|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|County :||Hanover region|
|Height :||55 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||204.14 km 2|
|Residents:||536,925 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||2630 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0511|
|License plate :||H|
|Community key :||03 2 41 001|
|LOCODE :||DE HAJ|
|City structure:||51 districts in 13 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Belit Onay ( Alliance 90 / The Greens )|
|Location of the city of Hanover in the Hanover region|
Hannover [ hanoːfɐ ] is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony . The place located on the southern edge of the North German lowlands on the Leine and the Ihme was first mentioned in 1150 and received city rights in 1241 . From 1636 Hanover was the Welf royal seat, from 1692 the residence of Kurhannovers , from 1814 the capital of the Kingdom of Hanover , after its annexation by Prussia from 1866 provincial capital of the Province of Hanover and after the dissolution of Prussia in August 1946 it became the capital of the State of Hanover . Since its merger with the Free States of Braunschweig , Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe in November 1946, Hanover has been the capital of Lower Saxony. A city since 1875 , it is now one of the 15 most populous cities in Germany .
The city and the former district are united to form a local association of a special kind , the Hanover region , which belongs to the Hanover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg metropolitan region . Hanover is a European traffic hub, because in and near Hanover important road and rail routes from north-south and east-west cross. The international airport is located in the northern neighboring municipality of Langenhagen and the city is connected to the inland waterway network with several ports via the Mittelland Canal . Hanover was a Hanseatic city from the 13th century to around 1620 and has been a member of the Hanseatic League, which was symbolically re-established in 1980, since the end of June 2019. As part of the reconstruction after the Second World War as a car-friendly city , the Cityring and the expressways were created.
Hanover is home to eleven universities and several libraries. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's correspondence and the Golden Letter , kept in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library , are part of UNESCO's world heritage . Hanover is an important business location and a supraregional shopping city. The cultural scene is considered diverse , with numerous and in some cases internationally renowned theaters and museums . Numerous international theater, music and dance festivals take place every year. Hanover has been a UNESCO City of Music since 2014 . The cityscape is characterized by numerous public green spaces, a high density of street art and numerous architectural monuments , including representative buildings of the North German brick Gothic , the Hanover architecture school , brick expressionism , Art Nouveau and classicist buildings by Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves . While post-war buildings dominate the inner city, many districts have a considerable number of old buildings and maintain their own identities. The Hanover Adventure Zoo , the Maschsee and the Herrenhausen Gardens are known nationwide ; the arched elevator in the New Town Hall is a worldwide rarity . With the world's largest exhibition center and numerous leading international trade fairs , above all the Hanover Fair , Hanover is one of the leading congress and trade fair cities in Europe. The largest shooting festival in the world takes place every year and since 1955 Hanover has had the official honorary title of “shooting town”. The annual Maschsee Festival is the largest lake festival in Germany. Hanover has been officially on the shortlist for the title of European Capital of Culture 2025 since December 2019 .
Hannover is located in the valley of the line at the junction of Lower Saxony highlands to the North German Plain , the city center at 52 ° 22'28 "N and 9 ° 44'19" O. In the southwest of the city limits the foothills of the Weser mountain country with fertile loess soil , which in the north sandy and boggy geest landscapes of the Burgdorf-Peiner and the Hanoverian Moor-Geest to the urban area.
The natural and geographical location offered Hanover favorable conditions for the development from a medieval village to a large city . In the Middle Ages, an important north-south trade route through the Leine valley passed the local point at a river ford . In the 19th century the railroad followed this route and through the construction of the Mittelland Canal as an east-west connection in the 20th century, Hanover was at the intersection of these important transport routes. The same applies to road traffic through the intersection of the A 2 and A 7 federal motorways near Hanover.
Bremen (130 km)
Hamburg (140 km)
Celle (41 km)
Minden (78 km)
Braunschweig (66 km)
Bielefeld (135 km) Hameln (47 km)
Göttingen (120 km)
Hildesheim (34 km)
* Distances are rounded road kilometers to the town center.
The following cities and municipalities in the Hanover region border the city of Hanover: Langenhagen , Isernhagen , Lehrte , Sehnde , Laatzen , Hemmingen , Ronnenberg , Gehrden , Seelze and Garbsen . The area is characterized by urban development along the traffic axes as well as rural construction in other parts. In 2019, around 1,130,000 people lived in the Hanover metropolitan area .
Hanover consists of 51 districts . Two to seven of these districts are combined into one district , so that the following 13 districts exist: Mitte , Vahrenwald-List , Bothfeld-Vahrenheide , Buchholz-Kleefeld , Misburg-Anderten , Kirchrode-Bemerode-Wülferode , Südstadt-Bult , Döhren-Wülfel , Ricklingen , Linden-Limmer , Ahlem-Badenstedt-Davenstedt , Herrenhausen-Stöcken and Nord .
Over eleven percent of the approximately 200 square kilometers large urban area are public green spaces, which is why Hanover is also referred to as a large city in the country. The Eilenriede urban forest , which is close to the center, has a size of 650 hectares alone .
South of the city center is the Maschsee , an approximately 78 hectare man-made lake with no natural inflow and outflow.
Coming from the south, the Leine flows through Hanover northwest towards Aller . At the level of the Maschsee, Leinewasser is led to the Ihme via the Schnellen Graben . The weir there serves not only to regulate the water level but also to generate electricity. The Ihme is a small stream that comes from the Calenberger Land . The supply of water from the leash turns it into a river, which joins the leash again after a few kilometers. From here the line is navigable. In Limmer the foot ends in the leash.
Hanover is on average Kronsberg located on the southeastern edge , the highest point of which at 118.2 meters is a viewing hill artificially raised by a few meters, and the 89.0 meter high Lindener Berg . The highest artificial elevation is the Nordberg with 122 meters on the northeast edge on the site of the Lahe garbage dump . The lowest point is in the nature reserve Klosterforst Marienwerder and is .. The highest natural elevations in the urban area are the
Hanover is located in a region with a maritime climate (type Cfb ). The annual mean temperature is around 10.6 ° C. On a long-term average, the air temperature in Hanover reached 8.7 ° C and 661 millimeters of precipitation fell . Between May and August, an average of 22 summer days (climatological term for days on which the maximum temperature exceeds 25 ° C) can be expected.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Hanover
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020; wetterkontor.de
Nature and landscape protection areas
The flora-fauna-habitat (FFH) areas of Altwarmbüchener Moor , Mergelgrube near Hanover , Leineaue between Ruthe and Hanover , Bockmerholz-Gaim and Aller (with Barnbruch), lower Leine and lower Oker are partly in the urban area . Are partially contained therein, completely or partially in the urban area lying, the nature reserves Bockmerholz , marl stockpile and Gaim as well as the conservation areas Wietzeaue , Upper Wietze , Laher meadows , Kugelfangtrift-Segelfluggelände , Altwarmbüchener See , Altwarmbüchener Moor-Ahltener forest , Mardalwiese , width meadow Wet Meadow , Alte Bult , Kronsberg , Obere Leine , Hirtenbach / Wettberger Holz , Benther Berg Vorland / Fössetal , Mittlere Leine and Mecklenheide / Vinnhorst .
Traces of settlement, foundation and first bloom
In the area of the later old and new town of Hanover, traces of a settlement "of no small extent" from the Roman Empire (1st to 3rd century AD) have been found, as the town historian Helmut Plath wrote. Remnants of clay pots from this time were found under the Aegidienkirche . A denarius of the Roman emperor Severus Alexander (222–235) was recovered in an old linen arm, proof for Plath that the settlement “was reached by the trade connected with the Romans”. The settlement of unknown name could be identical to the place Touliphourdon (Latin Tulifurdum), which the geographer Claudius Ptolemy marked in a map of the Germania Magna from around 150 AD . Scientists at the Institute for Geodesy at the TU Berlin located Tulifurdum in 2010 using a new map projection “near Hanover”. In terms of linguistic history, the name has been interpreted as a combination of the Latin words tuli ("I carried") and furdum ("ford"), which could indicate the crossing of the leash in Hanover.
Today's Hanover emerged from a medieval settlement on a flood-protected location on the banks of the Leine . This location probably gave the later city of Hanover its name - Honovere = " (Am) high bank " - but this is controversial (see naming ). In the vicinity there was a possibility of crossing the line at a shallow ford due to the only 500 m wide line lowland and a river Werder . Two highways crossed there . The street that runs parallel to the Leine at this point is still called Am Hohen Ufer . There is evidence of a market settlement at this point from around the year 950. The Vicus Hanovere ( vicus = "market town") was first mentioned around 1150 in the Hildesheim Miracula Sancta Bernwardi . In the 12th century, Heinrich the Lion had Hanover expanded and enfeoffed the Counts of Roden , who ruled from Lauenrode Castle , a moated castle in the Leinen lowlands near Limmer . In 1241 Hanover received city privileges ; advice has also been demonstrable since that time. Towards the end of the 13th century, the city was headed by two mayors . In addition, there was a so-called seated council consisting of twelve members with the ruling mayor. In the War of the Lüneburg Succession in 1371, the city was granted the Great Privilege , which granted it extensive rights, such as customs and mill rights and the fortification of the city.
To protect the city, an eight meter high city wall with 34 towers replaced the previously existing fortification of palisade walls and ditches from 1350 . From 1392, a Landwehr also belonged to the city fortifications of Hanover , which secured the urban apron. From the earlier Hanoverian Landwehr with ramparts, hedges, waiting houses and towers, there are still facilities such as the tower on the Lindener Berg , the Döhrener tower , the horse tower , the Lister tower and others. At this time the city experienced its first economic boom and joined the Hanseatic League . Membership probably began as early as the 13th century, but certainly in the 14th century. Long-distance trade by Hanoverian merchants in the 15th century included, for example, the export of linen to London, the cloth trade with Flanders, the import of furs and hides from Novgorod, oil and wax from Norway, and herrings and butter from southern Sweden. The networking of the economy via the Hanseatic League began to decline in the 16th century. Hanover left the Hanseatic League around 1620. In 1636 Hanover was elevated to the status of Welf Residence. The population rose to 4,000.
During the Reformation there was a growing tendency among the population to accept Protestant teaching . On June 26, 1533, a meeting in the market square swore to stand by Luther's word. Although the city's leading circles did not join the Reformation, it was pushed through by opposition from citizens who did not hold political offices. The city council finally had to flee to Hildesheim , which had remained old believers . In 1580 the “Mayor and Council Name of the City of Hanover” signed the Lutheran Concord formula of 1577.
Fortress and residential city
During the Thirty Years' War , Duke Georg von Calenberg made the fortress-like town his residence in 1636 . As a residential city , Hanover experienced a renewed heyday in the following 80 years. The buildings of this epoch of the history of Hanover set lasting accents in the cityscape.
In 1676 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was appointed Hofrat and head of his library by Duke Johann Friedrich . The philosopher and mathematician who was born in Leipzig and who, among other things, invented the dual system , lived in Hanover until his death. In 2005 the state library and in 2006 the university were named after him.
From 1692 Hanover was the 9th Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire (official name: Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg, unofficially also Chur-Hanover, Kurhannover or Hanover) after Duke Ernst August introduced the Primogenitur as a prerequisite in 1682.
After Elector Georg Ludwig had ascended the British throne as Georg I in 1714, he moved his residence from Hanover to London. In Hanover, this strengthened a circle of noble and civil servant families in the internal administration. The royal seat, which had been heavily dependent on the court in previous years, became increasingly deserted. Also Castle and Garden of Herrenhausen were soon no longer used. It is ultimately thanks to this fact that the garden was no longer rebuilt in a contemporary way and the original baroque state was retained.
This changed in 1837 when, with the death of Wilhelm IV, the 123-year personal union of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Hanover came to an end and King Ernst August I ascended the throne in Hanover . The railway line from Hanover to Lehrte was opened on October 22, 1843, and on May 19, 1844 the Hanover – Braunschweig railway line was open to traffic. The conservative king initially resisted the connection of his royal seat to the emerging railway network. Because of his skepticism, the Royal Hanover State Railways planned the first branching routes not in Hanover, but in Lehrte.
In 1747 the Aegidienneustadt was incorporated, followed by Calenberger Neustadt in 1824 and Ernst-August-Stadt in 1847 . With the incorporation of the suburbs of Hanover in 1859 with the villages of Königsworth , Schloßwende, Nordfeld, Vorort, Fernrode, Bütersworth, Kirchwende , Bult , Heidorn, Tiefenriede, Emmerberg and Kleefeld , the urban area grew from 157 to 2354 hectares and the population rose from 38,000 68,000.
Hanover was an autonomous city within the Kingdom of Hanover . In 1823 it became the seat of the Landdrostei Hanover , which later became the Hanover administrative district . In 1824 it became the seat of the Hanover Office , which was founded by the merger of the Hanover Court School Office and the Koldingen Office . From 1825 there was a magistrate's college in Hanover, which lasted until 1935. During this time the mayor of Hanover held the title of city director .
Prussian provincial capital
In the German War of 1866, the Kingdom of Hanover under George V fought on the side of the German Confederation and Austria against Prussia and won a Pyrrhic victory in the battle of Langensalza , because shortly after the battle the Hanoverian army had to surrender. As a result, Hanover was annexed by Prussia and thus became a Prussian province : the royal seat of Hanover became a Prussian provincial capital.
For the Hanoverian industry the connection to Prussia meant an improvement of the framework conditions. The abolition of compulsory guilds and the introduction of freedom of trade promoted economic growth and led to the upswing of the early days . Between 1871 and 1912, the population grew from 87,600 to 313,400. The border to the city with 100,000 inhabitants was crossed in 1873.
The upswing in Hanover coincided with the era of city director Heinrich Tramm . He was elected to this office in 1891 and held it for 27 years. During this time he was the dominant person in the city's politics and administration.
The town was enlarged in 1869 with the suburb of Ohe-Glocksee, followed in 1882 by Königsworther Platz and Welfengarten, in 1891 by the communities of Herrenhausen , Hainholz , Vahrenwald and List, and on October 1, 1907, by the communities of Stöcken , Bothfeld , Klein-Buchholz , Groß- Buchholz , Kirchrode , Döhren and Wülfel as well as the manor district of Mecklenheide and the land register district of Kirchrode-Stadt.
In 1920 the city of Linden with the districts of Alt- and Neu-Linden, Limmer , Davenstedt , Badenstedt , Bornum and Ricklingen was incorporated into Hanover. The population grew by around 80,000 to 400,000. In 1928 the palace and garden district of Herrenhausen , the estate districts of Leinhausen and Marienwerder , and in 1937 parts of Bemerode and Laatzen followed .
Since 1918 the head of the city has been called the mayor and no longer the city director . First Lord Mayor was the social democrat Robert Leinert . 1925 was followed by Arthur Quantity from the conservative DHP , who remained in office until 1937. During Menge's tenure in 1936, the construction of the Maschsee lake and the construction of the Hermann-Löns-Park, made possible by job creation measures, fell .
In terms of culture, Hanover was a “suburb of modernity” in the 1920s, particularly because of Kurt Schwitters . His Dadaism , his magazine MERZ and the group he founded, the abstract hannover , had an international reputation.
In the time of National Socialism
From 1937 the mayor (1942–1945 “State Commissioner”) belonged to the NSDAP . As everywhere in Germany, many people in Hanover were exposed to persecution because of their Jewish faith and other ethnic and other reasons. 484 Hanoverian Jews of Polish origin were expelled to Poland as part of the “ Poland Action ” at the end of October 1938, including the Grünspan family. Their second eldest son, Herschel Grynszpan , was in Paris. When he found out that his family had been expelled, he drove to the German embassy and shot there at Legation Councilor Ernst Eduard vom Rath , who died two days later. The National Socialists took this act as a pretext for the Germany-wide November pogroms they staged . On November 9, 1938, the New Synagogue in Calenberger Neustadt was burned down in Hanover . In September 1941, the “ Lauterbacher Action ” initiated by the NSDAP Gauleiter Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig led to the ghettoization of the remaining Jewish families.
Even before the Wannsee Conference , on December 15, 1941, the first 1001 Jews were deported from Hanover to Riga . By 1945, at least 2,400 people had to leave the city in eight transports, few of whom survived. The deportation of the Jews and the " Aryanization " of art and cultural goods were organized by the city planning officer, Karl Elkart . Of the 4800 or so Jews who lived in Hanover in 1938, there were fewer than a hundred when US Army troops marched into the city on April 10, 1945 . Today, a memorial on Opernplatz and over 400 stumbling blocks (2018) that were laid in the sidewalk in front of the last freely chosen residential buildings of Nazi victims remind of the persecution of Jews in Hanover . In 1987 a memorial was set up in Ahlem on the site of the former Israelite Horticultural School .
In addition to a forced camp for Sinti and Roma and so-called education camps , there were several satellite camps of the Neuengamme concentration camp in Hanover with several thousand inmates who lived in inhumane conditions. During the war around 60,000 forced laborers worked in Hanover, most of whom were deported from the USSR, Poland, France, the Netherlands and Belgium and interned in around 500 camps. They were mainly used in the armaments industry. Four days before the liberation of Hanover, 154 of them were shot in the Seelhorst city cemetery . Shortly after the end of the war, they were transferred in a funeral procession to the north bank of the Maschsee along with another 230 bodies and buried there in a memorial.
During the Second World War , numerous divisions and military administrations had their headquarters in Hanover. This included nine military courts, before which soldiers were sentenced to death who had refused to obey. The data of 51 soldiers were determined that because of " desertion ," "(desertion) military morale " and " war treason " were executed in Hanover, or from Hanover to arise elsewhere. There was occasional resistance in Hanover, ranging from armaments sabotage and deviant youth behavior to the preparation of an overthrow on the part of the communist, social-democratic and bourgeoisie. After the assassination attempt on July 20, 1944 , around ninety people were arrested in the Hanover-Southern Lower Saxony area, including Kurt Schumacher , who later became chairman of the SPD .
As an important traffic junction and location of important war operations, Hanover was the target of over a hundred Allied air raids from 1940 . 48 percent of the city was destroyed - seventh among the major cities in Germany - and 6,782 people were killed; 50 percent of the residential buildings and 40 percent of the industrial jobs were destroyed. The Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt; its ruin serves as a memorial for the victims of war and tyranny. The 9th US Army occupied Hanover on April 10, 1945, and the war in Europe ended on May 8 with the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht .
Reconstruction and development to the present
In 1946, the military government of the British zone of occupation introduced the local constitution based on the British model. The popularly elected council elected from among its honorary mayor as chairman and representative of the city. Herbert Schmalstieg was the long-standing mayor from 1972 to 2006 . As the full-time head of the city administration, there was an upper city director, also elected by the council, from 1946 to 1996 .
After the war, under the direction of Urban Planning Officer Rudolf Hillebrecht , the city was rebuilt in a systematic and rigorous manner: After the severe war damage, the former, rather “small-scale” urban structure and the road network were completely reorganized and the then postulated requirements of a “ car-friendly city” " customized. In particular, the inner city in the central area of the Aegidientorplatz and Georgstrasse was bypassed with multi-lane streets (Lavesallee, Leibnizufer, Hamburger Allee, Berliner Allee) and their links were established by roundabouts . The long-distance traffic of the former Reichsstrasse No. 3 and No. 6 , which used to flow through the center, was led around the center via expressways .
For the Messeschnellweg a lane was cut through the middle of the Eilenriede city forest . The historical city plan remained only superficially, as the remaining large-meshed network of streets only roughly traces the main lines of the historical streets. The development of urban spaces that deviate from the historical structure is characteristic of the rebuilding of Hanover.
This urban planning, which was considered exemplary at the time and still has an impact today, made the city well-known beyond the region. In later times, the urban planning concepts of the reconstruction period proved to be outdated: in the architectural flow of postmodernism, those streets and squares were given model character again, as they had shaped the 19th century, and not the post-war urban development , which was uncritically based on the car-friendly planning USA had taken over. The loss of historical building stock due to the air raids and the planning of the post-war period (see also: List of abandoned buildings in Hanover ) occasionally gave rise to the desire to reconstruct formerly defining buildings: the façades of the Leibnizhaus that were destroyed in the war and of Herrenhausen Palace in Large garden rebuilt by 2013.
In 1965, the city council decided to build a subway. This was followed by decades of construction work on the tunnel network, which was essentially ended in 1993 with the opening of the C-North route in the northern part of the city. Tunnels were built in the inner city area and connected to the existing tram routes, creating the Hanover city railway . After the construction work was completed, pedestrian zones were set up in the city center around the Kröpcke and in the Lister Meile , which significantly enhanced these areas.
After parts of Wettbergen had been incorporated in 1967 and 1968, the major Lower Saxony regional reform followed on March 1, 1974 : The town of Misburg and the communities of Ahlem , Anderten , Bemerode , Vinnhorst , Wettbergen , Wülferode were incorporated as well as parts of Isernhagen Niedernhägener Bauerschaft ( today Isernhagen-Süd ), Laatzen and Langenhagen . On January 1, 1981, parts of the area with then more than 100 inhabitants were ceded to the neighboring town of Laatzen.
After Hannover hosted the 13th German Fire Brigade Day in 1888 , the 25th German Fire Brigade Day also took place there from June 7th to 15th, 1980. The 29th Fire Brigade Day was postponed together with Interschutz (both in Hanover) to June 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic from 2020.
The Expo 2000 was the first world exhibition in Germany to take place in Hanover . 155 nations took part in the exhibition with the motto “People, Nature, Technology”. With 18 million visitors, the initial expectations for visitor numbers were not met.
Until the end of the early modern period , Hanover's population grew only slowly. During the late Middle Ages around 5,000 people lived in the city in 1435, and by 1766 the number had more than doubled to 11,874. With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century, population growth accelerated. In 1811, 16,816 people lived in the city. The incorporation of surrounding places ( suburb of Hanover ) with around 20,000 people in 1859 led to an increase to 60,120 people in 1861.
With the high level of industrialization in Germany , Hanover became a major city in 1875 . In 1901 there were 250,000 inhabitants. As a result of incorporations in 1907 and 1909, the population rose to over 300,000 in 1910. On January 1, 1920, the city of Linden with 73,379 inhabitants (1919) was incorporated. The population rose to over 400,000 by the end of 1920.
In the course of the Second World War, the city lost more than half of its inhabitants: In addition to the deportation of Jews , the population fell from 471,000 in May 1939 through escape and evacuation such as the deportation to 217,000 people in April 1945. In 1952, so many people lived in the City like it was before the war, in 1954 there were half a million. In 1962 the population reached its historic high of 574,754. On March 1, 1974, the incorporation of the city of Misburg with 21,721 inhabitants (1972) and other surrounding towns brought about a population increase of 64,711 people. Hannover has been one of the 15 largest German cities every year since 1960 at the latest . On June 30, 2019, the official population was 536,055, the population according to the population register was 545,107. At the turn of the year 2019/2020, the population was 543,319 (main residence) according to the population register.
On November 1, 2001, the Hanover region was formed from the cities and municipalities of the Hanover district and the city of Hanover . Since then, Hanover has been a regional municipality with the legal status of an independent city .
The council is the municipal representation and main body of the city of Hanover and decides on all important self-government matters of the city. It acts as a representative body through resolutions. Every five years, citizens decide on the allocation of the 64 seats in a general, direct, free, equal and secret ballot. Since the local elections in 2016 there has been an alliance made up of the SPD, Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the FDP. The mayor is a member of the council by virtue of his office. The council forms technical committees . In the individual parliamentary groups and committees, there are other advisory members who do not have voting rights and who are nominated by the parliamentary groups. The Lord Mayor and the Heads of Department attend the meetings of the Council and its committees and report to the Council. The department heads represent each other. The chairman of the council is the 1st mayor of the city of Hanover who is elected from among the council, and Thomas Hermann ( SPD ) has held the office since June 19, 2014 . He is represented by the other mayors. The council chairman, the other mayors and the members are volunteers. The meetings are broadcast on the citizens' television H1 .
In addition to the city council as the main body, there have been city district councils in the 13 districts of Hanover since 1981, which have the status of bodies under municipal constitutional law. They are given their own responsibilities, decision-making, hearing and initiative rights. The city district councils ensure the maintenance of the public facilities in their district, promote community life and represent their city district. The city district councils have the right to be heard in the bodies of the city of Hanover (council, administrative committee, specialist committees). You can take the initiative in local politics on your own. Each city district is headed by a district mayor, who is the chairman of the district council and has the right to be heard in the bodies of the city and the council. The city district councils are elected every 5 years, most recently in 2016. The members and district mayors are volunteers.
1996 in Lower Saxony the previous dual leadership of honorary mayor as the highest representative and city director as head of administration was given up. Since then, there has been a directly elected full-time Lord Mayor in Hanover . In October 2013 Stefan Schostok (SPD) was elected and introduced into the eight-year term of office. His early retirement took place on May 27, 2019. The by-election of a new mayor was decided by a runoff between Belit Onay ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) and Eckhard Scholz (non-party, nominated by the CDU ) on November 10, 2019. It won Belit Onay with 52.9% of the vote. The inauguration took place on November 22, 2019. The mayor is the head of the city administration and the highest representative of the city.
In addition to the Lord Mayor, there are three honorary representatives. They are elected by the council and bear the title of mayor , and they preside over council meetings. These have been Thomas Hermann (SPD) as the first representative since June 19, 2014, as well as Klaus Dieter Scholz (CDU) as the second and Regine Kramarek (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) as the third representative of the Lord Mayor since 2011.
In addition to the city council, the administrative committee is the city's second body to which tasks for its own decision are assigned. Its tasks include preparing the decisions of the council. He is responsible and has a quorum on matters that do not require the decision of the council, the city district councils or the works committees and which are not the responsibility of the mayor. In certain cases he can transfer responsibilities to the Lord Mayor. It includes the mayor as chairman, the other mayors, other members of the council as councilors and the department heads / city councils as advisory members.
The city administration is the local self-government of the state capital Hanover and is divided into the division of the mayor as head of administration and six departments . The general representative of the Lord Mayor in the administration is the First City Council , since August 2013 Sabine Tegtmeyer-Dette, Head of the Department for Economics and Environment , has held the office. The department heads are elected for eight years by the city council on the proposal of the mayor.
The senior citizens' advisory board is the official, neutral representation of senior citizens in Hanover. The Eilenriede Advisory Board was set up by the city in 1956; it is the guardian of the city forest and endeavors to preserve and maintain the Eilenriede and advises the city's committees.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Hanover shows a silver wall with two tin towers on a red background; In the open gate, under a black portcullis, there is a golden label with a green Mary flower or clover leaf (unexplained); a golden lion stands between the towers .
The coat of arms can already be proven as a seal from 1266 , with the Marienblume / clover leaf (previously a mint mark ) from 1534, whereby the lion is the symbol of the Guelphs or the rule of the Duchy of Brunswick , to whose territory the city belonged. The city coat of arms has had its current form since 1929. The old city colors red, yellow and green were replaced by red and white in 1897.
Hannover maintains a city partnership with the following cities :
- Bristol ( United Kingdom , since 1947)
- Perpignan ( France , since 1960)
- Rouen ( France , since 1966)
- Blantyre ( Malawi , since 1968)
- Poznan ( Poland , since 1979)
- Hiroshima ( Japan , since 1983)
- Leipzig ( Germany , since 1987, then GDR )
Another town twinning existed between 1971 and 1976 with Utrecht (Netherlands). A friendship treaty exists with Ivanovo ( Russia ). With the opening of a Hanover quarter in the Chinese city, there is a friendship between the cities with Changde . The local shopping street was opened by the mayor. The town twinning of Ahlem , Anderten and Misburg , which began before their incorporation, will be continued at the municipal district level. In Maschpark roads are named after the twin cities, which the name "Park of the twin towns" has earned him.
The eclectic New Town Hall , opened in 1913, is located between the old town and Maschpark . The viewing platform in the dome can be reached through the unique arched dome elevator . In the reception hall of the town hall there are four city models that show the city in 1689, 1939, 1945 and the present. Today, the New Town Hall is considered the landmark of Hanover and, according to a DZT online survey of foreign tourists, was one of the 80 most popular sights in Germany in 2015 . 36 sights of the city center are connected by the so-called red thread . This 4.2-kilometer red line, painted on the pavement, starts at the tourist information office on Ernst-August-Platz and starts with a tour of the city center.
Old town and North German brick Gothic
Today's old town of Hanover differs significantly from the original old town before the Second World War. Hanover's city center was 90% destroyed, including the old town. Therefore , a kind of traditional island has been created around the market church . For this purpose, the major landmarks, such as the market church, were rebuilt, half-timbered houses and other buildings were relocated from other parts of the city and post-war buildings were created as part of the reconstruction that fit harmoniously into the old town. Today's gate to the old town is the Marstalltor by Louis Remy de la Fosse . It is the preserved central portal of a riding house of the Hofmar stables on the Hohe Ufer . As already mentioned, in the center of the old town is the market church , built in the 14th century, with the market square and the market fountain in Hanover . Together with the old town hall , it is a testimony to the north German brick Gothic . The Broyhanhaus , the Hanns-Lilje-Haus and the Georg-von-Cölln-Haus are in the vicinity of the Marktkirche . The Kreuzkirche in the Kreuzkirchenviertel has a valuable altar painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Ä. ; Opposite her is the Kreuzklappe restaurant . The oldest preserved half-timbered house in Hanover from 1564/1566 is at Burgstrasse 12 . The Ballhof , built between 1649 and 1664, was for a long time the largest event hall in the city and is now one of the venues of the Lower Saxony State Theater. At the Holzmarkt with the Oskar Winter Fountain , next to the Nolte House, which was built shortly before 1900, there is a house with the Renaissance facade of the Leibniz House, which was reconstructed in 1983 (originally built from 1499 on Schmiedestrasse). Of the medieval city defense towers , only the Begin Tower at the Historical Museum has been completely preserved. The old town borders on the Hohe Ufer der Leine, where the Leineschloss and a waterfront promenade with cafes and restaurants that was redesigned in 2018 are located.
The Martin-Neuffer-Brücke leads from the old town to the Calenberger Neustadt . This too suffered severe destruction in the Second World War. Nevertheless, there are numerous representative sandstone buildings and churches here. The baroque Neustädter Church with Leibniz's grave and the Basilica of St. Clemens , the first new building of a Catholic church in Hanover after the Reformation and the Evangelical Reformed Church, whose bells were donated by the British Queen Victoria, still give an idea of why the Calenberger Neustadt was called the "island of freedom". Even then, all denominations and beliefs were allowed. The Lower Saxony Main State Archives and the Ministry of the Environment are also located in Calenberger Neustadt, with the Duve fountain in front of it on the median of the Leibnizufer .
Classicism by Laves
Everywhere in the city center, but also in some parts of the city, one encounters buildings by the master builder Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves . At the beginning of the 19th century he began planning and designing the Ernst-August-Stadt , which is now part of the Mitte district. His largest buildings in Hanover include the Opera House , the Waterloo Column , the Wangenheim Palace and the Laveshaus opposite the New Town Hall. He rebuilt the Leineschloss on the edge of the old town (today the seat of the Lower Saxony state parliament ) and expanded it, among other things, with the portico in Leinstrasse. Other buildings by Laves include the summer house of the chambermaid von Beckedorf, the Villa Rosa and various bridges.
Hanover architecture school
In the middle to the end of the 19th century, the Hannoversche Architekturschule created its own language of form with clinker brick buildings in neo-Gothic and arched styles (for example with the Künstlerhaus Hannover , 1855), which had an impact beyond Hanover and shaped the face of the large tenement districts.
The Brick Expressionism in Hannover in the 1920s and 1930s is mainly represented by the indicator skyscraper of Fritz Höger at Stone Gate, the building of the City Library Hannover in the Hildesheim road and the Capitol -Hochhaus on Black Bears in Linden. Numerous residential buildings of the same architectural style are also located in Südstadt, the List, in Kleefeld and Ricklingen.
Many buildings and districts in Hanover are characterized by Art Nouveau , including the Linden district with Lichtenbergplatz or the Oststadt with Bödeckerstraße, which is also known as Hanover's boulevard. The other districts with numerous Art Nouveau buildings include Döhren, List, Kleefeld and the north and south of the city.
Other historical buildings
Not far from the opera house is the banking district with the Hanover Stock Exchange (built in Tudor style), the Palais Grote , the Hansa House and many other large and representative sandstone buildings.
In 1914 the neoclassical town hall with the domed hall was opened. The Kestnergesellschaft and the headquarters of the radio broadcaster Radio ffn are now located in the Goseriede Bad, built in 1905 . The middle wing, which was destroyed in World War II, was replaced by a new building. Opposite the Goseriede are the Tiedthof , an example of the revitalization of old buildings.
There are three historic windmills in Hanover . There is a post mill from 1701 in Hermann-Löns-Park ; There are also two Dutch windmills built in the 19th century : the Buchholz windmill was built in 1868, the Anderter windmill was built in 1854.
In addition to the churches in the old and the Calenberger Neustadt, there are numerous other historical and modern church buildings in the city area. The oldest existing church in Hanover in the Marienwerder monastery was built with three aisles around 1200 in the Romanesque style . For the neo-Gothic are garden Church of St. Mary in the Mary Street , the Christ Church on Klagesmarkt , the Lutheran Church in the northern city and the Church of the Redeemer in Linden-Süd expected. The St. Elisabeth Church in the Zooviertel has a particularly elaborate interior design. The Aegidienkirche and the Nikolaikapelle remained in ruins after the Second World War and serve as a memorial.
There are a number of towers in Hanover. In addition to the numerous church towers, there are also some towers of the Hanoverian Landwehr : the Döhrener tower , the horse tower and the tower on the Lindener Berg . The Borgentrick Tower opposite the New Town Hall has only been preserved in rudiments and the Lister Tower , which was demolished in the middle of the 19th century , was replaced by a romanticized replica in 1895.
Dieter Oesterlen had a great influence on the architecture of the post-war period , which was shaped by the ideas of the city planning officer Rudolf Hillebrecht , with buildings such as the Historical Museum and the NDR radio station on the Maschsee. He designed the new construction of the St. Martin Church in Linden-Mitte, of which only the tower survived the Second World War.
Examples of contemporary architecture are the 83.52 meter high glass administration building of Nord / LB on Aegidientorplatz and the glass gatehouse on Aegi , the deconstructivist Gehry Tower by architect Frank Gehry and the media center by Alessandro Mendini . The Expo Park Hanover industrial area is located on the outskirts of Kronsberg . Some of the exhibition pavilions and the expansive Expo Plaza have been preserved in it from Expo 2000 .
Monuments, memorials and street art
The Leibniz Temple in Georgengarten is a pavilion that was built from 1787 to 1790 in honor of the universal scholar Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , who worked in Hanover - originally on Waterlooplatz . It is considered the first public monument in Germany for a non-aristocrat.
The also classicist Waterloo Column is a 46.31 meter high victory column on the Waterlooplatz in the Calenberger Neustadt district . It was built between 1825 and 1832 based on a design by Georg Ludwig Laves .
The Reese Fountain, a majolica plant sculpture created by Martha and Hans Poelzig in 1925 , stands on Fritz-Behrens-Allee near the University of Music, Drama and Media on the edge of the Eilenriede . It is a rare example of an Art Deco style fountain . Another fountain by Hans Poelzig can be found in the Great Garden in Dresden.
In the 1970s, the city started an ambitious program for street art in Hanover as art in public space on the initiative of the then city director Martin Neuffer . The best-known and extremely controversial objects at the time are the Nanas by Niki de Saint Phalle on Leibnizufer, set up in 1974 . Over time, the sculpture mile was created between the Leineufer and Königsworther Platz with seven other objects over a length of 1.2 km . Today Hanover occupies a top position in Germany with more than 200 sculptures, sculptures and installations in urban space.
In the 1990s, the BUSSTOPS project created nine bus and light rail stops designed by international designers. These are for example at the Steintor (designer Alessandro Mendini ), at Königsworther Platz ( Ettore Sottsass ), at the Maschsee / Sprengel-Museum ( Heike Mühlhaus ) and at Braunschweiger Platz ( Frank O. Gehry ).
Near the Lower Saxony state parliament is the sculpture group of the Göttingen Seven , which commemorates the protest by seven Göttingen professors against the repeal of the Hanoverian state constitution by King Ernst August I in 1837, in whose honor the Ernst August monument in front of the main train station in 1861 was built. A popular meeting point is the Kröpcke clock in the city center.
The Jewish memorial in Calenberger Neustadt commemorates the 350 Jews who were deported to Riga and Theresienburg in 1941/42. In the Red Row there is the memorial to the memory of the synagogue that was destroyed in the Reichspogromnacht and the memorial for the murdered Jews of Hanover in Georgstrasse .
The largest memorial in the city is the ruins of the Aegidienkirche . It serves as a memorial for the victims of war and violence. Inside is the Peace Bell, a gift from the sister city of Hiroshima, and there is a carillon on the church tower.
Green spaces and recreation
The Hannover Adventure Zoo was opened in 1865 as "Hannover Zoo" and is one of the five oldest zoos in Germany. The development into an adventure zoo began in the mid-1990s. Today there are several differently landscaped themed areas with the names Zambezi (with boat trip and petting meadow), Jungle Palace , Afi Mountain (with jungle house and bird aviary), Meyers Hof , Outback , Mullewapp (with three summer toboggan runs) and Yukon Bay (with underwater world) . They are intended to bring visitors closer to the animals of the world in an environment that is as authentic as possible and at the same time appropriate to the species. There is also the small themed area of the Himalayas , the tropical house, the Amazonia panorama by Yadegar Asisi , the Brodelburg adventure playground and around 20 commented animal feedings and animal presentations every day in the show arena and in the Yukon stadium. 2159 animals in 181 species, for which an area of about 22 hectares is available, attract over a million visitors every year. The adventure zoo has received several awards, including seven times the Parkscout Audience Award for the best zoo in Germany (most recently in 2017).
The zoo in the Kirchrode district , formerly a princely hunting ground, was opened to the public in 1799 and houses 150–200 native animals and numerous plant species on 112 hectares. There is a bird aviary and large enclosures for deer and wild boar. The fallow deer can roam freely in the entire zoo. At the entrance there is a playground and the 1000 year old oak.
One of the most famous sights in Hanover are the Herrenhausen Gardens. The Great Garden is an important European baroque garden . In addition to numerous special gardens are Great Parterre , the Orange floor , the maze and the Nouveau Jardin , the most famous parts of the Great Garden. The large fountain there reaches a top height of up to 71.51 meters, making it the highest garden fountain in Europe. In the Great Garden there is also the grotto, the interior of which was designed by Niki de Saint-Phalle , the two corner pavilions by Louis Remy de la Fosse , the historic garden theater and the gallery building with the Golden Gate, the orangery and the Arne Jacobsen foyer . Herrenhausen Palace , which was destroyed in the Second World War, was reconstructed from 2011 and reopened on January 18, 2013. The Princely House and the Hardenberg House are not far from the Great Garden . The Berggarten is one of the oldest botanical gardens in Germany with around 12,000 plant species. There is the tropics show house , the cactus-display houses , the Orchid show house with one of the largest orchid collections in Europe and the Canary Islands house . In addition to numerous themed gardens, there is also Germany's oldest prairie garden , the Schmuckhof and the Staudengrund , one of the oldest of its kind in Europe. In 2007 the Sea Life Center opened with over 3,500 tropical fresh and salt water fish. Among other things, there is an approx. 8 meter long glass tunnel through the deep sea basin and a replica of the tropical rainforest. The Guelph mausoleum and the library pavilion are also located in the mountain garden . The Georgengarten is laid out in the manner of an English landscape park . In it are the almost two kilometer long Herrenhäuser Allee , the Leibniz temple and the Georgenpalais . In Welfengarten there is the Welfenschloss - today the main building of the university - and in front of it as a sculpture the Lower Saxony horse , the Lower Saxony heraldic animal. In 2015, the Herrenhausen Gardens were the first garden in Germany to be named Europe's best park by the European Garden Heritage Network . In 2018 the Herrenhausen Gardens were visited by around 615,000 guests from around 100 countries.
City forests and city parks
Because of its many inner-city green spaces, Hanover is one of the greenest cities in Germany and advertises as a “green metropolis”. In a ranking by Meinestadt.de in 2011, it came first in Germany, but not in any others, as other cities have more green spaces in terms of area (in total or proportionally) and some rankings do not only count public green spaces. However, Hanover is particularly sustainable in terms of its urban development.
The Eilenriede , a 650 hectare urban forest, is known as the “green lung” of the city. It is home to the Eilenriede forest station environmental education facility (with a lookout tower), two exercise trails , an educational tree trail, eight lawns, 14 monuments, ten playgrounds and the WAKITU play park with a high ropes course. The network of trails in the Eilenriede consists of 80 km of hiking trails, 38 km of cycle paths and 11 km of bridle paths.
Other city forests are the Seelhorst in the south of the Eilenriede, the Große Heide in Bothfeld , the Misburger Wald, the Gaim and the Bockmerholz in Wülferode , the Wettberger Holz, the Bornumer Holz in Badenstedt , the Klosterforst in Marienwerder , the Mecklenheide in the Nordhafen district , the Community wood in Stöcken and the Spannriede in Ledeburg .
Among the historical urban parks include the location next to the city hall city park with the rose garden and the Japanese Tea Garden, the Hermann-Löns-Park in Kleefeld , the Maschpark at the New Town Hall and the Hinübersche garden at Kloster Marienwerder . Among the local parks include the Alte Bult with the Hiroshima-Hain , who in 1986 as a neighborhood park on the site of the former Royal Riding Hall resulting Vahrenwalder Park with perennial plants, lawns and fountains, the botanical school garden in the district of castle and the Old Von Garden in Linden Middle with relics (gatehouses, garden terrace) of the castle of the von Alten family, which was destroyed in 1945 .
The new gardens include the Willy Spahn Park in Ahlem and the Expo Gardens , which were created as part of the Expo 2000 world exhibition . They consist of the gardens in transition , designed by the landscape architect Kamel Louafi , the Expo-Park-Süd and the Parc Agricole . The gardens connect with the landscape of the Kronsberg district, which was newly created for the world exhibition. Kamel Louafi redesigned part of the Opera Square from 2008 to 2010.
Other recreational areas close to the city are the promenades and green areas along the Leine , Ihme and the Mittelland Canal . With the construction of the Benno-Ohnesorg Bridge and flood protection measures on the Ihme, the Ihmeufer in Calenberger Neustadt is being redesigned.
Lakes and swimming pools
The artificial 78 hectare Maschsee is located south of the city center within sight of the New Town Hall . The lake, which opened in May 1936 after two years of construction, is the largest body of water in the city. It has no natural inlet and outlet and is supplied with water from the nearby Ricklinger gravel ponds via a pumping station. Rowing and sailing on the lake are possible through two sailing schools and several clubs. The üstra operates in the summer months with four ships Fahrgastschifffahrt on a circuit. You can swim in the lake on the south bank in the lido. According to a ranking by the travel portal holidu in 2020, the Maschsee is one of the most popular lakes in Germany (9th place out of 3,070). Other lakes with outdoor swimming opportunities are the Altwarmbüchener See and the Sonnensee in Misburg and the Ricklinger Kiesteiche .
There are five indoor pools in the city : Stadionbad , Vahrenwalder Bad, Nord-Ost-Bad, Stöckener Bad and Anderter Bad. There are also the Fössebad in Limmer and the Misburger Bad as indoor and outdoor pools.
Hanover's large cemeteries include the Engesohde city cemetery as the oldest cemetery with many mausoleums and sculptural grave monuments, the Ricklingen city cemetery , the Seelhorst city cemetery (the largest with 63 hectares), the Stöcken city cemetery and the Lahe city cemetery, which was established in 1968 and is therefore the youngest . The garden cemetery , the St. Nikolai cemetery ( one of the oldest buildings in the city with the ruins of the Nikolaikapelle is located here ), the Neustädter Friedhof , the Old Jewish Cemetery on Oberstrasse and the Jewish Cemetery on Strangriede are closed and serve as Park. The same applies to the Lindener Bergfriedhof , which offers a botanical specialty in spring; here the bright blue Scilla blossom blooms across the board as the blue wonder of linden trees .
On the Green Ring , a circular hiking and cycling path established since 1995, you can circle the city of Hanover along the city limits. The Green Ring consists of a base ring of 80 kilometers in length as well as three surrounding loops and two inner loops. The base ring leads through peripheral districts as well as nearby surrounding communities and satellite cities.
Museums and galleries
There are around 40 museums and galleries in Hanover, eight of which are major city museums:
- The Lower Saxony State Museum has three departments: the art worlds show on the one hand the state gallery with European art from the 11th to the 20th century including a collection of German and French impressionism, on the other hand the coin cabinet of the former kings of Great Britain and electors of Hanover. The natural worlds show zoology, botany, geology and a vivarium with 2000 fish, insects, amphibians, spiders and lizards. The human worlds show the prehistory and early history of Lower Saxony as well as cultures from all over the world, including a Japanese tea house . The origins of the museum go back to 1856; today's museum was built in 1902.
- The Historical Museum tells the story of Hanover from the medieval settlement of Honovere to the royal seat and the current trade fair location. One focus is the time between 1714 and 1837, when the Electorate of Hanover was ruled in personal union with the British Kingdom. The neighboring Begin Tower is connected to the museum and is accessible. The museum was opened elsewhere in 1903 as the "Patriotic Museum" and moved to the current building in 1966.
- The Herrenhausen Palace Museum was opened in 2013 and is part of the Historical Museum; It introduces people from the Welfenhaus and garden architecture and illuminates the connection between the social and intellectual prerequisites of the Baroque and mansion garden design. The third part of the museum shows the development of the Herrenhausen Gardens from the Enlightenment to the present.
- The August Kestner Museum, opened in 1889, shows 6000 years of applied art in four collection areas: ancient cultures, Egyptian cultures, the largest coin collection in Northern Germany with around 1000 pieces and applied art.
- The Sprengel Museum opened in 1979 and presents the art of the 20th century. The focus is on classical modernism with the Kurt Schwitters collection , works of German Expressionism and French Cubism , the Cabinet of Abstracts , Graphics and the Photography and Media Department. The museum also shows special examples of Abstract, Conceptual and Minimal Art , Informel and Nouveau Réalisme with the donation from Niki de Saint-Phalle . In 2017 the museum was voted Museum of the Year by art critics of the German section of the International Art Critics Association ( AICA ) .
- The Wilhelm Busch Museum , the German Museum for Caricature and the Art of Drawing in Herrenhausen, shows permanent collections on Wilhelm Busch and on caricature and critical graphics. In addition, there are constantly changing exhibitions (cartoons, comics and caricatures) by contemporary artists from home and abroad. The museum was founded in 1937.
- The Kestnergesellschaft was founded in 1916 and shows exhibitions of classical modernism and contemporary art. The focus is on film, video, contemporary music and architecture, and extensive installations and comprehensive presentations of contemporary painting, sculptures and video art are on display.
- The Kunstverein Hannover , founded in 1832 as one of the first art associations in Germany, is based in the Künstlerhaus Hannover . Six to eight internationally oriented monographic and thematic exhibitions are shown each year.
Other, mainly privately run, museums include the Hanover Theater Museum , founded in 1927 , which has a permanent exhibition on the history of Hanoverian theater from the 17th century to the present day. The visitor gets an insight into the work of the theater workshops as well as opera, drama, ballet and concerts. The EXPOseeum has been the museum of the World Exhibition Expo 2000 since 2001 and is located on its former site. The Hanover Museum for the Blind, which opened in 1995, is the only one in Germany alongside its Berlin counterpart. The Hanover Fire Brigade Museum , which was founded in 1980, shows the history of the Hanoverian fire service and fire protection. The Veterinary Medicine History Museum, founded in 1973, is located in the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover. Textiles from all over the world have been on view in the Museum of Textile Art since 2007 . The 150-year history of energy use has been the theme of the Museum of Energy History (s) since 1979. The book printing museum is set up like a Linden backyard printing press from the 1950s and the Ahlem local history museum has been dealing with the history of this district since 2001. The Potzlach Museum has been showing the works of Walter Reinhardt since 2017 and the Pelikan ink tower shows changing exhibitions on Pelikan's company history, but also other art exhibitions. Over one hundred VW buses on 1,500 square meters can be seen on the Bulli Klassik Tour in the Limmer district. The Ahlem memorial in the former Israelite Horticultural School has essentially documented the history of the Jews in Hanover and in the former district since 1987. Other museums are the Zinnober Children's Museum, which opened in 2014, the Steinhoff Design Museum, which opened in 2012, the Hammer Museum , the Hanover Cemetery Museum (since 2006) and, since 2010, the WOK - World of Kitchen museum .
The art galleries include the Hannover Gallery with a permanent exhibition by Bruno Bruni , the Kunsthalle Faust , the venue for regional art in the House of the Region of Hannover and the Foro Artistico in the ice cream factory . The municipal gallery KUBUS has been a forum for contemporary art since 1965. Solo or group exhibitions, especially by artists from Hanover, are presented.
Theater, opera and dance
In Hanover there are over thirty theaters and a large number of independent theater groups without a fixed venue.
The Lower Saxony State Theater (founded in 1852 as the Royal Court Theater ) is a multi-branch theater . The “Schauspiel” division (called schauspielhannover ) is played by the Hanover Theater and the “Opera” division (called the Hanover State Opera ) is played by the opera house . The “Junge Schauspiel” and “Junge Oper” play on Ballhof one and Ballhof two and the “Cumberland” is used for small productions and readings. Theo Lingen and Wolfgang Völz are among the famous actors who made their debut on Hanover's stages . The NDR Klassik open air in Maschpark was an open-air opera and was organized from 2014 to 2019 and also broadcast on television. In 1688 Agostino Steffani became conductor of the opera. His opera Enrico Leone premiered in Hanover in 1689. From 1831 Heinrich August Marschner was court conductor at the Leineschloss. Two of his operas were also premiered in Hanover.
The new theater opposite the opera house is Hanover's boulevard theater. The Theater am Aegi does not have its own ensemble, is the home of the “Comedy in the Theater am Aegi” and a venue for touring artists .
In addition to the classic theaters, there is a diverse free theater scene. The following theaters have come together under the label “Free Theater Hannover”: “ Commedia Futura ” and “Landerer & Company” in the ice cream factory , the “Theater Fenster zur Stadt” in the old gas station, the “Theatrio Figurentheaterhaus”, the “Klecks -Theater ”in the children's theater house, the“ Theater an der Glocksee ”, the“ theater experience ”in the Studiobühne Kornstraße, the“ theater workshop ”in the theater in the pavilion as well as some ensembles without a fixed venue.
Other independent theaters include the backstage in the Südstadt, the Leibniz Theater, the studio theater of the University of Music, Theater and Media at the EXPO Plaza, the Theater in der List, the Nordstadt Theater in the Bürgererschule, the Hanoverian Kammerspiele in the old magazine, the receiving department on the Faust site and the Wednesday theater on the Lindener Berg .
With the Long Night of Theaters and the Theaterformen festival (alternating with Braunschweig) there are two events that combine several performance locations and ensembles.
Dance and ballet performances are shown by the ballet division of the Lower Saxony State Theater in the opera house . In the free area there is the Compagnie Fredeweß in the Ahrbergviertel . With the dance festival Tanztheater International , the Easter dance days and the international competition for choreographers, there are three international events in the field of dance every year.
Ballhof with Ballhof one
Cabaret and cabaret
Cabaret has been shown (with interruption) at the GOP Varieté Theater in Hanover since the mid-1920s . It is not only the only variety theater in Germany that is still at the original location from the 1920s to 1950s, but also the headquarters of the nationwide GOP Entertainment Group. Not only because of the "GOP" is Hanover a stronghold of the cabaret scene. Numerous stages, such as the Hanover Cabaret, the Marlene, the Kanapee or the Uhu Theater for Cabaret, have specialized in cabaret. The winter variety organized by the GOP takes place every year in the Herrenhausen orangery , and the limelight variety takes place in a circus tent behind the Haus der Jugend. Desimo's Spezial Club in Lindener Apollokino has been offering a stage for comedians since 2002. The small festival in the Great Garden , developed in the mid-1980s, is considered the highlight of the Hanoverian cabaret scene . It is an international cabaret festival with over 100 artists on around 30 stages and takes place annually in July.
Political cabaret has been shown on Hanover's cabaret stage in the Theater am Küchengarten since 1987 .
The “Musical Factory Hannover” in the Sofa Loft was opened in 2017 and is Hannover’s first pure musical theater. The small theater focuses on off-Broadway productions, with the musicals Non (n) sens (2017) and Blues Brothers (2018) shown in the first two seasons . Musical guest performances by various ensembles take place regularly in the “Theater am Aegi” and in the Kuppelsaal, but also occasionally in the ZAG-Arena and the Swiss Life Hall. In the past, the Shakespeare summer musicals by Heinz Rudolf Kunze and Heiner Lürig in the garden theater were particularly well known ( A Midsummer Night's Dream , 2003–2006 under the direction of the Landesbühne Hannover and 2010–2014 under the direction of “Hannover Concerts”; dresses make love or: Was ihr wollt (2007-2008) under the direction of Theater für Niedersachsen and Der Sturm (2011) under the direction of “Hannover Concerts”). In 2018, the duo Kunze / Lürig showed As You Like It, the fourth Shakespeare summer musical, with the Theater am Aegi as the venue. Peter Weck brought the musical Cats to Hanover in 2011 (it was played in a special theater tent on Waterlooplatz), but also the musical Stadtrevue (from 2004 in what was then the Hanover State Theater) was well known nationwide.
Cinema and other leisure activities
The first cinema in Hanover opened on August 18, 1896. Since then, the cinema landscape in Hanover has changed significantly over the years. Before the outbreak of the Second World War, there were 32 cinemas in Hanover, after which there were only nine. The actual wedding began in 1948. More and more cinemas opened and in the 1950s Hanover became the leading film premiere city in Germany. From the 1990s, the cinema died again. Today there are ten cinemas in Hanover, including two multiplex cinemas with ten halls each, on the one hand the Cinemaxx on Raschplatz since 2000 and on the other hand the premium cinema "Astor Grand Cinema" since 2014, which is located in the premises of the 1991 by Hans-Joachim Flebbe opened the first Cinemaxx multiplex cinemas in Germany and closed in 2013. The high-rise light games are a cinema and are located on the tenth floor of the Gazette-tower and with 33.88 meters above street level, the highest cinema in Germany. The cinema on Raschplatz , which opened in 1978, has four halls and was voted the best art house cinema in Germany in 2018. Other arthouse cinemas are the Apollo Cinema in Linden , which opened in 1908, and the PuKi - Push Cinema in Waldheim, which reopened in 2013 after a long break . The communal cinema in the Künstlerhaus , which opened in 1974, and the cinema in the Sprengel , which opened in 1992, are non-commercial cinemas. The University Cinema Hannover has been run by students from Leibniz University for many years. In 2018 the culture kiosk " Lodderbast " opened, Hanover's smallest cinema with 20 seats. According to a ranking published by the consumer portal testberichte.de in 2020, the Lodderbast is Germany's most popular cinema. The “Astor Grand Cinema” also made it into the top 10 with seventh place.
The international up-and-coming film festival has been taking place in Hanover since 1991, and since 2005 the "German Young Talent Award" has been awarded every two years. Further film festivals in Hanover are the international children's film festival Seepferdchen (since 2000) and the gay and lesbian film festival Perlen (since 1997). At the Seh-Fest on the Parkbühne Hanover , films are shown as an open-air cinema in summer .
The city has recreational homes in several districts . Clubs and other groups can rent rooms here for events. They are available in Döhren, Ricklingen, Stöcken, Vahrenwald, at the Lister Tower and in Linden-Limmer . The Linden leisure home is the first leisure home in Germany. There is also the House of Youth in Südstadt, founded in 1951 .
In 2014 UNESCO awarded Hanover the title “UNESCO City of Music”. Reasons for this were u. a. the diverse range of all genres from pop and rock to jazz to early music, classical and new music as well as the numerous jobs in the music industry.
The Lower Saxony State Orchestra of the Lower Saxony State Theater, founded in 1636 as a court orchestra , plays in the opera house . The NDR radio orchestra, founded in 1950, plays classical music as the NDR Radiophilharmonie Hannover and modern arrangements as the NDR Pops Orchestra in the large broadcasting hall of the NDR . Other representatives of classical music are the Hanover Young Symphony Orchestra , the Hanover Court Orchestra , the Musica Alta Ripa chamber orchestra and the La festa musicale baroque orchestra . Furthermore, Hanover has a diverse choir scene, including with the internationally renowned choirs Knabenchor Hanover , Girls Choir Hanover , Bach Choir Hanover and the North German Figural Choir . The dome hall in the HCC is one of the largest classical concert halls in Germany with almost 3,600 seats . With the Leibnizsaal in the HCC and the gallery building in the Herrenhausen Gardens, two further concert halls are available for guest orchestras. The Joseph Joachim International Violin Competition has been held since 1991. Other events have been classical music in the old town since 2001 with over 25 concerts, since 2009 the Hanover Choir Days with almost 50 choirs, the chamber music festival at the University of Music, Theater and Media and, since the late 1980s, the Hanover Opera Ball . The Chopin Society has organized the classical open air in the Georgengarten every year since 1991 and the international piano competition every two years . The Norddeutsche Rundfunk organizes the NDR Musiktag every year with stages all over the city and the Hannover Proms in the dome hall, the latter is also broadcast on television.
From 1710 to 1712 the composer Georg Friedrich Handel was Kapellmeister at the court of Elector Georg Ludwig von Hanover. During this time, Handel wrote a number of vocal duets and conducted palace concerts in the Leineschloss. From 1852 to 1866 Joseph Joachim was royal concertmaster in Hanover. Together with Johannes Brahms , who was often in Hanover at the time, they developed the orchestration for his 1st Piano Concerto , which was premiered in Hanover in 1859. From 1877 to 1879 Hans von Bülow was Hofkapellmeister in Hanover. Hanover was also one of the most important venues for Clara Schumann and Robert Schumann's last trip also led to Hanover.
The German Swing Club Hannover was founded in 1942, which then became the Deutsche Hot Club Hannover from 1946 . When the club stopped its program at the end of the fifties, a new jazz club was founded in 1957, which finally became today's Jazz Club Hannover on Lindener Berg in 1966 . Thanks to the commitment of its long-time chairman Michael Gehrke , Hanover has become a German jazz stronghold. In 1978 the jazz club and Michael Gehrke received honorary citizenship of New Orleans . The jazz festival Enercity Swinging Hannover on Trammplatz is Germany's largest open-air jazz festival with around 40,000 visitors annually and has been held annually on Ascension Day since 1967 . The evening before there is the Jazz Night in the dome hall of the HCC . Other jazz events include a. since 1992 the jazz week Hannover in various clubs, the summer festival of the jazz club Hannover and since 2005 Jazz in June in the Marktkirche. The event series Jazz am Ballhof has established itself in the old town with five concerts a year. There are also regular jazz concerts and sessions in the Tonhalle Hannover , in the Kulturpalast Linden and in the Marlene . In 1985, the Hanover University of Music, Drama and Media was one of the first universities to offer jazz as a subject, after a jazz seminar had already been initiated at the university in 1971. Since 1967, the Hanover Jazz Days have been an integral part of the Hanover jazz scene for almost 30 years. In the mid-1990s, the jazz days for the Hot Advent festival were reduced in size and finally discontinued in 2007.
The Hanover Big Band around the band leader Lothar Krist , which has existed since 1987, and the various music formations of Knut Richter are at home in Hanover. The band After Hours became known through their collaboration with Roger Cicero (from 2004). But the Bourbon Skiffle Company and Axel Prasuhn also come from the Hanover scene. The NDR Bigband , which is actually based in Hamburg, has had its own series of concerts in Hanover since 2018 (in the small broadcasting hall of the NDR). As the first American jazz artist in Germany, Alex Hyde played in Tivoli near Königstrasse in April 1924 . Many jazz musicians later recorded their records at Deutsche Grammophon in Hanover, including the first joint record by German and American jazz artists in 1955. As early as 1948, Northern Germany's first public jam session of the post-war period took place in Hanover. Numerous jazz musicians lived and worked in Hanover, including the trumpeters Jochen Rose (from 1960) and Billy Mo (from the 1970s), the saxophonist Joe Viera (1971–1997), the musician champion Jack Dupree (from 1975) and the blues musician Louisiana Red (from 1981). The vibraphonist Lionel Hampton composed the Eisbein-Boogie in Hanover in 1974 , the first bar of which he immortalized in the city's Golden Book . Bassist Jimmy Woode also worked in Hanover and recorded a CD here with saxophonist Stephan Abel in 2005. Chet Baker gave his last two concerts at the NDR Funkhaus in Hanover in 1988 before he tragically died in Amsterdam. Some jazz musicians have dedicated pieces to Hanover, for example the Hanover Boogie by Trevor Richards , the piece Swinging Hanover by Ferdinand Havlík , the Blues for Hanover by Joe Viera and the pieces Hannover Square and Hannover Place by Lee Konitz . Fritz Rau described Hanover as the "secret capital of jazz".
Rock, pop and more
The hard rock / heavy metal band Scorpions , founded near Hanover in 1965 , later achieved worldwide fame with songs like Wind of Change . The 1970s were musically shaped in Hanover by bands from the hard and progressive rock area, such as Jane , Eloy , Ramses or the Epitaph, which originally came from Dortmund . In the 1980s a scene developed that produced internationally known groups such as Fury in the Slaughterhouse and Terry Hoax as well as Neue Deutsche Welle bands such as Combo Colossale , Hans-A-Plast and Steinwolke as well as soloists such as Heinz Rudolf Kunze . Hard rock and heavy metal were also a topic again and again, as the bands Thunderhead and Sargant Fury , also founded in the 1980s, showed. The techno band Scooter came into being in the mid-1990s . The singer Wyn Hoop represented Germany at the Eurovision Song Contest 1960 and reached fourth place. The singer Lena Meyer-Landrut represented Germany at the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 and the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 . In 2010 she won it with 246 points, and in 2011 she reached tenth place. In 2001, 2013 and 2015 the German preliminary decision for the Eurovision Song Contest and in 2008 the Bundesvision Song Contest took place in Hanover .
Mousse T. has made a name for himself as a representative of the house and disc jockey scene. In the area of lounge music , the Mo 'Horizons honored their city with the title Bosshannover . Other music groups were or are crashing carrier pigeons , Spice , The Jinxs and Marquess . The country musician Gunter Gabriel worked and studied in Hanover. During this time he wrote his first hit. Maybebop was founded in Hanover in 1992. Marc Terenzi , The Kelly Family , John Kay and Spax are among the other musicians who work or have worked in Hanover .
The biggest pop festival in Hanover is the NDR 2 Plazafestival , which takes place together with the N-Joy Starshow . The Ferryman 's Festival has been an open-air festival in Linden with almost 20 bands since 1983 . The Fête de la Musique has also been taking place in Hanover since 2008 . Other festivals are the international club music festival More Fire Festival with 20 bands, the Musik 21 Festival and, since 2015, the open-air hip-hop festival Han'g'over Jam with seven formations.
A committed indie scene can be found in the FAUST cultural center , in the Glocksee, in the Béi Chéz Heinz, the UJZ Kornstraße , the music center and in the Sturmglocke in Nordstadt. The BootBooHook Festival was one of the largest indie pop, songwriter, punk and skafestivals with up to 50 bands until 2012.
From a weekend event in the pavilion in 1995, the Masala World Beat Festival has now become a two-week series of world music events with venues throughout the Hanover region . With over 10,000 visitors annually, it is one of the largest world music festivals in Europe. The international a cappella week has been taking place in Hanover since 2001 and combines several styles.
Concerts take place on Hanover's large and small stages: Gilde Parkbühne Hanover , Swiss Life Hall , Capitol , Pavillon , FAUST , Béi Chéz Heinz, Lux, Strangriede Stage and the Hanover Music Center . The ZAG-Arena and the HDI-Arena are used for large concerts.
Many musicians have made music videos in Hanover. For example Fury in the Slaughterhouse ("Radio Orchid" and "When I'm Dead and Gone"), The Kelly Family (I Can't help Myself), Melanie Chisholm (First Day of my Life), Coldplay (Everglow) , You Silence I Bird (Last Night), Mark 'Oh (Many & Randy), Kool Savas (Krone), Bruno Breitklops (I drive a moped, across Hanover) and Avantasia (Dying for an Angel).
Folk and marching music
For the field of folk music includes folk songs such as The Merry Hanover , in Hanover on a leash or we are still genuine Lower Saxony and instrumental pieces like Hannoversche Guard fighter , Hanover Fair , the Leinetal or Hannoversche king greeting . Marches related to Hanover are the Lower Saxony march , the march of the Hanoverian Cambridge Dragoon Regiment or the march of the Hanoverian Garde du Corps . For 34 years there was the international march music festival Music Parade of Nations . In 2009 the music parade took place for the last time as an independent event.
Emil Berliner from Hanover emigrated to the USA in 1870, where he invented the record and the gramophone in 1887 . In 1898, he and his brother founded the record production company Deutsche Grammophon in Hanover . In 1972 Polygram emerged from it, which then became part of the Universal Music Group in 1998 . The history of the Duesenberg Guitars began in 1986 in Hanover. To this day, among other things, electric basses and electric guitars are manufactured there. Prominent buyers include Bon Jovi and Rod Stewart . The nationally known concert agencies include Hannover Concerts and Pro Musica. With SPV or Peppermint Jam there are also internationally known record labels in Hanover.
Language and literature
The colloquial language in Hanover and the surrounding area is, according to a widespread opinion, “the best standard German”, as it comes particularly close to the standard German language . The linguist Herbert Blume attributes this to the fact that Lower Saxony had the most suitable stock of sounds for the written High German language that was developed from the Saxon office language in the early modern period . Therefore, from the end of the 18th century, standard German would have prevailed as the colloquial language of the urban elite. The Germanist Kristin Kopf, on the other hand, is of the opinion that because of the great difference between the written language and the traditional language of Hanover, the unfamiliar writing was pronounced exactly according to the familiar letter values in accordance with the learning of a foreign language and thus has the distance between written and written - in the south that remains What was said canceled. Around 1800, the spoken language of the northern German royal cities became a general model for the pronunciation of High German, according to Germanist Claus Ahlzweig, and Hanover, as the most prestigious in the middle of the 19th century, established itself as an example, even if Michael Elmentaler and Dieter Stellmacher were on it point out that the colloquial language of Hanover is not "purer" than that of other northern German cities: Hanover's special position - which Karl Philipp Moritz first named in 1792 - is a "language myth". The language situation, which was characterized by Low German, changed when the upper class in the large cities of Hanover and Braunschweig expanded the written language into a colloquial language and gave up Lower Saxony. The grammar was influenced by Ostfälisch , while the pronunciation, according to the DTV Atlas German Language , mixed the Upper Saxon with the Ostfälisch of the region. Low German dialects are rarely spoken in Hanover, but their variants shape the dialects of the city and the surrounding area.
The dialect colloquial language of the city of Hanover is called Hannöversch , a mixture of dialects, sociolects and standard German. It takes, according to the local historian Georg Ludewig elements of the local lingua franca , which formally rather High German and the vocabulary rather Low German - in the local variant of the Calenberger Platts stem and non-German acquisitions in particular from French -. The Germanist Dieter Stellmacher calls this language, which was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries, a "Verbochdeutschtes Platt", which was widely used in Hanover until the First World War . In 1919, Theodor Lessing wrote his joking Jäö or how a Frenchman set out to learn the “roughest” German in Hanover as “Theodore le Singe” and in it he set a monument to the pronunciation of the Hanoverian. Since then, the use has declined, but was still clearly recognizable in speech samples from 1961 according to Elmentaler. In 2012, according to Stellmacher, it was already extinct as a functioning means of communication, even if it was preserved in sprinkles, for example in its parody by the radio comedy duo Siggi and Raner .
In memory of Hanoverian writers, the city awarded the Gerrit Engelke Prize from 1978 to 2005 and the Hölty Prize since 2008 . Buchlust , a trade fair for independent publishers from Lower Saxony and a changing host state, takes place annually in the Künstlerhaus.
In and around Hanover there are also numerous fairy tales that were collected in the 19th century, especially by the brothers Carl and Theodor Colshorn , and later published.
Charlotte Buff , model of Lotte in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's “ The Sorrows of Young Werther ”, moved to Hanover in 1773 to marry August Kestner . Her grave is in the garden cemetery . Wilhelm Busch studied in Hanover from 1847 to 1851, Adolph Knigge published the work “ On Dealing with People ” here in 1788 , Joachim Ringelnatz worked here as a librarian in 1913 and Ernst Jünger's novel “ Die Zwille ” is set in Hanover. Hermann Löns lived in Hanover from 1892 onwards. Erich Maria Remarque worked for Continental AG from 1922 and wrote advertising texts and comics. Heinrich Christian Boie worked as State Secretary in Hanover and Ludwig Hölty spent the last years of his life in Hanover. Karl Jakob Hirsch draws a lively portrait of the Hanoverian society of the late imperial era in his novel Kaiserwetter from 1931.
Hanover has a long brewing tradition. In 1526 Cord Broyhan invented a light, top-fermented beer here, which became one of the city's top exporters. In 1546 he co-founded the brewer's guild , from which the brewery guild developed. There is also the Herrenhausen Brewery , founded in 1868 , which was bought by the Wittinger private brewery after bankruptcy proceedings. Traditional companies such as the Kaiser brewery, the Lindener Aktien brewery or the Wülfeler brewery were closed, but there are two inn breweries (the Ernst August brewery in the old town and Meier's lust for life on Aegidientorplatz ) as well as the Mashsee brewery in the southern part of the city and the Brewery Cooperative Nordstadt is brewing! . The Lüttje Lage , in which beer and grain are drunk from two glasses at the same time , was born from the custom of drinking Broyhan beer with brandy . The other alcoholic specialties of Hanover include numerous spirits from various manufacturers.
Tee-Seeger was founded in 1743, making it the oldest tea shop in Germany. Since 1919 there has been a branch of the Danziger Machwitz coffee , whose coffee roastery has been located at the Marstall since 1950. In 1956 the private roastery was founded by Erhard Ulbrich and in 2012 the Hannoversche Kaffee-Manufaktur .
The Hanoverian cuisine includes the Calenberger Pfannenschlag and the Hanoverian tongue ragout . The Cumberland sauce is a spicy Tafelsoße. The bouillonwurst , which used to be made by the Fritz Ahrberg sausage factory , is now produced by various butchers. A Hannoversche bread specialty is Gersterbrot .
On the edge of the old town, the market hall was reopened in 1954 , in which there are 73 market stalls on 4,000 square meters.
There are over 800 catering establishments in Hanover. The only star restaurant in Hanover currently listed in the Michelin Guide is “Jante”, which opened in 2015 on Marienstraße (chef Tony Hohlfeld) with two stars. It had received one star for the first time in the 2017 Michelin Guide, and the second was added in 2020.
Countless major events take place in Hanover throughout the year. The five biggest festivals are briefly described below:
The Maschsee Festival has been held at the Maschsee every summer since 1986 . The festival is Germany's largest lake festival and offers over 90 live concerts on four stages, around 50 small artists and walking acts , around 20 DJs, fun boat races, duck races, torch-lit swimming and over 50 restaurants, bars and stalls. With around two million visitors, it is Hanover's largest annual festival.
During the entire pre-Christmas period, three large Christmas markets take place permanently . The Hanover Christmas market (first written mention in 1813) with over 200 stalls in the old town consists of four areas: traditional Christmas market around the market church, Finnish Christmas village on Ballhofplatz (since 1999), historical village around the historical museum and the wishing well forest on the Wood market. The Christmas market is visited by over 1.8 million people every year, making it the second largest event in Hanover. In a ranking published by the consumer portal testberichte.de in 2018, the Hanover Christmas market is one of the top 5 most popular Christmas markets in Germany. There are further Christmas markets on Ernst-August-Platz in front of the main train station (40 stalls, since 2000) and on Lister Meile (70 stalls, since 1989). At the Kröpcke is the 18 meter high, largest accessible Christmas pyramid in the world.
The Schützenfest Hannover in July ranks third with over 1 million visitors. It takes place on the ten hectare Schützenplatz on the southern edge of the city center. Today it is the largest shooting festival in the world with around 220 showmen (including around 40 rides and runners, three large festival tents and another five event areas) and a large supporting program . Its origins go back to 1529. With a length of ten kilometers and around 10,000 participants (including riflemen, almost 100 music bands from home and abroad and over 40 floats and carriages), the great rifle march in Hanover is the largest rifle march in the world, depending on the weather there are around 150,000 to 300,000 Roadside spectators.
The Hanover Spring Festival (April) has also taken place on Schützenplatz since 1954 and the Hanover Oktoberfest (September / October) since 1964 . The spring festival is today the largest spring festival in Lower Saxony with 140 showmen (including over 35 rides and rides and a large festival tent) and around 700,000 visitors. Today, the Oktoberfest is the largest Oktoberfest in northern Germany with 120 showmen (including over 30 rides and rides and two large festival tents) and around 600,000 visitors. The Oktoberfest should not be confused with the Hannover Wies'n, which has been taking place in October in a marquee on the Gilde Parkbühne since 2017.
Since 1992 there has been a carnival parade through the city center on the Saturday before Shrove Monday. Around 1,500 carnivalists with floats and music bands take part in the procession, with between 80,000 and 100,000 spectators on the roadside. The carnival parade is the highlight of the carnival in Hanover . In addition to various ceremonial sessions, the carnival program also includes the Kaju-Hansel tournament (a nationwide dance tournament and the Lower Saxony championship in carnival dance sport).
The Lister Mile Festival (since 1974) with around 100 exhibitors and three stages is visited by 300,000 people every year. Other important events are the Festival of Cultures , since 1991 the International Fireworks Competition in the Great Garden and since 2009 the Herrenhausen Art Festival with lots of music and art. The Kronsberg has been the venue of the kite festival Hannover takes off since 1999 . The Hanover Christmas Circus has been held annually on Schützenplatz since 2016 . The May Beetle Meeting , which has been organized since 1983, takes place every year on May 1st in the East Car Park . It is the largest VW Beetle meeting in Europe with around 3000 Beetles and other VW models.
The old town flea market on the Hohen Ufer der Leine has its origins in 1967, making it the oldest flea market in Germany. The market for arts and crafts , which has been taking place since 1996, is also known nationwide.
Hanover has a diverse nightlife. Several centers have emerged, for example the Steintorviertel . In five streets there are around 70 shops, discos , clubs and restaurants, but also brothels and sex cinemas. Another center is the Raschplatz . Various discos, cinemas and restaurants as well as the casino in Hanover have settled on and around the square . The music producer Mousse T. worked for a long time as a DJ in the Raschplatz Club “Palo Palo” . There are bars, pubs and pubs both in the old town (primarily in Kramerstrasse and Bonehauerstrasse) and in the student and trendy districts of Linden and Nordstadt . In 2018, the club “Weidendamm” was voted 2nd among the best clubs for electronic music in Germany. In 1959, the now defunct “Mocambo Club” opened in Hanover, Germany's first discotheque.
With the Sportpark Hannover in the district of Calenberger Neustadt , Hannover has the largest contiguous sports area in a large city in Germany. The Erika Fisch stadium , the sports center (SLZ), the stadium pool and the park stage are located in the 45 hectare area . Hanover has long defined itself as a sports city, as a wide range of sports was / is offered here at a high level. The German Sports Association was founded in Hanover in 1950 .
The most successful football -Verein Hanover is in the Bundesliga , at times in the UEFA Europa League , playing Hannoversche sports club from 1896 e. V. , or “Hannover 96” for short, or die Roten , who is domiciled in the HDI-Arena . The amateurs playing in the Regionalliga Nord are at home in the Eilenriedestadion . Other clubs are the former second division clubs SV Arminia Hannover and OSV Hannover . The club SV Arminia Hannover, known as the Blauen , plays in the Lower Saxony state league and is based in the Rudolf Kalweit Stadium . From 1990 to 1997 TSV Fortuna Sachsenross Hannover was a member of the women's Bundesliga .
The Hannover Scorpions played in the German Ice Hockey League from 1996 to 2013 . In 2013 they sold their DEL license to the Schwenninger Wild Wings . From 2001, the venue for the ice hockey club was the ZAG-Arena (then TUI Arena). The Scorpions have been playing in the Oberliga Nord since 2013 and have played their home games in the Langenhagen ice rink ever since. The Hanover Indians , whose domicile is the ice rink at the horse tower in Kleefeld, are also active in the upper league .
The German Sports Association Hanover founded in 1878, or Hanover 78 for short , was founded in 1878 as the first German lawn sports club; Rugby was a founding sport. The DRC Hannover plays in the Rugby-Bundesliga . Hannover 78 and SV Odin Hannover play in the 2nd Bundesliga . The most successful rugby club in Germany is TSV Victoria Linden with 20 German championship titles. A total of 62 of the 83 German championships held so far have been brought to Hanover by Hanoverian clubs since 1909. In the period from 1909 to 2005, apart from 1913, a Hanover club competed in every championship final that was played.
In handball , TSV Hannover-Anderten was in the 2nd handball Bundesliga from 2007 to 2010 and in the 3rd handball Bundesliga north since summer 2011. TSV Hannover-Burgdorf has played in the handball Bundesliga since 2009 . For women, the HSG Hannover-Badenstedt plays in the 2nd handball Bundesliga . Other former Bundesliga clubs are at the HSG Hannover and the Hannover Police Sports Club ; in the women's SC Germania List and SG Misburg.
Hannover 78 plays in the indoor hockey Bundesliga (men) and in the 2nd field hockey Bundesliga (men) . The DHC Hanover also plays in the indoor hockey Bundesliga (men) as well as in the 2nd field hockey Bundesliga (men) and the 2nd indoor hockey Bundesliga (women).
On January 25, 1862, the first German fencing club was founded in Hanover, which still exists today. In addition to the fencing club in Hanover from 1862 , there are three other clubs that offer fencing .
The Waspo 98 Hannover play since 1983 in water polo - Bundesliga and managed 2012/2013 first Hanoverian Association made it into the group stage of Champions League -Wettbewerbes. The club will host the Final Six of the LEN Champions League in 2019 and 2021 .
The 1st water ski club in Hanover is on a leash . Other water sports clubs are the Paddel Club Hannover in Döhren, the Hannoversche Kanu Club from 1921 at the Maschsee, the Kanu Sport Club Hannover, the Paddelclub Stöcken and the Paddelclub Niedersachsen.
The Turn-Klubb zu Hannover is represented in several disciplines: The fistball team plays in the first Bundesliga. The field of fencing has won various national and international titles. The club is a three-time German master in artistic gymnastics . The women's table tennis team became German team champions in 1960 and German cup winners in 1961.
The Hannover Grizzlies have been playing American football since the 2016 season with the men's team in the Oberliga Nord and the women's team plays in the 2nd women's Bundesliga.
The table tennis club TTC Helga Hannover , founded in 1947, made it to the 1st Bundesliga after four runner-up championships in the 1991/92 season , where it played for the next three years and again in 1997/98. In 2008 the women's table tennis division of Hannover 96 was promoted to the 1st Bundesliga .
The association for physical exercises from 1848 e. V. (VfL) Hannover is the oldest sports club in Hannover and has a wheelchair dance department , whose dance couples are successful on the national and international stage.
Two Hanoverian clubs play in chess in the Oberliga Nord Staffel West: Schachfreunde Hanover and HSK Lister Turm.
The All Sports Team Hannover is a top team in dragon boat sport , which has won over a hundred medals at national and international championships since it was founded in 2000, ten German championship titles in 2012 alone. It was voted “Team of the Year 2013” in Lower Saxony. The 1st DSC Hanover was Germany's first snooker club . Since returning to the 1st Bundesliga in 2014, the club has played first-class and became German champions in 2015. With the billiards department of Hanover 96 and the PBV Anderten , two clubs played in the 1st Bundesliga .
The two sections of the German Alpine Club in Hanover are the Hanover section, founded in 1885 with three club-owned huts, and the AlpinClub Hanover , which was created in 1997 and has no huts of its own and specializes in bouldering and climbing .
The Hannover Marathon is regularly over 15,000 international subscribers in different disciplines one of the largest road race events in Germany. Other major events include a. the Hanover Triathlon, the Hanover City Relay in the Erika Fisch Stadium , the night run and the traditional New Year's stock market run.
Several sporting events take place every year on the Maschsee, including the Hanover International Dragon Boat Festival . From 1952 to 1989, motorboat races were also held on the lake , including world and European championships.
Other sporting events are the Beach Volleyball Cup on Steintorplatz and various wrestling festivals . The election for Disabled Sportsman of the Year takes place every February in the GOP Variete Theater.
In cycling there was the night of Hanover from 1975 to 2011 in the old town . Since 2016 there has been a new edition of the bike race under the name “The New Night of Hanover”. From 2017 the cycling race will be called ProAm Hannover and will include both the nocturnal professional race with a prominent line-up and a day race for everyone.
Hanover has a long equestrian tradition, the Hanoverian horse breed is well known . Well-known events include a. the Trakehner national tournament in the equestrian stadium and the night of the horses (as part of the "Horse & Hunt" trade fair) on the exhibition grounds.
The fireworks of gymnastics is considered Europe's most successful gymnastics show and has been organized since 1989 by the Hannoversche Turn- und Sportfördergesellschaft mbH (a subsidiary of the Lower Saxony Gymnastics Association ). Today the gymnastics show is a guest in many German cities, traditionally in Hanover on New Year's Eve and in the first week of January.
Hannover was one of the venues for the soccer world championship 1974 , the soccer world championship 2006 , the soccer championship 1988 and the ice hockey world championship 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the international ice hockey tournament Germany Cup took place here. In tennis, Hanover was the venue for the ATP World Championship (1996-1999) and the WTA Hanover (1997-2000). In cycling, there was the Hanover Grand Prix on the Hanover-Wülfel cycling track . In November 2010, Hannover hosted the seventh world championships in wheelchair dance with 150 participants. In 2016 the Special Olympics National Games took place in this city.
Religion and belief
According to the 2011 census , 34.7% of the population were Protestant , 13.7% Roman Catholic and 51.6% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. According to a calculation from the census figures for people with a migration background, the proportion of Muslims in Hanover in 2011 was 8.8% (around 44,400 people). At the end of 2019, 28.5% of the population of Hanover were Protestant and 12.4% Catholic. The majority, 59.1%, do not belong to either of the two major Christian denominations. A year earlier on June 30, 2018, 29.5 percent of the population of Hanover was Protestant and 13.0 percent Catholic.
In the old town of Hanover in 1533/34 and in the new town in 1544, the Reformation according to the Lutheran creed was introduced. After that Hanover was a predominantly Lutheran city for many centuries. Catholics and Reformed parishioners could not acquire citizenship in the old town of Hanover until 1800, which is why they built their churches in the new town.
In the Mühlenberg district there is an ecumenical church center that unites the district communities of the Evangelical Lutheran and Roman Catholic district communities under one roof.
The churches of the city regularly organize the Church Night with church concerts and readings.
Evangelical Lutheran Church
The Evangelical Lutheran population of Hanover belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran regional church of Hanover , whose seat is Hanover as well as that of the regional church office . After the Second World War, Hanover became the seat of the church office of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and the church office of the United Evangelical Lutheran Church in Germany (VELKD). Hanover is the seat of numerous organizations in the Hanoverian regional church and the EKD. All regional evangelical parishes of Hanover belong to the City Church Association of Hanover within the eponymous district of the Evangelical Lutheran regional church. In 1949, 1967, 1983 and 2005 the Protestant Church Congress took place in Hanover .
Evangelical Reformed Church
In 1697 a French-Reformed and in 1702 a German-Reformed congregation, which united in 1819. Today this congregation belongs to the Evangelical Reformed Church - Synod of Evangelical Reformed Churches in Bavaria and Northwest Germany . The Reformed Bund is a federation (association) of Reformed churches, parishes, associations and individuals. It is the umbrella organization for around two million Reformed parishioners in the Federal Republic of Germany and is based in Hanover. The World Community of Reformed Churches (WGRK) has had its headquarters in Hanover since January 1, 2014 .
Roman Catholic Church
The Roman Catholic parish that was established in 1665 initially belonged to the Apostolic Vicariate of the North , from 1824 to the Diocese of Hildesheim and with this since 1995 to the newly founded Church Province of Hamburg .
In the course of population growth, industrialization and the flow of displaced people, new communities were separated from the original community, which comprised the entire Hanover region. Most recently there were 43 Catholic parishes in the region. Their number will be reduced by more than half in the near future as a result of mergers.
The ecclesiastical region of Hanover was merged on May 1, 2007 to form the Hanover Regional Deanery. It roughly coincides with the area of the political region of Hanover and has around 157,000 Catholics. The main Catholic church in Hanover and the seat of the regional dean is the provost church of St. Clemens Basilica .
Other churches and Christian communities
The independent Evangelical Lutheran Church has its bishopric and church leadership in Hanover and is represented in the southern part of the city by two parishes. Other free churches are the Apostolic Community , the Koinonia Calvary Chapel Hannover, the Christian Center Hannover, Evangelical Free Churches ( Baptist and Brethren congregations ), the Free Evangelical Congregation , the Evangelical Methodist Church , the Free Church of the Seventh-day Adventists , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) , Mennonites (Baptists) , New Apostolic Church , Christian Fellowship , Jehovah's Witnesses, and Christian Science .
In September 2011 the Old Catholic Church of St. Maria Angelica in Kirchrode was consecrated. In addition to the Russian Orthodox Church and a Serbian Orthodox parish, a Greek Orthodox parish is represented.
There are several mosques and other houses of prayer for the Muslims living in Hanover. The Stöcken city cemetery has a burial ground set up for Muslims. The first mosque building in Hanover is in the settlement area Schwarze Heide of the district sticks since 2008, the Sami Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat .
After the Second World War and the Shoah , new Jewish life slowly emerged in the city. Today there are four Jewish communities with around 6,000 members and three Jewish cemeteries . In 1963 the new synagogue was built on Haeckelstrasse. The Liberal Jewish Community has had a synagogue in the former Gustav Adolf Church in Leinhausen since 2009 .
In 1993, the Vietnamese Buddhists in Germany created the largest structure of its kind in Europe, the Viên Giác pagoda on Karlsruher Strasse in Mittelfeld . In 2007 the Thai community inaugurated its Buddhist temple Wat Dhammavihara Hanover in the Ahlemer Tower . There are also centers of the Tibetan directions , Theravada and Zen Buddhism. Hindu believers inaugurated a temple in an industrial area in the Badenstedt district in 2009 . Most of the believers are Tamils from Sri Lanka .
In order to promote the exchange between the religions there is the event and meeting place House of Religions .
Synagogue of the Liberal Jewish Community of Hanover
Humanists are united in the Humanist Association of Lower Saxony , a belief community and corporation under public law . The Humanist Center in Hanover is the seat of the regional association. Among other things, the association is the sponsor of three day-care centers in Hanover. In addition, the humanists organize a youth group, carry out youth trips as well as cultural and educational events and offer name celebrations, youth celebrations, secular wedding celebrations and funeral celebrations. The regional association is a member of the Humanist Association of Germany .
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2017, the city generated a gross domestic product at market prices totaling 34,100.9 million euros, which corresponds to 80,228 euros per employed person. In 2012, the gross value added at manufacturing costs was EUR 30,743.8 million, which corresponds to EUR 72,330 per person in employment.
Around 300,000 employees subject to social security contributions worked in the city in 2014. Of these, around 189,000 had their primary residence in Hanover. While 54,285 commuters leave the city, 164,892 commuters come into the city every day. This results in a commuter balance of around 111,000.
The purchasing power per inhabitant in Hanover was 21,948 euros in 2014. In the same period, retail sales amounted to 6,960 euros per inhabitant, while the retail purchasing power at 5,931.00 euros per inhabitant was, suggesting a positive shopping tourism in the city. In 2015, purchasing power per inhabitant rose to 22,071 euros, with retail purchasing power of 5,932 euros per inhabitant and retail sales of 6,714 euros per inhabitant
In 2015, total retail sales were worth EUR 3,793.4 million, which means EUR 7,236 per capita, with a retail purchasing power of EUR 6,745 per inhabitant.
The city-based early 2014 a total of 34,198 companies (members of the IHK Hannover ) without the 3,633 salaried production sites , of whom 9,342 in the commercial register registered and 24,856 small businesses . This means that the city of Hanover is home to more than half of all companies in the Hanover region entered in the commercial register (total: 17,485) and half of all companies in the Hanover region that are not registered there (total: 49,081). In 2015, 5,110 craft businesses with 30,759 employees and a turnover of 2.05 billion euros were located in the city.
The largest employers in Hanover include:
- Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, 15,000 employees
- Klinikum Region Hannover (KRH), 8,500 employees
- Continental, 7,800 employees
- Hannover Medical School (MHH), 7,600 employees
- Nord / LB with Deutsche Hypothekenbank, 4,000 employees
- Sparkasse Hannover including subsidiaries, 2,900 employees
- VHV Versicherungen, 2,600 employees at the Hanover location
- Talanx, 2,500 employees
- WABCO, 2,500 employees
In the Hanover region , Deutsche Bahn employs around 5,500 people, and Deutsche Post DHL around 4,400 people.
Various industrial companies are based in Hanover, including the automotive supplier and DAX group Continental AG , Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles , the vehicle system manufacturer WABCO , the construction machinery manufacturer Komatsu Hanomag , the Johnson Controls plant for starter batteries (formerly VARTA ), the tourism group TUI and the abrasives manufacturer VSM United Emery and Machinery Factories . The food industry is represented by Bahlsen , Harry-Brot and the breweries Gilde Brauerei and Herrenhausen Brewery . The cement industry near Hanover , which emerged at the end of the 19th century, is the focus of cement production in Lower Saxony. Its center is in the Misburg-Süd district and neighboring towns.
In the past, other well-known companies were located in Hanover, such as the mining group Preussag , the vehicle manufacturer Hanomag , the chocolate manufacturer Sprengel ( taken over by Stollwerck in 1979 , closed in 2001), the stationery manufacturers Pelikan and Geha , the Deurag-Nerag oil refinery (closed in 1986) and the Deutsche Schallplattenfabrik Grammophon (part of Polygram from 1971 ), closed since 1990. The last headquarters of the mineral oil company and filling station operator Gasolin was also in Hanover until 1971. In addition, PreussenElektra , founded in 1923 , was at times the second largest energy supply company in Germany, which merged with Bayernwerk to form E.ON in 2000 . She is now as Preussen Elektra GmbH newly founded and for the dismantling of nuclear power stations of E.ON Kernkraft GmbH responsible. The Appel Feinkost company was founded in 1879 .
The Hanoverian service companies include a number of banks, financial service providers and insurance companies such as the Norddeutsche Landesbank (NORD / LB), Sparkasse Hannover , Hannoversche Volksbank , ING-DiBa , Bankhaus Hallbaum , Swiss Life Select , VHV , commercial health insurance - KKH , LBS , Mecklenburgische Insurance group , Hannover Re , Hannoversche , HDI Insurance and Talanx . Then there is the tourism group TUI with its subsidiaries TUI Deutschland , 1-2-Fly and Robinson. The Stadtwerke Hannover supply Hannover and the surrounding area with electricity, gas, water and district heating. Other energy service companies are BEB , Gasunie Deutschland , E.ON Energie AG and ExxonMobil . The new economy is represented, for example, by the Internet tire retailer Delticom . The Hanover Stock Exchange was founded in 1785.
The Siemens company had several locations in Hanover. In 1988 Siemens moved to Hildesheimer Strasse in Alt-Laatzen . Hannoverimpuls , founded in 2003, is the joint economic development company of the city and the Hanover region. It supports the founding, settlement and growth of companies in the Hanover business location.
Hanover is a center of the retail trade with a catchment area extending as far as the East Westphalia-Lippe region . The sales area in the city of Hanover is around 885,000 square meters, 285,000 square meters of which in the city center. The inner-city pedestrian zone includes several streets around the Kröpcke . In frequency counts, Georgstrasse ranks third in 2019 and Bahnhofstrasse in eleventh place in 2018 (for technical reasons, Bahnhofstrasse 2019 was not counted) among the most popular shopping streets in Germany. In 2019, Große Packhofstraße took 16 place and Karmarschstraße 18th place. The shopping arcades in the city center are the Ernst-August-Galerie of Hamburg-based ECE Projektmanagement , which opened next to the main train station in 2008 , the Niki-de-Saint-Phalle-Promenade , the “shopping station Hanover ”, the Kaufland shopping center , the Kröpcke-Passage and the Luise gallery with the Langenschen Höfe . With around 300 kiosks (also known as the Trinkhalle in Hanover), Hanover has one of the highest density of kiosks in Germany, some of which are listed. The Lister Meile , Limmerstrasse and Engelbosteler Damm are some of the major shopping streets outside the city center . Small to medium-sized shopping centers have emerged in many parts of the city, including the Klein-Buchholz shopping park.
There are 112 accommodation establishments in Hanover , including 45 hotels , 46 bed and breakfast hotels , 6 inns , and 15 other accommodation establishments (as of 2019). The companies have a total of around 13,770 beds. 56 of the 112 companies are certified, so there are 1 five-star, 25 four-star, 23 three-star, 6 two-star and one one-star hotel. In 2019, the city recorded over 2.3 million overnight stays (2001: 1.2 million, 2006: 1.6 million, 2011: 2.1 million). A small caravan park is located not far from the Herrenhausen Gardens. There is also the tradition of “fair mothers” in Hanover. This tradition goes back to the decision of the British occupying power to organize an export fair in Hanover from 1947. Because of the difficult accommodation situation in the largely bombed-out city, she had called on the population to accommodate trade fair guests. Today hundreds of people make their private living space (private rooms, holiday apartments and houses) available in Hanover via various accommodation agencies, for the most part also outside of trade fair times. These accommodations are not taken into account in the official overnight stay statistics, however, according to a study by dwif-Consulting, these accommodations account for around 0.3 million overnight stays per year. The most important foreign market for Hanover is Great Britain (approx. 43,000 overnight stays), followed by the Netherlands (approx. 29,000), the USA (approx. 28,000), Russia (approx. 23,000), Poland (approx. 22,000) as well as Switzerland and Italy ( approx.20,000 each). In addition, according to a basic study by dwif-Consulting, Hannover has 41 million day visitors per year. With a gross turnover of around 2 billion euros, tourism is one of the most important economic factors for Hanover. As a guideline, it can be said that over 37,000 people in Hanover earn their living from tourism.
For a long time Hanover suffered from a "bulky reputation" and was considered mediocre and boring. The city center was considered faceless, while the residents of the surrounding neighborhoods, some of which were large old buildings, each developed their own way of life. The city has a relatively large amount of open and green space, which is why some reporters ascribe its low “density stress” and relaxation in everyday life. A study by the online portal Zipjet placed Hanover in third place among the most relaxed cities in the world in 2017. In 2018, the booking portal Booking.com listed Hanover as one of the ten emerging travel destinations because of its “many museums, parks and cultural events”. The renowned Location Award was given five times to institutions in Hanover, including twice to Herrenhausen Palace, which was reopened in 2013 after its reconstruction .
The Leine-Heide-Radweg long -distance cycle path , the Kulturroute cycle path , the Grüner Ring circular cycle and hiking path , the Lower Saxony Mühlenstraße and the Via Scandinavica pilgrimage route are important tourist routes that run directly through Hanover.
Hanover is the seat of the Lower Saxony state government and the Lower Saxony state parliament . The headquarters of the THW regional association of Bremen and Lower Saxony, the Federal Agency for Technical Relief , the Lower Saxony regional command of the Federal Armed Forces and the Lower Saxony State Criminal Police Office are also located here . Two federal authorities have their headquarters in Hanover, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials and the Federal Plant Variety Office . In addition, the Federal Highway Agency has one of its four locations in the city. The Hanover Police Department is responsible for the city and region of Hanover . The Deutsche Bundesbank is represented in Hanover with its headquarters in Bremen , Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt . The social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG) has an office in Hanover.
Trade fairs and congresses
Hanover has been a trade fair city since 1947 and today has the largest exhibition center in the world. Deutsche Messe AG is the operator of the exhibition grounds . Around 60 trade fairs and specialist events are held here every year, and around two million people visit them every year. The world 's leading trade fairs include the Hannover Messe in spring and Interschutz , Domotex , EuroBLECH , Agritechnica , LIGNA , EuroTier , IAA Commercial Vehicles and, alternating with Milan, EMO and alternating with Stuttgart and Cologne, Didacta . Europe's leading trade fairs include the eroFame, Horse & Hunt , Labvolution , Tire Technology Expo, the IdeenExpo and each alternating with Nuremberg, the elderly and the EUHA Congress & Exhibition . Nationwide leading trade fairs are the Infa , the Deutsche Junggeflügelschau and, alternating with Munich, the bpt Congress & Trade Fair . Other trade fairs include the ABF , the BIG , the Merchantday, the Micromobility EXPO, the tuning fair Performance & Style Days , the Hund & Co. and the Bio Nord. The Supreme Heimtiermesse and Cosmetica take place in Hanover as well as in various other German cities. The Robotics Congress is one of the annual congresses. In 2000 Hanover hosted the world exhibition Expo 2000 . With around 18 million visitors, there were significantly fewer visitors than expected, but it is still the most popular event in Germany to this day. From 1957 to 1990 Hanover also hosted the ILA . The CEBIT was held from 1986 to 2018 and was for many years the world's largest computer fair. After the end of CEBIT, with the Twenty2X , the 5G CMM EXPO , the TECHTIDE and the Gamesession Hannover, four new events were launched, each of which covers individual sub-areas from the computer and digital sectors.
In the Hanover Congress Centrum (HCC), which opened in 1914, around 1,000 events with around 400,000 visitors are held annually, including numerous congresses and smaller trade fairs (including the Maker Faire Hanover and the Hanoverian Edelsteintage ).
Numerous other trade fairs and congresses will not take place on the exhibition grounds or in the HCC. This also includes the traditional art and antiques fair in the gallery building in the Herrenhausen Gardens, which has had many organizers and names in recent decades.
Radio and film
The state broadcasting house of the NDR is located on Maschsee, where among other things the regional magazines Hallo Niedersachsen and Niedersachsen 18.00, the travel magazines Nordtour and Nordseereport and since 2011 also the 21:45 edition of NDR Info (previously: NDR Aktuell) are produced. From 2006 to 2020, the NDR also recorded a talk show in Hanover, first in the Königliche Reithalle , then from 2008 in the NDR studio on the exhibition grounds. The talk show had different names over the years: “Herman and Tietjen” (2006–2007), Talk mit Tietjen (2007), Die Tietjen and Dibaba (2008–2009), Tietjen and Hirschhausen (2009–2014), “Bettina and Bommes ”(2015–2017),“ Tietjen and Bommes ”(2017–2019) and“ NDR Talk Show ”(2019-2020). ZDF's “Lower Saxony State Studio” is also located on Lake Maschsee . The TVN Group produces the NDR game show BINGO! In four television studios . and the Sat.1 regional magazine 17:30 live . RTL Nord and Sat.1 Northern Germany operate regional studios in the Anzeiger high-rise. The TV + TV production produces television programs for the NDR, the AZ Media for RTL and n-tv . The ARD.ZDF medienakademie operates one of the two German training centers in Hanover. The TV shopping channel Channel 21 (formerly RTL Shop) is also located here. There is also the non-commercial citizens' television h-eins . The X-City media produce passenger television in several German cities. Hanover is and has also regularly hosted major television entertainment shows, for example One Will Win at least seventeen times , Wetten, dass ..? was eight times, The Dome four times, Melodies for Millions and Welcome to Carmen Nebel three times each, music is the trump card and the Star Parade twice each and once each of the Musikantenstadl and Show & Co. with Carlo . In Hanover, contributions were also made several times for Do you understand fun? filmed and, in 2000, an episode of the ZDF series The Literary Quartet . Other television programs that are or have been regular guests in Hanover include Quiz Taxi , Shopping Queen and The Perfect Dinner . The talk show Tacheles - Talk at the Red Table was recorded from 1999 to 2006 and from 2009 to 2014 in the Marktkirche. In 2010 the multi-part NDR variety show The Thomas & Helga Show was recorded in the Werkhof.
Opened in August 1967 in West Germany and West Berlin introduced PAL - color television system was at Telefunken in Hannover under the direction of Walter Bruch developed and presented at the beginning there 1,963th
Film funding is operated by Nordmedia Niedersachsen / Bremen . More than 90 cinema and television films have already been shot in Hanover (as of 2019). The crime scene is one of the most famous productions , including some scenes from the first episode Taxi to Leipzig ; from 1974 to 1977 Heinz Brammer ( Knut Hinz ) investigated , from 2002 to 2017 Charlotte Lindholm in and around Hanover. The crime scene team Falke and Grosz also investigated in Hanover in 2016. Two films in the Stahlnetz crime series were shot in Hanover in 1962 and 1999, as was the first season of the children's series Hallo Spencer . In addition, all 626 cartoon episodes of the series Breakfast at Stefanie's were produced in Hanover. The cartoon series Freese 1 an alle , a spin-off of the radio comedy series Wir sind die Freeses , has been produced in Hanover since 2015 . The television films made in Hanover include The Man Who Can Do Everything (2012), My Old Friend Fritz (2007), Family Committed (2015) and Willi and the Windzors (1996), the feature films 23 - Nothing is as it seems (1998), Yella (2007), Playground: Love (2013) and The Surprise (2014). Parts of the four-part The Big Bellheim (1992) and the three-part Every Years Again - The Semmeling Family (1976) were shot in Hanover. The silent film The Face of a City , shot in Hanover in 1932 , was also shown on ocean liners (the film was subtitled in English and Spanish). The company Ambient Entertainment produces animated films for the cinema in Hanover, for example Back to Gaya (2004), Urmel aus dem Eis (2006) and Conference of the Animals .
Major radio stations in Hanover are NDR 1 Niedersachsen , Hit-Radio Antenne and Radio ffn . At the latter, among others, Oliver Kalkofe , Oliver Welke and Dietmar Wischmeyer started their careers with Frühstyxradio . There is also the private local radio station Radio Hannover and the non-commercial local radio Radio Flora , which has only been broadcasting as Internet radio since April 2009 .
The daily newspapers Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung and Neue Presse appearing in Hanover are published by the Madsack publishing company. There is also the local edition of the Bild newspaper . The German Press Agency ( dpa ) operates a state service office in Hanover. The Heise publishing house , the Vincentz-Verlag and the Schlütersche publishing houses distribute magazines and telephone directories. The T3N magazine of the Yeebase publishing house is also located in Hanover. Rudolf Augstein founded the magazine Der Spiegel in Hanover in 1947 , and the following year Henri Nannen founded the magazine Stern in Hanover .
The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University of Hanover in the north of the city goes back to the Höhere Gewerbeschule, which opened in 1831 and from which the Royal Technical University developed, which was elevated to a technical university in 1899. After the Second World War, the University of Horticulture and Regional Culture and in 1968 the Hanover University of Education were incorporated.
The Hannover Medical School (MHH) was founded in 1965. The organizational structure of the MHH differs from that of a classic university and is based on the departmental structure of American universities. The individual departments of the MHH were assigned to centers, which in turn are grouped into four sections (preclinical subjects, large clinical subjects, small clinical subjects, clinical-theoretical subjects). The MHH works together with the neuroscientific research institute International Neuroscience Institute founded by Professor Madjid Samii .
The University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover was opened as the Royal Roß-Arzney School in 1778 and elevated to a university in 1887. It is the oldest university in Hanover and is now part of the Hanover Science Initiative .
The Hanover University of Music, Drama and Media goes back to the State Music School and the private Hanover Drama School, which both received the status of an Artistic and Scientific University in 1978. The university also includes the Institute for Journalism and Communication Research and the European Center for Jewish Music in the Villa Seligmann . Famous graduates are Ulrike Folkerts and Katja Riemann .
The Hanover University of Applied Sciences (until 2010 Hanover University of Applied Sciences ) emerged from various institutions, including the Werkkunstschule, the engineering academy and the Nienburg State Building Trade School. In 1978 the information and communications department was added. The university is divided into five faculties: Faculty I (electrical engineering and information technology), Faculty II (mechanical engineering and bioprocess engineering), Faculty III (media, information and design), Faculty IV (economics and computer science) and Faculty V (diakonia, health and Social). The latter emerged from the Protestant University of Applied Sciences , which was incorporated into the former University of Applied Sciences in 2007.
Other universities are the University of Applied Sciences for Business , the Municipal University for Administration in Lower Saxony , the FOM - University of Economics and Management , the GISMA Business School , the Leibniz University of Applied Sciences at the Expo Plaza and the University of Applied Sciences for SMEs .
Libraries and Archives
The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library is the state library of Lower Saxony and at the same time a scientific library with a large exhibition and cultural program. It is the former royal library with an important collection of old prints and manuscripts dating back to 800 AD. Leibniz's estate is located here . His letters, which have been part of the UNESCO World Document Heritage since 2007 (UNESCO Memory of the World program ), are kept here, as is the Golden Letter (a UNESCO World Document Heritage since 2015) and parts of the Monseer fragments .
The Technical Information Library (TIB) is the German central specialist library for technology and natural sciences. With its specialist libraries, it also fulfills the role of the university library for the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University of Hanover .
Hanover is the seat of several archives, including the Lower Saxony State Archives , the City Archives Hanover , the State Church Archives of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hanover , the University Archives Hanover, the Leibniz Archive in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, the library and the archive of the Federal Institute for geosciences and raw materials and the press archive of the Madsack publishing group .
Other research and educational institutions
The Geozentrum Hannover consists of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials , the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics . The Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Hanover branch, is located on the campus of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University in Hanover. The Lower Saxony Criminological Research Institute is headed by the former Lower Saxony Minister of Justice, Christian Pfeiffer . The Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine is located near the Medical University. Research, development and consulting in the field of laser technology are carried out by the Laser Zentrum Hannover .
The state education center for the blind in Hanover is a social institution in the state for the visually impaired and the blind. Institutions for general education are the Volkshochschule Hannover and the educational association for social learning and communication .
In September 2012, the pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim opened the European Research Center for Animal Vaccines, Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center .
In addition to the Medical University (MHH), there are other hospitals in Hanover under different sponsorship. The Klinikum Region Hannover network includes the Klinikum Nordstadt , the Klinikum Oststadt-Heidehaus and the Klinikum Siloah . The Linden Dermatology Clinic was integrated into the MHH on April 1, 2011. Church sponsors include the Friederikenstift with the accident clinic, the Henriettenstift and the Vinzenzkrankenhaus . There are also some private clinics, such as the International Neuroscience Institute , which is part of Asklepios .
Hanover is located at the transition from the north German lowlands to the mountains of Lower Saxony , not far from the city the Leine valley emerges from the low mountain range threshold. Therefore, important traffic axes of the north-south direction intersect here with those of the east-west direction. The old trading route Hellweg before Santforde ran south of the city. Statistical studies show that Hanover is exceptionally easy to reach. Furthermore, Hanover was the first city in Lower Saxony to introduce environmental zones on January 1, 2008 in order to reduce the fine dust and nitrogen dioxide content in the air. Since then, the limit value for the annual mean values that has existed since 2005, which is 40 µg / m³, has always been complied with.
In addition to Dresden, Hanover has the only traffic accident research that works independently of insurers and the police. This unit investigates traffic accidents in the entire Hanover region and has existed since the 1970s. It is affiliated with the trauma surgery department of the Hannover Medical School.
Local public transport (ÖPNV) had a share of 19% in the choice of means of transport among the inhabitants of the city of Hanover (data from 2011; motorized individual transport (MIV) 38%, pedestrians 25%, cyclists 19%). Compared with other major German cities for which current data was available, Hanover, together with Bremen , had the highest share of cycling, the lowest MPV value after Munich and the highest share of public transport in the choice of means of transport to Berlin and Munich with 21% each. Compared to 2001, there was a clear increase in bicycle and public transport, a strong decrease in motorized traffic (2001: 44%) and a lower decrease in pedestrian traffic (2001: 28%).
The A 2 federal motorway ( European route E 30 ) and the A 7 ( E 45 ) meet at the Hannover-Ost motorway junction . In addition, the A 37 and A 352 as well as the federal highways B 3 , B 6 , B 65 , B 217 , B 441 , B 443 and B 522 run through the city of Hanover . Around the center there is a U-shaped network of expressways designed as motorways : West Schnellweg , Südschnellweg and the Messeschnellweg to the east . The north bypass (“Niedersachsenring”) planned in the 1950s was not implemented. With the system of wide streets implemented in the 1950s to bypass the city center (today Cityring ), which were originally connected with large roundabouts, Hanover made it to the title of Spiegel with the title The Miracle of Hanover . In 1825 Hanover was the first city on the European continent where the streets were lit with gas lamps. A supply contract was signed with the Imperial-Continental-Gas-Association for the supply of the luminous gas . In 1902, the world's first mobile fire-fighting train was handed over in Hanover . The small car 2/10 HP , derisively called “Kommissbrot”, was produced by Hanomag from 1924 and was one of the first cars to be produced on an assembly line in Germany.
The first train station was opened in Hanover in 1847. Numerous renovations and new buildings have taken place over the years. The main station in its current form was built in 1879. Today it is a long-distance hub of the first category . With 280,000 travelers and visitors per day, it is one of the ten most frequented train stations in Germany. The main station links u. a. the railway lines Hamburg - Kassel , Dortmund - Berlin and Bremen - Magdeburg . Long- distance trains of the Deutsche Bahn , the ÖBB Nightjet , the UrlaubsExpress (Train4you) and the Flixtrain stop here all year round . There are also ten S-Bahn stations. The last central freight yard in Hanover is the Hanover-Linden freight yard . In addition, there are four other freight stations, some of them small, and one depot . From 1846 to 1931, Hanomag built steam locomotives and in 1880 one of the first motorized locomotives was built. Railway wagons were built at HAWA for around 30 years. In 1930 the rail zeppelin was built in the Hanover-Leinhausen repair shop .
Hanover has a well-developed local transport network. The Üstra operates the 1975 opened light rail Hanover . It emerged from the Hanover tram and today operates 12 regular and two event lines on a 127-kilometer route network with 197 stations, including 19 tunnel stations. The Hanover S-Bahn is operated by DB Regio and was opened in 2000. It emerged from the City-Bahn and today uses 7 regular, two Sprinter and one special trade fair lines on a 385-kilometer route network with 74 stations, including a tunnel station. The DB Regio, Metronom Eisenbahngesellschaft (also with their Enno brand ), Westfalenbahn and Erixx also operate eight regional and regional express lines. Together with over 150 bus routes of the üstra and the RegioBus , they ensure the local public transport (ÖPNV) of the city and the surrounding area. The collective tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Großraum-Verkehr Hannover (GVH) applies to all local transport buses and trains .
In 1975 the first central bus station was built in Hanover. In 2014, a new central bus station in Hanover (ZOB) was opened on the opposite side, replacing the old one. Over 30 long-distance and coach companies head for destinations throughout Germany and Europe.
In the Middle Ages, the pile was an inland port on a leash at the gates of Hanover. From the end of the 14th century to the beginning of the 16th century, the port had a certain importance in shipping from Hanover to Bremen. The name of the former restaurant Bremer Schiff testifies to the former importance of the shipping connection. In the 18th century the pile was moved to Linden, from where shipping was still operated until the middle of the 19th century. The Leinehafen was opened in 1917 . Although the port ceased operations at the end of the 1930s, Hanover nevertheless became one of the most important inland port locations in northern Germany. Today, the Mittelland Canal connects Hanover for inland shipping via other canals with the Ruhr area, Hamburg and Berlin. The Anderten lock , which was the largest inland lock in Europe when it opened in 1928, overcomes a fall height of 14.7 meters in its two lock chambers .
The “City Ports of Hanover” operate four port locations in Hanover. Nordhafen and Brinker Hafen are located directly on the Mittelland Canal. The Hannover-Linden branch canal branching off in Seelze ends after eleven kilometers in Linden harbor . The Misburg port is located on the Misburg branch canal, which branches off from the Mittelland Canal. In 2018, over 1.2 million tons of shipping goods and over 2.3 million tons of rail goods were handled, with container handling totaling around 77,000 TEU .
In addition to the four industrial ports already mentioned, the ports of Hanover include several other inland , yacht , sports and operating ports on the Mittelland Canal, the Linden canal, the Leine connecting canal, the Leine, the Ihme and the Misburg canal.
Passenger shipping has been in operation in Hanover since 1873 . For many decades, the investor in the Black Bear on the Ihme was the main investor . Since 2008 it has been replaced by the pier at the Leinertbrücke, also on the Ihme. Two other quays in the city are located on the Mittelland Canal in Vahrenwald and at the Nordhafen. Passenger shipping is also operated on the Maschsee, where there are six berths along the shore. In isolated cases, Hanover is also approached by river cruise ships via the Mittelland Canal .
In 1790 Jean-Pierre Blanchard took off in a balloon for a demonstration flight in Hanover and was made an honorary citizen of Hanover immediately after landing. In 1912 the first airship ( LZ 11 ) landed on the Große Bult and marked the beginning of commercial aviation in Hanover. The first Hanoverian flight week took place on the Große Bult as early as 1910. From 1913 to 1933, Waterlooplatz was the traditional launch site for free balloons with many mass launches. Hanover has been connected to the scheduled aircraft network since 1919. The first official airport in Hanover from 1919 was the HAWA works airport in Linden, which had been in use since 1915. HAWA built the HAWA Vampyr and the Hannover CL type fighter aircraft here . In 1928, Linden Airport was replaced by Hanover-Vahrenwald Airport, which had been in operation since 1907. The aviation pioneer Karl Jatho had been working on flying machines here since 1900 at the latest, and in 1907 he laid a paved runway. In 1909 he carried out his first powered flight, confirmed by the press, with the "Hang Glider No. 4" (allegedly he had a powered flight as early as 1903), later built several other types of aircraft (including the Stahltaube and the Jatho monoplane) and opened a flying school the Hanover aircraft factory. From 1912 to 1928 the airport was mainly used by the military, so in addition to the facilities for combat aircraft there was also a zeppelin hall from 1914 to 1917 (around 10 army airships were stationed in Hanover). In 1932 Hanover was one of the stops on Elly Beinhorn's solo flight around the world. Between 1933 and 1935, postal rockets were also tested in Hanover under the direction of Albert Püllenberg , using part of the airport site, which was known as the "rocket port". The end of the Second World War was also the end of the airport in Vahrenwald. Today's Hanover-Langenhagen Airport was opened in 1952, in particular because of the Hanover Fair, which took place from 1947 . Today (as of August 2018) there are flight connections to Germany's international hub Frankfurt am Main as well as to over 85 other national and international destinations in scheduled and tourist traffic. Over 35 airlines fly to the airport, which in 2019 handled around 6.3 million passengers and around 18,000 tons of air freight and air mail. The airport is Northern Germany's leading airport for tourism and the home base of the airline TUIfly . In cargo traffic, the airport is an air gate of TNT Express and overnight airmail location . In addition, the Lower Saxony police helicopter squadron and “ Christoph Niedersachsen ” are stationed at the airport, and the airport serves as an alternative airport for the military alarm groups in northern Germany. For many years there was an airfield right on the exhibition grounds. In the early years, general aviation aircraft landed there , later it was replaced by a heliport, which was then closed in 2012.
The proportion of bicycle traffic in the modal split in the inner-city area is 19%. The city would like to increase this proportion in the future. Tempo 30 zones are often set up in residential areas . Bicycle roads have been laid out in some places . Bicycle taxis operate in the city center in the summer months . According to the bicycle climate test published by the ADFC in 2019, Hanover ranks second among the most bicycle-friendly cities in Germany (category: over 500,000 inhabitants).
All of Hanover's pedestrian zones together have a length of 40 kilometers (almost as much as Berlin), and in relation to the total length of all streets in Hanover, Hanover ranks third among the cities compared in 2018.
People who make a contribution to Hanover are awarded honorary citizenship . Originally, they were granted free civil rights . Honorary citizens include Georg Friedrich Grotefend (decipherer of cuneiform script ), the national liberal politician Rudolf von Bennigsen and Reich President Paul von Hindenburg , who lived in Hanover from 1911 to 1914 and from 1919 to 1925.
Since the Second World War, a total of ten personalities have received honorary citizenship, including the former Federal Chancellor and Prime Minister Gerhard Schröder and the artist Niki de Saint Phalle . The long-standing Lord Mayor Herbert Schmalstieg has been honored as the last honorary citizen to date since February 2, 2007 .
Born in Hanover
- The master brewer Cord Broyhan was the inventor of a new light beer.
- The siblings Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel and Caroline Herschel were researchers and astronomers.
- The mathematician Ferdinand von Lindemann succeeded in proving in 1882 that it is impossible to square the circle .
- The brother of the inventor of the record and the gramophone Emil Berliner , Joseph Berliner , founded the world's first gramophone factory in Hanover .
- Theodor Lessing and his wife Ada Lessing , who was born here, founded the adult education center in Linden .
- The artist Kurt Schwitters developed his form of Dadaism in Hanover .
- The political philosopher Hannah Arendt was born in the then independent Linden and spent the first years of her life in the city.
- Curt Frankenstein , later American visual artist, grew up on the Eilenriede .
- The serial killer Fritz Haarmann committed 27 murders in Hanover.
- The Gerrit Engelke Prize awarded by the City of Hanover until 2007 commemorated the poet Gerrit Engelke .
- Rudolf Augstein founded the magazine Der Spiegel in Hanover in 1947 .
Other native Hanoverians are the playwright Frank Wedekind , the artist and writer Karl Jakob Hirsch , the aviation pioneers Elly Beinhorn and Karl Jatho , the physicist and co-discoverer of quantum mechanics Pascual Jordan , the first German graduate engineer Ilse ter Meer , the dance avant-gardist Mary Wigman as well as the actors August Wilhelm Iffland (the Iffland-Ring is named after him) and Theo Lingen .
Well-known native Hanoverians today include Ernst August Prinz von Hanover , cartoonist Uli Stein , director Doris Dörrie , authors Friedhelm Klassung and Alexa Hennig von Lange , actors Renate Becker , Otto Sander , Kai Wiesinger and Maria Schrader , the painter Heimar Fischer-Gaaden , the soccer players Fabian Ernst and Per Mertesacker , the racing cyclist Grischa Niermann , the singers Klaus Meine and Mark Morrison , the comedian Oliver Pocher , the conceptual artist Manfred Kohrs , the singer Lena Meyer-Landrut and the politician Annalena Baerbock .
With Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz one of the famous philosopher and polymath lived his time in Hanover. The architect Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves shaped Hanover in the classicism style. The founder of the Hanover School of Architecture, Conrad Wilhelm Hase , moved architects such as Paul Rowald and Edwin Oppler to Hanover in the 19th century . The post-war architecture of the city shaped Dieter Oesterlen . Other Hanoverians who moved here included the center politician and minister Ludwig Windthorst , the draftsman, painter and poet Wilhelm Busch , the painter and graphic artist Ernst Marow , the painter, draftsman, graphic artist and sculptor Kurt Sohns , the cultural politician Adolf Grimme ( Grimme Prize ) and the inventor of the PAL system Walter Bruch .
Currently living in Hanover are the former Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder , the former Federal Minister Edelgard Bulmahn , the sociologist and political scientist Oskar Negt , the Hungarian musician and director of the European Center for Jewish Music Andor Izsák , the cabaret artist Matthias Brodowy and the music producer Mousse T.
- Klaus Mlynek , Waldemar R. Röhrbein : Hanover Chronicle . Schlueter, Hanover 1991; online part 1: 18,000 BC Chr. To 1988 ( PDF; 1.6 MB ), online part 2: 1989 to 2003 ( PDF; 1.5 MB ), online part 3: 2016 to 2017 ( PDF; 184 kB ).
- Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein (ed.): History of the city of Hanover. 2 volumes. Schlüter, Hannover 1992 and 1994, ISBN 3-87706-351-9 and ISBN 3-87706-364-0 .
- Imre Grimm , Dirk Meußling: The new Hanover. Schlueter, Hannover 2002, ISBN 3-87706-671-2 .
- Karl Johaentges , Udo Iwannek: Hanover is the most beautiful city in the world. KaJo, Hannover 2005, ISBN 3-925544-29-1 .
- Michael Schwibbe, Hans Starosta, Andreas Stephainski: Time travel - 850 years of life in Hanover. Madsack, Hannover 2005, ISBN 3-7860-0522-2 .
- Oliver Falkenberg, Linda Sundmaeker: Hanover - A portrait. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2008, ISBN 978-3-86108-469-3 .
- Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein (ed.): Stadtlexikon Hannover . From the beginning to the present. Schlueter, Hannover 2009, ISBN 978-3-89993-662-9 .
- Bernd F. Gruschwitz: Hanover. The capitalcity. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2015, ISBN 978-3-8378-3006-4 .
- Michael Narten : Michael Narten's journey through Hanover. Leuenhagen & Paris, Hannover 2018, ISBN 978-3-945497-09-8 (comparison of historical and current photos).
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