|region||Normandy ( prefecture )|
|Department (no.)||Seine-Maritime (76)|
Rouen-1 (main town)
Rouen-2 (main town)
Rouen-3 (main town)
|Community association||Métropole Rouen Normandy|
|Residents||111,360 (January 1, 2018)|
|Population density||5,199 inhabitants / km²|
|Post Code||76000, 76100|
Rouen [ ʀwɑ̃ ] ( , Latin Rothomagus , Old Franconian / Old High German Rodomo, Rudaburg, Old English Roðem, Old Norse Ruþaborg ) is a municipality and port city with 111,360 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2018) in northern France . It is the seat of the prefecture of the department of Seine-Maritime , the region Normandy and the Archdiocese of Rouen , Primate of Normandy and the municipal association Métropole Rouen Normandie .
Rouen is located in northern France on the lower reaches of the Seine , about 80 kilometers inland, 110 kilometers northwest of Paris and 68 kilometers southeast of Le Havre at an average altitude of 77 meters above sea level . The Mairie stands at a height of 15 meters above zero. Neighboring municipalities of Rouen are Mont-Saint-Aignan in the north, Bois-Guillaume and Bihorel in the northeast, Bonsecours in the southeast and Le Petit-Quevilly in the southwest. The municipality has an area of 2138 hectares. The Cailly , the Robec and the Aubette are tributaries of the Seine that flow into the Seine in the urban area.
The municipality is assigned to a climate zone of the type Cfb (according to Köppen and Geiger ): warm, moderate rainy climate (C), fully humid (f), warmest month below 22 ° C, at least four months above 10 ° C (b). There is a maritime climate with a moderate summer.
Rouen has 111,360 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2018). The birth rate in Rouen was 13.8 per mille from 1999 to 2009 and the death rate was 8.2 per mille. The number of households was 67,558 in 2009, of which 60,271 were main residences , 1,202 second residences and 6,085 apartments were vacant.
For the Neolithic period from the 9th to 6th millennium BC First traces of human settlement. Agriculture and cattle breeding are in the period from the 5th millennium BC onwards. Proven. The Allée couverte by Mauny located here is the only gallery grave in the Seine-Maritime department. The Rouen dugout canoe was discovered in the 1990s .
During the Gallo-Roman period (52 v. Chr. To 486) Rouen was under the name Rotomagus the civitas of the Celtic tribe of Veliocasses . From the Roman road network, the Cardo maximus can still be found in the streets rue Beauvoisine, rue des Carmes and rue Grand-Pont. He crossed with the less visible Decumanus at the cathedral. An amphitheater was located at the northern end of rue Jeanne d'Arc near the Joan of Arc tower. The city has been the seat of a bishopric since the 4th century. The list of Archbishops of Rouen was reconstructed in the Middle Ages to the 3rd century. The first documented bishop of Rouen is Avitianus. He attended the Council of Arles in 314 .
The first Viking raid on Rouen took place in 841 . After Rollo , the leader of the Vikings, received the city from King Charles the Third of France in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte in 911 , it became the capital of the Duchy of Normandy .
On January 19, 1419 during the Hundred Years War (1337-1453), Henry V of England conquered the city of Rouen and subordinated Normandy to the British Crown. In this context, Joan of Arc was convicted and burned at the stake on May 30, 1431 . In 1449, Rouen was recaptured for France by Charles VII .
The residents of Rouen received the ideas of the reformers Martin Luther (1483–1546) and Johannes Calvin (1509–1564) positively. The port city was open to change. At the beginning of the 16th century, Rouen had become an important port of trade with Brazil . The city was prosperous, the level of education was relatively high and so was the proportion of literacy . Some of the crafts that were increasingly practiced in Rouen also required a certain level of education, for example goldsmithing . Luther's writings were therefore read by a relatively large number of residents, and Rouen became a stronghold of Protestantism . The Protestant community of Rouen was Evangelical Lutheran until about 1545 , after that it was Calvinist .
In 1528 pictures were damaged in the course of the Reformation . In the same year, Pierre Bar was the first Protestant in Rouen to be burned in the market square on charges of heresy . The Protestant writings were then secretly disseminated, but until 1550 other Protestants were charged as heretics. In the years 1541, 1545 and 1551 religious works of art, especially statues, were occasionally damaged.
In 1550 King Henry II visited the city to fight Protestantism. Nevertheless, the spread of Protestantism only reached its peak afterwards, in 1561. 20 percent of the population at that time were Protestants, which corresponds to about 15,000 people. The conquest of Rouen, defended by Montgomery, was one of the first successes of the Catholic party in the Huguenot Wars in 1562 . Henry IV besieged Rouen in vain from 1591–92 and only received it in 1594 through surrender.
The puy called Confrérie de la Conception de Notre Dame ('Brotherhood of the Conception of Mary ') was founded as a religious community in the 12th century, but evolved into a literary group over the centuries. The Puy existed until the French Revolution (1789–1799). In the years 1521 and 1522, the Puy wrote numerous pamphlets against the works of Luther.
The first official Calvinist church was established in 1557 after unofficial meetings had taken place in southern Rouen since 1546. It lasted until the Edict of Nantes was repealed with the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685. The city, which was devastated by a severe hurricane in 1633 , lost three quarters of its 80,000 inhabitants through emigration as a result of the repeal of the Edict of Nantes.
In 1774, Rouen was struck by a great fire. In 1793, during the French Revolution , Rouen received the administrative status of a municipality and in 1801 the right to local self-government through the administrative reform under Napoleon Bonaparte .
On February 25, 1848, during a tumult in Rouen, the factories of the English spinning mills were demolished. On April 27th and 28th, 1848, an uprising and barricade fighting took place here because of the elections.
On 29 October 1932, the owner of the opened Parisian department store Galeries Lafayette the first Monoprix -Laden from which the great contemporary French discount store - department store chain emerged.
During the Second World War , Rouen was under German occupation from June 9, 1940 to August 15, 1944 . During this time, heavy bombing by Allied air forces took place, which mainly targeted the Seine bridges and the Sotteville-lès-Rouen freight station . Between 1948 and 1955, the bridges and the train station were rebuilt by Marcel Lods .
The inner city was rebuilt according to plans by Jacques Gréber .
|Ningbo||People's Republic of China|
Culture and sights
Rouen is represented with two flowers in the Conseil national des villes et villages fleuris (“National Council of Flowered Cities and Villages”). The "flowers" are awarded in the course of a regional competition, whereby a maximum of three flowers can be achieved.
In Rouen there are eight theaters with 80 to 1,200 seats each and three with a total of 25 halls.
From a culinary point of view, Rouen is known for its Rouen-style duck , which is also served with the rouennaise sauce. As a starting product, the large duck breed Rouen duck (Canard rouennais) with a slaughter weight of 2.5 to 3 kg is ideal.
City wall and apartment buildings
In the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Rouen was a large city by European standards with around 40,000 inhabitants, of which numerous and important ecclesiastical and secular buildings have been preserved. A city wall enclosed a large area; it has largely disappeared, but can still be read from the course of the ring-shaped streets. Since the 19th century, these buildings in the old town of Vieux Rouen have increasingly been discovered as works of art and captured in numerous pictures. Victor Hugo called the city the city of a hundred church towers. However, in the 19th century, various boulevards were cut as new broad, straight street axes through the irregular network of medieval streets. Other structures were damaged or destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, especially in the area between the cathedral and the Seine, where new buildings from the post-war period dominate the cityscape. Nevertheless, around two thousand half-timbered houses from the time since the late Middle Ages are still preserved today.
- The Gothic cathedral of Rouen was begun around 1180 in the west to replace an older structure. The building with the choir in the east was completed around 1235/1237. From around 1280 the transept facades were renewed. The west facade was built from the 1370s and was completed around 1450. The building inspired Claude Monet to create the famous cycle of pictures of the same name.
- The Saint-Ouen church is a former abbey church in the Gothic style that was started in 1318 and is 130 meters long. It houses one of the largest organs by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll , inaugurated on April 17, 1890 by Charles-Marie Widor .
- The Saint-Maclou church was rebuilt from 1436 on the site of an older church in the Flamboyant Gothic (late Gothic) style. The church consecration took place in 1521 . The sacristy was built in 1535. The interior of the choir was redesigned from 1775 to 1782. The church tower was restored from 1868 to 1871. The choir was badly damaged in World War II and rebuilt true to shape. The church was classified as a monument historique in 1840 and thus placed under monument protection.
- The late Gothic Reformed Church of St-Éloi .
- As a donjon, the Joan of Arc tower is one of the last remains of the castle, which was built around 1200. Here Joan of Arc was interrogated by the judges in 1431. In the 19th century the tower got its upper end with the wooden battlement.
- The great clock tower (French: Le Gros Horloge ), a large astronomical clock from the 14th century, is a popular sight right in the city center.
- The Hôtel du Bourgtheroulde was built in 1486–1531 as an ornate Renaissance architecture and has been a luxury hotel since 2010
- The plague ossuary L'aître Saint-Maclou : the ossuary, built in 1348, is surrounded by wooden galleries (around 1530) decorated with carvings of dance of death scenes. The buildings now house art studios.
- Le Palais de Justice: The Justice Palace, built by R. Leroux from 1509, is the largest non-sacred Gothic building in Europe. The oldest Jewish building in France was discovered under the courtyard (around 1100).
- On May 30, 1431, Joan of Arc was burned at the Place du Vieux-Marché . The Ste-Jeanne-d'Arc church has stood on the square since 1979, and it also houses the stained glass windows of the 16th-century St-Vincent church, which was destroyed in 1944.
- At the Place de la Pucelle , an enclosed spring from the 2nd to 3rd centuries was discovered during the construction of a parking garage. A reconstruction of this source can be seen in the entrance hall of the EDF building .
- Le Secq des Tournelles: the Le Secq des Tournelles museum houses a collection of forgings (tools and locks) that is unique in the world
- Musée des Beaux-Arts : paintings from the 15th to 20th centuries (including Caravaggio , Velázquez , Géricault , Delacroix , Dufy , Boudin and Monet )
- Musée de la Céramique: Ceramic museum in the Hotel d'Hocqueville
- Musée maritime fluvial et portuaire : Museum about the history of the port of Rouen and seafaring
- Panorama XXL: From December 20, 2014, the monumental circular paintings by the artist Yadegar Asisi will be shown in a specially built rotunda on the right bank of the Seine .
- The Historial Jeanne d'Arc opened its doors in 2015 in the Episcopal Palace of Rouen, at this point the French national heroine Jeanne d'Arc was convicted and rehabilitated. The life of Johanna and the rehabilitation process are shown on the basis of scenic video installations.
- 6 stadiums, including the Stade Robert-Diochon , which is, however, on the territory of the neighboring municipality of Le Petit-Quevilly.
- 15 sports halls, including the Kindarena , which opened in 2012 .
- 4 swimming pools
- 1 ice rink
Number of active athletes: 20,000 (as of ???)
One of the oldest and most famous sports clubs in the city is the Rouen FC, founded in 1896 .
The Dragons de Rouen are the local ice hockey club. Although France is a football country, the ice hockey club, which plays in the top French division, is very popular in Rouen.
Every year at the beginning of May, the 24 heures motonautiques (24-hour race) take place in Rouen as an international event . It is the only motorboat race in the world over this period of time.
On July 22nd, 1894, Rouen was the destination of the world's first automobile race, the Paris – Rouen race . From 1950 to 1993, one of the most important motorsport racetracks in France existed in the immediate vicinity of the city with the semi-permanent circuit of Rouen-les-Essarts .
In 2012, Rouen was the destination of the 4th stage of the Tour de France 2012 and 19 times before the start, finish and stage location of the bike race.
- The Festival du cinéma nordique (Festival of Nordic Films) was held from 1988 to 2010 and was held every March. Mainly feature films from the Nordic and Baltic countries were shown.
- The Armada Rouen or simply Armada is an event for tall ships and other ships. It takes place every four to five years on the Seine and lasts about ten days.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2009, 52.2 percent of the workforce were employed in the municipality, the rest were commuters . 14.5 percent of the employees were unemployed . 0.1 percent of the workers were employed in agriculture , 4.2 percent were traders, craftsmen or entrepreneurs , 33.4 percent were white-collar workers and 14.2 percent were blue-collar workers .
Rouen's road network is 210 kilometers long, 16 kilometers of which are cycle paths.
Trains to Paris , Le Havre, Dieppe , Caen , Lyon , Marseille , Amiens and Lille leave the main train station in Rouen (Gare de Rouen-Rive-Droite) . Its reception building , an Art Nouveau building , dates from 1928.
The light rail line is about 19 kilometers long and has two branches: Boulingrin – Georges Braque and Boulingrin – Technopole. In the city center (right bank of the Seine) it runs 1.8 kilometers underground (→ Rouen tram )
In addition to the light rail, there are also a few bus routes. There is also a track-guided bus system (TEOR).
Underground stations of the Rouen light rail: Joffre-Mutalite, Theater des Arts (art theater), Palais de Justice (Palace of Justice), Gare rue verte and Beauvoisin (translated: beautiful neighbor)
Rouen is in a strategic position between Paris and the Atlantic or the English Channel (La Manche) - the tides are still noticeable.
The port is located 80 kilometers from the river mouth. At the same time, it is both a river and a seaport . The maximum length of the ship is 260 meters with a maximum of around 150,000 tons.
If all ship sizes are included, Rouen is the 28th European port and the fifth in France (after Marseille Europort , Port Le Havre , Dunkerque , Saint-Nazaire ). It is the largest European grain port and the largest French port for flour and fertilizers. The oil transport comes mainly through the refinery de Petit-Couronne .
Every four to five years several million visitors come to the ship show (Armada) of the world's largest sailing ships. The Gustave Flaubert bridge, inaugurated in 2008, is the tallest lift bridge in Europe and the third tallest structure in the city , with a total height of 86 meters .
sons and daughters of the town
- Samuel Bochart (1599–1667), Reformed theologian and orientalist, geographer and natural scientist
- Balthasar Moncornet (1600–1668), painter, engraver and publisher
- Pierre Corneille (1606-1684), writer
- Noël Alexandre (1639–1724), Roman Catholic theologian and church historian
- Mademoiselle de Champmeslé (1642–1698), actress
- René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1643–1687), discoverer of Louisiana
- Jean Jouvenet (1644–1717), classicist painter
- Nicolas Desmares (1645–1714), actor
- Jacques Basnage (1653–1723), Protestant theologian, preacher, church historian, Hebraist, diplomat, writer and translator
- Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657–1757), writer
- Paul Lucas (1664–1737), businessman, explorer and antiquarian in the service of Louis XIV.
- Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de La Viéville (1674–1707), musicologist
- Pierre François Le Courayer (1681–1776), Catholic theologian in Paris, in exile in England after 1728
- François d'Agincour (1684–1758), harpsichordist, organist and composer
- François Campion (around 1686 - around 1748), lutenist at the Paris Opera and composer.
- Jean Restout (1692–1768), early classicist painter
- Jean-François Du Resnel du Bellay (1692–1761), member of the Académie française
- Louis-François Néel de Christot (1698–1775), Bishop of Séez
- Gérard de la Barthe (1730–1810), draftsman, etcher and painter
- Jacques-Christophe Valmont de Bomare (1731–1807) naturalist
- Nicolas-Étienne Framéry (1745–1810), librettist and composer
- Jean-Jacques Lequeu (1757–1826), architect
- Franz Gabriel von Bray (1765–1832), diplomat and naturalist
- Jean-Édouard Adam (1768–1807), physicist and chemist
- François-Adrien Boieldieu (1775–1834), composer
- Pierre Louis Dulong (1785–1838), physicist and chemist
- Théodore Géricault (1791–1824), painter
- Armand Carrel (1800-1836), publicist
- Charles Brook Dupont-White (1807–1878), economist and publicist
- Alexandre-Gabriel Lemonnier (1808-1884), jeweler
- Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880), writer
- Joseph-Henri Altès (1826–1895), flautist and composer
- Charles Lenepveu (1840–1910), composer and music teacher
- Paul-Augustin Lecœur (1848–1942), Bishop of Saint-Flour
- Eugène Henri Cauchois (1850–1911), flower painter
- Charles Vincent (1862-1918), sculptor
- Henri Adam (1864–1917), painter
- Maurice Leblanc (1864–1941), writer
- Albert Lambert (1865–1941), theater and silent film actor
- Charles Nicolle (1866–1936), physician and Nobel Prize winner
- Léon Saint-Réquier (1872–1964), composer, organist and music teacher
- Léon Fabert (1881–1936), racing car driver
- Heinrich Herm (1882–1948), lawyer and writer
- Paul Duboc (1884–1941), racing cyclist
- Marcel Dupré (1886–1971), composer and organist
- Adrien Drancé (1891–?), Racing car driver
- Philippe Étancelin (1896–1981), racing driver
- Paul Torchy (1897–1925), racing car driver
- Baro Ferret (1908–1978), guitarist and composer
- Sarane Ferret (1912-1970), guitarist
- Jean Fournet (1913–2008), conductor
- Matelo Ferret (1918-1989), guitarist
- Pierre Labric (* 1921), organist, composer and music teacher
- Jacques Rivette (1928–2016), film director
- Philippe Breton (1936-2020), Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Aire and Dax
- Anny Duperey (born 1947), actress
- Patrick Dehornoy (1952-2019), mathematician
- François Hollande (* 1954), politician and President of France
- Serge Adam (* 1957), jazz musician
- Dominique Lebrun (* 1957), Archbishop of Rouen
- Gess (* 1961), comic artist
- Philippe Torreton (born 1965), actor
- Stéphan Caron (* 1966), swimmer
- Karin Viard (* 1966), actress
- Laurent Duhamel (* 1968), football referee
- Édouard Philippe (* 1970), politician, French Prime Minister since May 15, 2017
- David Trezeguet (born 1977), football player
- Thomas Pesquet (* 1978), member of the ESA astronaut team
- Jean-Pascal Mignot (* 1981), football player
- Nathalie Péchalat (* 1983), figure skater
- Ydrissa M'Barke (born 1983), sprinter
- Benjamin Alard (* 1985), harpsichordist and organist
- Ian Mahinmi (* 1986), basketball player
- Jade Laroche (* 1989), stripper and porn actress
- Amaury Vassili (* 1989), singer and tenor
- Manon Arcangioli (* 1994), tennis player
- Enzo Crivelli (* 1995), football player
- Nicolas Jamin (* 1995), French racing car driver
- Pierre Gasly (* 1996), racing car driver
- Rilès Kacimi (* 1996), rapper, songwriter and producer
People who have worked in the place
- Ansbert von Rouen , Bishop of Rouen and Chancellor of the West Frankish Empire
- Pierre Cauchon (1370–1442), Bishop of Beauvais, led the trial of Joan of Arc in Rouen
- Augustin Marlorat (1506–1562), French reformer and martyr who was executed in Rouen
- Jacques Guillaume Thouret (1746–1794), lawyer and revolutionary, was elected to the last general estate of the Ancien Régime in 1789 by the Third Estate of Rouen
- Ambroise Louis Garneray (1783–1857), painter and engraver, became director of the museum in Rouen in 1833
- Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876–1918), painter and sculptor, was born in Damville near Rouen and had exhibitions in Rouen in 1905
- Max Schirschin (1921–2013), soccer player and soccer coach
- Jacques Anquetil (1934–1987), five-time winner of the Tour de France , was born in Mont-Saint-Aignan and died in Rouen
- François Pommeraye: Histoire des archevesques de Rouen: dans laquelle il est traité de leur vie & de leur mort… Recueilly de plusieurs livres tant imprimez que manuscrits et des archives et registres de l'église cathédrale des abbayes et autres lieux de la province de Normandie , par un religieux bénédictin de la congrégation de S. Maur . L. Maurry, Rouen 1667 (French, online ).
- Official website (French)
- Website on the history and art of Rouen (French)
- The Tourist Office (French)
- Rouen in the Base Mémoire des Ministère de la culture (French)
- Rouen in France: The place of the burning virgin , article by Horst Heinz Grimm in Spiegel Online , March 12, 2012
- Diocèse de Rouen. In: rouen.catholique.fr. Association Diocésaine de Rouen, accessed June 5, 2013 (French).
- Ville de Rouen. In: Annuaire-Mairie.fr. Retrieved June 5, 2013 (French).
- Commune: Rouen (76540). Theme: Tous les thèmes. In: Insee.fr. Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques , accessed on June 4, 2013 (French).
- La Normandie avant les Normands. Editions Ouest-France 2002
- Richard Allen: The Acta archiepiscoporum Rotomagensium. study and edition. In: unicaen.fr. University of Caen , December 18, 2009, accessed June 6, 2013 .
- Saint Avit. In: Nominis. Église Catholique en France, accessed June 6, 2013 (French).
- François Pommeraye: Histoire des archevesques de Rouen: dans laquelle il est traité de leur vie & de leur mort… Recueilly de plusieurs livres tant imprimez que manuscrits et des archives et registres de l'église cathédrale des abbayes et autres lieux de la province de Normandy, par un religieux bénédictin de la congrégation de S. Maur . L. Maurry, Rouen 1667, p. 1, 50 (French, online - compare Richard Allen: The Acta archiepiscoporum Rotomagensium).
- Rouen . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 13, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 1009.
- Laurence Riviale: Le vitrail en Normandie entre Renaissance et Réforme (1517–1596) . In: Corpus Vitrearum . tape 7 . Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes 2007, ISBN 978-2-7535-0525-4 , pp. 25-31 (French).
- Rouen , in: Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon , 14th edition, 1892-96, vol. 13, p. 1032.
- Rouen - notice communal. In: Cassini.ehess.fr. Retrieved June 6, 2013 (French).
- Rouen , in: Heinrich August Pierer (ed.): Universal-Lexikon der Gegenwart und Past , 4th edition, 1857–65, Vol. 14, p. 404.
- Les Villes et Villages Fleuris. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on December 18, 2012 ; Retrieved June 23, 2010 (French).
- La ville de Rouen est membre du réseau Ville Amie des Enfants depuis 2003. In: www.villesamiesdesenfants.com. Jacques Hintzy, President de l'UNICEF France, accessed on July 28, 2010 (French).
- Villes et Pays d'Art et d'Histoire par Region. (PDF, 92.08 kB) In: villes et pays d'art et d'histoire. Ministère de la culture, Direction de l'architecture et du patrimoine, accessed on July 28, 2010 (French).
- Entry No. 76540 in the Base Mérimée of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Martial Monteil, Laurence Tranoy: La France gallo-romaine . La Découverte, Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-7071-5438-5 , pp. 58 (French).
- Website of the artist Yadegar Asisi , accessed on November 26, 2014.
- Tour de France 2012 STAGE 4 - Abbeville Rouen ( Memento from June 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- les effectifs étudiants ( Memento of April 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Konrad Ragossnig : Manual of the guitar and lute. Schott, Mainz 1978, ISBN 3-7957-2329-9 , p. 44 (“Professeur-Maître de théorbe et de guitare de l'Académie Royale de Musique”).