Joan of Arc
Jeanne d'Arc [ ʒanˈdaʁk ] (* probably 1412 in Domrémy , Lorraine ; † 30 May 1431 in Rouen , France ), also Jehanne d'Arc, in the German-speaking area also called Johanna von Orléans or "the maiden of Orléans" is a French national heroine . She is venerated as a virgin and saint in the Roman Catholic Church .
During the Hundred Years' War she helped the Dauphin and later French King Charles VII to a victory over the English and Burgundians near Orléans , after which she escorted Karl to his anointing of the king in Reims . After the defeat of the French in the Battle of Compiègne , Joan of Arc was captured by John II of Luxembourg on May 23, 1430 , later extradited to the English and finally in an ecclesiastical process by the Bishop of Beauvais , Pierre Cauchon , who -English was convicted on various charges. On May 30, 1431, Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in the market square of Rouen at the age of 19 .
24 years later, the curia initiated a revision process in which the judgment was overturned and Jeanne was declared a martyr . In 1909 she was beatified by Pope Pius X and in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV. canonized. Her feast day is May 30th. On this day she is also remembered in the Church of England .
During the Hundred Years War, England tried to assert its claims to the French throne due to inheritance issues. This was preceded by the death of the French King Charles IV. King Edward III, who had ruled England since 1328 . As the son of Isabelle , the daughter of Philip IV "the beautiful", raised a claim to the throne. French legal scholars did not accept this claim, however, as women and their heirs were fundamentally excluded from the line of succession. Finally Philip VI was. anointed king in Reims on May 28, 1328 as a descendant of the Capetians from the branch line of the Valois . After the English Duchy of Guyenne was confiscated by Philip VI in 1337. landed Edward III. with 4,000 knights and 10,000 archers in Normandy .
In 1415, the English King Henry V defeated the French at the Battle of Azincourt and again claimed the French throne. English troops had occupied the north of the country as far as the Loire . Orléans , the key to crossing the river, was surrounded by John of Lancaster , a brother of Henry V (→ Siege of Orléans ) .
Childhood and adolescence
There is no reliable source for either the exact date of birth or the year of birth for Joan of Arc. She was born in Domrémy , a small village on the Meuse , during the second half of the Hundred Years War , around 1412 as the daughter of Jacques Darc (or Jacques Tarc, Tare, Dart, Day, Daix ) and Isabelle Romée into a wealthy farming family. The spelling “d'Arc”, which has become common, only appears in the 16th century to indicate the ennobling of the family.
According to the court record , Jeanne d'Arc had her first visions at the age of 13 . In these she heard the voice of St. Katharina , later those of the Archangel Michael and St. Margareta added. From them she received the order to free France from the English and to lead the Dauphin to the throne. The apparitions were repeated. At the end of December 1428, Jeanne left her parents' home.
Working in the Hundred Years War
On January 1, 1429, at the age of almost 17, Joan of Arc tried for the first time to audition with the city commander of the Vaucouleurs fortress , Robert de Baudricourt . On the third attempt, she got an audience . After they had convinced their faith after a successful test him by kissing a cross, he gave her on February 22, 1429 an escort (Jean de Metz, Bertrand de Poulengey; followers of the dauphin ) which they to Charles VII. After Chinon , which she reached on March 5, 1429 after riding eleven days through enemy territory. A letter of recommendation from Baudricourt announced her reception at the French court. She was received by the Dauphin. Jeanne convinced him that she had come in the name of heaven to save France from its predicament and assured him that he would be anointed King of France in Reims . Nobody knows exactly how Jeanne convinced the Dauphin; it is only known that she retired to a room with him and allegedly let him share in one of her visions.
In Poitiers , the Dauphin had Jeanne checked for credibility by clergymen and high-ranking personalities for three weeks, and her virginity examined by ladies-in-waiting. After successfully passing both exams, the Privy Council decided to have armor made for her, and put a small military unit at her side, including experienced combatants such as Étienne de Vignolles , better known as La Hire ("the savage"), or the as later Bluebeard known Gilles de Rais belonged. Her first job was to get a supply train through to Orléans . On April 29, their train arrived in the enclosed city. The troops in Orléans were motivated by the success and were persuaded to risk a sortie. On May 7th, Joan of Arc rode ahead. Hit by an arrow and thrown from the horse, she stayed in the field. This impressed their fellow combatants and increased the army's readiness to fight. A day later the English withdrew from the position that had become hopeless. May 8th is celebrated in Orléans as Liberation Day. By June 1429 the English were driven out of the castles south of the Loire with the help of Joan of Arc .
On July 17, 1429, as prophesied by Joan of Arc , the Dauphin was anointed as Charles VII in the Cathedral of Reims ; Jeanne took part in the celebration with the victory flag next to the altar . The fame of Joan of Arc was at its peak. Her father received tax exemption from the king as a token of gratitude. The royal advisors undermined the influence of Joan of Arc. Again and again she asked the king to be allowed to advance to Paris - only after several wrong strategic decisions did he give in to her insistence in September 1429. The attempt on September 8, 1429 failed, however, and Charles VII turned away from her. Rather than making peace, he dismissed parts of the army and refused to support them in their endeavors to completely drive the English off the mainland.
Arrest and first inquisition trial
The liberation of Paris operated by Joan of Arc was unsuccessful. By treason, she was arrested on May 23, 1430 near Compiègne by Johann von Luxemburg and handed over to the Burgundians. The Duke of Burgundy, Philip III. , again after two escape attempts, Jeanne sold on 18./19. June and seven months in captivity for 10,000 francs to John of Lancaster, the Duke of Bedford . He kept her prisoner in Bouvreuil Castle, the seat of the English occupation forces in France, where she was locked in a tower for five months.
After a three-month trial chaired by the Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon , she was convicted of "her superstition, heresy and other crimes against the divine majesty" - according to a report by the University of Paris . Jeanne had to argue against dialectically and rhetorically trained clerics without legal assistance . Jeanne's judicial statements became dangerous when she initially refused to submit to the judgment of the church, but only wanted to recognize a judgment coming directly from God. Despite her simple background and lack of education, Jeanne turned out to be very skillful rhetorically . To the trick question “Johanna, are you sure that you are in a position of grace?” She answered “If I am not, may God bring me there, if I am, may God keep me in it!” . If she had claimed to be in the state of grace, if it had been interpreted as heretical presumption, if she had denied it, she would have admitted her guilt.
On May 19, 1431, she was found guilty on twelve of 67 counts. The original charges charged her, among other things, with fairy spell , use of mandrake root , heresy , demon worship (referring to the visions heard by Jeanne where she knelt down), and murder (since Jeanne was not recognized as a soldier ) all men she defeated in battles to be regarded as murder victims). When she was told, after the verdict was announced, that the stake awaits her if she does not admit her erroneous beliefs, Jeanne renounced her convictions. Presumably this happened out of spontaneous fear of death by fire, as she herself explained in her later revocation of the confession. On May 24, 1431 was in the cemetery of St-Ouen the excommunication of Joan of Arc completed, which was located in a public confession on all charges for guilty. After her renunciation, she was sentenced as a heretic to life imprisonment, which under normal circumstances would have meant transferring the guilty party to a church prison.
Second inquisition trial
For political reasons, this judgment was unsatisfactory for the supporters of the English royal family - after all, the process had been started to denounce Charles VII to the clerical and secular nobility as a supporter of a heretic and thus to disempower him politically. In addition, there was a danger that the supporters of Karl could have freed them from a church prison in France in order to lead another attack against the English troops. Hence, Joan of Arc was tried again that ultimately made her look like an incorrigible heretic. It was verified that she had put on men's clothes again in her prison cell. In 1450, Jean Massieu was reluctant to do so, possibly due to his earlier position as a bailiff. Jeanne told him that her women's clothes had been taken away and men's clothes had been thrown away, which led to a long argument with the guards and that she had no choice but to put on the men's clothes, as they hadn't given her any more. He said nothing of the severe, visible mistreatment after her retraction, which an Augustinian testified. She confided in Ladvenu, a mendicant monk who was probably closest to her, that she had been terribly tortured and mistreated. A nobleman tried to do violence to her, which she publicly stated. To protect her virtue, she put on the men's clothes again. She also revoked the confession she had made a few days earlier in the cemetery. Four days later, under the reign of John of Lancaster, the final verdict was passed: cremation as a notoriously recidivist heretic at a stake in the market square of Rouen.
Death by burning
On the morning of May 30, 1431, Jeanne was burned in the market square of Rouen. Their ashes were scattered in the Seine to prevent their followers from having the opportunity to hide their remains as relics . This was intended to put a stop to veneration as a martyr. Nevertheless, alleged relics appeared in Tours towards the end of the 19th century . A rib bone and a piece of clothing were given to the archbishopric by a pharmacist in 1867 . In an investigation between 2006 and 2007, however, it turned out that the rib bone was part of an Egyptian mummy from pre-Christian times. Pieces of wood and the thigh bone of a cat were also found. The remnants of clothing come from the 15th century, but do not show any traces of fire.
Years after her death, several women stated that they were actually Joan of Arc. One of these women was Jeanne des Armoises .
The death of Joan of Arc and the resulting reputation as a martyr strengthened Charles VII and weakened the Burgundians, who then decided to turn away from England and make peace with the French king. Charles VII, who was aware that he needed them in order to be able to drive out the English for good, then received the Burgundians with open arms. This eventually led to the Treaty of Arras in 1435, in which the Burgundians recognized Charles VII as King of France in return for concessions from him. This treaty resulted in the English being driven out of France over time, which ended with France's victory in the Hundred Years War in 1453.
Jeanne's mother tried to reopen the process. 24 years later, on November 7th, 1455, Charles VII opened a rehabilitation process in the Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral against the background of changed political conditions . After the Hundred Years War had largely ended in France's favor, Karl wanted to strengthen his position and put an end to the ongoing criticism of the death sentence against the still popular Joan of Arc. On July 7th, 1456 the judgment was announced: the complete rehabilitation - however without holding those who had caused her death to account, especially since the two main responsible persons had already died.
On April 18, 1909 Johanna was beatified by Pope Pius X and on May 16, 1920 by Benedict XV. canonized . She is the patron saint of France (with Saints Dionysius , Martin , Ludwig and Therese von Lisieux ), the cities of Rouen and Orléans, telegraphy and radio .
Joan of Arc as a national myth
In the 19th century the figure of the heroic peasant girl was transfigured into a national myth of the French. It became the material of novels, plays and chants, some of which went down in world literature. Since Jeanne called herself la Pucelle ("the virgin"), her hometown took this designation in his name and called herself Domrémy-la-Pucelle. The house where she was born has been preserved, and a museum is also dedicated to her. A memorial now stands at her place of execution in Rouen, next to it a church that was consecrated in 1979 and named after her. She also transfigured many historical paintings, for example by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780–1867), Paul Delaroche (1797–1856) or Jules Eugène Lenepveu (1818–1898), who dedicated a whole cycle of wall paintings to her in the Pantheon .
The popularity of the myth can be explained by the fact that Jeanne could be instrumentalized from both directions of the strongly divided political spectrum: While the Catholic monarchists emphasized their deep piety and drew parallels with the Virgin Mary , the anti-clerical liberal republicans pointed to their courage towards the authorities, theirs Patriotism and its origin from the lower class. During the Second World War, she figured as a symbol of resistance against the German occupation, but the Vichy regime and National Socialism also invoked her.
Since 1945 Joan of Arc has been used as an icon by the extreme right, especially because of her resistance to the foreign occupiers; The Rassemblement National celebrates its own day of remembrance for the national saint every May 1st in Paris. While it continues to enjoy some popularity among the rest of the French population, its political myth has largely faded.
On March 21, 2015, the new "Historial Jeanne d'Arc" was opened in her honor in the former archbishop's palace in Rouen. The story of the Maid of Orléans is retold on an area of almost 1,000 square meters on five floors.
The figure of Joan of Arc has fascinated writers over and over again. Important depictions depicting a diverse interpretation of her life were written by William Shakespeare ( Henry VI ), Friedrich Schiller ( The Maid of Orleans ), and George Bernard Shaw ( Saint Joan ). Jean Anouilh ( L'Alouette , dt. Jeanne or Die Lerche ) portrays Jeanne as the girl from the people, whose enthusiasm forces those in power to resist nationally.
Bertolt Brecht transfers Jeanne's fate into the present in his drama Die Heiligen Johanna der Schlachthöfe . Here she appears as an activist for the Salvation Army , who has to learn that religiously motivated compassion is not enough to change the lot of the workers for the better. In Die Gesichte der Simone Machard , a girl tries to get her surroundings to resist the German occupiers, just as Jeanne called for a fight against the English, see also Simone (drama and novel) by Lion Feuchtwanger .
Felix Mitterer deals critically with her person in Johanna or the Invention of the Nation in 2002 . A fate: Elevated and humiliated, lifted high, dropped low, one who stands all alone and yet remains unswerving, her life as a psychodrama.
Kristine Tornquist and François-Pierre Descamps wrote 2017-2018 on behalf of the siren Opera Theater , a chamber opera about the life of Joan of Arc and Gilles de Rais as a parable on the futility of war.
In response to a growing, nationally tinged devotion to Joan, Anatole France published the biography La Vie de Jeanne d'Arc in 1908 . In the German translation, the work is identified as a "historical novel", while in France it is classified under "Histoire" (history).
In 1958, Alfred Andersch took up the subject in the story With the Boss after Chenonceaux .
In 1983, Michel Tournier described the relationship between Joan of Arc and the knight Gilles de Rais (1404-1440) and the deeply shocking and disturbing effect of the execution of Jeanne on the later serial killer Gilles de Rais, whom he referred to as the "angel of hell".
Felicitas Hoppe turned in her 2006 postmodern novel Johanna against ruling adaptations of the myth Joan.
Between 1933 and 1936 Anna Seghers wrote the radio play “ The Trial of Joan of Arc at Rouen 1431 ” while in exile in Paris . The game is based on the trial files that were recorded daily in Latin in 1431 for the Bishop of Beauvais, and hardly deviates from the wording of the recorded statements.
By Jean Anouilh comes L'Alouette to German Jeanne or the Lark of the 1,953th
Composers and musicians were also repeatedly inspired by the figure of Joan of Arc. Schiller's tragedy The Maiden of Orleans was set to music by Giuseppe Verdi as Giovanna d'Arco (1845). Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's opera Orleanskaja dewa (1881) is based on a very free adaptation of Schiller's tragedy, which Tchaikovsky himself made. Unlike Schiller, in which Jeanne is martyred on the battlefield, Tchaikovsky sticks to history at the end of the plot: Jeanne is burned at the stake. Gioachino Rossini wrote his cantata for mezzo-soprano and piano, Giovanna d'Arco , in 1832 , which he dedicated to his second wife, Olympe Pélissier. The Italian composer Salvatore Sciarrino orchestrated the work in 1989 in the tradition of Rossini, a work that he carried out at the request of the singer Teresa Berganza . Arthur Honegger worked on the subject in 1938 in his oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (German Johanna on the stake ). The text of the work, which works with strong metaphors, comes from Paul Claudel . Walter Braunfels wrote in the interior of emigration during the time of his imposed by the Nazis occupation ban from 1938, the time-critical interpretable opera Jeanne d'Arc - Scenes from the Life of St Joan op 57. The German composer. Giselher Klebe set to music Schiller's play as an opera under the Title The girl from Domrémy (first performance 1976 in Stuttgart ).
The French chansonnier Georges Brassens set the ballad des dames du temps jadis François Villons to music , where it appears as Jeanne la bonne Lorraine . Richard Einhorn composed a soundtrack for the film Die Passion der Jungfrau von Orléans (D, 1928) (director: Carl Theodor Dreyer ) in the 1980s, which is musically based on medieval vocal music and Carl Orff's Carmina Burana . B. by Hildegard von Bingen , or Jeanne d'Arc herself set to music.
Jeanne d'Arc is also repeatedly received in pop music. Leonard Cohen , for example, was inspired by her story for his 1971 song Joan Of Arc . The British band Orchestral Maneuvers in the Dark treated the life of the Holy Virgin in two songs, Joan Of Arc from 1981 and Maid of Orleans (The Waltz Joan of Arc) from 1982. The Smiths sang them in 1986 in the song Bigmouth Strikes Again , Kate Bush in the song Joanni (album Aerial , 2005) and Arcade Fire with Joan of Arc (album Reflektor , 2013).
Movie and TV
The story of Joan of Arc was filmed at the time of the first feature films. There are two versions with Ingrid Bergman alone . In 1928 the silent film The Passion of the Maiden of Orléans by the Danish director Carl Theodor Dreyer was made with Maria Falconetti in the leading role. One version was filmed in 1999 by Ed Gernon and Christian Duguay (directors) under the name Joan of Arc - The Woman of the Millennium . The main roles are played by Leelee Sobieski as Jeanne d'Arc, Peter O'Toole as Bishop Cauchon and Maximilian Schell as Le'Maitre. In 1993 Jacques Rivette shot the two-parter Johanna, the Virgin (Jeanne la Pucelle) with Sandrine Bonnaire as Johanna.
In 1999 Luc Besson staged a remake with Johanna von Orleans ( Milla Jovovich played the leading role, John Malkovich was Charles VII ). In this remake, Jeanne is portrayed as a woman laden with human errors and doubts, who in the end also has to fight for her own faith.
- Film adaptations
- Joan of Arc / The Burning of Joan of Arc (1895, silent film), USA, directed by Alfred Clark. Fragments in the Center Jeanne d'Arc in Orléans and in the National Archives of Canada in Ottawa
- L'Exécution de Jeanne d'Arc (1898, silent film, 30 seconds), France, directed by Georges Hatot
- Domrémy: La Maison de Jeanne d'Arc (1899, silent film, 40 seconds), France, directed by the Lumière brothers
- Jeanne d'Arc (1900, world premiere 11 November 1900, silent film), France, director: Georges Méliès , title role: Jeanne d'Alcy
- A Modern Maiden of Orleans (1900, world premiere 1914, silent film), Germany, directed by Max Skladanowsky
- Giovanna d'Arco (1908, silent film), Italy, directed by Mario Caserini
- Joan the Woman (1916, world premiere December 25, 1916, silent film), USA, Paramount, director: Cecil B. DeMille , title role: Geraldine Farrar
- La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc , German: The Passion of the Virgin of Orléans (1928, silent film, 85 minutes), France, Société Générale de Films, director: Carl Theodor Dreyer , title role: Maria Falconetti
- La merveilleuse vie de Jeanne d'Arc, fille de Lorraine (1928, silent film, 129 minutes), France, Aubert-Natan, director: Marc de Gastyne , title role: Simone Genevoix
- Das Mädchen Johanna (1935, 87 minutes), Germany, UFA, director: Gustav Ucicky , title role: Angela Salloker
- Joan of Arc , German: Johanna von Orleans (1948, color film, 145 minutes), USA, RKO, director: Victor Fleming , title role: Ingrid Bergman
- Giovanna d'Arco al rogo German: (1954, color film, 70 minutes), France / Italy, Franco-London Film / PCA, director: Roberto Rossellini , title role: Ingrid Bergman
- Jeanne from the three-part film Destinées (1954, color film), France / Italy, Franco-London-Film / Continental Produzione, director: Jean Delannoy , title role: Michèle Morgan
- Saint Joan , German Die heilige Johanna (1957, black and white film, 109 minutes), USA, United Artists, director: Otto Preminger , title role: Jean Seberg
- Le Procès de Jeanne d'Arc , German The Trial of Jeanne d'Arc , (1962, black and white film, 65 minutes), France, Agnès Delahaie, director: Robert Bresson , title role: Florence Carrez, 1965 ZDF / 1969 Kino B
- Saint Joan (1977, black and white film), England, Triple Action Films / East Midlands Arts Association, directed by Steven Rubelow, title role: Monica Buferd (not available, owned by the filmmaker)
- Joan of Arc (1983), Great Britain, British Film Institute, directed by Gina Newson
- Jeanne La Pucelle - Les Batailles / Les Prisons , German Johanna, die Jungfrau - Der Kampf / Der Verrat (1994, color, 336 minutes), France, France 3 Cinéma / La Sept Cinéma / Pierre Grisé, director: Jacques Rivette , title role: Sandrine Bonnaire
- Jeanne d'Arc , German Johanna von Orléans , Canadian titles La Messagère: L'Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc or The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc (1999, color film, 150 minutes), France, Leeloo Productions / Gaumont, Director: Luc Besson , title role: Milla Jovovich
- Joan of Arc , German Jeanne d'Arc - The woman of the millennium (1999), Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , director: Christian Duguay , title role: Leelee Sobieski
- Kamikaze Kaito Jeanne (Jeanne, the Kamikaze thief) (1998-2000), Japan, Anime and Manga series by Arina Tanemura
- Johana deutsch Johanna (2005, music film), Hungary, director: Kornél Mundruczó , title role: Orsolya Tóth
- Jeanne Captive (2011), France, director: Philippe Ramos , title role: Clémence Poésy
- Joan of Arc - Struggle for Freedom. (2013), Germany Scenic documentation in the series Women Who Made History , 50 min., Book: Susane Utzt, directors: Christian Twente and Michael Löseke, first broadcast on December 3, 2013 on ZDF, program information
- Jeannette, l'enfance de Jeanne d'Arc , German: ( Jeannette - The Childhood of Jeanne d'Arc ) (2017), France. Idiosyncratic interpretation of the childhood and youth of Joan of Arc based on texts by Charles Péguys , direction; Bruno Dumont
- Lost films
- La Béatification de Jeanne d'Arc (1900, silent film), directed by Mario Caserini
- Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (1905, silent film), France, Gaumont, director:?, Title role: Boissieu (Mlle. Boissière?)
- Jeanne d'Arc (1908, silent film, 5 minutes), France, Pathé, director: Albert Capellani
- La vita di Giovana d'Arco (1909, silent film), Italy, Cinès, director: Mario Caserini, title role: Maria Gasperini
- Giovanna d'Arco (1913, silent film), Italy, Pasquali, director: Nino Oxilia , title role: Maria Jacobini
- Jeanne (1914), Italy / Austria, director: Nollif / Wolff
- The game Jeanne d'Arc by Chip-Software ( Joan of Arc: Siege & the Sword ), published in 1989 for MS-DOS, Amiga and Atari ST, is a mixture of action and role-playing game, which is about it To retake France step by step.
- In Age of Empires II from 1999, a campaign in the main game is about Joan of Arc.
- In the game Diablo III by Blizzard, the crusader "Johanna", a close fighter in heavy armor fighting with divine support, was named after her.
- The game Joan of Arc by Sony for the PlayStation Portable also has her as a central theme.
- The Jeanne d'Arc Trial. Files and minutes 1431 and 1456 , translated and edited by Ruth Schirmer-Imhoff, 3rd edition. dtv. Munich 1978, ISBN 3-423-02909-9 .
- Colette Beaune: Jeanne d'Arc Perrin, Paris 2004, ISBN 978-2-262-01705-7 (French).
- Colette Beaune: Jeanne d'Arc - Vérités et legends. Perrin, Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-262-02951-7 (French).
- Georges, Andrée Duby: The trials of Joan of Arc (= Wagenbach's pocket library. Volume 350). (Original title: Les procès de Jeanne d'Arc. Translated by Eva Moldenhauer ). Wagenbach, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-8031-2350-X .
- Gerd Krumeich : Jeanne d'Arc in history. Historiography - Politics - Culture (= supplements of Francia . Volume 19). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1986, ISBN 3-7995-7319-4 (digitized version) .
- Gerd Krumeich: Jeanne d'Arc. The story of the Maid of Orleans (= Beck'sche series. Volume 2396). Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-53596-8 (review) .
- Gerd Krumeich: Jeanne d'Arc. Seer, warrior, saint. A biography. CH Beck, Munich 2021, ISBN 978-3-406-76542-1 .
- Edward Lucie-Smith: Joan of Arc. A biography (original title: Joan of Arc. Translated by Hansheinz Werner), Claassen, Düsseldorf 1977, ISBN 3-546-46209-2 .
- Philippe Martin: Jeanne d'Arc - Les métamorphoses d'une héroïne Place Stanislas, Nancy 2009, ISBN 978-2-35578-035-6 (French).
- Pierre Moinot: Jeanne d'Arc - the power and the innocence (original title: Jeanne d'Arc translated by Eva Rapsilber). Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-7973-0472-2 .
- Wolfgang Müller: The Jeanne d'Arc Trial: Sources - Facts including the historical and intellectual background - Condemnation and justification - Legal appreciation and concluding remarks , Kovač, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-8300-1144-X (At the same time dissertation at the University of Mainz 2003).
- Herbert Nette: Jeanne d'Arc in self-testimonies and image documents (Rowohlt's monographs volume 253, rororo 50253). Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1977ff, ISBN 3-499-50253-4 .
- Régine Pernoud, Marie-Véronique Clin: Johanna von Orléans - the human being and the legend , Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1991, ISBN 3-404-61210-8 .
- Régine Pernoud: Jeanne d'Arc - Faith, Power, Vision , Kösel, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-466-34326-7 .
- Malte Prietzel: Jeanne d'Arc - The life of a legend , Herder, Freiburg 2011, ISBN 3-451-30414-7 .
- Vita Sackville-West : Jeanne d'Arc, The Maid of Orleans. With an afterword by Rita Hortmann. Translated from English by Hans Wagenseil . Ullstein 1992, ISBN 3548302904 ( digitized version of the English original edition in the Internet Archive ).
- Hartmut Steinbach: Jeanne d'Arc - Reality and Legend , Musterschmidt, Göttingen 1973, ISBN 3-7881-0078-8 .
- Heinz Thomas : Jeanne d'Arc - Virgin and Daughter of God , Festival, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-8286-0065-4 .
- Sabine Tanz : Jeanne d'Arc. Late medieval mentality in the mirror of a world view , Böhlau, Weimar 1991, ISBN 3-7400-0103-8 (= research on medieval history , volume 33, dissertation University of Leipzig 1985).
- Heinz Thomas: Jeanne d'Arc - Virgin and Daughter of God - Basics of a biography , in: Francia - Research on Western European history . Volume 34, 2007, Issue 1, pp. 163-173 (digitized version ) .
- Walter Rost: The male virgin - The secret of Johanna von Orléans , Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1983, ISBN 3-498-05700-6 .
- Guido Görres: The Maiden of Orleans - according to the trial files and simultaneous chronicles by G. Görres, with a preface by J. Görres , Pustet, Regensburg 1834.
- Michel Tournier: Gilles & Jeanne , Gallimard, Paris 1983 (German editions: Hoffmann and Campe Verlag, Hamburg 1985, ISBN 3-455-07723-4 ; Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin, Weimar 1986).
- Literature by and about Joan of Arc in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Jeanne d'Arc in the German Digital Library
- International Jeanne d'Arc Center (French, English, German)
- Joan of Arc in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
-  Research papers and study reports. (English, German)
- Protocol of the 1431 trial and rehabilitation process
- Jeanne d'Arc la Pucelle cinematography (Engl.)
- Films about Jeanne d'Arc, International Joan of Arc Society (with film excerpts)
- filmrezension.de: Dossier on Joan of Arc film adaptations from 1928 to the present day
- Center Jeanne d'Arc of the Orléans City Library (French)
- Philippe Contamine , "Remarques critiques sur les étendards de Jeanne d'Arc", Francia , Ostfildern, Jan Thorbecke Verlag, n ° 34/1, 2007, p. 199-200 .
- Brauburger, Stefan, 1962-: Women who made history: Cleopatra, Jeanne d'Arc, Elisabeth I, Catherine the Great, Queen Luise, Sophie Scholl . Bertelsmann, Munich 2013, ISBN 3-570-10171-1 .
- Holy Days at www.churchofengland.org
- Wolfgang Müller: The Trial of Jeanne d'Arc In: Juristische Schulung 1987, pp. 433-441, here: p. 435.
- Barbara Sichtermann: Johanna von Orléans: The incredible girl. DIE ZEIT, January 5, 2012, accessed on August 16, 2017 .
- News: The Short Life of Joan of Arc. ORF, January 5, 2012, accessed on September 8, 2017 .
- "Burgundy" here does not mean a people, but a political party. For example, Paris and Rouen (the kingdom's largest cities) were both Burgundian cities, where most of the residents did not support King Charles VII and Joan of Arc.
- D. Butler: Joan of Arc's relics exposed as forgery. In: nature. 446, 2007, p. 593. doi: 10.1038 / 446593a
- Facsimile of a newspaper article on the beatification , In: New York Times. April 19, 1909.
- Divina disponente . Latin text of the Decree of Canonization on www.vatican.va.
- Myths of Nations: An Exhibition by the German Historical Museum, Berlin 1998
- A museum for France's national . Travel EXCLUSIV magazine website, accessed January 29, 2015.
- Reading sample under  In the appendix to the print, Sylvia Tschörner gives an overview of the various dramatic adaptations of the Jeanne motif
- Andreas Aldag: ELOY Legacy. Retrieved December 29, 2017 .
- See Robin Blaetz: Visions of the Maid. University of Virginia Press, 2001, p. 249 ff. (Online)
|SURNAME||Joan of Arc|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Joan of Arc|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||French national heroine and saint of the Catholic Church|
|DATE OF BIRTH||on January 6, 1412|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Domrémy-la-Pucelle|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 30, 1431|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Rouen|