Duke August Library
|Duke August Library|
Main building of the Herzog August Library
|Duration||around 1,000,000 media units|
|Library type||Research and study center for European cultural history|
|ISIL||DE-23 (Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel)|
The Herzog August Library ( HAB for short , official name Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel ) in Wolfenbüttel ( Lower Saxony ) - also known under the name Bibliotheca Augusta - is an internationally known library . Because of its important holdings from the Middle Ages and the early modern period , it is an important research center for the culture of this time. The research is funded through international scholarship programs. Scientific conferences, cultural events and exhibitions of national importance are organized.
The HAB is a member of the Working Group for the Collection of German Prints , which consists of six German libraries and forms a decentralized national library for Germany. As part of this project, the HAB is responsible for the collection of German prints from the 17th century. Due to its old holdings, the library was also intensively involved in the preparation of the retrospective national bibliographies VD 16 and VD 17 .
It is directly subordinate to the Lower Saxony Ministry for Science and Culture , which has the work of the HAB accompanied by an international scientific advisory board. Peter Burschel has been the director of the library since 2016 .
An outstanding single work kept in the HAB is the Gospel Book of Heinrich the Lion (created between 1174 and 1189, most likely 1188).
The Bibliotheca Julia
In the 17th century, the Herzog August Library was the largest library north of the Alps and was called the eighth wonder of the world .
The Ducal Library was founded in the royal seat of Wolfenbüttel by Duke Julius zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1528–1589), who began collecting books around 1550 while studying in France. After buying some romances of chivalry and study literature he earned from 1558 theological writings, and in 1567 the first time a large closed collection: the library of the Nuremberg City Counsel Michael Kaden (. † between December 15th 1540/9 March 1541), the legal primarily and contained humanistic writings. 1570–1572, the libraries of the monasteries Dorstadt , Wöltingerode , Heiningen and Steterburg were transferred to Wolfenbüttel as part of the introduction of the Reformation in the duchy .
On April 5, 1572, Julius issued the first Liberey Ordinance , which is also the official founding document of the Wolfenbüttel library. As early as 1571, the Duke had entrusted the church musician Leonhart Schröter with library duties for the administration. Schröter is therefore considered to be the first Wolfenbüttel librarian. The collection of the Bibliotheca Julia received new growth in 1578 through the purchase of a larger collection of manuscripts from the estate of the theologian Johannes Aurifaber, who died three years earlier, and from the inheritance of Sophia Jagiellonica and the illegitimate son of Erich II.
After Julius' death in 1589, his son Heinrich Julius took over the library with the reign. He expanded it to include the estate of the theologian Matthias Flacius and the collections of the Georgenberg monasteries near Goslar , Brunshausen and Hamersleben .
However , in 1618, just a few years after taking office, the subsequent Duke Friedrich Ulrich handed over the entire collection, which now includes around 5,000 manuscripts and prints, to the Helmstedt University Library . In 1810, after the university closed, large parts of the holdings were returned to Wolfenbüttel.
The Bibliotheca Augusta
The legendary reputation of the library was founded in particular by the educated and well-traveled Duke August the Younger (1579–1666), who had been an avid book collector since his youth. In 1611 he already owned more than 6000 books on his farm in Hitzacker , which he recorded in a first alphabetical catalog and stored in his own library building. In 1625, the size of his collection made it necessary to assign signatures and to compile the famous book wheel catalog in six volumes . August divided his holdings into 20 subject groups ( Theologica , Juridica , Historica, etc.), into which he also classified new acquisitions.
It was not until 1635 that August, who, coming from a branch of the Welfen dynasty, was not actually intended for the role of regent, due to the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War and the extinction of the Wolfenbüttel line in his mature manhood, became Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . In the spring of 1636, by order of the Duke, the library was moved to Wolfenbüttel because of the dangerous war situation. She was saved from the later attack by Swedish soldiers on Hitzacker. At this point in time, the collection already comprised over 13,000 volumes. As ruler of Wolfenbüttel Castle , which he could only move into in 1643 after the imperial troops had withdrawn, he continued his systematic collecting activity and employed book agents throughout Europe who bought books for him and sent them to Wolfenbüttel. However, the Duke did not acquire any closed collections, but only individual titles in order to specifically supplement his library, which he had set up in the royal stables . In addition, it was expanded through numerous donations and bequests during August's lifetime. When the Duke died, the library was one of the most extensive book collections of this era with 135,000 titles in 35,000 volumes.
The library after Duke August
From 1691 to 1716, the universal scholar Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz took on the post of librarian on a part-time basis. However, he kept his residence in Hanover and only occasionally traveled to Wolfenbüttel. Leibniz created the first alphabetical catalog, increased the holdings again (including the Gudische manuscripts) and probably also suggested the construction of a new library building. This so-called rotunda was built from 1706 to 1710 as the first independent secular library building in Europe at the instigation of Duke Anton Ulrich by the master builder Hermann Korb . On the roof she carried a gilded celestial globe, which symbolized the all-encompassing character of the sciences. For static reasons, however, the globe was later removed.
From 1737 onwards, numerous larger private libraries of scholars were added to the Wolfenbüttel collection through their wills, which together comprised around 60,000 writings. These included the holdings of the monastery Zur Ehre Gottes from Wolfenbüttel as well as the humanistic library of the Herzogliche Technische Hochschule Carolo-Wilhelmina Braunschweig acquired in 1891 .
The library also received around 36,000 volumes and hundreds of valuable manuscripts from 1752 through donations from the private property of the members of the royal family, including in particular the very extensive collection of Duke Ludwig Rudolf , which he had kept at Blankenburg Castle until his death . The library's biblical collection is based on the collection of Duchess Elisabeth Sophie Marie , who in 1764 had her library of around 4,900 volumes, including around 1,200 Bibles, set up in Braunschweig Castle , brought to Wolfenbüttel.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing worked in Wolfenbüttel from 1770 until his death in 1781, through whom the city became a center of the Enlightenment . It is thanks to Lessing that numerous treasures that were hidden in the library came to the light of the public, including, for example, the only manuscript of Berengar's main work : Rescriptum contra Lanfrancum and the family tree of the sons of Adam Tarich Beni Adam . The poet wrote his last work, Nathan the Wise , at this time and went on numerous trips, leaving the actual library business to his employees. The house in which he spent the last years of his life bears his name.
1806/07 which brought French occupation 355 precious manuscripts, block books and incunabula of the library to the National Library of France to Paris . The selection of the works was made by Dominique-Vivant Denon , General Director of the Musée Napoléon , and the removal was carried out by the Imperial War Commissioner Stendhal . A short time later there were plans in the Kingdom of Westphalia to close the library and distribute its holdings to several universities. After the end of Napoleonic rule, however, these plans were not implemented. In December 1815, the stolen works were returned, but some items, including a 36-line Gutenberg Bible , a Biblia Pauperum and a large number of manuscripts, remained in France. Instead of the precious 36-line Bible, another, incomplete copy was returned. The library also received a large part of the collection of the Helmstedt University Library after the university was closed in 1810. In the meantime, the basis of the Bibliotheca Iulia had been greatly expanded there. Some prints were given to the Göttingen State and University Library and the Marburg University Library . This included another Gutenberg Bible from the former Wolfenbüttel inventory: a 42-line copy that has been in Göttingen since then.
After the rotunda had become increasingly dilapidated in the following decades , the architect Gustav Bohnsack built the new neo-baroque building between 1881 and 1886 , which still serves as the main library building. In 1887 all the books were transferred there and the rotunda was torn down.
The library from the 20th century
From 1919 to 1926 the ducal library was the state library of the Free State of Braunschweig . During this time, especially under Heinrich Schneider , it experienced a new upswing by opening it up to a wider audience and improving the layout and catalog. However, after the library was transferred to the Museum and Library Foundation of House and State Braunschweig in 1927 , the facility was little frequented for a long time. The library in remote Wolfenbüttel survived the Second World War with almost no loss or damage; the most important holdings were moved to the Grasleben shaft . During their repatriation after the end of the war, the library was closed for two years.
After the state of Lower Saxony was founded, the institution became a state library again in 1950, now under the direction of Erhart Kästner , who among other things founded the collection of painters' books and had the main building rebuilt by the Brunswick architect Friedrich Wilhelm Kraemer in the mid-1960s .
From 1968 the expansion and opening of the Herzog August Library began to become a European study and research facility for the Middle Ages and the early modern period . This achievement is linked to the name of the library director Paul Raabe . A scholarship and research program, a publications department and a student program have been set up. Gradually, other buildings were included in the library, so that a library quarter was created.
Among the numerous well-known users was the European-Canadian philosopher Raymond Klibansky , who was a regular guest in Wolfenbüttel until 1996.
Librarians and Directors of the Library
|Term of office||Name and dates of life||comment|
|Old Library (founded by Duke Julius in 1572)|
|1571-1572||Leonhart Schröter (around 1532 – around 1601)|
|1572-1575||Lucas Weyschner (1550 / 55–1609)|
|…… –1599||Thomas Mancinus (1550 – around 1612)||1587–1604 court musician in Wolfenbüttel|
|1600-1610||Johann Adam Lonicerus (1557– after 1609)|
|1611-1611 / 12||Thomas Mancinus|
|1612-1618||Liborius Otho||then the library moves to the University of Helmstedt|
|New library (1604–1644 in Hitzacker , since 1644 in Wolfenbüttel)|
|1604-1666||Duke August the Younger (1579–1666)|
|1666-1681||David Hanisius (1630 / 1635–1681)|
|1682-1685||Michael Ritthaler (1641–1685)|
|1685-1690||Kaspar Adam Stenger (1649-1690)|
|1691-1716||Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716)|
|1716-1737||Lorenz Hertel (1659-1737)|
|1738-1752||Jakob Burckhard (1681–1752)|
|1751-1770||Georg Septimus Andreas von Praun (1701–1786)|
|1770-1781||Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729–1781)|
|1781-1820||Ernst Theodor Langer|
|1820-1823||Friedrich Christoph Wäterling (1743-1833)||executive|
|1823-1825||Friedrich Adolf Ebert (1791–1834)|
|1825-1827||Friedrich Christoph Waterling||executive|
|1827-1830||Gebhard Friedrich Eigner (1776–1866)|
|1830-1854||Karl Philipp Christian Schönemann (1801–1855)|
|1854-1867||Ludwig Konrad Bethmann (1812–1867)|
|1868-1904||Otto von Heinemann (1824–1904)|
|1904-1919||Gustav Milchsack (1850-1919)|
|1920||Paul Zimmermann (1854–1933)||executive|
|1921-1923||Otto Lerche (1885–1954)|
|1923-1926||Heinrich Schneider (1889–1972)||executive|
|1927-1948||Wilhelm Herse (1879–1965)|
|1950-1968||Erhart Kästner (1904–1974)|
|1968-1992||Paul Raabe (1927-2013)|
|1992-1993||Georg Ruppelt (* 1947)||executive|
|1993-2015||Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer (* 1948)|
|2015-2016||Thomas Stäcker (* 1963)||executive|
|since 2016||Peter Burschel (* 1963)|
From 1966 to 1997 Wolfgang Milde worked as a manuscript librarian in Wolfenbüttel and headed the manuscript department of the Herzog August Library for many years.
Current building stock
The following buildings, which are located close together, currently belong to the Herzog August Library:
- Bibliotheca Augusta, Lessingplatz 1 , the main building, in it the administration, manuscript reading room, photo workshop, museum rooms (including Augusteerhalle).
- Zeughaus, Schloßplatz 12 , therein reference library with a large part of the book inventory, catalog center, specialist information, reading room, local and interlibrary loan, seminar room, cafeteria; exhibitions are also held there.
- Granary, Schloßplatz 8a , therein a provisional magazine.
- Lessinghaus , Lessingplatz 2 , Lessing lived there for the last four years of his life; therein museum and guest apartments, position for press and public relations.
- Director's house, Lessingstraße 11 , in it the director's apartment and restoration workshop for manuscripts and graphics.
- Leibnizhaus, Schloßplatz 5/6 , including a restoration workshop, workrooms for scholarship holders, seminar room, facilities for IT and research projects, German Society for Research in the 18th Century, guest apartments.
- Anna-Vorwerk-Haus, Schloßplatz 4 Anna Vorwerk , founder of the Wolfenbütteler Schlossanstalten, today's high school in the castle ), reopened in June 2013 after two years of renovation, will be used for the scholarship and conference programs (named after
- Meißnerhaus, Schloßplatz 2 Lessing Academy , Forum, office of the Society of Friends of the Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel e. V. (named after Johann Christoph Meißner, who ran a bookstore there, Lessing lived there for a year from 1776), there administration, facilities for scientific events, for publications, for the scholarship program and for the promotion of young talent,
From 2009 to 2014, a new warehouse buildingby Reiner Becker Architekten BDA for eight million euros , and they moved into in autumn 2014.
Outside the immediate library district, but within walking distance, there are two guest houses for scholarship holders and visiting scholars:
- Feierabendhaus, Leibnizstraße 6 , here 17 one-person and 1 two-person apartment
- Kurt-Lindner-Haus, Neue Straße 31 Kurt Lindner , the first president of the Society of Friends of the Herzog August Bibliothek e.V.) , a total of 20 apartments (named after
With the exception of the Leibnizhaus and the new magazine, all the buildings mentioned are listed.
The Herzog August Library contains around 1 million media items, including around 11,800 manuscripts, almost 3,500 incunabula and more than 400,000 old prints (published before 1830). The library's special collections also include 15 block books , over 4,000 artist's books , a Bible collection with more than 3,000 different editions, around 13,150 funeral sermons , 150 oil paintings , the graphic collection with 12,000 sheets of woodcuts , copperplate engravings , lithographs and drawings as well as illustrated leaflets , portraits , 3,000 historical maps , 120 atlases and 10 globes from the 16th to 18th centuries. The library also contains extensive collections of sheet music , historical postcards , theater slips and cover rubbings .
Outstanding individual works (selection)
- Codex Guelferbytanus A and Codex Guelferbytanus B ( Cod. Guelf. 64 Weiss. ), Greek manuscripts of the New Testament from the 5th / 6th centuries. century
- the Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum (Cod. Guelf. 36.23 Aug. 2 °): an agrimensors codex , illustrated manual for the Roman surveyor , 6th century
- the Annales guelferbytani ( Cod. Guelf. 67.5 Aug. 8 ° ): Part of the imperial annals of the Frankish Empire , 9th century
- The only surviving copy of the Capitulare de villis vel curtis imperii ( Cod. Guelf. 254 Helmst. ): Landgüterverordnung Charlemagne , 9th century
- Reichenauer Pericope Book ( Cod. Guelf. 84.5 Aug. 2 ° ): Evangelistary in the style of Ottonian book illumination , around 1000
- Bernwardpsalter ( Cod. Guelf. 113 Noviss. 4 ° ): liturgical manuscript , 11th century
- Copy of Liber Floridus from approx. 1150 ( Cod. Guelf. 1 Gud. Lat. ): Richly illustrated medieval encyclopedia
- Heinrichs Löwen Gospel Book ( Cod. Guelf. 105 Noviss. 2 ° ): a major work of German art of the 12th century
- Minuscule 97 ( Cod. Guelf. 104.2 Gud. Graec. ): Greek manuscript of the New Testament from the 12th century
- Autograph of the Visio Godeschalci ( Cod. Guelf. 558 Helmst. ): Visions report from the 12th century
- a copy of the Sachsenspiegel ( Cod. Guelf. 3.1 Aug. 2 ° ): gilt illuminated manuscript , 14th century
- Schönrainer Liederhandschrift ( Cod. Guelf. 326 Noviss. 8 ° ): Middle High German song manuscript from approx. 1330
- 9 volumes of the Corvinen : manuscripts furnished with splendid book decorations , 15th century, are part of the world document heritage
- Chronicon Hannoveranum consulis Bernhardi Homeister ( Cod. Guelf. 91.13 Extrav. ): Chronicle of the city of Hanover for the period 784–1614
- a manuscript ( Cod. Guelf. 77 Gud. Graec. ) with Archimedes' cattle problem , which Lessing discovered in 1773
Prints and other individual works
- Edition of the Tabulae Rudolphinae from 1627 with a handwritten dedication by Johannes Kepler for Duke August (A: 3.1 Astron. 2 °)
- the only complete copy of the Low German animal poem Reynke de vos (A: 32.14 Poet.)
- 16-volume herbarium by Johann Georg Siegesbeck (M: Ng 2 ° 47), approx. 1735
Globensaal with reconstruction of the "book wheel" of Duke August d. J.
The Wolfenbüttel student seminars have been held in the Herzog August Library since 1983 . As a rule, these are three-day events in which courses from the upper secondary school level are held by library teachers to work on a topic in greater depth using the library holdings, often with the aim of doing a technical thesis .
Wolfenbüttel digital library
A modern project is the Wolfenbütteler Digitale Bibliothek (WDB), with which the Herzog August Bibliothek wants to make research-relevant, particularly rare, outstanding or frequently used parts of its old holdings accessible to international researchers online in digitized form. The digitization projects are partly carried out in national or international cooperation with the help of the specially developed Wolfenbüttel book mirror . On May 23, 2013, the digital copies were placed under the Creative Commons license BY – SA and made available for free use. According to the library, more than 2.8 million pages have now been digitized and over 17,000 old prints and manuscripts made available to the general public.
- Peter Ganz , Helmar Härtel , Wolfgang Milde (eds.): Wolfenbütteler Cimelien. The Gospel Book of Heinrich the Lion in the Herzog August Library (exhibition catalog of the Herzog August Library, vol. 58). VCH, Weinheim 1989, ISBN 3-527-17819-8 .
- Otto von Heinemann : The ducal library to Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections . 2., completely new. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894 (reprint Amsterdam 1969) ( digitized version ).
- Julia Hiller von Gaertringen: "This library is not obliged to anything except itself" - Erhart Kästner as director of the Herzog August Library 1950–1968. (Wolfenbütteler Hefte; H. 23 ). Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-447-05879-7 .
- Andrea Kastens (Ed.): Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel. Westermann, Braunschweig 1978, .
- Leo G. Linder: The Herzog August Library and Wolfenbüttel. Braunschweig 1997, ISBN 3-07-509702-0 .
- Wolfgang Milde : On the early history of the Wolfenbüttel library. Part 1: The beginning and the library regulations from 1572. (Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch; B. 51 ). Self-published by the Braunschweigischer Geschichtsverein, Braunschweig 1970.
- Paul Raabe: The Herzog August Library as a museum. (Small writings from the Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel; H. 1). Heckners Verlag, Wolfenbüttel 1970.
- Paul Raabe: The Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel. Holdings - catalogs - indexing. (Small writings from the Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel; H. 2). Heckners Verlag, Wolfenbüttel 1971.
- Paul Raabe: A treasure house full of books. The Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel. Madsack, Hanover 1971.
- Georg Ruppelt : From the Ducal Library to the Herzog August Library. History of the Wolfenbüttel library from 1920–1949. (Works on the history of the book industry in Germany, issue 4). Göttinger Hochschulschriften-Verlag Bautz, Göttingen 1980, ISBN 3-88309-004-2 .
- Georg Ruppelt, Sabine Solf (Ed. On behalf of the Society of Friends of the Herzog August Library): Lexicon on the past and present of the Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel. Paul Raabe on February 29, 1992. (Lexica of European Libraries, Vol. 1). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1992, ISBN 3-447-03233-2 .
- Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer (Ed.): A treasure house of books: the library of Duke August of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (an exhibition at the Grolier Club, 8 December 1998 through 6 February 1999) . Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN 3-447-04119-6 .
- Website of the Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel
- Literature on the Herzog August Library in the catalog of the German National Library
- The HAB in the Fabian manual
- Working group for the collection of German prints
- Book wheel in the museum "Das Alte Zollhaus" in Hitzacker
- Wolfenbüttel Digital Library (WDB)
- Official designation according to Lower Saxony Ministerial Gazette 9/2006, p. 151.
- Prof. Dr. Peter Burschel is appointed the new director of the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel. Press release. In: MWK .Niedersachsen.de , July 14, 2015.
- Leo G. Linder: The Herzog August Library and Wolfenbüttel. Braunschweig 1997, p. 162.
- Christa Graefe: State wisdom and piety. Duke Julius zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, a north German sovereign of the 16th century. Weinheim 1989, ISBN 3-527-17822-8 , p. 59.
- Christa Graefe: State wisdom and piety. Duke Julius zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, a north German sovereign of the 16th century. Weinheim 1989, ISBN 3-527-17822-8 , p. 81.
- Christa Graefe: State wisdom and piety. Duke Julius zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, a north German sovereign of the 16th century. Weinheim 1989, ISBN 3-527-17822-8 , pp. 90f.
- Christa Graefe: State wisdom and piety. Duke Julius zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, a north German sovereign of the 16th century. Weinheim 1989, ISBN 3-527-17822-8 , p. 115.
- Christa Graefe: State wisdom and piety. Duke Julius zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, a north German sovereign of the 16th century. Weinheim 1989, ISBN 3-527-17822-8 , pp. 100-137.
- Werner Arnold: The migration of books. In: Jens Bruning; Ulrike Gleixner (Ed.): The Athens of the Welfs. The Reform University of Helmstedt 1576–1810. Wolfenbüttel 2010, ISBN 978-3-447-06210-7 , p. 249.
- Axel Kahrs : A ruler as a book lover - Duke August in Hitzacker. Wendland Literarisch, Göttingen 1985, pp. 13-20.
- Ulrich Johannes Schneider : Representation and Operation. Notes on August's world of books. In: Hans Erich Bödeker; Anne Saada (Ed.): Library as an archive . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-35869-6 , pp. 315-319.
- Helmar Härtel : Duke August as a book collector. To build his library. In: Paul Raabe (ed.): Collector Prince Scholar - Duke August of Braunschweig and Lüneburg 1579–1666 . Lower Saxony state exhibition in Wolfenbüttel, May 26 to October 31, 1979 (exhibition catalogs of the Herzog August Bibliothek, vol. 27), Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel 1979, ISBN 3-525-35869-5 , pp. 155-169.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, pp. 111-131.
- Hans Reuther: The building of the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel and its senior librarian Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. In: Wilhelm Totok ; Carl Haase (Ed.): Leibniz. His life - his work - his world . Verlag für Literatur und Zeitgeschehen, Hannover 1966, pp. 349–360.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, pp. 99-108.
- libraries of the 17th and 18th centuries. Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, accessed on July 24, 2013 .
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, pp. 139f.
- Academicthe 18th and 19th centuries. Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, accessed on July 24, 2013 .
- Paul Raabe (Ed.): Handbook of the historical book inventory in Germany. Lower Saxony H-Z , Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1998, ISBN 3-487-09576-9 , pp. 211, 234.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, pp. 152-185.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, pp. 201-203.
- Bénédicte Savoy: Art theft: Napoleon's Confiscations in Germany and the European Consequences; with a catalog of works of art from German collections in the Musée Napoléon , Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2011, pp. 132–134.
- Wolfgang Milde : Stendhal in Wolfenbüttel: War Commissioner and library user (with six previously unknown letters). In: Paul Raabe (Ed.): Wolfenbütteler contributions. From the treasures of the Herzog August Library. Volume 5. Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1982, p. 163f.
- Isabelle Kratz: The Herzog August Library under Napoleon. Aspects of French cultural policy 1806–1815. In: Paul Raabe (Ed.): Wolfenbütteler contributions. From the treasures of the Herzog August Library. Volume 10. Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel 1997, pp. 79-160.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, pp. 203-210.
- Eberhard Zwink: The Stuttgart 36-line Bible - specimen-specific features and clarification of the provenance. In: Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens 64 (2009), pp. 207–220.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, p. 210f.
- Wolfgang Milde : Incunabula Incunabulorum. Earliest works of printing. Mainz, Bamberg, Strasbourg 1454–1469. Exhibition in the Renaissance hall of Wolfenbütteler Schloss 1972 (exhibition catalogs of the Herzog August Bibliothek, vol. 4), Peine 1972, p. 6.
- Otto von Heinemann: The ducal library in Wolfenbüttel. A contribution to the history of German book collections. Zwissler, Wolfenbüttel 1894, p. 263f.
- Georg Ruppelt : Comments on the history of the Herzog August Library between 1920 and 1950. In: Paul Raabe (Ed.): The Herzog August Library in the last 100 years. Four contributions to the past and present of the Wolfenbüttel library. Göttinger Hochschulschriften-Verlag Bautz, Göttingen 1980, ISBN 3-88309-005-0 , p. 41f.
- Ars librorum and painter's books. Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, accessed on July 24, 2013 .
- Paul Raabe : The Bibliotheca Augusta - an old library in the modern world. In: ders. (Ed.): The Herzog August Library in the last 100 years. Four contributions to the past and present of the Wolfenbüttel library. Göttinger Hochschulschriften-Verlag Bautz, Göttingen 1980, ISBN 3-88309-005-0 , p. 116.
- Boris Kuznetsov (coordinator, organization): International Music Academy for Soloists , Booklet [o. D.], can be downloaded from imas-meisterkurse.de as a PDF document , last accessed on January 12, 2014.
- Kurt Flasch : Expanding the potential of human reason. Raymond Klibansky, 15.X.1905 - 5.VIII.2005 (PDF document)
- Robert Eitner : Thomas Mancinus . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, p. 163 f.
- List after Jill Bepler: The Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel: Foundations for the Future. In: Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer: A Treasure House of Books: the library of Duke August of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN 3-447-04119-6 , pp. 17-28, here pp. 26f.
- Message about the death of Wolfgang Milde in the monthly report of the Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel newsletter . Published by the Herzog August Library. August 2011, p. 1, online in: monthly reports 2011 , p. 30 of the file, accessed and received on January 29, 2017 (PDF file; 450 KiB).
- plan of the library district. (PDF; 1.1 MB) Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel, accessed on July 24, 2013 .
- Vorwerk house was renovated for 3.4 million. Wolfenbütteler Zeitung, June 26, 2013, accessed on July 24, 2013 .
- Paul Raabe: Bibliosibirsk or the middle of Germany. 2nd Edition. Arche, Zurich / Hamburg 2007, pp. 252f.
- Relocation to the new magazine. Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, accessed on May 21, 2014 .
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