John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford KG (born June 20, 1389 , † September 14, 1435 in Rouen ) was the third surviving son of King Henry IV of England and Mary de Bohun . His eldest brother was King Henry V of the House of Lancaster .
Around 1400 John was accepted as a knight in the Order of the Garter . In 1403 he was appointed Constable of England for life by his father. In 1414 he was named Earl of Kendal , Earl of Richmond and Duke of Bedford by his brother Henry V.
During the absence of his brother in France, he held the position of deputy in England. From 1421 to 1425 he was Baron von Elbeuf . After his brother's death in 1422, the diplomatically skilled John took over the reign in the north of France, which was ruled by England, for his underage nephew King Henry VI. , who also carried the French title of king. In his name he carried on the Hundred Years War (1337-1453) against the French Dauphin Charles VII and won the 1424 Battle of Verneuil over a Franco-Scottish army. This enabled him to advance into the Loire Valley and the inclusion of Orléans .
When Jeanne d'Arc intervened in the war with the support of the Dauphin and the latter was crowned king in 1429, England's power was increasingly pushed back, mainly because the Burgundian ally also distanced itself from England. John bought Joan of Arc from Duke Philip III. of Burgundy for 10,000 francs and kept them prisoner in a tower for five months. He had her condemned and burned as a heretic , but this could no longer turn the situation around for the English.
John died in Rouen in 1435 and was buried in the Notre-Dame Cathedral there.
- Alec R. Myers: John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, 1389-1435 . In: History Today . Vol. 10, No. 7, 1960, , pp. 460-468.
- Short biography on www.luminarium.org (English)
- John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford on thepeerage.com , accessed July 26, 2015.
- Alan & Veronica Palmer: The Pimlico Chronology of British History; from 250,000 BC to the Present Day. Pimlico, 1996, ISBN 0-7126-7331-8 , p. 122
- Powicke & Fryde: Handbook of British Chronology. Second Edition, London, 1961, p. 433
- Powicke & Fryde: Handbook of British Chronology. Second Edition, London, 1961, p. 446
- Powicke & Fryde: Handbook of British Chronology. Second Edition, London, 1961, p. 417
- H. Vollrath & N. Fryde (eds.): The English Kings in the Middle Ages; From William the Conqueror to Richard III. Beck, 2004, ISBN 3-406-49463-3 , p. 189
- Royle, Trevor: The Wars of the Roses; England's first civil war. Abacus, London, 2009, ISBN 978-0-349-11790-4 , p. 439
|SURNAME||John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||John of Lancaster; John Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Bedford|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Brother of Henry V|
|BIRTH DATE||June 20, 1389|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 14, 1435|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Rouen|