Johann Friedrich (Braunschweig-Calenberg)

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Johann Friedrich von Braunschweig-Calenberg (around 1670)

Johann Friedrich , Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (born April 25, 1625 at Herzberg Castle in Herzberg am Harz , † December 28, 1679 in Augsburg ) from the House of Welfs was Prince of Lüneburg for a short time in 1665 and Prince of from 1665 to 1679 Calenberg with the residence in Hanover . He made Herrenhausen his summer residence and brought the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Niels Stensen to his court in Hanover.


Johann Friedrich von Braunschweig-Calenberg

Born the third son of Duke Georg von Calenberg , Johann Friedrich undertook numerous educational trips through France and Italy , where he converted to Catholicism in Assisi in 1651 .

When his brother Christian Ludwig died in 1665, he tried to take over the reign of the Principality of Lüneburg in Celle , which was actually due to his older brother Georg Wilhelm . After negotiations that lasted half a year, Johann Friedrich was content with the principality of Calenberg, which was expanded to include Grubenhagen and Göttingen , and in 1665 took office in Hanover.

In 1666 he made the village of Haringehusen his summer residence under the name of Herrenhausen , provided the first simple castle construction and began to lay out the Great Garden . The layout of the zoo in Kirchrode can also be traced back to his initiative. The castle church in the Leineschloss was consecrated according to the Roman rite , and Johann Friedrich brought Capuchins to Hanover. In 1674 he introduced an official order , which was only replaced by the Westphalian administrative structure in 1808 . In 1676 he appointed the then 30-year-old scholar and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz to his court as court historiographer and librarian. The founding of the later Royal Library, today's Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library , also goes back to him . Johann Friedrich financed his lavish style of government with French support funds.

On the way to his fifth stay in Italy, Johann Friedrich died in Augsburg and was buried in Hanover in 1680 with a pompous state funeral. Then his younger brother Ernst August came to power in Hanover.

One of 60 engravings by the copper engraver
Johann Georg Lange, who was called by Leibniz from Hamburg, to document the corpse procession for Duke Johann Friedrich, who was buried on April 21, 1680 in the princely crypt in the Leineschloss in Hanover; from: IIusta Funebria Serenissimo Principi Joanni Friderico Brunsvicensium Et Luneburge ... , Rinteln: Gottfried Kaspar Wächter, 1685; Provenance : Otto Grote zu Schauen , Helmstedt University and Herzog August Library ; auctioned at Christie's around 2010
1/4 Sterbethaler Johann Friedrich 1679: 5-fold helmeted coat of arms of the Welfs / Biographical data in 13 lines (Welter 1779) 1/4 Sterbethaler Johann Friedrich 1679: 5-fold helmeted coat of arms of the Welfs / Biographical data in 13 lines (Welter 1779)
1/4 Sterbethaler Johann Friedrich 1679:
5-fold helmeted coat of arms of the Welfs / Biographical data in 13 lines ( Welter 1779)

After the Second World War , Johann Friedrich's sarcophagus was transferred from the Leineschloss to the Guelph mausoleum in the mountain garden of Herrenhausen .


His marriage to Benedicta Henriette von der Pfalz , daughter of Count Palatine Eduard von der Pfalz, who converted to Catholicism in 1645, and his Italian wife Anna Gonzaga , had four daughters:

  1. Anne Sophie (1670–1672)
  2. Charlotte Felicitas (1671–1710) ∞ Rinaldo d'Este (1655–1737), Duke of Modena and Reggio
  3. Henriette Marie (1672–1757)
  4. Wilhelmine Amalie (1673–1742) ∞ Emperor Joseph I (1678–1711)


Web links

Commons : Johann Friedrich (Braunschweig-Calenberg)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Karl Dietrich Hüllmann: History of the use of domains in Germany. 1807, p. 55.
  2. Helmut Knocke , Hugo Thielen : Mausoleum. In: Hanover Art and Culture Lexicon . P. 92.
predecessor Office successor
Christian Ludwig Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg,
Prince of Lüneburg

Georg Wilhelm
Georg Wilhelm Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg,
Prince of Calenberg

Ernst August