Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg

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Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) .svg
Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
coat of arms
Coat of Arms of George I Louis, Elector of Hanover (1708-1714) .svg
Map of the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg / Hanover 1789
The Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg or Electorate of Hanover, 1789
Alternative names Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg,
Electorate of Hanover, Churhannover, Kurhannover, Hanover
Arose from Principality of Calenberg (until 1692)
Form of rule Electorate
Ruler / government Elector
Today's region / s DE-NI , DE-SH , DE-ST
Parliament Electoral council ; Imperial Council , secular Bank : up to seven Virilstimmen for themselves and the principalities of Calenberg , Lüneburg (from 1705) and Grubenhagen (1707-1735 awarded) and the duchies of Saxe-Lauenburg , Bremen and Verden (1715); Part of a Kuriatstimme ( Lower Rhine-Westphalia College Count ) u. a. for the counties of Hoya (since 1582), Diepholz and Bentheim
Reich register different principalities see above
Reichskreis Lower Saxony , Lower Rhine-Westphalian (for Hoya and Verden)
Capitals / residences Hanover , Herrenhausen , London
Dynasties Guelphs
Denomination / Religions Lutheran
Language / n Low German , German

Incorporated into Kingdom of Westphalia (1807, Peace of Tilsit ); Kingdom of Hanover (1814, legal successor )

The Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (also Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg ), unofficially also known as the Electorate of Hanover ( Chur-Hanover , Kurhannover or Hanover ), was the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1692 . Until the personal union with Great Britain in 1714, Hanover was the administrative center and royal seat . The motto was Nec aspera terrent ("Even adversity does not frighten"). The electorate emerged from the Principality of Calenberg of the Duchy of Braunschweig and Lüneburg . It ended in 1810 with the annexation to the Kingdom of Westphalia and after the Congress of Vienna in 1814, when the Kingdom of Hanover was created from the former Electorate .


The electorate was in the area of ​​today's Lower Saxony , small parts in the area of ​​today's Saxony-Anhalt ( Office Calvörde and Blankenburg). It comprised the following territories of the Holy Roman Empire : Principality of Calenberg , Principality of Grubenhagen , County of Hoya , Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg , Principality of Lüneburg (from 1705), the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden (from 1715). Calenberg, Grubenhagen and Lüneburg were nominally partial principalities of the medieval duchy of Braunschweig and Lüneburg . (The princes of the independent principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel also called themselves dukes of Braunschweig and Lüneburg.) Originally, the electorate was a purely inland area. Only with the acquisition of the Duchy of Bremen could Kurhannover expand to the North Sea. The majority of the electorate belonged to the Lower Saxony Empire . The County of Hoya and the Duchy of Verden were part of the Lower Rhine-Westphalian Empire .



After the death of his brother Johann Friedrich , Ernst August inherited the Principality of Calenberg in 1679 . Ernst August's most important political goal was to acquire electoral dignity for his house in Calenberg. Since 1689, therefore, he led negotiations with Emperor Leopold I . As early as 1682, Ernst August had proclaimed the right of primogeniture for his country , which was a prerequisite for obtaining the electoral dignity. According to this regulation, the eldest son, Georg Ludwig , was to become the sole heir of the Guelph principalities of Calenberg and Grubenhagen. An inheritance contract with his older brother, Duke Georg Wilhelm of Celle , also ensured that after his death, the Principality of Lüneburg would also fall to the Welfs who lived in Hanover. The state budget was also brought into balance and the entire administration was headed by the Prince's cabinet with the help of less familiar ministers, Franz-Ernst Graf von Platen and Otto Grote zu Schauen . As the supreme advisory and controlling authority, the prince was supported by the once more prestigious Secret Council . Under this there were the various administrative colleges, the chancellery , mainly for legal matters, the chamber for finance, the consistory and the war council , all with strictly separate departments.

Obtaining the electoral title

Copper engraving of the Electorate by Hermann Moll (1722)

In 1692 the emperor created the new (ninth) cure of the Holy Roman Empire . The line of Guelphs ruling in the Principality of Calenberg was awarded this ninth electoral dignity. This was made possible by a contract between the Roman-German Emperor and the two lines of the House of Lüneburg, according to which an eternal union between the Houses of Habsburg and Lüneburg should take place against the granting of the electoral dignity to the House of Hanover with the possible participation of Celle. For all future royal elections , the Hanoverian Guelphs firmly agreed to the election of the Habsburg firstborn. In addition to Otto Grote, the Brunswick ambassador to the imperial court in Vienna Johann Christoph von Limbach , who was then appointed envoy of the new electorate to the Reichstag in Regensburg, was involved in the lengthy negotiations . There Limbach was supposed to get the approval of the Reichstag to the treaty, which - according to the inscription on his grave monument in the ambassador's cemetery - cost him a lot of effort and diligence for 16 years . The Reichstag only approved the survey in 1708, two years before Limbach's death. Colloquially, the new Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg was also known as the Electorate of Hanover, or Kurhannover for short .

The investiture with the Electorate came not only at the Reichstag with resistance, she also had confrontations with the of Brunswick-wolfenbüttel rule line of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg result. The two Wolfenbüttel Princes of the Guelphs, the brothers Rudolf August and Anton Ulrich , who ruled together until 1704 , found the elevation of the Calenberg line in Hanover to be intolerable, because it gave the younger Hanover line the electoral dignity despite being a senior citizen. The seniorate was introduced by the dukes Bernhard and Heinrich in 1414. In 1555 it was confirmed by Emperor Charles V and then by his successor . When all protests went unheard, they joined forces with other German princes in Nuremberg in 1700 to form the “League of Corresponding Princes”. If necessary, one wanted to prevent Hanover's cure increase by force of arms. Anton Ulrich was excluded from co-regency by an imperial mandate on February 8, 1702 as a punishment for his alliance with France (see Zwietrachttaler ). In the same year, Georg Wilhelm and Georg Ludwig took the Wolfenbüttel princes by surprise with the help of the emperor and forced them to recognize their electoral dignity in 1706.

Establishment of the personal union with Great Britain

Territorial structure of the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and dynastic relationships within the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and the Kingdom of Great Britain

Georg Ludwig , Ernst August's successor since January 23, 1698, inherited the Principality of Lüneburg in 1705 after the death of his uncle Georg Wilhelm . With the exception of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , all of the lands of the House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg were in the hands of the Hanoverian line of the Guelphs.

After the death of Queen Anne Stuart of Great Britain , who left no heirs, the Elector inherited the British royal crown in 1714. According to the Settlement Act of 1701, the crown fell to the closest Protestant relatives, i.e. to the House of Hanover. Through this personal union, Georg connected Great Britain with the German Electorate, which became one of the most powerful in the Holy Roman Empire. The personal union only ended in 1837 with the accession to the throne of Queen Victoria , since in Hanover (which had meanwhile been elevated to a kingdom) only male descendants could inherit the throne. Hence the rule passed to Victoria's uncle, Ernst August , Duke of Cumberland .

Most of the government of George Ludwig was filled by two major wars (the War of the Spanish Succession and the War of the North ), in which George played a strong role as both elector and king. His military engagement ended with a considerable expansion of his countries.

The union with Great Britain turned Kurhannover into a secondary country , whose nobility took advantage of freedoms in the absence of the regent. In economic terms, the country benefited from new trade relations. The very agrarian country produced far more products than it needed for its own use, and found a buyer for its surpluses in the British Empire. The emerging industry of Great Britain was able to supply the electorate with missing goods in return. Although Kurhannover was practically a satellite of Great Britain in political terms during the 18th century, the reputation and importance of the country in the empire rose considerably as a result of this connection. In internal German affairs it was the third size behind Habsburg and Brandenburg-Prussia.

George I's government was important in every respect for the Kurdish-Brunswick-Lüneburg lands, as they were officially called since 1705. Returning from the campaign on the Rhine (end of 1709), the elector turned his full attention to the Northern War battles that were also waged on his borders. The defensive and offensive alliance against Charles XII planned with Denmark (1712) . of Sweden did not come about. Nevertheless, the militarily well armed Kur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg was ready to intervene at the appropriate moment to conquer the rich duchies of Bremen and Verden, which had been unsuccessful in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, to round off their territorial possessions. In the meantime, the elector contented himself with taking the Protestants in the monasteries of Münster , Paderborn and Hildesheim under his protection, while on the other hand he granted the Catholics in his countries complete freedom of belief. Hildesheim was briefly occupied by the military. The British Queen Anna of the House of Stuart died on October 1, 1714 . The elector moved from Hanover to London , but this did not lead to any direct constitutional change in the electorate. Only gradually did it become apparent that the governor and the Privy Council were henceforth the real rulers. The Secret Council kept the actual government of the country in hand (on condition of regular reports to the distant sovereign). The income from the domains and the taxes had temporarily produced surpluses even during the splendid court rulings of the last generation of princes. Despite relatively high expenses for the civil servants, the standing army and the court that still existed in Hanover, considerable amounts went into the coffers of the elector-king and enabled the establishment of a significant household treasure.

Meanwhile, the persistence of Charles XII. of Sweden, the threatened proximity of the Russian troops in Mecklenburg and the fear that the Northern War would seize all of Lower Germany and ultimately only help the Tsar, a rapprochement between the Danish King Frederick IV and Kur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg and the other interested Germans Princes. This led to the Brunswick Congress at the beginning of 1712 to agree on the Nordic peace treaties and a year later to an offensive and defensive alliance between Denmark and Kur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg with mutual guarantee. Denmark ensured that the Swedish duchies of Bremen and Verden, which were then under Danish administration, would remain near Kurhannover. On the other hand, the permanent connection between Schleswig and Denmark should be guaranteed. The Stockholm Treaty (November 1719), in which Sweden paid a million Reichstaler, granted a final security in the possession of the duchies of Bremen (not the Free Imperial City of Bremen ) and Verden , who were valuable because of their rich income (a quarter of a million Reichstaler annually ) ceded his right to the duchies to the electorate. The imperial enfeoffment with the same, in which Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel was included, did not take place until 1733.

In the 1720s, Georg I thwarted the Habsburgs' plans against France by concluding the “Hanoverian Alliance” with the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I in Herrenhausen to maintain the existing legal status.

George II and George III.

With his father Georg I. the u. a. the gun lock manufacturer Linden with initiated, shared his son George II., the preference for the German home country, where he drank. With his cousin and brother-in-law Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia , he was consistently in a very awkward relationship due to personal antipathy and mutual rivalry. The preference of the Prussian king for the "tall guys" and the recklessness of his recruiting officers in Hanover, which was associated with this, led to a serious entanglement in 1731. The armies of the two princes were already standing ready to fight at the border, but through the mediation of the Dukes of Gotha and Braunschweig, a war was prevented at the last moment.

1/6 thaler Georg II. 1737 for the inauguration of the University of Göttingen on September 17, 1737 1/6 thaler Georg II. 1737 for the inauguration of the University of Göttingen on September 17, 1737
1/6 thaler Georg II. 1737 for the inauguration of the University of Göttingen on September 17, 1737

In 1737, Georg II founded the University of Göttingen , which, thanks to the efforts of the Minister von Münchhausen, soon attracted Germany's most distinguished scholars and a large number of students.

As elector of the empire and guarantor of the pragmatic sanction , George II stood on the side of Maria Theresa during the Austrian War of Succession from 1741 to 1748. In the Battle of Dettingen (June 27, 1743) he achieved the last victory that a British king himself achieved at the head of his troops. The Seven Years' War hit Kurhannover hard as one of the main combat areas. The union of Austria with the old enemy France had reversed the political situation and led Hanover in the wake of Great Britain to the union with Frederick II of Prussia . In the first few years the Prussian-British armed forces were mostly in a bad position. The great military skill of Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , which the Prussian king willingly left to his ally as Commander in Chief of the Allied Army, could not fully compensate for the losses of the first two years, especially the defeat of the Duke of Cumberland near Hastenbeck (1757) and the subsequent convention of Kloster Zeven , which left the whole country to the French for a year.

George II's successor was his grandson George III in 1760 . (1760-1820). The nature of government did not change under the new regent; however, the governor and the secret council were able to act more independently because the king-elector remained permanently in England, the country of his birth, where he of course set up a standing cabinet for the Kurlande. Until the French Revolution there was peace in the Electorate (and all of Germany). It was only after the War of the Bavarian Succession that Kurhannover began to participate more actively in domestic German politics, this time in accordance with Prussian politics and against Josephine expansionist efforts. The Habsburg Monarchy wanted to annex Bavaria, which would mean an overthrow of the internal political balance of power and would have endangered Catholic and Protestant, large and small princes alike. George III came as most princes in 1785 to that of Frederick II. of Prussia founded League of Princes in whose statutes have been added to agreement Prussia, Kurhannovers and Electoral Saxony two only for these three contractors binding secret separate article. In the event of a war, these provided for mutual support and joint measures in order to destroy the intention of the emperor, who sought to bring the members of his House of Habsburg into the coadjutorships of all important ecclesiastical imperial estates .

Coalition Wars and End of the Electorate

Hanover did not take part directly in the struggle against the French Revolution . However, the King of Great Britain was given a 16,000-strong corps under the leadership of Field Marshal Freytag, who fought until it was sent back home when the main British army withdrew. The conclusion of the Basle Peace by Prussia (1795) and the line of demarcation agreed therein saved Hanover from the invasions of the French.

The next decade was full of friction between Hanover and Prussia and, precisely because of its connection with Great Britain, which did not want to abide by the Peace of Lunéville (February 9, 1801), but continued the war for twelve months longer, put Hanover in an awkward position . Although Hanover received the Osnabrück bishopric in the aforementioned peace , Napoleon was already planning Hanover's downfall in such a way that Prussia, which held back against Napoleon, should also be involved. Napoleon demanded in the years 1796-1801 Friedrich Wilhelm III. three times to occupy Kurhannover because of violation of the provisions of the Basel Peace and to cover against Great Britain. In the end, the Prussian king thought it best to obey the invitation, as Russia tried to forestall him. In view of the balance of power, a defense of the country did not seem advisable, so the Prussian General von Kleist occupied Hanover with 24,000 men. This occupation had to be maintained by the occupied themselves for a year, until the Peace of Amiens on March 27, 1802.

The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of February 1803 confirmed Kurhannover in possession of Osnabrück; however, it was unable to assert its simultaneous claim to the likewise secularized prince-bishopric of Hildesheim against competing Prussia.

With the resumption of war by Great Britain in 1803 disaster struck the electorate. Both the king and his then cabinet minister von Lenthe assessed the situation completely wrong. The army, headed by Field Marshal Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn , a righteous, personally brave but overwhelmed man, was weakened and demoralized. Wallmoden felt compelled to conclude a convention on June 3, 1803 in Sulingen with General Édouard Adolphe Mortier , who was advancing from the Weser towards Hanover with a French army. Without a fight, the Hanoverian army, which was still around 16,000 men strong, declared itself defeated against a no stronger enemy and signed the condition that it would remain in voluntary internment across the Elbe, in Lauenburg, for the duration of the war. In accordance with his frequent practice, Napoleon refused to ratify the convention on a vain pretext, and so the French general dictated the following conditions to the unfortunate Wallmoden in the Artlenburg an der Elbe convention (July 5, 1803): The Hanoverian army will be disarmed and dissolved ; Ammunition and horses are given to the winner; the whole country remains under French administration.

Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte , who later became King of Sweden and Norway, was the French governor here from May 14, 1804 for several months. As a result of the Treaty of Paris signed by Christian von Haugwitz with Napoleon on February 15, 1806, Prussia was urged to occupy Hanover, which resulted in a declaration of war on the part of Great Britain. In 1807 and 1810, respectively, Hanover finally became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia , which was ruled by Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme . The north-west of the electorate became part of the French Empire in 1811 as part of the Hanseatic departments .

At the Congress of Vienna on October 12, 1814, the newly formed electorate declared itself the Kingdom of Hanover .

State and administration

With the acquisition of the electoral dignity, the state structure of the territory also developed. In addition to modern administrative structures, old corporate forms of organization continued to have an effect. In the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, too, there was a strong dualism between the sovereign and the estates. The elector was increasingly dependent on a central administration - especially as King of Great Britain - without wanting to question the estates in up to seven different regions. The basis for the electoral government was the government regulation of 1714, which was based on the regulation of 1680 laid down by Ernst August von Calenberg.


Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
House of Hanover
Surname Domination Remarks
Ernst August 1692-1698 Son of Georg von Braunschweig and Lüneburg-Calenberg
Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, King of Great Britain and Ireland
With the Act of Settlement of 1701, the succession to the throne was restricted to Protestants. Sophie von der Pfalz , the closest Protestant relative, therefore became heir to the throne. She died shortly before Queen Anne. For this reason, her son succeeded the throne that founded the House of Hanover.
George I (George I) 1698 / 1714-1727 Son of Ernst August and great-grandson of James I .
George II (George II) 1727-1760 Son of Georg I.
George III (George III) 1760-1820 Grandson of George II
Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg


Based on the territorial fragmentation of the nominally still existing Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and adjacent principalities, the electorate was able to gradually unite a large number of landscapes with the respective estates . During the greatest territorial expansion of the electorate there were seven landscapes. Due to the elector's distance from government, who increasingly ruled in London , the estates were able to develop a life of their own. The interweaving of the higher nobility with the court and high administrative and military positions, however, reduced conflicts.


In 1714, regulations divided the state government into five central authorities: a secret council, chamber, judicial office, consistory and war chancellery. The so-called " German Chancellery " formed the liaison office between Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg and the British government in London.

The electoral dignity meant that the territory was no longer subject to imperial jurisdiction. The Higher Appeal Court in Celle was therefore established as the highest court in 1711 .


The origins of the electoral Hanoverian army are generally set to the year 1617 for the principalities of Grubenhagen and Calenberg. But it was not until the Thirty Years' War that a standing army developed. In 1705, the electoral troops were expanded with regiments from the Principality of Lüneburg / Celle. Especially as part of the Imperial Army on the imperial side, electoral Hanoverian troops fought in various wars, for example in the Great Turkish War 1685–1699 and in the Spanish , Polish and Austrian War of Succession.

Due to the close ties to the British army of the king and elector, Hanoverian troops often fought alongside British troops. In the Seven Years War (1756–1763) there was an alliance alongside Hanoverian and British troops from Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Hessen-Kassel and Prussian troops. In the run-up to the American War of Independence , Kurhannovian troops replaced the British troops on Menorca and Gibraltar that had moved overseas in 1775 . The Hanoverian troops in Gibraltar successfully defended the positions against Spanish attacks. Hanoverian troops also took part in the British war against France in the East Indies (1782–1792). Also under British pay, electoral troops participated in the First Coalition War (1792–1797) against revolutionary France (1793–1795). The electorate's army was disbanded in 1803, but a large part of the officers and soldiers went to Great Britain and were re-established there as the King's German Legion . It was the only German troop that was continuously fighting the French army and took part in the battles on the Iberian Peninsula , in northern Germany ( Göhrde ) and Copenhagen . In the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 they defended the important outpost of La Haye Sainte .

Between 1764 and 1784, officers of the Hanoverian engineering corps compiled the Kurhannoversche land survey , the first extensive cartographic land survey of the electorate.

See also


  • Heide Barmeyer (ed.): Hanover and the English succession to the throne (= Hanoverian writings on regional and local history , Volume 19). Bielefeld 2005.
  • Richard Drögereit : Sources on the history of Kurhannovers in the age of personal union with England 1714–1803 ( source books on the history of Lower Saxony ). Hildesheim 1949.
  • Wilhelm Havemann: History of the Lands Braunschweig and Lüneburg . Volume 3, Göttingen 1857.
  • William von Hassell : The Electorate of Hanover from Peace to the Prussian Occupation in 1806. According to archival and historical sources . Meyer, Hanover 1894.
  • Joachim Niemeyer, Georg Ortenburg (ed.): The Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg Army in the Seven Years War . In: The “Gmunden magnificent work” . Beckum 1976.
  • Torsten Riotte : Hanover in British Politics, 1792–1815. Dynastic connection as an element of foreign policy decision-making processes (= Historia profana et ecclesiastica , Volume 13). LIT Verlag, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-8258-7551-2 .
  • Torsten Riotte, B. Simms (Ed.): The Hanoverian Dimension in British History . Cambridge University Press , Cambridge 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-84222-8 .
  • Christoph Barthold Scharf : The political state of the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg including the duchies belonging to it, and counties in which its cities, towns, villages, aristocratic Güther, and individual courts according to their judicial authorities and parishes, compiled from private messages and designed in alphabetical order . Lauenburg 1777 ( digitized version ).
  • Georg Schnath : History of Hanover in the age of the ninth cure and the English succession 1674–1714 (= publications of the Historical Commission of Hanover , Volume XVIII). Hildesheim 1938.
  • [Felix] Schütz von Brandis: Overview of the history of the Hanoverian army from 1617 to 1866. From a Hanoverian hunter (= sources and representations on the history of Lower Saxony , Volume 14). Edited by J [ohann Karl Hermann] Freiherr von Reitzenstein. Hanover and Leipzig 1903. Reprint: LTR-Verlag, Buchholz-Sprötze 1998.
  • Wilhelm von Wersebe: History of the Hanoverian Army . Hanover 1928 ( digitized ).
  • Hanoverian Chur dignity. In: Johann Heinrich Zedler : Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 12, Leipzig 1735, column 482 f.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. So on the flags of the Kur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg army and the Braunschweig state coat of arms: Nec aspera terrent on zeno.org or from Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon , Volume 2. Fifth Edition, Leipzig 1911, p. 251.
  2. See Havemann, Geschichte der Lande Braunschweig and Lüneburg , Volume 3, Göttingen 1857, p. 322 ff. ( Google Books ).
  3. ^ Albrecht Klose / Klaus-Peter Rueß: The grave inscriptions on the ambassador's cemetery in Regensburg. Texts, translations, biographies, historical notes . In: Stadtarchiv Regensburg (ed.): Regensburger studies . tape 22 . Regensburg City Archives, Regensburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-943222-13-5 , p. 58-60 .
  4. ^ Johann David Köhler: Historischer Münz-Amustigung Volume 16, 41. 42nd piece, p. 326
  5. See Drögereit 1949, Barmeyer 2005.
  6. The Danish-Swedish struggle affected part of Lower Germany. The duchies of Bremen , Verden and Western Pomerania were still in Swedish ownership.
  7. The first governor was the general of the cavalry von Bülow .
  8. ^ Carl Ludolf Friedrich Lachmann : History of the City of Braunschweig, from its creation to the end of 1815 , Ludwig Lucius, Braunschweig 1816, p. 247
  9. ^ Karl Otmar von Aretin : From the German Empire to the German Confederation . Page 103 , ISBN 978-3-525-33583-3 , accessed on February 14, 2009.
  10. See Reg. 1714: Drögereit 1949, pp. 5–15; Regarding the regulations of 1680: Schnath 1938, pp. 686–694.
  11. See Drögereit 1949, p. 5.
  12. ^ Schütz von Brandis, Overview of the History of the Hanoverian Army from 1617 to 1866 .
  13. See Wersebe, 1928, pp. 208 ff.
  14. ^ Niemeyer / Ortenburg 1976: 47
  15. Peter Hofschröer: The Hanoverian Army of the Napoleonic Wars . Osprey, 1989, p. 11 ( online ).