Dynasty ( ancient Greek δυνάστης dynástēs "ruler") denotes a gender sequence of rulers and their families and is now also generally used for large families ( family dynasty ). Originally one describes a ruling family who has succeeded in guaranteeing a continuous occupation of the highest dignity of their country over a longer period of time through power , economic and marriage policies , diplomacy and intrigues , and ultimately a successful succession .
The name either speaks of House Bourbon , since in German historiography the term house rules for the political testament of a ruler in the Middle Ages (compare Ottonen ), or in the plural as Bourbons . Both terms are used synonymously. As a rule, one speaks of a dynasty only if there are three or more consecutive kings or queens.
Two lists follow:
- List sorted by country or region
- List sorted alphabetically by name with explanations
List sorted by country or region
For an overview see Egyptian Chronology .
Armenia (Hayassa, Nairi, Ararat / Urartu, Hayastan)
Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire
Holy Roman Empire
Askanier , Babenberger , Billungs , Habsburgs , Hanau , home Hesse , House Nassau , Hohenzollern , Conradines , Ludowinger , Luxembourg , Ottonen , Przemyslids , Salier , Salm , Spannheimer , Staufer (Hohenstaufens), Guelph , Wettins , Wittelsbachs , house Württemberg , Zähringer , Obodriten , House of Oldenburg
Merovingians , Pippinids , Arnulfinger , Hugobertiner , Karolinger , Buviniden , Bosoniden , Burchardinger , Popponen , Ramnulfiden , Welfen , Widonen , Robertiner , Rorgoniden , Gerhardiner , Wilhelmiden , Haus Burgund-Ivrea
Three families are "political dynasties":
- the Papandreou family , including
- the Karamanlis family , including
Early and Hindu Great Empires
- Chandragupta Maurya - Dynasty in the ancient Maurya Empire
- Kushan dynasty in ancient Kushan -Reich
- Gupta Dynasty in the Gupta Empire
Sultans of Delhi
- Slave dynasty (1206-1290); Turks
- Khilji Dynasty (Khalji Dynasty) (1290-1320); Turks
- Tughluq Dynasty (1320-1413); Turks
- Lodi Dynasty ; Pashtuns
- Sayyid (Syed) dynasty (1414-1451); Arabs
- Lodi dynasty (1451-1526); Pashtuns
- Suri Dynasty (1540-1555); Pashtuns
(1526–1858) Title: Mughal, Great Mughal, Mughal Emperor or Shah
Princely states of India
Achaemenid , Arsacid , Sassanian , Seleucids , Qarakhanid , Kara Kitai , kayanian dynasty Anuschteginiden , Saffarids , Samanids , Buyids , ziyarid dynasty , Ghaznavids , Timurid , Safavid , Tahirids , Hotak dynasty , Afsharid Dynasty , Zand-Prince , Qajar , Pahlavi
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , before that in Moldavia and Wallachia, mostly certain influential families were the princes, such as the boyar dynasties of Basarab , Brâncoveanu , Cantemir and Movilă , as well as the phanariotic-Greek families of Cantacuzinos , Ypsilantis and Mavrokordatos .
For areas: Visigoths / House Pelayo , House Barcelona ( Aragon ), House Galíndez (Aragon), House Castile ( Castile ), House Cantabria ( Leon , Galicia ), House Burgundy-Ivrea (Galicia, Castile, Leon), House Jiménez (Galicia , Castile, Leon), House of Trastámara (Castile and León, Aragón),
House of Navarre (Navarre)
For all of Spain Habsburgs , House of Bourbon , House of Bonaparte , House of Savoy
- Hồng Bàng Dynasty (2919–258 BC)
- Thục dynasty (257–207 BC)
- Triệu dynasty (207–111 BC)
- Han Dynasty (Chinese) (111 BC – 39 AD and 43–220 AD)
- Trưng sisters (40–43)
- (Eastern) Wu Dynasty (Chinese) (229–280)
- Jin Dynasty (Chinese) (280-420)
- Southern Qi Dynasty (Chinese) (479–502)
- Liang Dynasty (Chinese) (502-544)
- Early Lý dynasty (544–602)
- Sui Dynasty (Chinese) (602–618)
- Tang Dynasty (Chinese) (618–905)
- Khúc family (906-930)
- Ngô dynasty (939-967)
- Đinh Dynasty (968-980)
- Early Lê dynasty (980-1009)
- Lý dynasty (1009-1225)
- Tron dynasty (1225-1400)
- Hồ dynasty (1400–1407)
- Later Trần dynasty (1407-1413)
- Ming Dynasty (Chinese) (1414-1427)
- Later Lê dynasty (1428–1527 and 1533–1788)
- Mạc dynasty (1527–1677)
- Trịnh Lords (1545–1787)
- Nguyon Lords (1558–1777)
- Tây Sơn dynasty (1778–1802)
- Nguyon dynasty (1802-1945)
List in alphabetical order
The list of dynasties with explanations of their names and history is in alphabetical order.
The Achaemenids were an ancient Persian dynasty that the legendary ruler Achaemenes is returned (to 705-675 v. Chr.). 550 under Cyrus II Mederreich replaced and its part of the Great Alexander was destroyed.
The Aghlabids were an Arab dynasty that ruled Ifriqiya from 800 to 909. In order to counteract the anarchy in the province of Ifrīqiya / Tunisia after the overthrow of the Muhallabites towards the end of the 8th century, caliph Hārūn ar-Raschīd appointed Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab hereditary emir .
The Agilolfinger were the first Bavarian ducal dynasty. They ruled from the 6th to the end of the 8th century. The progenitor of the Agilolfinger is Agilulf , whose life data are not known. Garibald I is the first historically tangible duke of the family.
The English royal house of Anjou-Plantagenêt goes back to Gottfried V, Count of Anjou . Anjou is the name of the county (approx. 880), a duchy (1360) and a province of France with the center Angers in the lower Loire Valley with 8,975 km². and essentially corresponds to today's Maine-et-Loire department .
The Muslim , Turkish-born Anuschteginiden were the last dynasty of khwarazmian dynasty (1077-1231). Before their empire (with the capital Gurganj ) was destroyed in the Mongol storm, under Sultan Muhammad II it included not only Khorezmia , but almost all of Iran , Transoxania and today's Afghanistan .
The Arnulfinger are the descendants of Bishop Arnulf von Metz (582–640). Together with the Pippinids , they are one of the dynastic lines that led to Karl Martell (688–741) and the Carolingians . They were bishops and caretakers in the Merovingian empire of the Franks . Arnulf von Metz was later canonized.
The Arpads were the first ruling dynasty of Hungary , whose members ruled the country as kings from 1001 to 1301. Its name goes back to the first Hungarian Grand Duke Árpád († 907). From 890 on it united the tribes of the Magyars , who at that time settled on the lower reaches of the Danube . Under his rule in 896 the Hungarians began to take over the Carpathian Mountains .
Arsacids is the name of the dynasty founded by the Parthian Arsakes I, which began in 240 BC. Began with the submission of Persia. They ruled until AD 224 and were conquered by the Sasanids and replaced in Iran. In Armenia they ruled until AD 428 and introduced Christianity there.
The Assen family was a Bulgarian ruling family from 1186 to 1330 . Their relatives were also called Assenides, Assenites or Asanes. The origin of the Assen dynasty, presumably Wallachian and Cumanian , is controversial. The founder of the dynasty was the boyar Assen in 1185/1186 , followed by his sons Ivan Assen I and Theodor Peter IV Assen. The Bulgarian Tsars were often nicknamed Assen.
They had lived in eastern Saxony since the 10th century and ruled as Counts of Weimar or Weimar-Orlamünde, Counts of Orlamünde , as Dukes of Saxony (1112–1296), Dukes and Electors of Saxony-Wittenberg (1296–1422), Dukes of Saxony-Lauenburg (1296–1689), Margraves of Brandenburg (1150–1320), Princes and Dukes of Anhalt (1160–1252) and the many divided duchies (1252–1918).
In 1383, with King Ferdinand I, the dynasty of the Portuguese Burgundian rulers died out in the direct male line. Since the king had no son, Portugal was to fall to Castile through his heir daughter, who was married to the king of Castile . In the revolution of 1383 , the country revolted against annexation to Castile. John of Avis leads the rebellion, he was able to inflict a decisive defeat on Castile in the Battle of Aljubarrota and was finally elevated to king as John I by the Portuguese Cortes (the noble parliament) .
The Ayyubids were an Islamic - Kurdish dynasty that ruled in the Middle East ( Egypt , Palestine , Lebanon , Syria , East Arabia ) from 1171 to 1252 . The most famous ruler was Saladin . The dynasty is named after Saladin's father, Nadschmuddin Ayyub .
The name "Babenberger" as well as the derivation from Franconia comes from the historian Otto von Freising , who was himself a member of this family. All epithets of the Babenbergs go back to Ladislaus Sunthaym , who invented or assigned them in his genealogy of the Babenbergs towards the end of the 15th century. None of the Babenbergers had his nickname during his lifetime.
The Franconian or older Babenbergers were the Popponen (see there).
The Bagratids were Georgian and Armenian ruling dynasties. The Armenian line had royal dignity from 885-1045, the Georgian line from 809-1810. The origin of the Bagratids is controversial and shrouded in legends. Bagatades, a military commander under Tigranes II. († around 55 BC) was probably the first acquaintance from the extended family of the Bagratids.
The Baraksai (also called Mohammadsai) were a Pashtun dynasty in Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973. Baraksai is a tribal name of the Pashtuns, from whose ranks the viziers came until Dost Mohammed (1826–1863) prevailed and became a Shah (or king) ruled and established his dynasty.
Bernadotte is the name of the ruling family of the Kingdom of Sweden . The originally bourgeois family comes from the city of Pau in southwest France in the old Kingdom of Navarre . In 1810, Karl XIV. Johann , Marshal of France and Napoleonic Duke of Ponte Corvo , was appointed by the last king of the Holstein-Gottorp family, Karl XIII. , adopted and after his death crowned King of Sweden as Charles XIV John . Thus he replaced the Holstein-Gottorp family .
The dynasty is divided into several sub-lines over the centuries. The Dukes of Bourbon (1327–1830), 8 kings of France (1589–1848), 11 kings of Spain (from 1700), 6 dukes of Parma (1731–1860), 6 kings of Naples and Sicily ( Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , 1734–1861) and 2 kings of Etruria ( Tuscany ) (1801–1807).
The House of Braganza (in Portuguese notation Bragança) is a Portuguese noble family who provided the kings of Portugal from 1640 to 1853 and the emperors of Brazil from 1822 to 1889 . The family is named after the city of Braganza in northern Portugal.
Burgundy was the first Portuguese royal family and ruled the country from 1093 to 1383. Since most of the kings from the House of Burgundy bore the name Alfonso (Portuguese Afonso), it is also known as House Afonsin. The Burgundy kings of Portugal descend from a younger line of the dukes of Burgundy , which in turn sprang from a younger line of the French royal house of the Capetians . The first ruler of the House of Burgundy was Henry of Burgundy, who received the county of Portugal through marriage in 1093.
Burgundy (in Portugal)
The Burgundians (in Portugal) were the first Portuguese royal family and ruled from 1093 to 1383. The name Burgundy is derived from the Germanic tribe of the Burgundians who once populated the area of what is now French Burgundy. Later the Elder House of Burgundy , a branch of the French Capetians , ruled there . The Portuguese Burgundy are again a younger branch of this house.
The Buyids were a Persian- Shiite dynasty from Tabaristan (932-1062) in the north of what is now Iran. The dynasty was founded by Abu Shudja Buyah (- 932), who began his rise as a military leader among the Samanids and Ziyarids .
The Chakri dynasty has been the ruling house of Thailand since 1782 and ruled initially in an absolute monarchy , and since 1932 in a constitutional monarchy. The Chakri dynasty was founded by the general Chao Phraya Chakri, who was chosen as King Rama I (Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok) after the ruling king Taksin apparently went mad.
The Durrani (formerly Abdali ) are a Pashtun tribe and were a ruling dynasty in Afghanistan from 1747 to 1826. Previously, the Ghilzai tribe (also Pashtun and hostile to the Durrani) conquered Isfahan in 1722 and overthrew the Safavids in Persia. From now on the Abdali carried the name Durrani, derived from the Persian "Durr-i Durrān", "pearl of pearls", to emphasize the special position of the Abdali tribe in Pashtun society.
The Saud dynasty has been an Arab dynasty on the Arabian Peninsula since around 1735. The origins of the Saud dynasty can be traced back to the 15th century. Muhammad ibn Saud (1735–1765) concluded an alliance with Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab , the founder of Wahhabism, in Diri`ya (now a suburb of Riyadh ) in 1744 . Ibn Saud promised to enforce the Wahhabi interpretation of the Koran and Sunna as the only valid ones in his future kingdom, whereas ibn Abd al-Wahhab promised to religiously legitimize the Saudi ruler's claim to power.
The Fatimids were a Shiite- Ismailite dynasty who ruled North Africa and Syria from 909 to 1171. After the division of the Muslims into Sunnis and Shiites, the latter were led by imams who were descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib and his eponymous wife Fatima , the fourth and youngest daughter of the Prophet Mohammed .
Folkunger is originally a name for the supporters of Jarl Folke Birgersson , who fell in 1210, and the party that opposed the centralization efforts of the Swedish kingship. In a revolt in 1229 they defeated King Erik Eriksson , who fled to Denmark . Knut Långe was elected king in his place , but after his death in 1234 Erik Eriksson returned to Sweden. The Folkung people were finally defeated by Jarl Birger Magnusson in the battles at Sparresäter (1247) and Herrevadsbro (1251) .
The Grimaldi family can be traced back to the Genoese Otto Canella (- approx. 1143), who was consul of Genoa in 1133. His youngest son, Grimaldo Canella (- approx. 1184) is considered to be the namesake for the Grimaldi family. His son is called Oberto Grimaldi (- approx. 1237) and is also known as the father of the Grimaldi .
The Habsburgs were one of the leading noble families in Europe. Members of the dynasty ruled Austria, Bohemia and Hungary for centuries. From 1438 to 1806 almost all emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation belonged to the House of Habsburg. In the 16th and 17th centuries the family ruled over the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal , and in the 18th and 19th centuries over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and other parts of northern Italy. The Habsburg in Aargau (Switzerland) is considered the ancestral seat of the family .
After the House of Habsburg with the death of Charles VI in 1740 . was extinguished in the male line, it was continued in the female line as the House of Habsburg-Lothringen through his heir, Maria Theresa , who married Franz I Stephan of Lothringen in 1736 . The House of Habsburg-Lothringen provided u. a. the Roman-German emperors, later the emperors of Austria and kings of Hungary.
The Hanau house has been traceable since the end of the 12th century and is named after the Hanau moated castle around which the city of Hanau is later formed. In the 13th and 14th centuries in the Rhine-Main area very successfully and rose to a regional power, Reinhard II was raised to the rank of count in 1429. In 1458 the country was divided from which the lines Hanau-Münzenberg and Hanau-Lichtenberg emerged . In 1642 the Hanau-Münzenberg line dies out and is inherited by Hanau-Lichtenberg. In 1736 Hanau-Lichtenberg also died out. The Landgraves of Hessen-Darmstadt inherit the Hanau-Lichtenberg region as the next agnate , the Hanau-Munzenberg region is inherited by the Landgraves of Hessen-Kassel on the basis of an inheritance contract .
With the House of Hanover and the dynasty will Guelph referred. The modified name came when the Principality of Calenberg was formed into the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1692 , which became the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814. The royal house of Hanover ruled Great Britain and Ireland for five generations in personal union .
The Hashimites ( Arabic هاشمي) are an Arab dynasty. They are named after Hāschim ibn ʿAbd al-Manāf , the great-grandfather of the Prophet Mohammed. The Hashemites played an important role as Sherif in Mecca . Since the 10th century, the control of the Hashemites as sherifers over Mecca and Medina is attested. The line of the Hussainids dominated Medina and the line of the Hassanids Mecca. From then on, the head of the Hassanids in Mecca carried the title of Grand Sherif. The main task was to organize the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and to secure the pilgrim caravans.
In the House of Hesse all family lines of the Hessian Princely House Lorraine Brabant are summarized. The name is borrowed from the Germanic tribe of Chatten, whose name has gradually changed from Chatten via Hassi to Hesse.
The Hohenzollern family was a German princely family (around 1061 to 1918), originally from the Swabian region. The ancestral castle Hohenzollern is located in the district of Bisingen near Hechingen in the Zollernalbkreis in Baden-Württemberg .
From the main and secondary lines came
- the Counts of Zollern (from 1061), named after the Zollernburg;
- the Swabian Counts of Hohenzollern , Princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen , Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Haigerloch , named after their residential cities;
- the Franconian burgraves of Nuremberg , princes and margraves of Ansbach and Bayreuth , named after their residences;
- the Brandenburg-Prussian margraves, electors, dukes, kings and German emperors.
Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (or Holstein-Gottorp) is a line of the house of Oldenburg . It was created in 1544 when King Christian III. of Denmark compensated his younger half-brothers: Johann resided as Duke in Hadersleben and founded the Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben line . When he died childless in 1580, his share was returned to the other two parts. Adolf resided at Gottorf Castle and founded the line of the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf. From 1586, members of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf made the prince-bishops of Lübeck .
The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was a short-lived Pashtun dynasty and was founded in 1709 by Mir Wais Hotak from the Ghilzai tribe of Kandahar. The Pashtuns (Persian: Afghans) are an Eastern Iranian people. They are the people who support the state in Afghanistan.
The Idrisids formed the first local Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb between 788 and 985 and are therefore considered to be the founders of the statehood of Morocco. The founder of the dynasty was Idris ibn Abdallah (788-791) who traced his descent to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima. As a Shiite he was persecuted by the Sunni Abbasids and fled in 786 to the Maghreb, where he was taken in by the Berbers in Morocco.
The Jagiellonians were a European dynasty that had Polish kings and grand dukes of Lithuania from 1386 to 1572 . They were also Hungarian and Bohemian kings from the 15th century . The founder of this dynasty is considered to be the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila, who as Władysław II Jagiełło ascended the throne in Cracow in 1386 by marrying the Polish Queen Jadwiga .
- The Jin Dynasty from 265 to 420 was a dynastic period in the history of China with the epochs of the Western Jin (265-316) and the Eastern Jin (317-420).
- The Jin dynasty from 1125 to 1234 is a foreign dynasty in northern China , founded by the Tungusian Jurchen people on the remnants of the Kitan / Liao empire.
The Julier were a respected ancient Roman patrician family . They derived their name from the legendary progenitor Iulus, according to legend a son of the Trojan nobleman Aeneas and founder and first king Alba Longas, the mother city of Rome. The dynasty included Julius Caesar and Augustus .
The double name Julisch-Claudisches Haus is derived on the one hand from Iulius, on the other hand from Claudius, the family name of Livia Drusilla's first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero. The Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius , Caligula , Claudius and Nero descended from the dynasty .
The Qajars were a dynasty in Persia (1779–1929). It is named after the tribal name of the ruling family.
The Capetians were a French ruling dynasty. The House of France ruled France from 987 to 1848 in the form of kingship. In 987 Hugo Kapet, Duke of Paris, was ruler of the Francie, an area between the Seine and Loire. When his predecessor Louis V died with no descendants, Hugo Capet was elected the new King of France by an assembly of the bishops and the most important French allies (to which he belonged).
The Kara Kitai were a dynasty that formed an empire in Central Asia (1128–1218). They come from nomadic tribes from the Kitan empire in northwest China and Mongolia . When the Mongol empire in Manchuria was broken up , part of the Kitan fled westward and founded Kara Kitai around 1128 under the Khan Yelü Dashi .
Karachaniden (Turkish Karahanlılar) is a Turkic dynasty in Transoxania, which existed in Central Asia between 840 and 1212 . The dynasty name "Karachan" is derived from the battle name Idat Shads, who fought against the Chinese in 681 as Karakhan ⇔ "Black Ruler".
The name Carolingians, derived from the Franconian caretaker Karl Martell, denotes a ruling family of the Franks. The ancestors of the Carolingians are Arnulf von Metz from the Arnulfinger family and Pippin the Elder from the Pippiniden family. The Carolingians ruled the Franconian Empire with interruptions from 639 , not as kings (who were Merovingians for more than a century), but as caretakers.
The Komitopuli house was a western Bulgarian dynasty from 963 to 1072. In 963 a part of the Bulgarian Empire (around Ohrid ) is said to have split off under the leadership of Comes Shishman (Samuil's father) with the name Nikola (963 / 69–972). His four sons - the Kometopulai - are said to have established their rule under the tolerance of the Byzantine emperors.
The Liao dynasty was a foreign dynasty founded by the Mongolian people of the Kitan in northern China (907-1125).
The family is first mentioned in 1136 with Hugo von Liechtenstein. They were and are the princes of Liechtenstein (from 1608).
The currently ruling of those von und zu Liechtenstein descends from the Styrian line, whose most famous ancestor was the minstrel Ulrich von Liechtenstein (Frauenburg-Unzmarkt and ruin Liechtenstein in Judenburg).
The Liudolfinger , also called Ottonen, were a Saxon noble family and a German ruling dynasty. It was named after the Count in Saxony Liudolf (806–866).
They ruled as counts in the tribal duchy of Saxony , as dukes of the tribal duchy of Saxony and as kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire from 919 to 1024.
The Ludowingers were a ruling dynasty in medieval Thuringia and Hesse. It was named after Count Ludwig the Bearded († 1056). The Ludowingers were counts and landgraves. Heinrich Raspe was a German anti-king from 1246.
The House of Luxemburg or House of Limburg-Luxemburg were a German dynasty that provided several Roman-German kings and emperors of the late Middle Ages. a. Henry VII (from 1308) and Charles IV (1349 to 1378). They were also rulers of the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The dynasty got its name from the Counts of Luxembourg (including Henry VI. (1247)).
The Mojmírids ( Slovak and Czech : Mojmírovci ) were the ruling dynasty of Great Moravia in the 9th and 10th centuries. The core area of their dominion comprised the historical region of Moravia and today's Slovakia .
The Merinids (Beni Marin, Arabic: مرينيون marîniyûn or بنو مرين banû marîn) were a Berber dynasty in Morocco and Spain that ruled between 1244 and 1465.
The Merovingians are the oldest Frankish royal family. The name is derived from Merowech (or Meroväus). Nothing is known about him and his two predecessors apart from legendary traditions.
The Ming Dynasty ruled the Chinese Empire from 1368 to 1644. The name of the Ming dynasty (明朝, Míngcháo, 1368 to 1644) is derived from the characters 明 (míng = bright ) + 朝 (cháo = dynasty ).
The Bonaparte (actually Buonaparte ) were originally a patrician family from Sarzana , who have been in Ajaccio ( Corsica ) since 1529 and have had their seat there since 1567. Since Napoléon Bonaparte's coronation as emperor in 1804, it had the rank of the French imperial family. With the conquests of Napoleon, the members of his family were installed as rulers in other states.
The house of Nassau was a German and European noble family. Dudo Heinrich von Laurenburg, named in 1093, was presumably the progenitor of the house. Before the eponymous Nassau Castle in Nassau , Laurenburg Castle was their mansion.
The house of Nassau was divided into two main lines early on, the so-called Ottonian and the Walramische. The former had their possessions north of the Lahn, which was generally regarded as a border.
The branch lines Hadamar, Beilstein, Siegen, Diez , Breda and the county of Vianden come from the Ottonian line . Henry III. (Nassau) receives the Principality of Orange in southern France through her marriage to Claudia von Chalons and Orange . The sons therefore carried the title "Prince of Orange". The Nassau were governors in Friesland , Groningen and Drenthe , inheritance holders of the United Provinces and since 1815 kings of the Netherlands in which they still exist today, and in 1702 they were king of England, Scotland and Ireland .
The German King Adolf (ruled from 1292 to 1298) came from the Walram line . The subsidiary lines Weilburg , Usingen , Saarbrücken , Idstein , Ottweiler , Sonnenberg were formed . Through the Nassau inheritance contract , the last Duke of Nassau received the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in 1890, in which the line continues today.
The Nguyễn dynasty ( Vietnamese Nhà Nguyễn, Hán nôm: 家 阮) was an imperial dynasty in Vietnam , it ruled from 1802 to 1945. It was the only line of rulers in the country that crowned itself as emperors. Nguyễn阮 is the family name of the emperors.
The House of Oldenburg is a north German dynasty whose origins lie in the so-called Osnabrücker Nordland; it was first attested to with Egilmar I around 1100. The eponymous castle Aldenburg ( Oldenburg ) was on the Hunte , was first mentioned in 1108 and served the count as a residence from the middle of the 12th century.
From the House of Oldenburg came the dukes or grand dukes of Oldenburg and since 1448 the kings of Denmark with the lines Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg and numerous subsidiary lines. For more see Schleswig-Holstein.
Orange | Orange-Nassau
Oranje-Nassau is the name of the ruling royal family of the Netherlands. The name Orange originally comes from the Burgundian county of Orange , later the Principality of Orange , in the Rhone plain in what is now France.
The Liudolfinger , also called Ottonen , were a Saxon noble family and a German ruling dynasty. Overall, this family ruled the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation for more than a century (919-1024). The founder of the noble family was Count Liudolf († 866). The name Ottonen goes back to the three Liudolfing emperors: Otto I., Otto II. And Otto III.
The Pahlawis were a ruling dynasty who were Shahs (Emperors) of Persia from 1926 to 1979 . It was named after Reza Shah Pahlavi , who as Reza Khan was previously general and defense minister and who as Shah Reza gained the dynasty title Pahlavi - the heroic.
The Piasts were a Polish ruling dynasty that produced numerous dukes (960-1295) and kings (1295-1370) of Poland and dukes of Silesia , Liegnitz , Opole , Brzeg or Brieg and Wołów or Wohlau (1163-1675) and whose origin was in the 9th century with the West Slavic tribe of the Polans.
The name Piasts refers to their legendary progenitor, Piast der Rademacher (Polish: Piast Kołodziej ) (approx. 840–870). The name Piast could indicate the activity as a Rademacher (Polish piasta for hub ). Another explanation is based on the Polish piastun , which stands for caregiver, carer or guardian.
The name of the dynasty was coined by Adam Naruszewicz (1733–1796) and was never used by the members of the ruling family.
Pippiniden is the name for the earliest known members of the Frankish ruling family, later known as the Carolingians. The center of power of the Pippinids was in Austrasia , north of the Ardennes, where they had extensive estates and numerous clients . Namesake and at the same time the oldest known representative is Pippin the Elder. He made it possible for the family to place the house keepers in the Merovingian empire and thereby disempower the real ruling family. The wedding of Pippin's daughter Begga with the Arnulfingen Ansegisel , the son of Pippin's closest ally Arnulf von Metz, also secured his policy in terms of family policy.
The English royal house of House Plantagenet goes back to Count Gottfried V von Anjou, called Plante Genêt (1139–1151), since 1144 Duke of Normandy . From 1154 to 1399, the royal house directly represented the English king. The emblem of the house, the gorse branch (French: plante genêt, Latin: planta genista) was the namesake.
The Popponen was the Franconian dynasty or older Babenbergers. It was named after Count Poppo (early 9th century). They were counts in the grave field , margraves in Franconia, margraves and duke of Thuringia (880-892).
The Przemyslids were a Bohemian ruling family. They were in power in Bohemia as princes, dukes and kings from the 9th century to 1306. The Přemyslids are said to be descendants of the legendary progenitor Přemysl the plowman .
The Qin dynasty (秦朝, Qínchao) emerged from the duchy or kingdom of Qin (existed since around 897 BC) and was united under Prince Yíng Zhèng alias Qin Shihuangdi in 221 BC. All of China, so that the Chinese Empire came into being. The German word China comes from Qin.
The Qing dynasty ( Manchurian daicing gurun ; Chinese 清朝 , Pinyin qīng cháo , W.-G. ch'ing ch'ao ) is a dynasty founded by the Manchu under Nurhaci in 1644 in China, hence also called the Manchu dynasty , which the Ming Dynasty. The name Qing means "pure" .
The name Rjurikiden (Rurikowitschi) refers to a Russian dynasty that goes back to the Varangian Rurik (Russian Rjurik ). The Rurikowitschi belonged to the Rus , the ruling class of Scandinavian descent who had settled among the Eastern Slavs since the middle of the 9th century and founded the empire of the Kievan Rus .
The Romanovs were the second dynasty, from which according to Rjurikiden Russian tsar emerged. Unlike most Russian names, "Romanow" is stressed on the second syllable ( ro'ma: nof ). Her ancestor is the boyar Andrej Kobyla, who lived at the time of Grand Duke Simeon Ivanovich (14th century). Since the beginning of the 16th century, the family called Sakharin-Yuryev. Anastasia Romanovna Sakharina became the wife of Ivan IV and her brother Nikita Romanovich had an influential position at the Tsar's court. Since then the family has been called Romanov.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
It is a younger branch of the Ernestine Wettins . The last Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg died in 1826 without a male heir. His lands were therefore divided among his Ernestine relatives. Duke Ernst I (born January 2, 1784 in Coburg , † January 29, 1844 in Gotha ), formerly Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld , was the first duke of the young duchy and renamed himself Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha . In addition to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the dynasty also ruled in Belgium (there still today), Bulgaria, Great Britain (there still today, but as House of Windsor ) and Portugal.
Safavids (also Safavids or Safawiya ) was the name of a dynasty in Persia that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and established Shiite Islam as the state religion. It is not entirely clear whether the dynasty was of Persian or Kurdish origin. Earlier claims that the dynasty were of Turkic origin have been proven wrong. The origins of the dynasty can be traced back to Sheikh Safi Al Din (* 1252, † 1334), who founded a Sufi order in Ardabil in 1301 , which became increasingly militarized from the middle of the 15th century (see also: Safi Order ) .
Saffarids were a Persian dynasty in Khorasan and Transoxania parts (861-1383). The adventurer Yaqub ibn Laith , called as-Saffar (the coppersmith ), founded a strong military power from eastern Iranian militia groups and other armed groups around the middle of the 9th century. He built a rule in Sistan (today's border area between Iran and Afghanistan) and began with the conquest of Khorasan.
The Said dynasty has been the ruling dynasty in Oman since 1746. It is named after Ahmad ibn Said (1746–1783), who drove out the last Persian troops in 1747 and was elected imam of the Ibadites in 1749 .
The Salians (from old high German sal : "rule" or Latin salii : "salt sea inhabitants") were a Frankish noble family in the Holy Roman Empire from the 10th to the 12th century. The epithet appears for the first time at the beginning of the 12th century as rex salicus or reges salici . Presumably the chronicler Otto von Freising referred this name in memory of the Merovingian Clovis to all noble noble families on the right side of the Rhine. Later the name only referred to Emperor Konrad II and his descendants.
The Samanids were a Persian dynasty in Transoxania and Khorasan who ruled from 819 to 1005. The progenitor of the dynasty, Saman Chuda, came from an old Iranian priestly family from Balkh and, according to the dynasty itself, was a descendant of Bahram Chobin , a general of the Sassanids .
The name of the empire of the Sassanids is derived from the last old Persian dynasty of the Sassanids (more correctly: Sasanids ). These in turn traced their origins back to a historically inconceivable progenitor, a certain Sasan , who is said to have been high priest in the fire sanctuary of Anahita in Istachr around 200 AD . With very few exceptions (first case: Bahram Tschobin 590) all kings belonged to the Sassanid family until the end. In historical literature, the term Sassanids is used not only to refer to the ruling family but also to the population of their empire.
From 1448 the dynasties of the royal Danish lines Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg with the branch lines Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg , Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and u. a. Schleswig-Holstein-Plön .
Their names arose from the respective residences such as Gottorf Castle in Schleswig , Sonderburg Castle in the southern Danish city of Sønderborg , Augustenborg Castle in Augustenborg on the island of Alsen in Denmark, Glücksburg Castle in Glücksburg on the Flensburg Fjord and Plön Castle in Plön .
The Seljuk Turks - so named after their leader Seljuk (1000) - came from the Oghuz tribe of Kınıklar that the Aral Sea (area that is now his settlement area east Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) had. After the death of his father, Seljuk Khan entered the service of Oghus-yabgu, the ruler of the Oghuz. He became its mercenary in the fight against the Khazars , but soon fell out with the Oghuz ruler.
The dynasty of the Seleucids was founded after the death of Alexander the Great by his general Seleukos I Nicator around 312 BC. BC (capture of Babylon ) justified. The Seleucid empire was one of the so-called Diadochin empires and in its greatest bloom it stretched from Asia Minor , Syria, Babylonia and Persia to the Indus Valley . At times, Palestine and Phenicia also belonged to the Seleucid Empire.
The Shang Dynasty was the second dynasty in Chinese history. She ruled China between the 16th century BC. Until about the 11th century BC. The name is derived from King Tāng of Shang in China, († 1742 BC), as the leader of the Shang tribe.
- The earlier Song Dynasty is an era of the Chinese Empire that lasted from 420 to 479.
- The Song Dynasty was the ruling dynasty in the Chinese Empire from 960 to 1279. It is divided into the "Northern" and "Southern" Song Dynasties.
The Staufer (formerly also called Hohenstaufen ) were a Swabian noble family that provided several German kings and emperors in the 12th and 13th centuries. The name "Staufer" is derived from Stauf Castle on the Hohenstaufen (on the northern edge of the Swabian Alb near Göppingen ).
The Stuart House (originally Stewart ) ruled Scotland since 1371 and England in 1603. The Stuarts were from the Anglo-Norman family Fitz-Allan out that at the Scottish royal court the hereditary post of Steward (English: Steward ) held.
The Tahirids were a Persian dynasty in Khorasan and Transoxania from 820 to 873. Tahir served al-Mamun , a son of Harun ar-Raschid, who was assigned Khorasan when the caliphate was divided in 809. When the civil war with the caliph al-Amin broke out , Tahir defeated his troops as general , conquered Baghdad in 813 and proclaimed al-Mamun as caliph. After Tahir was appointed governor in Khorasan in 820, he made himself independent in 821, although he continued to recognize the suzerainty of the Abbasids as caliph.
The Timurids (Persian:تيموريان Tīmūriyān ) were a Muslim dynasty of Mongol origin who ruled Central Asia from 1363 to 1506, with the centers of their rule in the territory of what is now Afghanistan, Iran and Uzbekistan.
The founder of the dynasty was Timur Lenk (1336-1405), who began with the Turkish Barlas Mongol tribe from 1363, in alliance with various rulers, with the subjugation of Transoxania. Generally recognized as ruler in Transoxania in 1370, he ruled in the name of the Chagatai khans , who were completely disempowered (until 1402/03).
The Trpimirović dynasty was a Croatian ruling dynasty that ruled Croatia with interruptions in the Middle Ages from 845 to 1091. The name comes from the first ruler of the dynasty, Prince Trpimir I. The most important ruler was Tomislav , the first king of Croatia (910–928).
House Tudor is the name of a Welsh family on the English royal throne from 1485 to 1603. The first English Tudor king, Henry VII , passed his claim to the throne through his mother Margaret Beaufort to King Edward III, who died in 1377 . Plantagenet back. Henry's father was Edmund Tudor , Earl of Richmond , son of Owen Tudor .
The Umayyads were a dynasty of caliphs who ruled Sunni Islam from 660 to 750. After their expulsion from the Orient they founded the Emirate of Córdoba in 756 . They were the first dynasty of caliphs not closely related to Mohammed. Like this, however, they came from the same tribe, the Quraish from Mecca. The dynasty is named after Muawiya's great-grandfather Umayya ibn Abd Shams.
Valois and its subsidiary lines Valois-Orléans and Valois-Angoulême are the names of a French ruling dynasty (royal house). It emerged from a branch line of the Capetians who named themselves after their main possession, the County of Valois .
The Vasa was a Swedish royal family from 1521 to 1654 and a Polish royal family between 1587 and 1668. The Swedish count's family Wasa presented with Gustav Eriksson, later Gustav I. Wasa , after the separation from Denmark the first king of Sweden to the Kalmar Union . He did not get the name Gustav Wasa until the 17th century; during his lifetime he was known as Gustaf Eriksson and King Jösta.
The Welfs - also known as the House of Hanover - were a Franconian noble family. The dynasty was named after the Frankish Count Welf I (819).
Guelphs ruled the Kingdom of Burgundy (888 to 1032), the Duchy of Carinthia (1047 to 1055), the Duchy of Bavaria (1070 to 1180), the Tribal Duchy of Saxony (from 1106) and the various successor duchies such as the Principality of Calenberg and the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (from 1235), the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1692 to 1814) and the Kingdom of Hanover (1814 to 1866).
Otto IV was also German King and Emperor (1198–1218)
They were kings of the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1715 to 1830) for five generations in personal union with Hanover.
The Anglo-Saxon kings of Wessex and later of all of England came from the House of Wessex . It was named after Wessex ("West Saxony"), once an Anglo-Saxon kingdom and today the landscape in the south and south-west of England which includes the old counties of Cornwall , Devon , Dorset , Gloucestershire , Oxfordshire , Somerset , Wiltshire , Berkshire and Hampshire .
The Wettin dynasty was one of the oldest German noble families. They were counts in several counties, margraves of Meissen and Lausitz, landgraves of Thuringia, as well as dukes, electors and kings of Saxony (1806–1918), kings of Poland (1696–1763), as well as kings of Portugal, Bulgaria, United Kingdom ( see Windsor) and Belgium.
The House of Windsor (from 1917) is the British royal family. Because of the domestic political pressure during the First World War with Germany ( First World War ), King George V changed the name Haus Sachsen-Coburg and Gotha, which had been German since 1840, to the current name Windsor on July 17, 1917 . It stands for the small English town of Windsor in the county of Berkshire, where Windsor Castle , the residence of the royal family, is located.
The Wittelsbacher , one of the oldest noble families in Bavaria and Germany, descended from the Luitpoldingern . Count Otto VIII von Scheyern (around 1117–1183) at the same time Count or Count Palatine of Wittelsbach and Count Palatine of Bavaria and finally Duke of Bavaria / Wittelsbach (from 1180) has given the dynasty its name since 1115. The Wittelsbach Castle in Oberwittelsbach, a district of Aichach , was the ancestral seat of the dynasty.
They were Counts (from 1014), Count Palatine , Margrave , Dukes of Bavaria, Zweibrücken , Jülich and Berg, Electors of the Palatinate , of Bavaria (1623–1777), Electors of Cologne (1583–1761), Electors of the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria ( 1777–1806) and kings of Bavaria (1806–1918), but also kings of Hungary (1305–1312), Sweden (1654–1720) and Greece (1832–1862) as well as three kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Xia Dynasty (Chin. 夏朝, Xiàcháo) is the first documented dynasty in Chinese history. It possibly existed between approx. 2200 BC. Until approx. 1800 BC The character 夏 xià means summer today.
The Yaruba dynasty was a dynasty of the Imams of Oman (1624–1743). Due to the high prestige of Nasir ibn Murshid, the office of imam became "hereditary" within a family for the first time in Omani history. Only members of the Yaruba clan were elected imams.
The Ynglinger or "Inglinger" were the oldest royal family in Sweden. Christianity found its way into the region under its second historically documented king, Olof Skötkonung.
The House of York is an English royal family that fought with the House of Lancaster for the English crown in the second half of the 15th century. Both the Yorks and the Lancasters were branch lines of the English royal family Plantagenet . Towards the end, the differences led to the War of the Roses . This war is so named because both houses have roses in their arms, the Yorks a white and the Lancasters a red. The founding of the House of York dates back to 1385 when the title of Duke of York was created for Edmund of Langley , the fifth son of King Edward III . Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York , was a grandson of the first Duke of York and laid claim to the English throne, which was then Henry VI. held.
Yuan Dynasty (Chinese 元朝, yuán cháo) is the Chinese name of the Mongolian imperial family ruling over China from 1279–1368. The dynasty was proclaimed in 1279 by Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan . Translated, 元 Yuán means " primal beginning ".
The Swabian dynasty of the Zähringers , which is related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty, has named itself after its castle Zähringen near Freiburg im Breisgau since the end of the 11th century . They were counts, margraves of Baden (1112–1918) and of Verona , dukes of Teck , of Zähringen and of Swabia.
Zand princes , dynasty of Lurian descent in Persia (1750–1794). After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747, power struggles broke out again in Persia. In this Karim Khan Zand (1750–1779) prevailed in southern Persia and built his residence in Shiraz .
The Zhou dynasty (周朝; Zhōu Cháo) is divided into a western dynasty with the capital Zongzhou / Hao (approx. 1122/1045–770 BC) and an eastern dynasty with the capital Chengzhou near Luoyang (770–256 BC) . Chr.) Divided. The dividing line is an incursion of nomads who killed King You in 771 and sacked the capital. The last Yin king Zhouxin (1154–1122 BC) was a tyrant. He lost many followers and had to deal with the Huai barbarians, which the Zhou prince Wen and his successor King Wu exploited to march into Henan.
The Ziyarids (also Sijarids ) are a Persian dynasty from 928-1090 in northern Iran or Tabaristan - today's Mazandaran province in Iran. The founder of the dynasty was Mardawi ibn Ziyar (928-935). With the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate in Tabaristan and Gilan , on the south coast of the Caspian Sea, he was able to establish an independent rule with the support of the Samanids. At times he also conquered Isfahan and Fars , but in 935 his troops became independent under the sons of General Abu Shudja Buyah and founded the Buyid dynasty.
Zrinski is the name of a Croatian-Hungarian noble family (1347–1670). It came from the Croatian family Šubić, who called themselves Counts of Zrin after the Zrin Castle near Zrin since 1347 . Four members of the dynasty were Bane of Croatia .
- Heinz Duchhardt : The dynastic marriage . Edited by the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2011.
- Torsten Riotte : Hanover in British Politics (1792-1815). Dynastic connection as an element of foreign policy decision-making processes. Münster 2005, ISBN 3-8258-7551-2 .
- Daniel Schönpflug: Dynastic Networks. In: European History Online . ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2010 Accessed on: June 14, 2012.
- Greece: The Burden with the Dynasties. on: focus.de , July 4, 2010.