from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Music in the narrower sense are printed products with notes from works of music and are usually simply referred to as notes in everyday language . In a broader sense , musical items are commodities relating to music, such as sheet music, musical instruments , sound carriers and specialist books .

Music is usually produced by music publishers ; the distribution takes place via the music trade . In this context, music in the broader sense also includes music books , music educational literature and all kinds of musical learning aids.


  • A score is called sheet music in which polyphonic pieces of music are notated in such a way that one part is notated for each participant. It is used by the conductor to lead a performance, but also serves to study the work or to read along.
  • Voices are those sheets or notebooks that each contain only a single voice for one participant.
  • A complete set of all parts for an orchestral work is called orchestral material.
  • Piano reduction is the name of a summary of a work for piano , although solo parts and possibly also choir parts are still printed separately.
  • Choral score is a score that includes all choir parts , but not any accompaniment.
  • Textbooks such as schools (instructions for learning a musical instrument ), etude collections , teaching, learning and practice aids, etc.
  • Autograph is a handwritten recording by the composer (usually a facsimile ).
  • Transcripts of music (especially orchestral parts) used to be made by hand by a music copyist.

Music and copyright

As intellectual property , musical compositions are also subject to copyright . The score itself is only protected together with the composition, the protection of which generally ends 70 years after the author's death.

German market

In 2009, around 300,000 sheet music editions were available on the German market, and around 7,000 new ones appear every year. The music publishers achieve an annual turnover of around 630 million euros, which is around 15 percent of their total turnover.

Recent developments

In the last few years there have been attempts by professional musicians to replace music in paper form in whole or in part by using new techniques. In 2000, began Bamberg Symphony Orchestra in concerts with specially equipped a short-lived attempt to laptops on the music stands to play. From 2012, the Brussels Philharmonic played from tablets ; The campaign sponsored by a manufacturer serves to further develop hardware and software, but should also lead to cost savings.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Börsenblatt H. 17/2009, p. 38
  2. Bamberg Symphony Orchestra. Laptops are replacing music books. Spiegel Online, February 14, 2000, accessed June 25, 2013.
  3. Brussels Philharmonic replace sheet music with tablet PC heise Newsticker, November 9, 2012, accessed June 25, 2013