Mark Twain

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Mark Twain at the age of 72 Mark Twain's signatures

Mark Twain , actually Samuel Langhorne Clemens (born November 30, 1835 in Florida , Missouri , † April 21, 1910 in Redding , Connecticut ), was an American writer.

Mark Twain is best known as the author of the books on the adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn . He was a representative of the literature - genre " American realism " and is especially because of its humorous , of local color famous social and precise observations behavior dominated narratives and because of his sharp-tongued criticism of American society. In his works he describes everyday racism ; its protagonists see through the hypocrisy and mendacity of the prevailing conditions.


Mark Twain's life was marked by contradictions. The man who criticized the American way of life sought success and recognition himself. He fled westwards from the Civil War and later experienced his greatest economic success as the publisher of the autobiography of the former war hero Ulysses S. Grant . Despite spending most of his life on the east coast of the United States and Europe, Mark Twain was the chronicler of the American South and West.

Childhood and youth

The Mississippi at Hannibal
Samuel Clemens at the age of 15

Samuel was born prematurely on November 30, 1835, the sixth child of Jane Lampton Clemens and John Marshall Clemens in Florida , Missouri . When he was four years old, his family moved to the small town of Hannibal . Although the parents tried to build a secure economic existence, they were finally forced to sell their only slave Jenny in 1842. In 1846 they moved in with a pharmacist and instead of paying rent, they maintained the house. This time of youth and the port city on the Mississippi River later provided the backdrop for the adventures of Huckleberry Finn .

When Samuel was eleven years old, his father died. He began training as a typesetter with the Missouri Courier newspaper . His brother Orion bought the Hannibal Journal , in which Samuel could publish his first short articles. Samuel Clemens stayed in Hannibal until he was 18 and in 1852 published The Dandy Frightening the Squatter under his first pseudonym “W. Epaminondas Adrastus Perkins ”.

First trips

From 1852 onwards he traveled as a wandering typesetter through the East and the Midwest . He wrote travelogues for his brother's newspaper from St. Louis , Philadelphia , New York City, and Washington, DC . In New York City he spent many evenings in the Astor and Lenox Libraries (both New York Public Library ) to improve his previously poor general education.

Life on the Mississippi

Mark Twain 1871

From 1855 Clemens lived in St. Louis and planned to become a pilot on a Mississippi steamer . He began a corresponding training in 1857, received his license in 1859 and worked in the profession until 1861.

In the local Masonic Lodge “Polar Star Lodge No. 79 "He was admitted on May 22, 1861 June 12, 1861 Degree promoted the journeymen and charged on July 10, 1861 Meister. He was later expelled from the lodge, but this was withdrawn on April 24, 1867. On his trip to Palestine he sent a stick to this lodge with the following note: “ This mallet is a cedar, cut in the forest of Lebanon, whence Solomon obtained the timbers for the temple. “(“ This club is made of cedar wood, cut in the forest of Lebanon, from where Solomon obtained the timber for the temple . ”) He had the club made in Alexandria from the cedar wood that he himself had cut outside the walls of Jerusalem. On April 8, 1868, the club was presented to the lodge community. On October 8, 1868, Clemens resigned from the lodge.

The outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 brought river navigation on the Mississippi and Missouri to a standstill, and Clemens became unemployed. After two weeks of military service with the Missouri State Guard, state militia that fought alongside the Confederate States Army , he resigned from service for the southern states and fled west with his brother Orion.

Gold miners in Virginia City

Samuel Clemens volunteered as a gold digger in the newly established settlement of Virginia City , Nevada , where people from different countries met. But the work in the mines was arduous and financially not very profitable. Therefore, from 1862 Clemens worked as a reporter for the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City. He reported from the saloons in the gold rush town and brought gossip stories. In 1863 he had to flee the city because of a dispute. In any case, with his well-decorated reports for the Territorial Enterprise, he had a share in the myth that developed around the " Wild West ".

The "birth" of Mark Twain

On February 3, 1863 he first used the pseudonym "Mark Twain", under which he began his writing career. Mark Twain is a call from the Mississippi riverboat language. It means "two fathoms (about 3.65 m; corresponds to 4 yards or 12 feet) of water" and is a reminder of his life as a helmsman on the shallow and murky Mississippi, where you often had to measure the water depth in order not to get aground to run. Contrary to popular belief, Clemens did not come up with the pseudonym himself, but took it over from the former pilot Isaiah Sellers , who published numerous stories as a guide in newspapers under this name. Since Clemens was of the opinion that these were partially exaggerated, he wrote on these parodies, which appeared in the newspapers under the same pseudonym and were quickly more popular than the original stories. Indignant about these representations, Sellers did not publish anything until his death in 1864, but Clemens was so well known by this name that he kept it. From 1864 Mark Twain moved all over the United States: first to San Francisco , where he worked, among other things, for the then San Francisco Dramatic Chronicle . For Mark Twain, shortly before his 30th birthday, it was a time of crisis because, unusually for the time, he had not yet decided on a career, had high debts and drank a lot of alcohol. He even expressed suicidal thoughts in a letter to his brother. The articles, which were written in San Francisco, are described by experts as typical examples of Mark Twain's style, despite the fact that the author is often not mentioned. From San Francisco, Mark Twain moved back to Nevada and then to California. After a trip to the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1866, he returned to California.

His first stories appeared in Charles Henry Webb's weekly magazine The Californian in 1864/65 . The 1865 story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County first brought Mark Twain into the limelight of the American public. He then made a living by speaking as part of a community education program and began writing for New York magazines.

His first travel book The Innocents Abroad (" The Guilty Abroad ", 1869) is based on a five and a half month voyage to Europe and the Middle East, which he undertook in 1867. In A Tramp Abroad (“ Stroll through Europe ”, 1880), Mark Twain processed the experiences and experiences of his second trip to Europe in 1878, which took him through Germany, Switzerland and Italy. In the appendix of this book he also published the famous essay The Awful German Language , in which he humorously explains the peculiarities and difficulties of the German language . According to his travel description, however, he was particularly influenced by the three-month stay in Heidelberg and its surroundings in the Electoral Palatinate , which he wrote enthusiastically about.

At the Eastcoast

Olivia Langdon

In 1870, Mark Twain married Olivia Langdon (1845–1904), who from the age of sixteen was partially paralyzed by a fall on the ice and as a result could not stand up for two years. Under his care and with her own strength of will, she gradually recovered.

Twain's home in Hartford, now the Mark Twain House and Museum

Samuel and Olivia's first child, Langdon Clemens, was born a weak premature baby. The child died two years later. In the same year, 1872, the daughter Olivia Susan, called Susy, was born. The second daughter Clara was born in 1874, the youngest Jean followed six years later in 1880.

In 1871 Mark Twain settled in Hartford , Connecticut , where he lived for 17 years as a successful and well-known author. He lived there in what is now the Mark Twain House, in the immediate vicinity of Harriet Beecher Stowe , who immensely reinforced his negative attitude towards slavery in the United States . During this time he wrote his most famous works: Roughing It ("Durch Dick und Dünn", 1872), The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (" Die Abenteuer des Tom Sawyer ", 1876), Life on the Mississippi (" Leben auf dem Mississippi ") , 1883) and his masterpiece The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (" The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ", 1884). In 1874, Mark Twain bought a Remington Arms typewriter in Boston and, with Life on the Mississippi, was the first author to deliver a typewritten book manuscript to his publisher. This fact is often mistakenly attributed to his work, Tom Sawyer's Adventures , based on an autobiographical note . He combined his writing activities with extensive trips.

Europe trip

In 1891, Mark Twain traveled again to Europe , where he stayed for nine years and went on a lecture tour to pay off his debts. He initially chose Berlin as his place of residence for a few months , which he liked so much (luminous center of intelligence […] a wonderful city.) That he later sent his two daughters there to study. From September 28, 1897 to May 27, 1899, Mark Twain lived in Vienna because his daughter Clara wanted to take piano lessons from Theodor Leschetizky . Mark Twain spent nine months of his life in Vienna in two hotels. The first was the Hotel Métropole and, from October 1898 to May 1899, the Hotel Krantz, today's Hotel Ambassador. In his essay Stirring Times in Austria , he described the political climate in Karl Lueger's Vienna, which was shaped by anti-Semitism . In 1898 he had his summer residence in Kaltenleutzüge in Lower Austria, where he wrote important parts of his autobiography. Before his departure from Vienna Mark Twain was an audience with Emperor I Franz Joseph invited.


Mark Twain began his entrepreneurial career in 1869 when he bought a stake in the Buffalo Express newspaper . His most successful business, however, was the stake in the publishing house Charles L. Webster & Co. , which made great profits, in particular with the biography of the Civil War general and later President Ulysses S. Grant.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens alias Mark Twain was also active in business outside of the publishing industry. The American dentist Newell Sill Jenkins (1840-1919), who practiced in Dresden, was a personal friend of Twain. He developed a porcelain enamel named after him and thereby decisively improved the composition of the porcelain mass for porcelain inlays , tooth crowns and bridges and the associated processing technology. For the production and distribution of the "Jenkins Porcelain Enamel" Jenkins founded the manufactory Klewe & Co . Mark Twain bought the manufacturing and distribution rights for the American market from him.

Blows of fate

The Paige Compositor

In 1894, Mark Twain's involvement in the printing and publishing house was his financial undoing. Their investment in a faulty typesetting machine , the so-called Paige Compositor , developed by James W. Paige (1842–1917), drove Mark Twain into bankruptcy . To organize his finances, he began a worldwide tour with readings of his works. He was helped a lot with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers , the financially savvy Vice President of Standard Oil . During this trip, Mark Twain's daughter Susy died of meningitis († 1896). In the following years his wife Olivia and his youngest daughter Jean also died. In his later works he dealt with these strokes of fate increasingly with irony and sarcasm, but in his autobiography with great dignity. Only daughter Clara (1874–1962) survived him.


To mark the 100th anniversary of the death of Mark Twain found in the Morgan Library & Museum in New York City , the exhibition A Skeptic's Progress instead.


Mark Twain on a short film (1909)

Mark Twain died a celebrated personality in 1910. After being awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree in 1888, Yale University awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1901 . His work has influenced many English-speaking authors. Ernest Hemingway said of him:

"All of American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn ... There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since. "

“All of American literature comes from a book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. There was nothing before. Since then there has been nothing like that. "

TS Eliot described Mark Twain's fictional character "Huckleberry Finn" as a permanent symbolic figure in the world of fiction ("one of the permanent symbolic figures of fiction")

The Mark Twain Memorial Bridge is the name of two bridges that cross the Mississippi River in Hannibal . The bridges are named in honor of Mark Twain, who spent his childhood in Hannibal. The state of Missouri placed a stone plaque with the likeness of Mark Twain on the bridge facing Missouri.

The painter and sculptor Walter Russell made a sculpture in memory of Mark Twain: "The Mark Twain Memorial". This shows Mark Twain sitting amid the characters in his books.

Since 2013 there has been a bronze statue of the writer on the Brausebrücke in Lüneburg harbor.

In Berlin-Tiergarten , since mid-September 2011, a Berlin plaque commemorates Mark Twain at the post office at Körnerstrasse 7 ; it relates to his stay in Berlin for several months in the winter of 1891/1892. In Berlin-Hellersdorf , a road was earlier named after him, as well in Halle , Augsburg , Viernheim, Braunschweig, Munich, Heidelberg and Delmenhorst.

The asteroid (2362) Mark Twain bears his name.


In November 2010, a handwritten chapter from A Tramp Abroad raised nearly $ 80,000 at auction .

Mark Twain was born after Halley's Comet became visible (since November 16, 1835) and died - almost to the day he had hoped - the day after it was re-sighted.

In a double episode of “ Spaceship Enterprise: The Next Century ” (danger from the 19th century), Clemens is shown discovering Commander Data's involuntary journey through time. In the episode, Clemens insists that a journalist who speaks to him as Mr. Twain be called by his real name. In addition, the author Jack London appears, who, as a young bellhop, comes into conversation with Clemens and - according to the account - is motivated by Clemens to pursue a career as an author.

Mark Twain appears in the fifth episode of the first season of the American television series Bonanza (first broadcast in the USA on October 10, 1959) - initially as a local reporter Clemens - and found his name in this episode.

Mark Twain is considered a classic example of a heavy drinker; he obeyed two rules when it came to drinking alcohol: first, he never drank alone, and second, he never refused a drink that was offered to him.


Mark Twain 1890 (painting by James Carroll Beckwith )

Mark Twain's satire is often so revealing and snappy that numerous youth book editions by Tom Sawyer or Huckleberry Finn were defused and editions were made ad usum Delphini . Such versions can be recognized by descriptions such as “An adaptation for the youth” or notes such as “Abridged”. Here, as in the classic children's book The Prince and the Pauper ( The Prince and the Pauper ) , he points to the world of the poor, lower social classes. In his work as a journalist he denounced religious hypocrisy, police attacks on minorities, corrupted and fraudulent senators. He criticized the greed for power and the "lust for money" which he called America's disease. He particularly polemically targeted Christian Science and its founder Mary Baker Eddy . He was negatively impressed by the rapid growth of this movement, but later corrected his harsh criticism.

In the literary appreciation of his work, however, hardly any other North American author has been subject to such fluctuations as Mark Twain. The scale of the value judgments ranged from the accusation of primitiveness to the ranking among the greats of world literature.

He was also a key member of the US anti-imperialist movement, which was formed in response to the annexation of Puerto Rico , the Mariana Islands and the Philippines after the Spanish-American War . From 1901 to 1910 he was Vice President of the American Anti-Imperialist League . Mark Twain wrote several newspaper articles denouncing the United States' warfare in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War , which lasted from 1899 to 1902. Mark Twain also translated Struwwelpeter into English.

The first unfiltered publication of his autobiography took place in November 2010 at the University of California Press.

English edition

Binding of the English edition A Yankee at the Court of King Arthur 1889

A seven-volume edition of the most important works has appeared in the Library of America .

  • Mississippi Writings (includes Tom Sawyer , Life on the Mississippi , Huckleberry Finn, and Pudd'nhead Wilson ). ISBN 0-940450-07-0 .
  • Historical Romances (includes Mark Twain's encounters with Medieval and Renaissance Europe: The Prince and the Pauper , A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, and the "fictional" biography Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc ). ISBN 0-940450-82-8 .
  • The Innocents Abroad & Roughing It (contains the semi-autobiographical travelogues). ISBN 0-940450-25-9 .
  • A Tramp Abroad, Following the Equator, Other Travels . ISBN 978-1-59853-066-7
  • The Gilded Age & Later Novels ( The Gilded Age , The American Claimant , Tom Sawyer Abroad , Tom Sawyer, Detective , No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger ).
  • Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays 1852–1890 . ISBN 0-940450-36-4 .
  • Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays 1891–1910 . ISBN 0-940450-73-9

German edition

German editions

Film adaptations

Audio books

Mark Twain
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer . Read by Ulla Meinecke. 6 CDs, 411 min. SPV, Berlin 2003. Dt. by Peter Torberg .
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer . Read by Udo Wachtveitl . 3 CDs, 185 min. Der Hörverlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 978-3-89940-940-6 .
  • Huckleberry Finn . Radio play. With Martin Semmelrogge, Marc Hosemann, Tommi Piper, Calvin Burke, Denis Moschitto, and many more. 2 CDs, 99 min. Der Hörverlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 978-3-89940-099-1 .
  • Stroll through Europe 1: Germany . Read by Rufus Beck. 4 CDs, 266 min. Der Hörverlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 978-3-89940-153-0 .
  • Stroll through Europe 2: Switzerland . Read by Rufus Beck. 4 CDs, 290 min. Der Hörverlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 978-3-89940-637-5 .
  • Stroll through Europe 3: Switzerland, Italy. The terrible German language . Read by Rufus Beck . 2 CDs, 166 min. Der Hörverlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 978-3-89940-873-7 .
  • Prince and beggar boy . Staged reading by Johannes Steck. 5 CDs, 428 minutes. uccello Verlag, ISBN 978-3-937337-19-7 .
  • A bloody act, a betrayal and a bond for life . Read by Gerd Wameling. 1 CD. Deutsche Grammophon / Universal Music, 2003, ISBN 978-3-8291-1306-9 .
  • Traveling with Mark Twain . Read by Hartmut Neugebauer, edited by Peter Bramböck. 1 CD. LangenMüller audio book, 2010. ISBN 978-3-7844-4220-4 .
  • Mark Twain - Tom Sawyer & Huckleberry Finn - The new radio play productions . The Hörverlag, first published in March 2010, ISBN 978-3-86717-520-3 , 5 CDs.
  • The mysterious stranger . Director: Kai Grehn. 2 CDs, 88 min. Audio book Hamburg, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-89903-883-5 .
  • Tom Sawyer , radio play with Tim Elstner, Malte von Bülow a. a., SWRedition, 2013.
  • Stroll through Europe , reading with Werner Rundshagen, SWRedition, 2015.
  • The one million pound note , radio play with Manfred Schott, Siegfried Nürnberg a. a., SWRedition, 2015.
  • The diary of Adam and Eve , radio play with Sigi Harreis, Klaus Langer a. a., SWRedition, 2015.
  • Inspector Blunt and the hostage of Siam , radio play with Horst Niendorf, Willi Schneider u. a., SWRedition, 2015.
  • A Donnerwetter , radio play with Horst Bollmann, Melanie de Graaf u. a., SWRedition 2016.
  • Childhood illnesses , radio play with Horst Bollmann, Melanie de Graaf a. a., SWRedition 2016.
  • Cannibalism in the railroad / A story without an end , reading with Heiner Schmidt, SWRedition 2016.


  • Thomas Ayck: Mark Twain . With personal testimonials and picture documents, Rowohlt, Reinbek 1993, ISBN 978-3-499-50211-8 (= rororo - rowohlt's monographs volume 50211).
  • Helmbrecht Breinig: Mark Twain. An introduction. Artemis & Winkler, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-7608-1321-6 .
  • Helmbrecht Breinig: Mark Twain. An introduction to his work . WBG (Scientific Book Society), Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-534-24649-6 .
  • Susy Clemens: My papa. Mark Twain in the diary of his thirteen-year-old daughter Susy and his notes on it (original title: Papa , epilogue by Charles Neider, introduction by Mark Twain, edited by Charles Neider, translated by Gisbert Haefs), Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 978-3- 458-14587-5 .
  • William Dean Howells: My Mark Twain. New York 1910, ISBN 978-1-5151-5943-8 .
  • Thomas Fuchs: Mark Twain. A man of the world. Hafmanns & Tolkemitt at Zweiausendeins , Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-942990-06-6 .
  • Michael Klein: Mark Twain in Munich , Morio Verlag, Heidelberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-945424-13-1 (= stations at Morio Verlag Heidelberg Volume 16)
  • Mark Van Doren : The Ordeal of Mark Twain . EP Dutton, New York 1920.
  • Broder Carstensen : The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: The problem of the end. In: Franz H. Link (Ed.): America · Vision and Reality, contributions to German research on American literary history . Athenäum Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. et al. 1968, pp. 199-210.

Web links

Commons : Mark Twain  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Mark Twain  - Sources and full texts
Wikisource: Mark Twain  - Sources and full texts (English)

References and comments

  1. Official Marc Twain website , accessed July 7, 2011
  2. ^ William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman : 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J. Part One . Emphasis. Kessing Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-7578-4 .
  3. ^ Josef Rattner, Gerhard Danzer: Master of the great humor . ISBN 3-8260-3863-0 , p. 224.
  4. ^ Frank Muir The Oxford book of humorous prose Oxford, 1990
  5. Mark Twain stories, 150 years old, uncovered by Berkeley scholars in: The Guardian , May 4, 2015, accessed May 5, 2015
  6. ^ A. Grove Day (Ed.): Mark Twain's letters from Hawaii . Univ. Pr. Of Hawaii, Honolulu 2007, ISBN 978-0-8248-0288-2 .
  7. The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County in the English language Wikipedia
  8. The Awful German Language (reprinted in full in the English-language Wikisource )
  9. “Due to a partial paralysis as a result of a fall on the ice, she already suffered at the age of sixteen [...] After this accident she could not get up for two years and always had to lie on her back in bed. […] She was slim, beautiful and girlish […] On the outside she looked serious and gentle, but inside the flame burned indelibly […] of willpower. […] Her physical constitution was always weak, but her mental predisposition kept her alive: her optimism and courage were indestructible. ”( Mark Twain : Autobiography . In: Work edition in 9 volumes . Hanser, 1977, ISBN 3-446- 12447-0 . Volume 9, page 259.)
  10. cf. z. B. Bill Bryson : Made in America: an Informal History of the English Language in the United States . Black Swan. 1998, ISBN 0-552-99805-2 , p. 115.
  11. cf. also Joseph Gies, Frances Gies: The Ingenious Yankees . Thomas Y. Crowel Co., 1976, p. 368, quoted from Bill Bryson: Made in America: an Informal History of the English Language in the United States . Black Swan, 1998, ISBN 0-552-99805-2 , p. 115.
  12. ^ Mark Twain in Vienna , Mark Twain in Vienna - Now in Bronze
  13. 1898, Hotel Ambassador / History
  14. ^ Stirring Times in Austria ; Wikisource.
  15. A cold and wet summer or Mark Twain in Kaltenleutbaren Website of the market town of Kaltenleutbaren
  16. Mark Twain with the Kaiser . In: Neue Freie Presse , Vienna, No. 12483, May 26, 1899, p. 6, right column.
  17. JM Hyson, SD Swank: Dr. Newell Sill Jenkins: progenitor of cosmetic dentistry. In: Journal of the California Dental Association. Volume 31, Number 8, August 2003, pp. 626-629, PMID 13677405 .
  18. Mrs. Jacques Samossoud Dies; Mark Twain's Last Living Child . In: The New York Times . November 21, 1962 ( Online - " San Diego, California, Nov. 20 (UPI) Mrs. Clara Langhorne Clemens Samossoud, the last living child of Mark Twain, died last night at Sharp Memorial Hospital. She was 88 years old. ") .
  19. ( Memento from September 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  20. See Ernest Hemingway: The Green Hills of Africa (1935), p. 29. Online based on the London edition published by Jonathan Cape Verlag 1936, accessible from Project Gutenberg
  21. quoted from Broder Carstensen : The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: The problem of the conclusion. In: Franz H. Link (Ed.): America · Vision and Reality, contributions to German research on American literary history . Athenäum Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. et al. 1968, p. 199.
  22. Twain moored in Lüneburg
  23. photo
  24. Mark Twain work sells for € 79,300 . In: The Irish Times , November 19, 2010
  25. Mark Twain, the drunken father of American literature. Retrieved April 9, 2016 .
  26. DRUNKENESS. Retrieved April 9, 2016 .
  27. Broder Carstensen : The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: The problem of the conclusion. In: Franz H. Link (Ed.): America · Vision and Reality, contributions to German research on American literary history . Athenäum Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. et al. 1968, p. 199
  28. ^ Sylvia Ellis: Historical Dictionary of Anglo-American Relations (Volume 10 of Historical Dictionaries of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations) . Scarecrow Press, Lanham (MD) 2009, ISBN 978-0-8108-5564-9 , p. 223
  29. Larry Rohter: Dead for a Century, Twain Says What He Meant. In: The New York Times , July 9, 2010.
  30. Is Shakespeare dead? New York, Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1909, and Is Shakespeare Dead? , German translation 2015 - see German editions
  31. ^ Homepage of the Library of America ( Memento of January 31, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).