlan ( Klana ) and Fiume ( Rijeka ). The breakdown was based on administrative and military aspects. Valvasor (1641–1693), the author of the work The Honor of the Duchy of Carniola , names five regions as parts of Carniola:
- Upper Carniola extended in the west along the Weißenfels line ( Fusine in Valromana ) on the border with Carinthia over the Wocheiner See (Bohinjsko jezero), along the Julian Alps to Idria ( Idrija ) and from there to the river Laibach ( Ljubljanica ) and the city Ljubljana ( Ljubljana ). In the north it bordered on Carinthia and in the east on Lower Styria . The border with Lower Carniola in the east was the Ljubljanica and the Save in the north . The focus was on the cities of Stein ( Kamnik ) and Krainburg ( Kranj ). This part of the country is shaped by the Alps ( Steiner Alps , Karawanken , Julian Alps , Schwarztal ).
- Lower Carniola bordered the Laibach (Ljubljanica) in the west and extended in an easterly direction between the Save as the northern border and the Gurk ( Krka ) as the southern border in a wedge shape to the mouth of the Gurk in the Save. Larger places were Rudolphswert ( Novo mesto ), Littai ( Litija ), St. Martin ( Šmartno pri Litiji ), St. Veit (Šentvid) near the Parakeet Monastery , Treffen ( Trebnje ) and Weichselberg ( Višnja Gora ). Bela krajina ( White Carnation )is oftencounted as part ofLower Carniola.
- Mitterkrain was between the Gurk and the Kulpa . The areas around Möttling ( Metlika ), Tschernembl ( Črnomelj ), Gottschee ( Kočevje ) and Zirknitz ( Cerknica ) with the Zirknitzer See belonged to Mitterkrain at that time. In the west it reached as far as the Pölandt ( Poljane ), Auersperg ( Turjak ), Guetenfeld ( Dobrepolje ), Ortenegg ( Ortnek ), Reiffnitz ( Ribnica ), Gottschee (Kočevje), Costel ( Kostel ) line to the Kulpa. Later Mitterkrain became part of Lower Carniola.
- Innerkrain with the high karst regions of the Ternowaner Forest (Trnovski gozd) and the Birnbaumer Forest (Hrušica) and the towns of Idria ( Idrija ) and Adelsberg ( Postojna ) connected to the Upper Carniola in the north and to the Mitterkrain in the east. The western border ran south from Idria to Tybein ( Duino ), avoided Trieste, ran east to St. Kanzian ( Škocjan ), then along the Reka river via Guetenegg ( Gotnik ), Jablanitz ( Jablanica ) and from there to the river Kupa .
- Istria : Valvasor wrote about it in the introduction: "In Istria, that is in the fifth part of Carniola, there are two types of inhabitants, namely Fiumarians , Dalmatians or Liburnians and real Istrians." The parts of Istria that belonged to Carniola were connected to the north Innerkrain. In the west the border ran south from St. Kanzian via Karstberg , Antignana , from there it swingstowardsSt. Peter im Walde ( Sveti Petar u Šumi ) in an easterly direction via Mitterburg ( Pazin ), Berschetz ( Brseč ), Lauran ( Lovran ) , Wolauska ( Volosko ) to Fiume ( Rijeka ). From there the border ran to the north along the river Fiumara ( Rječina ) to the Kolpa.
Characteristic parts of the country and localities
Includes Oberkrain / Gorenjska
- the district of Kranj (Krainburg)
- Parts of the Ljubljana District (Laibach)
Innerkrain / Notranjska includes
- the area around Postojna (Adelsberg)
Includes Lower Carniola / Dolenjska
- the southern part of the Ljubljana district
- Novo mesto (Rudolfswerth)
- Kočevje (Gottschee)
- Krško (Gurkfeld)
- as well as southwest of the Uskoken Mountains
- the Bela Krajina ( White Mark , Bela Krajina ) is divided into three municipalities Metlika (Möttling) , Črnomelj (Tschernembl) and the youngest municipality of Semič .
In ancient times the area was part of the province of Pannonia . During the time of the Great Migration , an important passage route of Germanic tribes on their way to Italy ran over the pass of the Birnbaumer Forest . The Lombards initially settled here. After their withdrawal to Italy in 568, the region was settled by Alpine Slavs around 590 . In the 8th century the country came together with Carinthia as Carantania to Bavaria and with this to the Franconian Empire . Charlemagne initially had the country administered from Friuli .
Margraviate of Carniola
Organized as a separate margraviate in 1040 and first mentioned as Carniola in 973, the church was cared for from Aquileia . For the time being, the country was secularly tied to Carinthia, which was elevated to the Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 976 . At that time, the Mark Krain consisted of today's Upper Carniola with Krainburg / Kranj , where the then margrave had his seat at the castle there, the Laibacher / Ljubljana basin and the wedge-shaped area in the east of St. Marein / Šmarje, Großlassitsch / Velike Lašče and the Gottscheer forests ( Gottscheer Horn ), in the west of Laas / Lož, Zirknitz / Cerknica and Alben / Planina. In the middle of the 16th century the castle belonged to Johann von Khissl, who rebuilt it and renamed it Khisslstein / Kieselstein.
After the turn of the millennium, Krain was decoupled from Carinthia . This was also the beginning of closer relations with the Mark an der Sann / Savinjska krajina and with Istria / Istra. From then on, Krain's borders were fluid and changed according to the enforced claims to power of neighboring territories. The first independent margraves were the Bavarian Counts of Sempt-Ebersberg , who from 1036 extended their claim to power over the parts of the Mark an der Sann south of the Save. Ulrich von Weimar-Orlamünde , then acting Margrave of Istria, followed as margrave in 1058 . In 1063 he wrested a narrow coastal strip from Croatia in the extreme northern tip of the Kvarner / Quarnero , the bay of Rijeka / Fiume. This piece of land between Rijeka and Brseč was henceforth called Meran or Meranien .
Successors to the Weimar family were the Patriarchs of Aquileja in 1077 . They remained nominally Margraves of Carniola until 1282; however, the land was pledged to noble houses. Aquileja's secular administrators and members of powerful dynasties competed for actual power in Carniola since 1086 : the Eppensteiner , the Counts of Andechs-Meran , the Weichselberg and the Counts of Gorizia . The last Babenberg , Friedrich II., The controversial , married Agnes von Andechs und Meranien in 1229 and bought properties of the Hochstift Freising . The Spanheimers also intervened in the struggle for influence and power.
The noble families and the Freising Abbey elevated the settlements they founded to cities as part of their power politics: Kamnik / Stein, Kranj / Krainburg, Ljubljana / Laibach, Kostanjevica na Krki / Landstraß and Škofja Loka / Bischoflack were mentioned as cities in the 13th century.
After the ducal Spanheimers died out, the King of Bohemia , Ottokar II. Přemysl , who also ruled Austria and Styria at the time, seized Carniola in 1269 and kept the area until his death in the Battle of Marchfeld (August 26, 1278 ), from which Rudolf von Habsburg , the new Roman-German king , emerged victorious.
After the victory on the Marchfeld, Rudolf (1218–1291) began building his dynastic territory with the greatest care . In 1279, as the German king, he gave the former territories of the Spanheimers and the Babenbergs in Carniola as a pledge and not as a fief , to his most loyal ally, Count Meinhard II of Gorizia and Tyrol, whom he made Duke of Carinthia in 1286.
Rudolf then enfeoffed his two sons, Albrecht and Rudolf , father of Johann Parricida , formally with the Margraviate of Carniola in 1282 , but the lien (and thus the actual rule) remained with this until the older Tyrolean-Carinthian line of the Meinhardins died out in 1335 .
Ownership of the individual dynasts and dioceses in the march
On top of the castles sat the ministerials of the respective owners, who mostly called themselves after the German name of the castle.
The possession of the Weimar-Orlamünde was mainly in Oberkrain. The goods stretched from the Karawanken to the Kokra / Kanker river with Naklo / Naklas, then in an easterly direction over a wide strip to Smlednik / Flödnigg and the Oberkrainer level to Trojane .
Weichselberg (early 11th century to 1209)
The property of the Weichselbergers - inheritance of the Hemma von Gurk (see Askuiner ) - was mainly in Lower Carniola on the upper reaches of the Krka and included Višnja Gora / Weichselburg and Litija / Littai up to the western and southern foothills of the Gorjanci / Uskoken Mountains with the castles:
- Čretež / Reutenberg (eastern Mokronog),
- Hmeljnik / Hopfenbach,
- Kronovo / Cronowe,
- Mehovo / Maichau
- Mokro polje / Nassenfeld
- Mirna / Neudegg
- Prapreče / Lichtenberg (near Grosuplje ),
- Slepšek or Slepčjek / Plintenbach (Blindenbach),
- Višnja Gora / Weichselberg
Count Andechs-Meran (1093–1291)
From around 1100 parts of the former property of Weimar-Orlamünde came to the Counts of Andechs . These were the areas from Motnik / Möttnik and Trojane to Kokra and Kranj, from Kamniške Planine / Steiner Alps to Save , with Kamnik / Stain as the center and with the castles:
- Breg / Willingrain
- Cerklje / Zirklach,
- Kamnik , Stari grad / Oberstein (1202)
- Kokra / Kanker
- Limberk / Lilienberg, Lilgenberg,
- Mekinje / Minkendorf
- Quantityš / Mannsburg
- Olševek / Olswich
- Preddvor / Höflein (1156)
- Spitalič / Poxrugkghoff (before 1231)
- Turn pod Novim gradom / Thurn unter Neuburg (1156)
- Velesovo / Michelstetten
- Višnja Gora / Weichselberg (1209–1231)
- Vranja peč / Rabensberg
After 1209 the majority of the property of the Weichselberg fell to the Andechs-Meran family.
Spanheim (approx. 1100–1269)
The Spanheimers owned Ljubljana / Laibach and its surroundings as early as the beginning of the 12th century. Later on, extensive lands were added on the lower reaches of the Krka in the area of today's Kostanjevica na Krki .
- Ig / Igg (up to 1269)
- Jeterbenk / Hertenberg (until 1269)
- Kostanjevica na Krki / Country Road (until 1269)
- Kravjek / Weineck
- Polhov gradec / Billichgrätz
- Sostro / Osterberg
Later the Spanheimers also conquered the area Krško polje up to the Gorjanci.
Counts of Gorizia-Tirol (1279–1374)
- Gradac / Gräz (after 1271–1338)
- Hmeljnik / Hopfenbach (1271–1374)
- Kostanjevica na Krki / Country Road (1271-1324)
- Kozljak / Waxenstein (1271–1374?)
- Kozjak / Kosiek (1271-1374)
- Lupoglav / Mahrenfels (1271–1374)
- Mehovo / Maichau (1271–1374)
- Metlika / Möttling (1271–1374)
- Pazin / Mitterburg (1271–1374)
- Rožek / Rosseg (near Podturn pri Dolenjskih Toplicah ) (1271–1374)
- Stara Soteska / Alteinöd (1271–1374)
- Šumberk / Schönberg (1271–1374)
- Žužemberk / Seisenberg (1271–1374)
Counts of Ortenburg (1262-1418)
With a few exceptions, the property of the Counts of Ortenburg was predominantly in the area of today's Lower Carniola.
- Čušperk / Zobelsberg (1262–1418)
- Goričane / Görtschach (14th century to 1418)
- Kamen / Stain (14th century to 1418)
- Kočevje / Gottschee (1247–1418)
- Kostanjevica na Krki / Country Road (1324-1418)
- Kostel / Grafenwarth (14th century to 1418)
- Litija / Littai (14th century)
- Lož / Laas (14th century to 1418)
- Ortnek / Orttenegg (14th century to 1418)
- Podvin / Podwein (14th century to 1418)
- Radeče / Ratschach (14th century to 1418)
- Radovljica / Radmannsdorf (1418)
- Ribnica / Reiffnitz (1263-1418)
- Stari grad / Altenburg (1350-1418)
- Štatenberk pri Gornjem Mokronogu / Stattenberg near Obernassenfuß (1291–1418)
- Trebnje / Treffen (14th century to 1418)
- Višnja Gora / Weixelburg (14th century to 1418)
The highly free family of Auersperg (Adolf IV., Engelbert I and II, Konrad, Ottoman I, Pilgrim I and II) owned:
- Cerknica / Zirknitz
- Kočevje / Gottschee (until 1247)
- Kostel / Grafenwarth (14th century)
- Lož / Laas
- Planina / albums
Diocese of Freising
- The rule of Laas, which included Selška and Poljanska dolina / Seltzacher valley and Pöllaner valley, and Sorško polje / Zeierebene
- Klevevž / Klingenfels (before 1622)
- Škofja Loka / Bischoflack (973–1805)
- Šuta / Schütthof (second half of the 15th century)
Diocese of Bressanone
- Bled / Veldes (1004–1803, 1814–1858) with the surrounding area, part of Bohinj / Wochein and a strip along the Karawanken: from Dobernik / Döbernig to Tržiška Bistrica / Neumarktler Feistritz
Duchy of Carniola
It was not until 1335, with the death of Heinrich of Carinthia , who died without a male successor, that the lien expired and Carniola finally came to Habsburg. On May 2, 1335, Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in Linz transferred the duchies of Carinthia and Carniola to the brothers Albrecht and Otto (the Happy ) as an imperial fief . Since 1364, at the instigation of Rudolf IV , "the founder" and by means of Privilegium Maius self-appointed Archduke of Austria, Carniola has been designated as a duchy (an increase in rank that would have been reserved for the emperor). In 1365 Rudolf IV founded the town of Rudolphswerth (historical spelling) in Lower Carniola an der Krka, today's Novo mesto .
In 1374 Habsburg inherited the Windische Mark , the White Mark ( Möttling ) and Poik from the younger (Albertine) line of the Görzer Meinhardiner on the basis of an inheritance contract concluded in 1363/64 . These areas were now administered jointly with Carniola and later incorporated into the Duchy of Carniola.
In both divisions of the Habsburgs' inheritance in the 14th to 16th centuries, Carniola was part of Inner Austria . i.e. it was administered from Graz . The national borders remained essentially unchanged from the end of the 15th century until the end of the Habsburg monarchy.
In the 17th century, Johann Weichard von Valvasor (Janez Vajkard Valvasor), a local aristocrat, published important works on the history and description of the country. The most frequently mentioned is entitled Die Ehre des Hertzogthums Crain , the subtitle that is, True, thorough, and quite proper evidence and quality of this magnificent Roman-Keyserlichen hereditary land and was published in Laibach in 1689.
- Class order and rural administrative organization in the Duchy of Carniola
Under the rule of the Habsburgs, in particular, a criminally organized rural administration developed in Carniola. Regular meetings of the estates began around 1410 . In the Carniolan state parliament , in whose hands the administration of the country lay, sat representatives of the four estates: the clergy, the lords, the knights and the sovereign cities.
- The clergy included the bishops of Laibach, Freising and Brixen , the Teutonic Order of Laibach, the cathedral provost of Laibach, the cathedral provost of Rudolfswerth (Novo mesto), the abbots of Parakeet, Landstrass and Freudental, the cathedral dean and six other canons of the Ljubljana cathedral chapter .
- The rulers were represented by the princes, counts and barons.
- The other nobles and the so-called country folk represented the knighthood.
- The city judges of the sovereign cities represented the fourth estate.
The following offices were part of the administration of Krain
- At the top stood the governor as the representative of the sovereign . He chaired both the court and the administration, which, however, acted completely separately. As the highest state official, he was also at the head of the estate armed forces. This office was sovereign , d. In other words, the governor was appointed by the sovereign and, when paid, was only responsible to the sovereign.
- The provincial administrator ( Praetor Provinciae ) acted at the regional court as the representative of the governor in his absence. He passed judgments together with the assigned assessors. This office was also sovereign.
- The provincial administrator was the representative of the governor in his absence. This office was also sovereign.
- The decreed ad oeconomiam provinciae certain persons, d. That is, they advised on matters relating to the economy, taxes, contributions and the like. The deputies came from the ranks of the clergy, gentlemen and knights. They were elected by the estates for three years in order to advise, administer and carry out the affairs of the country according to their instructions.
- The general collector administered the country's funds.
- The accountant was responsible for the proper management of land registers and the like.
- The State Secretary was responsible for the proper handling and management of all affairs in the country.
- The registrar was responsible for managing the state archive.
- The paymaster was responsible for paying the wages.
- The steward - with the permanent seat in Fiume / Rijeka (historical name: St. Veit am Flaum) was responsible for the supply of the Croatian and the sea border.
- The Weisbote was the name for the enforcement officer.
The class armed forces
It consisted of the knighthood and the contingent. The governor had the supreme command.
The knighthood included the country folk (the nobility), each with a traveling servant. The number of riders was not fixed. It consisted of two companies, one blue and one yellow (national colors of Carniola). They were each commanded by a Rittmeister and two lieutenants, namely a captain lieutenant (historically a captain lieutenant) and a lieutenant and a corresponding number of non-commissioned officers. There were also two cornets , a trumpeter, a timpanist and a kit man.
The contingent - the common infantry - was commanded in Valvasor's time by five captains - according to the structure of the country at that time (Upper, Lower, Central, Inner Carniola and Istria). Depending on requirements, every tenth, twentieth, thirtieth or fiftieth armed man from the country, mostly peasant sons, was called up. They were well trained and had to show up immediately.
Two war commissioners who were entrusted with different military tasks were also in the service.
Illyrian Provinces (1809-1813)
During the Napoleonic Wars , Carniola was conquered and annexed by Napoleon from 1807-1809, like several other Austrian countries . After the Peace of Schönbrunn in 1809, Napoleon ordered the formation of the Illyrian provinces by decree , in which the Code civil , the French civil law, and the French administrative system were introduced. Laws and ordinances were also published in Slovene. The capital of these seven departments of the French Empire, one of which was called Carniole , and the seat of their governor-general was Laibach .
In the course of 1813 Austria recaptured the lost territories. With the First Peace of Paris on May 30, 1814, French rule in the Illyrian provinces also ended de jure . Despite the brevity of French rule, their measures had far-reaching economic and administrative political consequences for Carniola: Austria maintained the strengthening of the state authorities against the feudal rulers, which had been enforced by the French. In Carniola , the landlords did not get the patrimonial jurisdiction terminated by the French , which they held in other countries of the Austrian Empire until 1848.
Kronland Carniola until 1918
Carniola, which had become Austrian again, initially became part of the Kingdom of Illyria , a subdivision of the Austrian Empire.
From January to May 1821, later known as the Ljubljana Congress , one of the meetings of the Holy Alliance, founded at the end of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, took place in the capital of Carniola. Emperor Franz I of Austria met here with Tsar Alexander I of Russia, Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies , and Duke Franz IV of Modena . The aim was to restore calm in Italy, to abolish the liberal constitution of the Napoleonic era in Naples and Sicily and to restore the old order.
In 1849 the Kingdom of Illyria was dissolved and the Duchy of Carniola was defined as an independent crown land of the Empire, which it remained until October 29, 1918. With the imperial constitution in 1861 , Carniola, like other crown lands, received a state order that provided for a state parliament and a state committee as its executive body. The representative of the emperor and the Viennese government, known as governor in other crown lands, bore the title of state president , the governorship was officially called the state government. From 1867 the country belonged to Cisleithanien , the Austrian half of the empire, and was represented by members of the Reichsrat , the parliament in Vienna.
From 1849–1857 the construction of the Austrian Southern Railway , the connection Vienna – Graz – Ljubljana – Trieste, made the country more accessible. Industrial companies emerged along the railway line, and scenic areas were opened up for tourism . The capital Vienna was now just as easy to reach as Trieste , the monarchy's main trading port, and Pola , its main war port . 1901–1906, the Wocheiner Railway from Jesenice / Aßling to Trieste with a 6.3 km long tunnel and the extraordinary Salcanobrücke / Solkanski most, with the Karawankenbahn (from 1906) and the Tauernbahn was built as part of a large investment program of the Imperial and Royal Government in Vienna (from 1909) a new north-south traffic axis through the Austrian Alps .
Starting with the revolution of 1848 , Carniola became the center of the Slovenian national movement. The basic state laws of Austria introduced from 1860 onwards established the equality of all nationalities in the state in 1867. (The Provincial Law Gazette for the Duchy of Carniola was published in two languages; the Reich Law Gazette was also published in Slovene, among others; both are accessible on the website of the Austrian National Library.)
The Duchy of Krain had in the year 1900 9.955 square kilometers and 520,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000-50,000 German. The nobility, which was politically dominant until the 19th century, was exclusively German-speaking. The old elites in Carniola held on to their traditional privileges as long as possible. Since 1867, however, Slovenian MPs had a majority in the Carniolan state parliament in all legislative periods except one; Women were not allowed to vote until 1918 (as in all of Cisleithanien ).
Long before the First World War, Slovenian politicians brought before the Imperial and Royal government the demand that all Slovenian areas of the monarchy be amalgamated in a separate crown land. This could not be realized because of the resistance of the Germans of Styria and Carinthia , who did not want their countries to be reduced in size.
Carniola from 1918
The change in the balance of power due to the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I allowed the partial implementation of the old demand for state unity for all Slovenes in 1918/19: The state of Carniola, like Lower Styria / Štajerska, which is populated by Slovene, and small peripheral areas of Carinthia / Koroška in the new one Slovenia on. On October 31, 1918, the Slovenian National Council decided that Slovenia would join the Yugoslav state proclaimed by the Agram National Council on October 29 . He had to watch as war victor Italy annexed the Isonzo Valley , the Slovenian Karst and the previously Austrian coastal region .
Second World War: In April 1941, during the Balkan campaign , Krain was occupied partly by Wehrmacht troops and partly by Italian troops. Partisans later fought the Wehrmacht in Carniola, among other places . In the area around Gottschee / Kočevje there was a German ethnic group since the 14th century . Around 15,000 Gottscheers were resettled in Lower Styria under Italian administration during the Second World War .
Today's meaning of the concept of landscape
The term has become unusual. In the system of the Statistical Regions of Slovenia it mainly includes the Gorenjska regija ("mountain region", for example the Upper Carniola), the Osrednjeslovenska regija ("Central Slovenia", the former Central Carniola ), the Primorsko-notranjska regija (ex Notranjsko-kraška , former Inner Carniola with parts of the coastal region / Karst) and the Jugovzhodna Slovenija regija ("Southeast Slovenia", formerly Lower Carniola).
The word has been preserved in place names such as Kranj (Krainburg), Kranjska Gora ("Krainerberg", German Kronau). It can also be found in a historicizing sense, such as Kranjska klobasa , Krainerwurst (which is also popular in Austria as Krainer / Cheese Krainer ).
Culture and sights
Castles and Palaces
The book by Majda Smole Graščine na nekdanjem Kranjskem ( Dominions in the former Carniola ) contains 467 manors and mansions, from the 10th century to the end of the Austrian province of Carniola.
- Grailach Castle (Slovene: Škrljevo) was a castle in Lower Carniola about which there is hardly any news. According to the Slovenian historian Milko Kos (1892–1972), it is said to have been mentioned for the first time in 1043. With reference to Father Martinus Bautscherus, Valvasor attributes the foundation of the castle to St. Hemma .
- Auersperg Castle (Grad Turjak in the municipality of Velike Lašče ), ancestral seat of the old Austrian noble family of the Counts and Princes of Auersperg .
- Carthusian monastery Freudental (Slovenian Kartuzijanski samostan Bistra), is today in the municipality of Vrhnika (German Oberlaibach ); Founded in 1255 by the Carinthian Duke Bernhard von Spanheim ; Repealed in 1785 by Emperor Joseph II . Today it houses the Technical Museum of Slovenia (Tehnični muzej Slovenije).
- Cistercian monastery Landstraß (Slovenian Cistercijanski samostan Kostanjevica), is located one kilometer south of the town of Kostanjevica na Krki . Founded in 1243 by the Carinthian Duke Bernhard von Spanheim ; Repealed in 1785 by Emperor Joseph II . Currently the “Galerija Božidar Jakac ” is housed inside , outside it is used for the “Forma viva” exhibition.
- Michelstetten Dominican Monastery (Slovenian: Ženski dominikanski samostan Velesovo) is located near Cerklje na Gorenjskem in Upper Carniola. Founded in 1238 by the Patriarch of Aquileia , repealed by Emperor Joseph II in 1782 . The rooms are now used as apartments, schools and as accommodation for the Catholic. Rectory.
- Ursuline monastery Minkendorf (Slovenian Uršulinski samostan Mekinje ), is located near Kamnik in Upper Carniola. Founded in 1300 by Sigmund von Gallenberg as a Poor Clare Monastery , abolished in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II . In 1903 it was bought by the Ursuline Sisters.
- Carthusian monastery Pleteriach (Slovenian: Kartuzijanski samostan Pleterje ), is located in Lower Carniola near Šentjernej , founded in 1403 by Count Hermann II of Cilli .
- Cistercian Parakeet Monastery (Slovenian Cistercijanski samostan Stična), located 2 km north of Ivančna Gorica , the oldest monastery in what is now Slovenia. Founded in 1136 by the Patriarch of Aquileja Peregrin, repealed by Emperor Joseph II in 1784 , restituted in 1898.
Population groups according to Austro-Hungarian censuses:
|Slovenes||408,745 (88.10%)||447,366 (92.96%)||466,269 (93.45%)||475,302 (93.54%)||490,978 (93.34%)|
|German||37,626 (8.11%)||29,392 (6.11%)||28,033 (5.62%)||28,177 (5.55%)||27,915 (5.31%)|
The population was predominantly Catholic. According to the 1900 census, the composition was as follows:
Roman Catholic: 506,916 (99.76%)
Protestant: 413 (0.09%)
Greek Catholic: 358 (0.07%)
Orthodox: 289 (0.06%)
Israelite: 145 (0.03%)
- Herbard VIII. Von Auersperg , governor of Carniola, commander in chief of the Croatian and Slavonian military border
- Andreas von Auersperg (1556–1593), imperial general, called "the Christian Achilles" and "the terror of the Turks"
- Anton Alexander Graf von Auersperg , pseudonym: Anastasius Grün , politician and political poet
- Friderik Irenej Baraga (* 1797 Mala vas near Trebnje, † 1868 Marquette, Michigan, USA), bishop, missionary in the USA
- Anton von Codelli , inventor
- Georg Dalmatin , Protestant, employee of Primož Trubar; Translator of the Bible from Hebrew into Slovenian
- Joseph Kalasanc von Erberg (* 1771 Laibach; † 1834 ibid), literary and cultural historian, 1825 author of the work attempt at a draft of a literary story for Crain
- August von Hallerstein , Jesuit, mathematician, astronomer, missionary in China
- Siegmund von Herberstein , diplomat, researcher of Russia and founder of Russian studies, author of the work Moscovia
- Hans Katzianer , Freiherr zu Katzenstein and Flödnig / Smlednik, Governor of Krain and Imperial Colonel Field Captain
- Bartholomäus Kopitar , linguist, Slavist and innovator / Preroditelj
- Joseph von Cavallar (1739–1812), old Austrian field marshal lieutenant
- Leopold Layer (* 1752 in Kranj; † 1828 ibid) painter of the baroque
- Anton Thomas Linhart (* 1756 Radmannsdorf ( Radovljica ), † 1795 Laibach), free spirit and innovator / Preroditelj, writer, historian, author of the work Attempt at a History of Carniola and the other countries of the southern Slavs of Austria, Laibach 1788–1791
- Susanna von Oberburg , abbess in the Minkendorf / Mekinje monastery
- Franz Prescheren , is considered to be the greatest Slovenian poet
- Johann Friedrich von Rain (* 1613 Stermol ?, end of the 17th century in Laibach?), Alchemist in search of the philosopher's stone
- Christophorus Rauber , Governor of Carniola, Bishop of Laibach
- Emil Rothschütz (* 1836 in Aachen; † 1909 near Weixelburg), beekeeper
- Johann Ludwig Schönleben , Jesuit, genealogist, Valvasor's teacher, role model and mentor
- Franz Anton von Steinberg (* 1684 Kalec near Zagorje; † 1765 Laibach), geodesist, inventor, director of the mercury mine in Idrija
- Johann Siegfried Herbert von Tauffrer (* 1750 Laibach; † 1796 Vienna), technician and entrepreneur, revolutionary
- Primus Truber , Protestant preacher, called "the Slovenian Luther", is considered to be the founder of Slovenian literature
- Josipine Urbančič-Turnograjska (* 1833 Thurn Castle near Preddvor / Höflein in Upper Carniola, † 1854 Graz), first Slovenian writer and poet; she and her husband Lovro Toman were supporters of the Illyrian idea
- Johann Weichard von Valvasor , polyhistor, author of the work Die Ehre des Hertzogthums Crain
- Georg Freiherr von Vega , imperial artillery officer, ballistician and mathematician, improved the log tables
- Valentin Vodnik (* 1758 Šiška near Laibach; † 1819 Laibach), Franciscan, the first significant Slovenian poet, innovator / Preroditelj
- Constantin von Wurzbach , author of the 60-volume work Biographisches Lexicon des Kaisertums Österreich
- Sigmund Zois von Edelstein , entrepreneur, promoter of Slovenian culture and science, the richest Carniolan of his time; the gemstone zoisite was named after him
The Carniolan in Fiction
The poet Ivan Cankar , who died in 1918 and is considered the most important Slovenian author of the modern age, has a. a. in his work Der Knecht Jernej, first published in German in 1929, dealt with the life of simple people in his homeland. Cankar was also politically committed to the Slovenes of Old Austria.
The Krain is the scene of Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando's adaptation of Friedrich Torberg's novel Maskenspiel der Genien , published posthumously in 1958 , in which the main character, Cyriakus von Pizzicolli, travels to the "Tarockanien" buffer state founded at the Ljubljana Congress in 1821. At the suggestion of Metternich, this is ruled by four kings as they appear in the old Austrian card game Tarock .
The landscape of the Carniola is also a theme in Peter Handke's 1986 novel Die Repetition , which begins with the following sentence: "A quarter of a century or a day has passed since I arrived in Jesenice on the trail of my missing brother."
- The Austro-Hungarian monarchy in words and pictures . Band Carinthia and Carniola. Graz 1995 (faithful reproduction of the Vienna 1891 edition).
- Wilhelm Baum : Germans and Slovenes in Carniola . Carinthia Verlag, Klagenfurt 1981.
- Wilhelm Baum: The Counts of Görz in the European politics of the Middle Ages . Kitab, Klagenfurt 2000, ISBN 3-902005-04-1 .
- Wilhelm Baum: The crimes of the National Socialists in the occupied Upper Carniola and in the "Adriatic Coastal Area" (Trieste). In: The Book of Names. The victims of National Socialism in Carinthia. Kitab-Verlag, Klagenfurt 2010, ISBN 978-3-902585-53-0 , pp. 232-252.
- Bogo Grafenauer: Zgodovina slovenskega naroda II. Zvezek (History of the Slovene People). Ljubljana 1955.
- Joachim Hösler: From Carniola to Slovenia . R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-486-57885-0 .
- Majda Smole: Graščine na nakdanjem Kranjskem ( manors in the former Carniola). Ljubljana 1982.
- Peter Štih: Studies on the History of the Counts of Gorizia. The Ministerials and Milites of the Counts of Gorizia in Istria and Carniola . In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . Supplementary volume 32. Vienna / Munich 1996. ISBN 3-7029-0405-0 Oldenbourg Vienna, ISBN 3-486-64834-9 Oldenbourg Munich. ,
- Attila v. Wurzbach: The former Duchy of Carniola and its nobility - a historical outline . In: East German family studies . No. 2 , 1991, p. 370-374 .
- August Dimitz: History of Krain. 4 volumes in 2 books . Laibach 1874.
- Ignaz de Luca: Duchy of Carniola. In: Geographisches Handbuch von dem Oestreichischen Staats. 2. Volume The countries in the Austrian district. Verlag Johannes Paul Krauss, Vienna 1790, pp. 83-186 ( Google eBook, full view ).
- Peter Urbanitsch , Ivan Klemenčič, Rudolf Flotzinger : Krain. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 3, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-7001-3045-7 .
- Stih Slovenska zgodovina od prazgodovinskih culture do konca srednjega veka . (PDF) sistory.si (Slovenian)
Periodicals and sources:
- Announcements from the Museum Association for Carniola . (Published 1866 and 1889–1907).
- Carniola. Journal for local history. Notifications d. Museum Association for Carniola . (Published: 1908–1918/19).
- Communications from the historical association for Carniola . (Published 1846–1868).
- State Law Gazette for the Duchy of Carniola 1849–1918 . (Originals, on Austrian National Library: ALEX online )
- Carniola . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 10, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 136.
- Carniola . In: Encyclopædia Britannica . 11th edition. tape 5 : Calhoun - Chatelaine . London 1910, p. 365 (English, full text [ Wikisource ]).
- gottschee.de - Extensive private website on the topic of Kočevje / Gottschee
- cf. Purulent that. In: Robert Sedlaczek, Reinhardt Badegruber: Viennese word stories: From plaster deer and winter swallows. Haymon Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-7099-7538-1 , pp. OA (45 ff) ( limited preview in Google book search) - to protect the name Krainer Wurst .
- Miha Kosi (Laibach): City foundation and city development. Problems and examples from the Slovenian area. In: Pro Civitate Austriae. Information on urban history research in Austria. New series, issue 14, Austrian Working Group for Urban History Research, Linz 2009, p. 7.
- Rudolf IV, however, is likely to have accepted the title of Duke of Carniola in May 1364 without a corresponding legal act, but apparently with imperial approval, according to Alois Niederstätter: Österreichische Geschichte 1278–1411. The rule of Austria. Prince and country in the late Middle Ages. Ueberreuter Verlag, Vienna 2001, p. 154
- Catalog entry at Cobiss
- Imperial Constitution 1861, RGBl. No. 20/1861 (= p. 69); see attached state regulations . In: onb.ac.at .
- Austrian National Library: ALEX - Historical legal and legal texts . In: onb.ac.at .
- Austrian National Library: ALEX - Historical legal and legal texts . In: onb.ac.at .
- see London Treaty (1915) .