|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Karlsruhe|
|Height :||114 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||108.84 km 2|
|Resident:||158,741 (Dec 31, 2020)|
|Population density :||1458 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||06221, 06202|
|License plate :||HD|
|Community key :||08 2 21 000|
|LOCODE :||DE HEI|
|City structure:||15 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Eckart Würzner ( independent )|
|Location of the city of Heidelberg in Baden-Württemberg|
Heidelberg ( [ ˈhaɪ̯dl̩bɛɐ̯k ] , etymological meaning uncertain) is a city in Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany , located on the Neckar , where it leaves the Odenwald and enters the Upper Rhine Plain. The former residence of the Electoral Palatinate is known for its picturesque old town with the castle ruins as well as for its renowned university , the oldest university in today's Germany. It attracts scientists and visitors from all over the world.
With almost 160,000 inhabitants, Heidelberg is the fifth largest city in Baden-Württemberg and 52nd largest in Germany . It is an urban district and at the same time the seat of the surrounding Rhein-Neckar district . The densely populated Rhine-Neckar area, in which Heidelberg and the cities of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen am Rhein are located, is known as the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region .
Heidelberg lies partly in the Upper Rhine Plain, mainly on the left bank of the lower Neckar in front of its outflow from the Odenwald in an elongated valley bottom tapering upstream , bordered by Königstuhl (568 m) and Gaisberg (375 m). The Neckar flows from east to west, the Heiligenberg (445 m) rises on the right bank of the Neckar . The Neckar flows into the Rhine in Mannheim about 22 kilometers northwest, measured from the end of the valley floor. The places that were incorporated in the 20th century extend over the Neckar valley into the Bergstrasse , which runs along the edge of the Odenwald. The city is located in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region, a metropolitan area with a population of 2.35 million, which, in addition to parts of southern Hesse and the Rhineland-Palatinate Vorderpfalz in Baden-Württemberg, includes the two urban districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the western and southern municipalities of the Rhine-Neckar Circle includes.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015
Flora and fauna
Since Heidelberg is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany, there are some special features here, by Central European standards, such as almond and fig trees or olive trees - planted outdoors . The Philosophenweg opposite the old town forms the “balcony” of the city with many exotic plants . Wine-growing was successfully started there again in 2000 .
In addition, there are populations of ring- necked parakeets living in the wild , whose ornithological name is Psittacula krameri , as well as a free-living population of the Siberian swan goose , which can be found mainly on the Neckar Island in front of Bergheim and on the Neckarwiesen. In terms of nature conservation, however, reference is often made to the problem of such naturalizations of alien species ( neobiota ), which as a rule arose from escaped zoo animals or domestic animals ( captive refugees ).
The following five nature reserves exist in the city of Heidelberg . This means that 85.4 hectares of the urban area are under nature protection, that is 0.78 percent.
- Former red sand quarry on the Neckarhalde : 13.4 ha; Ziegelhausen district
- Felsenmeer, Russenstein, Michelsbrunnen Nature Park : 11.2 ha; Heidelberg district
- Leimen quarry : 22.0 ha (of which 4.0 ha in the Heidelberg city area); Heidelberg district
- Lower Neckar: Altneckar Heidelberg-Wieblingen : 45.2 ha; District Wieblingen
- Lower Neckar: Altneckar Wörth-Weidenstücker : 16.7 ha (of which 11.6 ha in the city of Heidelberg)
Administrative structures, region
Heidelberg is the seat of the district office of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis . The city itself is independent within the administrative district of Karlsruhe . Heidelberg belongs to the Rhine-Neckar agglomeration , which includes parts of southern Hesse and the Vorderpfalz in Rhineland-Palatinate in Baden-Württemberg, the two urban districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the western and southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar district. Together with a large number of other municipalities, it forms the economic area known as the Rhine-Neckar Triangle . In 2005 the Rhine-Neckar triangle became a European metropolitan region .
Within the Rhine-Neckar region, Heidelberg forms a regional center alongside Mannheim , of which a total of 14 are designated for the whole of Baden-Württemberg according to the 2002 regional development plan. The Heidelberg regional center takes on the function of a central area within the administrative structures of the state for the surrounding communities of Dossenheim , Schriesheim , Wilhelmsfeld , Heddesbach , Heiligkreuzsteinach , Schönau , Neckargemünd , Wiesenbach , Bammental , Gaiberg , Leimen , Nussloch , Sandhausen and Eppelheim .
The following cities and municipalities border the city of Heidelberg directly, starting in the west in a clockwise direction : Eppelheim, Plankstadt , Mannheim, Edingen-Neckarhausen , Dossenheim, Schriesheim, Wilhelmsfeld, Schönau, Neckargemünd, Bammental, Gaiberg, Leimen, Sandhausen, Oftersheim (except for the City of Mannheim all belong to the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis).
The city of Heidelberg is divided into 15 districts and 47 districts . This includes seven former neighboring villages that were incorporated by 1975. Some parts of the city also have other small, separately located living spaces and homesteads.
- One of the oldest districts of Heidelberg is the old town , the historical core of the city between the Neckar and Königstuhl. Most of the sights such as Heidelberg Castle are located there . Because of their rich cultural heritage, Heidelberg 2004 and 2007 applied for a recognition of the old city as a World Heritage of UNESCO . This district also includes areas further outside, such as the Molkenkur , the Kohlhof and the Speyerer Hof . Together with the old town, the Bergheim to the west of the old town forms the inner city. The former village is older than the old town. Remains of human settlement can be traced back to the early Stone Age . Bergheim was first mentioned in a document in 769 in the Lorsch Codex . In 1392 the village of Bergheim was dissolved and the residents were forcibly relocated to the rapidly growing royal seat of Heidelberg. During the industrialization of the late 19th century, when the city expanded westward, the area was repopulated.
- Immediately southwest of Heidelberg city center is Weststadt , which merges into Südstadt in the south . These districts were created as a result of the rapid population growth in Heidelberg during the industrialization as the Wilhelminian style district (Weststadt) and after the Second World War (Südstadt). The southern part of the city includes the Mark Twain Village and the Campbell Barracks , where US soldiers and their relatives were housed until the official withdrawal of US troops in 2014. At the moment (as of January 2016) a new use is being sought in the course of a conversion project.
- In the west, a new district adjoins Bergheim and the Weststadt: the so-called Bahnstadt is currently still under construction, but only the western third of the master plan is missing. A first construction phase was inaugurated in July 2014. One of the largest passive house settlements in the world is to be built on the site of the former freight and marshalling yard .
- Further south is the Rohrbach district with the Hasenleiser and the Bierhelder Hof . To the southeast, Heidelberg is closed off by the two still young districts Boxberg and Emmertsgrund .
- The largest and at the same time oldest district of Heidelberg is Kirchheim . Already in the Bronze Age there were settlements in what is now the municipality. Several Carolingian graves that were found during excavations on the "Spider" in the 1970s attest to the importance of Kirchheim as an important junction between the monasteries of Lorsch and Mainz. Kirchheim forms the southwestern part of Heidelberg and was incorporated into the municipality in 1920. Also included in Kirchheim are the Kurpfalzhof, Kirchheimer Hof , the Patrick-Henry-Village (a settlement founded by the US Army in 1947, which has been used as refugee shelter since the troops withdrew in 2014 until today (as of 2016). Henry Village initial reception center and coordination and distribution center for refugees.), The Pleikartsförster Hof and Neurott .
- The emergency residential area Im Mörgelgewann is located on the outskirts of Weststadt in the direction of Kirchheim . The quarter is socially and visually isolated; it can only be reached via a cul-de-sac. It was originally built to house refugees after the Second World War . In 2008 around 300 people lived here who were sheltered as homeless by the city of Heidelberg.
- The Pfaffengrund is located on the western edge of Heidelberg . It can be divided into an industrial area in the north and a residential area in the south. The name Pfaffengrund is derived from the medieval field name, the area itself was used as arable land until 1920.
- Further north is Wieblingen with the Grenzhof and the Ochsenkopf . Like Kirchheim and the Pfaffengrund, Wieblingen became a district of Heidelberg in 1920. Wieblingen was first mentioned in a document in the Lorsch Codex in 767.
- Opposite the city center, on the northern bank of the Neckar, is the Neuenheim district . Neuenheim's development began in pre-Roman times . It was the first district of Heidelberg to be incorporated into the city in 1891. The new campus of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität is located in Neuenheimer Feld .
- Further north is Handschuhsheim , which was incorporated a few years after Neuenheim in 1903. The name Handschuhsheim probably goes back to a landowner in the early Middle Ages , whose coat of arms depicted a hand or a glove.
- In the east, on the south side of the Neckar, lies Schlierbach . It was first mentioned in a document in 1245. The area is one of the upscale residential areas of Heidelberg.
- On the other side of the Neckar lies Ziegelhausen with the district of Peterstal . Ziegelhausen was mentioned in a document in 1220, a few years before Schlierbach. The area was probably settled in Roman times. Ziegelhausen was incorporated into Heidelberg in 1975 - against the will of the vast majority of its residents.
The climate in the region in the protected location between the Palatinate Forest and the Odenwald is mild all year round and 65 percent is determined by the influx of maritime air masses from the west. Compared to the nearby Rhine Plain, Heidelberg's location at the exit of the Neckar Valley causes an above-average frequency of easterly winds. The slopes of the Odenwald favor cloud formation and precipitation. The DWD climate station in Heidelberg measured an average temperature of 11.1 ° C between 1971 and 2000 and rainfall of 745 mm per year. The warmest month is July with an average of 20.1 ° C, the coldest is January with 2.5 ° C. Temperatures above 30 ° C are not uncommon in midsummer. Most of the rainfall occurs in July and the driest month is March.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Heidelberg
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020, wetterkontor.de
The city of Heidelberg was founded in the 12th century; but their history goes back to Celtic and Roman times. From the 13th century until 1720, Heidelberg was the residence of the Count Palatine near the Rhine and the capital of the Electoral Palatinate.
Near Heidelberg, in the municipality of Mauer , the lower jaw of a prehistoric man ( lower jaw of Mauer ) was found in a sand pit in 1907 , one of the oldest finds of the genus Homo in Europe. Of these extinct hominids - kind Homo heidelbergensis ( Heidelberg Man ) who comes Neanderthals from.
From around 500 BC The Celts founded a larger fortified settlement on the Heiligenberg. Its double ring wall , created to protect against the advancing Teutons , can still be seen. 200 years later, this facility was abandoned for unexplained reasons.
The Roman period Heidelberg was the 1st to the 3rd century. Chr. To 70 n. Chr. Founded the Roman camp in today's New Home, the 90 by two stone forts was replaced. First a wooden bridge led over the Neckar, from around 200 a stone pillar bridge. A Merkur temple was built on the summit of the Heiligenberg , and the Mithras cult was also widespread in Heidelberg. The main town of the region was the neighboring Lopodunum (today Ladenburg ) in Roman times , but a flourishing pottery center also developed around the military camp in Heidelberg (whose Latin name is unknown).
After 260 the Romans had to retreat to the Rhine before the Germanic tribe of the Alamanni , who had broken through the Limes and invaded Roman territory. The victory of the Merovingian king Clovis I over the Alamanni in 506 finally made Heidelberg part of the Franconian Empire , at the same time the area was Christianized .
In 870 the Michaelskloster was founded on the summit of the Heiligenberg in place of the old Merkur temple as a subsidiary of the Lorsch monastery , which at that time was fighting for supremacy in the region with the diocese of Worms . Another branch followed, the Stephanskloster , and the Neuburg Abbey .
The oldest written mention of Heidelberg comes from the year 1196. However, it can be assumed that the place was created in the course of the 12th century. At that time Heidelberg was owned by the diocese of Worms and consisted of the Upper Castle on the Molkenkur on the slope of the Königsstuhl and a castle hamlet in the area of the Peterskirche at the foot of the mountain. Many of the present-day districts of Heidelberg go back to villages that were built during the Franconian period in the 6th century. Some of them were first mentioned in the Lorsch Codex, Neuenheim and Handschuhsheim around the year 765.
The previous building of the Heidelberg Castle was built on the Jettenbühl in the 13th century . Probably at the same time, the city in the area between Königstuhl and Neckar was laid out according to plan with a right-angled floor plan and the market square in the center. This urban complex took up the eastern part of today's old town up to Grabengasse. It was surrounded by a city wall and a bridge crossed the Neckar.
Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had his half-brother 1156 Konrad the Staufer the Count Palatine of the Rhine appointed. The Palatinate was ruled by the Wittelsbach dynasty and developed into a larger territorial entity within the Holy Roman Empire . In 1225, the Count Palatine received the former Worms Heidelberg as a fief . In the Golden Bull in 1356, the Count Palatine near Rhine was awarded the electoral dignity. From then on they were known as Electors of the Palatinate, their territory was called Electoral Palatinate . Initially, the Count Palatine did not have a permanent residence, but stayed in different places under their rule. Heidelberg had already developed the character of a residential city in the 13th century. When the travel rule was given up in the 14th century, the city was able to prevail against Neustadt an der Haardt and became the capital of the Electoral Palatinate.
In 1386 Ruprecht I founded the University of Heidelberg as the third university in the Holy Roman Empire (after Prague and Vienna ). It is the oldest university in Germany. In 1392 Heidelberg was extensively expanded, the urban area almost doubled and corresponded to today's old town. From the rule of Ruprecht III. , who was elected Roman-German King in 1400 , Heidelberg profited from the construction of the Heiliggeistkirche . His successors made Heidelberg University a stronghold of early humanism towards the end of the 15th century .
Martin Luther's ideas about the Reformation had spread in southwest Germany as early as the first half of the 16th century. In 1545/1546 the population decided to adopt the new faith , the introduction of which Paul Fagius was to prepare on behalf of Frederick II . The Reformation was finally introduced in the Electoral Palatinate under Elector Ottheinrich (1556–1559). After the transition to Calvinism , Heidelberg attracted students and scientists from all over Western Europe and was considered the third Geneva after Leiden . The Heidelberg Catechism was published in Heidelberg in 1563 and the first complete German translation of the Institutio Christianae Religionis , the main work of Johannes Calvin , was published in 1572 . Towards the end of the century, a large number of splendid Renaissance buildings were erected in Heidelberg , all of which were destroyed in the War of the Palatinate Succession - only the facade of the House of the Knights survived the devastation. At that time, the castle was also significantly expanded and transformed from the medieval castle into a modern residence.
In order to be able to offer his wife, the English king's daughter Elisabeth Stuart , an appropriate court life, Elector Friedrich V (1610–1623) had Heidelberg Castle redesigned by building the Hortus Palatinus . On a political level, Friedrich was involved in the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War as the leader of the Protestant Union when he was elected King of Bohemia in 1619 . But he could not prevail against the Catholic Emperor and was defeated in 1620 in the Battle of the White Mountain . Because of his brief reign, he went down in history as the winter king . In the first weeks of September 1622, Tilly successfully besieged Heidelberg as a military leader of the Catholic League . The taking of Heidelberg took place on 16 September. The city, like the entire Electoral Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine, remained under Bavarian occupation until the peace treaties of Münster and Osnabrück (while the Electoral Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine became Spanish). However, the city was repeatedly conquered and was occupied by Swedish troops between 1632 and 1634. During this time, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria gave the Bibliotheca Palatina to Pope Gregory XV. It has been kept in the Bibliotheca Vaticana ever since (and in this way has surely survived the later destruction of Heidelberg by the troops of Louis XIV in the Palatinate War of Succession). Heidelberg was badly hit by the war and the population suffered great hardship. In the Peace of Westphalia , which ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648, the Electoral Palatinate was restored, but it lost much of its political weight.
When Elector Karl II died childless in 1685, the Palatinate-Simmern line of the Wittelsbach family became extinct and the electoral dignity was transferred to the Catholic branch Palatinate-Neuburg . The War of the Palatinate Succession resulted from the inheritance claims that the French King Louis XIV now raised with reference to his sister-in-law Elisabeth Charlotte (better known as Liselotte von der Pfalz ) . In the course of this war, Heidelberg was captured by French troops twice, in 1688 and 1693, and completely devastated in the process. After the War of Succession ended in 1697, the destroyed Heidelberg was rebuilt in the Baroque style on a medieval floor plan. The now Catholic electors settled in the city of Jesuits .
Heidelberg Castle was uninhabitable after it was destroyed by the French, but in any case no longer corresponded to the baroque taste of the time, which preferred lavish palace complexes modeled on Versailles . Plans to build such a residence on the plain in the area of today's Bergheim district failed due to the resistance of the Heidelberg citizens, and so Karl III decided. Philipp moved his residence to Mannheim in 1720 after a dispute with the Heidelberg Protestants about the Evangelical Church of the Holy Spirit , which the Catholic Elector claimed for himself. In the city of squares , which corresponded to the baroque zeitgeist and the elector's interest in representation far more than medieval Heidelberg, he had the splendid Mannheim Palace built. Heidelberg lost its position as a center of political power and suffered economically from the departure of the court. Heidelberg also benefited from the reign of Elector Carl Theodor (1743–1799) through the construction of the Old Bridge and the Karlstore . The repair of the castle was stopped again in 1764 after a devastating lightning strike.
1803 to 1933
In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 the Electoral Palatinate was dissolved, the areas on the right bank of the Rhine and thus also Heidelberg were added to Baden , which soon after became a Grand Duchy . The Grand Duke of Baden, Karl Friedrich (1771–1811), made the university a state-financed educational establishment and helped it to become a renowned educational institution again. In honor of him and the founder of the university, Elector Ruprecht I, the University of Heidelberg was renamed "Ruprecht-Karls-Universität".
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Neckarstadt became one of the most important places of German Romanticism , favored by the beautiful landscape and the picturesque castle ruins. The work of poets such as Friedrich Hölderlin , Ludwig Achim von Arnim , Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff became known as the " Heidelberg Romanticism ". Between 1806 and 1808 Arnim and Brentano published a collection of German folk songs in Heidelberg under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn . An artist circle around the painters Carl Philipp Fohr , Carl Rottmann and Ernst Fries was also set up in Heidelberg.
During the pre-march , national, liberal and democratic ideas were disseminated at Heidelberg University. After the beginning of the March Revolution , liberal and democratic politicians from southwest Germany gathered for the Heidelberg Assembly on March 5, 1848 , which provided significant impetus for the pre-parliament and thus for the establishment of the Frankfurt National Assembly . After the failure of the National Assembly, the May uprising in Baden was suppressed by Prussian troops called for help . In Heidelberg, too, there were battles against liberal irregulars .
The industrialization went to the Neckar city without major traces over. Tourism developed into an important economic factor in Heidelberg from the early 19th century, especially when the city was connected to the railway network in 1840, and the number of students also increased, many of whom belonged to the student associations . Joseph Victor von Scheffel's poem Alt-Heidelberg, du fein (later a popular student song in the set version ) and the drama Alt-Heidelberg , premiered in 1901, made Heidelberg a symbol of student life in the 19th century.
In the last quarter of the 19th century, Heidelberg experienced rapid expansion when the urban area was enlarged by numerous incorporations. The population of Heidelberg rose from 20,000 in 1871 to 85,000, more than four times as much in 1933. At the same time, the infrastructure was expanded with the introduction of trams and mountain railways as well as the canalization of the Neckar (in the 1920s). In 1930, generous donations from influential US citizens enabled the construction of the New University lecture hall on Universitätsplatz. A commemorative plaque inside the lecture hall names the Chrysler family, among others.
The election results of the NSDAP in Heidelberg were mostly above the average of the results in the Reich or in Baden: In the Reichstag election on May 20, 1928 in the Reich 2.6%, in Baden 2.9% and in Heidelberg 4.4%; in the Reichstag election on September 14, 1930, 18.3% in the Reich, 19.2% in Baden and 30.2% in Heidelberg.
A train leaves the Heidelberg train station, lithograph from 1842
Period of National Socialism and World War II
After the transfer of power to the NSDAP on January 30, 1933, one of the city's darkest chapters began, the organized discrimination against Jews and other “non-Aryans”. In the Reichstag elections of March 5, 1933, the NSDAP became the strongest party in the city with 45.8% of the votes cast (Reich: 43.9%; Baden: 45.4%). In April 1933, all “non-Aryan” civil servants were given compulsory leave, and by 1939 Heidelberg University had lost more than a third of its teaching staff for racist or political reasons (in 1930, 9% of the teaching staff were Jewish). During the Reichspogromnacht on November 9, 1938, the Heidelberg National Socialists burned down the synagogues in the old town and in Rohrbach. At the same time they destroyed the prayer room at Plöck 35 and devastated or plundered numerous shops and apartments of Jewish citizens in front of the population and the police. The next day 150 Heidelberg Jews were deported to the Dachau concentration camp, supposedly to preventive custody , in order to force them to emigrate and to Aryanize their assets . On October 22, 1940, more than 6,000 Jews from Baden, including 280 from Heidelberg, were deported to the Camp de Gurs internment camp in south-west France in the “ Wagner-Bürckel Action ” . Few survived.
A visible structural legacy is the Thingstätte on the Heiligenberg, an open-air theater built between 1934 and 1935 by the Reich Labor Service and Heidelberg students. The cemetery of honor on the ant hump was also laid out in 1934 by the Reich Labor Service. In 1935 the Reichsautobahn Heidelberg – Mannheim was inaugurated, today known as A 656 , and at both ends, in Mannheim and Heidelberg, lowered to federal road level, today the B 37. Until the late 1990s, the A 656 led directly to Mannheim and Heidelberg .
Heidelberg, filled with military hospitals, was one of the few major German cities to survive the Second World War almost unscathed. The Allies flew the first air raid on the night of September 19-20, 1940, when the Pfaffengrund district was hit by bombs. On September 23, 1940, a German air raid on Cambridge followed in retaliation for this attack on Heidelberg . Smaller air raids in 1944 and 1945 caused little damage. Of the 9,129 residential buildings in Heidelberg, 13 were totally destroyed (0.14%), 32 were badly damaged (0.35%), 80 were moderately (0.87%) and 200 were slightly damaged (2.19%). Of 25,933 apartments, 45 were totally destroyed (0.17%) and 1,420 were damaged (5.47%). The total loss of living space due to air strikes was 0.8%. The freight yard and the zoo were badly damaged by bombs and artillery fire. A total of 241 people were killed in Heidelberg as a result of air strikes.
It is not entirely clear why Heidelberg was almost spared. Numerous contemporary witnesses from Altstadt, Weststadt and Pfaffengrund report that a few months before the US invasion of Heidelberg leaflets were dropped with the inscription “We want to protect Heidelberg, because we want to live there ourselves”; only the exact wording varies slightly depending on the report. The announcement of the exemption and liberation was thrown away by all contemporary witnesses, so that to this day no copy has been archived.
In their retreat on March 29, 1945, blew Wehrmacht u. A. the old bridge . On March 30, the American troops of the 63rd Infantry Division of the 7th US Army marched in without encountering any significant resistance. They were able to take over many buildings in the city for their purposes, including the Großdeutschland-Kaserne, which has been called Campbell Barracks ever since . Until the end of the war, the German 110th Infantry Regiment was stationed there, subordinated to the 33rd Infantry Division and from the end of 1940 to the 112th Infantry Division and used in the French and Russian campaigns.
After the Second World War
The intact Heidelberg attracted many bombed-out and expelled Germans after the Second World War. Heidelberg became part of the American zone of occupation and the location of high command posts for the US Army and later also for NATO . The American authorities expropriated real estate for this, which initially caused displeasure. From 1948 to 2013 the Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg were the headquarters of the United States Army Europe (USAREUR), the former 7th US Army. Until 2013, the city was also the seat of the NATO land headquarters in Central Europe.
In October 2009 it was announced that the USAREUR headquarters would be relocated to Wiesbaden. In August 2011 the traditional V. US Army Corps left Heidelberg and moved to Wiesbaden. In September 2013, the Campbell Barracks were officially closed by the US Army. With the move to the new headquarters in Wiesbaden-Erbenheim , the 65-year history of USAREUR - and the American troops in general - came to an end in Heidelberg in 2013. In 2008, the American armed forces had occupied almost 200 hectares, among other things for two barracks, two housing developments and a military hospital ( Nachrichten Kaserne ). In 2010 around 16,000 Americans lived in Heidelberg; the Americans then had a share of ten percent of the Heidelberg population.
The Ruprecht-Karls-Universität resumed teaching in January 1946 as the second West German university after Göttingen . Even before the war, individual university facilities had been relocated from the old town campus to Neuenheim on the other side of the Neckar, and from 1951 work began on building a completely new campus, the Neuenheimer Feld , on the western outskirts of the city. In the mid-1970s, the expansion of the 120 hectare site was essentially complete. In 1955, the main train station was relocated to its current location around 1.2 kilometers west of the old location. The area freed up was used for the construction of numerous administrative buildings on the Elector's Complex. In order to take account of the growing population of Heidelberg, two completely new residential areas were built in the south of the city in the 1960s and 1970s: Boxberg and Emmertsgrund .
With the incorporation of the municipality of Ziegelhausen in the Neckar Valley, Heidelberg's expansion in terms of area was completed in 1975. During the tenure of Mayor Reinhold Zundel (1966 to 1990), the old town was renovated, the 1.6 kilometer main street was converted into one of the longest pedestrian zones in Europe and Bismarckplatz was given its current shape.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the terrorist organization RAF carried out two attacks on American military facilities in Heidelberg. On May 24, 1972, the American soldiers Clyde R. Bonner, Charles L. Peck and Ronald A. Woodward were killed and five other people seriously injured by an explosive attack on the US headquarters of the 7th US Army in the Campbell Barracks. The assassination attempt of September 15, 1981 on the Commander-in-Chief of the US Land Forces in Europe, General Frederick James Kroesen , with a reactive anti-tank rifle of the Soviet type RPG-7 at Karlstor in Heidelberg failed because the LKA Baden-Württemberg gave him an armored Mercedes shortly before. Benz sedan after suspicious people were observed while observing Kroesen.
According to the 2011 census , 31.7% of the population were Protestant , 26.9% Roman Catholic and 41.4% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then. At the end of 2020, Heidelberg had 148,038 inhabitants, of which 26.6% were Protestants, 22.7% Catholics and 50.7% either have another religion or no religion at all. Two years earlier, 23.8% of the population belonged to the Catholic, 27.3% to the Protestant Church, and 48.9% were non-denominational or had any other religious affiliation. In 2017, 24.2 percent of the population were assigned to the Roman Catholic and 27.7 percent to the Protestant faith.
Exact figures on other religious communities (in addition to the two official churches ) were last collected in the 2011 census: At that time, 1.7% of the population were Christian Orthodox , 1.2% were members of an evangelical free church and 3.2% belonged to others in Baden- Württemberg to recognized religious communities under public law (these include, for example, Old Catholics and Jehovah's Witnesses ).
In 2015, around 20,000 Muslims lived in Heidelberg, which corresponds to a population share of 12.9%.
In 2019, 413 residents (0.3% of the city's population) belonged to the Jewish Community of Heidelberg.
After the first beginnings under Elector Friedrich II , Elector Ottheinrich finally introduced the Lutheran Reformation in 1556 in the Electoral Palatinate . His successor Friedrich III. tended more towards a Calvinist direction of the Reformation. In 1563, the “ Heidelberg Catechism ”, which points the way for all Reformed believers , was created in Heidelberg . After a short Lutheran interlude under Ludwig VI. Heidelberg and the Electoral Palatinate remained reformed for a long time. The attempts at recatholization under Bavarian and Spanish occupation during the Thirty Years' War were a temporary episode. Only when the reformed Palatinate-Simmern line became extinct in 1685 with the death of Elector Karl II and the Electoral Palatinate passed to the Catholic Palatinate-Neuburg line did the re-catholization of Heidelberg begin, as evidenced by many statues of the Virgin Mary such as the Kornmarkt Madonna . The Catholic electors settled here, especially for the reorganization of the university, Jesuits . The Discalced Carmelites also lived in Heidelberg for a long time, until in 1803 the order had to leave its monastery - which at that time occupied the area of today's Karlsplatz - in the course of secularization . Although the Reformed creed remained predominant despite these measures, the Catholic population gradually made up almost a third of the total population. Overall, the frequent change of denomination is a peculiarity of the history of religion in the Electoral Palatinate and Heidelberg.
The fate of the Heiliggeistkirche is an example of the denominational split in Heidelberg . From 1706 it was divided by a wall as part of the so-called declaration of religion: the Reformed, later Evangelical-Uniate, congregation owned the nave, the choir belonged to the Catholic, from 1874 to the Old Catholic Church. Elector Karl Philipp's attempt to turn the entire church into a Catholic court church led to a crisis across the empire. Only in 1936 did the entire Church of the Holy Spirit become the property of the Evangelical Church in Baden, whereupon the partition wall could be torn down.
In 1821, the union between Lutheran and Reformed parishes was introduced in the Grand Duchy of Baden . Today the Protestant congregations, if they do not belong to a free church, belong to the Heidelberg deanery within the parish of North Baden of the Evangelical Church in Baden . The Roman Catholic parishes belong to the Heidelberg-Weinheim deanery of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .
In addition to the large churches, there are a large number of other Christian denominations, e. B. Old Catholic and Anglican Churches , the Brethren , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses .
The New Apostolic Church is represented in Heidelberg with five congregations. The Baptists built a church on Feuerbachstrasse in 1963, which has been called Hope Church since 1988 . Since 2009 there has been a Coptic Orthodox parish of St. Maria and St. Josef in Heidelberg , which has been celebrating its services in the church of St. Albert (Bergheim) on the first three Sundays of the month for some time . The Romanian Orthodox community “St. Trinity "continues the begun in the 19th century religious practice of the Orthodox faith in Heidelberg and celebrated since 1997 every second Sunday of the month, John Chrysostom - Liturgy in the chapel of St. Anna in the Plöck, Old Town.
The first synagogue in Heidelberg is mentioned in 1390 in the course of the expulsion of the Jews from Heidelberg by Ruprecht II. It was on the corner of Unteren Strasse and Judengasse (today Dreikönigstrasse) in the old town. It was only after 1740 that the Jewish community was able to acquire a house in Mantelgasse again and use it as a synagogue. This synagogue was demolished in 1875 and replaced by a new building in 1878. However, this synagogue, like an Orthodox synagogue in Plöck, was destroyed during the Reichspogromnacht.
Even before the time of National Socialism, there were occasional attacks against the city's Jewish residents . B. 1819, to riots. Along with the mountain cemetery , a new Jewish cemetery was laid out, which - unlike the synagogues and many private houses that were destroyed in 1938 - also survived National Socialism. In 1933 there were 1,102 citizens of the Jewish faith in Heidelberg. At the beginning of the Second World War in 1939 there were only 483 and in 1946 just 196 more. As part of the Wagner-Bürckel campaign , in which over 6,000 Jews from Baden and the Saar-Palatinate were deported to France, 282 were also deported on October 22, 1940 Jews from Heidelberg deported to the Camp de Gurs internment camp . Most of the deported Heidelberg residents were then murdered in Auschwitz .
Since 1990 there has been a synagogue of a liberal reform community in the city again . In 1994 a new synagogue with a community center was completed on the site of the older community center in Weststadt. The local Jewish community today has 482 members (as of 2010) and is a unified community that is based on the Orthodox rite, but welcomes Jews of all religious backgrounds.
In addition to the university and associated with it, there has been a college for Jewish studies in Heidelberg since 1979 . With ten chairs it offers a wide range of subjects for both Jewish and non-Jewish students. Among other things, it enables training to be a rabbi . In 2009 a spacious new building was inaugurated. Stumbling blocks were laid in the city for the first time in October 2010 .
There are also a large number of Muslims in Heidelberg , for whom two mosques exist: a free mosque on Kurpfalzring (Pfaffengrund district) and a DITIB mosque in the Rohrbach Süd industrial park. There is also a Buddhist and a Baha'i community .
The population of the city of Heidelberg exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1946, making it a major city . It is a city with an international population, 38.0% of the city's population have a migration background (as of 2016). In a Germany-wide comparison, an above-average number of them come from Arab countries , Iran and East Asia . In addition, the city had one of the largest American communities outside of North America - due to the university, which was already connected to the USA in the interwar period, the city's romantic reputation and the American soldiers stationed here, the latter group being the Heidelberg group Population statistics are not kept. In 2013, Heidelberg counted (excluding soldiers and employees of the US Army and their relatives, a total of around 20,000 people) according to official updates, 152,113 residents with main residence - an all-time high. In 2015, 156,267 inhabitants were recorded. In 2017 there were more than 160,000.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Until 1833, most are estimates, then to census results (¹) or official updates of the respective statistical offices or the City Council itself. The data relate from 1843 to the "local attendees population," from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 on the "Population at the place of the main residence". Before 1843, the number of inhabitants was determined using inconsistent survey methods.
¹ census result
With a birth rate of 1.1 children per woman, there were proportionally the fewest births in Baden-Württemberg in 2008.
The Heidelberg municipal council consists of 48 voluntary and elected members; in addition, the Lord Mayor comes as a voting chairman. The council is directly elected for a period of five years. The task of the municipal council is to decide on all city affairs together with the mayor. The council controls the city administration and monitors the implementation of its decisions.
The 2019 local elections led to the following result (in brackets: difference to 2014):
|City council election 2019|
|Party / group of voters||Share of votes||Seats|
|GREEN||31.9% (+12.2)||16 (+6)|
|CDU||15.0% (−5.8)||7 (−3)|
|SPD||13.9% (−3.4)||7 (−1)|
|THE HEIDELBERGER||7.0% (−1.1)||3 (−1)|
|THE LEFT.||5.9% (+1.8)||3 (+1)|
|FDP||5.7% (+1.3)||3 (+1)|
|AfD||5.0% (+1.2)||2 (± 0)|
|Green Alternative List (GAL)||4.7% (+0.3)||2 (± 0)|
|Colorful left||3.9% (+0.2)||2 (± 0)|
|The party||2.7% (+2.7)||1 (+1)|
|Heidelberg on the move (HIB)||2.6% (+2.6)||1 (+1)|
|FWV||1.7% (−1.6)||1 (± 0)|
|Turnout: 64.9% (+13.6)|
For a long time, the city council, who had been city director since 1717, was the head of the city administration in Heidelberg. After the transition to Baden, the mayor initially carried the title of Lord Mayor, from 1819 First Mayor and from 1875 again Lord Mayor . Eckart Würzner has been Lord Mayor of Heidelberg since 2006 . A list of all mayors since 1701 can be found in the list of Heidelberg personalities .
The representation of the city districts has been expanded by 15 district councils since the 2014 election. The members are named proportionally by the parliamentary groups of the municipal council. You will be informed and involved by the city administration in case of questions related to the city district. The district councils have an advisory function for the city council and meet regularly at least three times a year.
The city administration has initiated a district framework plan for all 15 districts. This contains all the important district information available in the city, a development concept and suggestions for measures both from the city administration and from public participation. This means that relatively up-to-date information packages are available for those interested and for the municipal and district councils.
Immigration Council / Migration Council
The Aliens / Migration Council has been meeting since 1989. The Foreign Council works with all foreign and German-foreign associations in the city of Heidelberg. Since 2003 he has also been responsible for migrants, which is reflected in the name extension. The Foreigners' Council / Migration Council represents the interests of foreign residents vis-à-vis the municipal council and the city administration.
In November 2005, the Heidelberg Youth Council was elected for the first time. It consists of a total of 30 students from Heidelberg schools and is elected by all Heidelberg students for a period of two years. Members may not be older than 19 years at the time of election. The seats are distributed among the school types as follows: five secondary or special school students, five secondary school students, ten high school students and ten vocational students. The JGR has advisory members in the youth welfare, culture, sport and urban development committee. The youth council replaced the previous youth council, which was founded in 1999 and until now has been elected exclusively by the Heidelberg student representatives. The initiative for the further development of the model project Heidelberg Youth Council and the establishment of a youth community council came from the members of the youth council themselves. In doing so, they aimed for greater participation in the local council and its committees.
The fourth ombudsman is now Gustav Adolf Apfel. Heidelberg is the only city in Germany to have a voluntary ombudsman who is completely independent of the administration . The Ombudsman can request information and inspection of files and documents from the administration in ongoing administrative proceedings. The Ombudsman cannot intervene in judicial proceedings.
The city belongs to the Heidelberg-Mannheim neighborhood association , which draws up the land use plan on behalf of its 18 member communities . In North Baden it covers around 488 km² with around 666,000 inhabitants.
The local alliance for families was still running in 2008 as one of several model projects nationwide. It serves to promote families and civic engagement in cooperation with politics, administration, citizens, educational institutions and associations.
The Heidelberg Community Foundation was founded in 2009 . The idea of the foundation is that citizens get involved to help shape the future of their city. The founding was supported by the Bürger für Heidelberg association , which has been politically active since 1972, particularly in the field of urban planning.
Foundations that have Heidelberg in their name
The non-profit foundation Stadt-Heidelberg-Stiftung was founded in 1986 on the occasion of the 600th anniversary of the University of Heidelberg by the city of Heidelberg and is intended to strengthen the connections between the university and the citizens of Heidelberg. It is a municipal foundation under civil law. The purpose of the foundation is to promote projects in the humanities and social sciences at the University of Heidelberg and its students, doctoral candidates and young scientists. The foundation gives preference to projects that inform the general public about the activities of Heidelberg University. For example, grants are granted for public lectures, exhibitions, personnel resources for scientific projects and fees for public events.
The second foundation that Heidelberg has in its name is the Heidelberg Civic Foundation mentioned above in the section on civic engagement . Citizens invite their neighbors and friends of the city to help maintain the city's reputation through personal commitment. It is a foundation under civil law and founders, donors and volunteers are to be brought together. Your funding focuses on the areas of education and integration.
The SRH ( Foundation Rehabilitation Heidelberg ) is a private, non-profit foundation under civil law based in Heidelberg-Wieblingen. Since 1966 it has been committed to the further development of the education and health system and promotes scientific projects. It operates private universities (including the SRH Hochschule Heidelberg ), training centers, rehabilitation facilities, schools and hospitals across Germany. In 2013, the SRH founded Paraguay's first German-speaking university, the Universidad Paraguayo Alemana (UPA), in Asunción.
The offices of the city administration are grouped into five departments. Each department is headed by a full-time mayor , one of whom, as the first mayor, is the deputy mayor, who is responsible for department I, among others. is responsible for the fire brigade, public relations and personnel. In addition to the Lord Mayor Eckart Würzner, there is currently the First Mayor Jürgen Odszuck (Department II, Construction and Transport), Joachim Gerner (Department III, Family, Social Affairs, and Culture), Wolfgang Erichson (Department IV, Integration, Equal Opportunities and Citizens' Services) and Hans -Jürgen Heiss (Department V, Conversion and Finance).
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Heidelberg shows the red armored, red-tongued and red-crowned golden electoral Palatinate lion in black on a green three- hill walking to the right . The coat of arms in its current form was adopted by the city in 1898 and has been used in its current form, strongly stylized by Ludwig Peinecke, since 1969.
The lion is adopted as the heraldic animal of the Count Palatine , as Heidelberg was the royal seat of the Electors near the Rhine for a long time . The Dreiberg probably alludes to the name of the city and is in this respect a so-called speaking symbol . At times this Dreiberg was not shown in the coat of arms. The lion's tail is not split in two here.
Since 1994 there has also been a modern signet for the urban corporate design, which has been used since 1995 : On a white square (figurative mark) are three distinctive lines for Heidelberg Castle , the Neckar and the " Alte Brücke " (Karl-Theodor-Brücke), in black, blue and red (designed by Erwin Poell ). The logo was first developed for the "800 years Heidelberg" anniversary. It was later developed and used as the city logo.
Since the introduction of a new, uniform corporate design and revision of the city's website in September 2013, the city of Heidelberg has been using a logo consisting of the original Poells logo and the word mark “Heidelberg”. Both in the color "blueberry". The modernized corporate design conveys the positioning of the city of Heidelberg as a traditional city of tourism, but also as an important science, business and conference location with a high quality of life.
Heidelberg maintains a city partnership with the following cities :
- Montpellier , France , since 1961
- Cambridge , United Kingdom , since 1965
- Rehovot , Israel , since 1983
- Bautzen , Germany , since 1991
- Simferopol , Ukraine , since 1991
- Kumamoto , Japan , since 1992
- Hangzhou , People's Republic of China , since 2017
- Palo Alto , United States , since 2017
There is also the Amerika-Haus ( German-American Institute ) in Heidelberg and the Montpellier-Haus , which is located in the old town on Kettengasse. Accordingly, there is a Maison de Heidelberg in Montpellier . The university is a partner of a Confucius Institute .
The city as a namesake
Because of its historical significance, the city of Heidelberg often serves as a namesake. In its history, Lufthansa named four aircraft after the city on the Neckar: Most recently in 1990 an Airbus A320-200 for 139 passengers. An ICE train from Deutsche Bahn also bears the name Heidelberg.
An approximately 600,000 year old lower jaw of a hitherto unknown human forerunner was found in 1907 on the land of the community of Mauer near Heidelberg. The new species was named Homo heidelbergensis , according to the region and the research location (Heidelberg University) of the eponymous researcher Otto Schoetensack .
In several colonized countries cities were named after Heidelberg, for example Heidelberg (Victoria) in Australia or Heidelberg (Texas) in the USA, and also in South Africa. A Heidelberg research group named an island in the Antarctic as Heidelberg Island .
Economy and Infrastructure
For centuries Heidelberg was a 'residence of the mind'. Even today, the university town is the service and science center of the Rhine-Neckar region. Following the trend in most major German cities, the tertiary sector has continued to grow over the past few decades. In 2013, 83.8% of all people worked in the service sector, only 16.1% worked in the manufacturing sector. In the Future Atlas 2016 , the city of Heidelberg was ranked 14th out of 402 districts and cities in Germany, making it one of the regions with “very good future prospects”.
In 2014, 69.4% of the approximately 85,600 jobs were taken by commuters .
In 2016, Heidelberg achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 8.391 billion within the city limits, making it 42nd in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 53,079 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 3.1%. The unemployment rate was 3.6% in December 2018, making it one of the lowest among major German cities.
The largest employer in Heidelberg is the University of Heidelberg with its university clinic , which offers more than 15,000 jobs. International companies such as ABB Stotz-Kontakt , Heidelberger Druckmaschinen , HeidelbergCement , Henkel-Teroson , Lamy , Prominent Dosiertechnik , Rockwell Collins , SAP and SAS Institute are based in the city.
In 2007, according to the State Statistical Office, Heidelberg had the highest density of doctors among the urban and rural districts in Baden-Württemberg. In Heidelberg there was one doctor for every 272 inhabitants, whereas the national average was 646 inhabitants.
In the banking sector, the Sparkasse Heidelberg , Heidelberger Volksbank eG and Volksbank Kurpfalz eG have their headquarters in Heidelberg. There are also branches of supraregional credit institutions.
Tourism is an important economic factor. In 2014, 11.9 million tourists and 1.12 million business overnight stays generated gross sales of 535 million euros. In 2017, the number of commercial overnight stays increased to 1.44 million.
Heidelberg is affected in the west by the A 5 , which connects the region to the north with Frankfurt am Main and to the south with Karlsruhe . The A 656 , which begins west of the city center and lies between two sections of the B 37 , connects Heidelberg with Mannheim. Both motorways meet in the Heidelberg urban area at the Heidelberg motorway junction. The A 656 meets the A 6 at the Mannheim motorway junction , which connects Heidelberg to the east and west with southern Germany.
The city is also traversed by the B 3 (Frankfurt am Main – Karlsruhe) in a north-south direction and the B 37 (Mannheim– Eberbach ) in an east-west direction . Both meet in the city center on Bismarckplatz. The B 535 begins in the south of Heidelberg and leads to Schwetzingen .
There were plans to move the B 37 into a tunnel in the Heidelberg city center on the banks of the Neckar. However, these are currently (2019) not being pursued further.
Environmental protection and quality of life
On January 1, 2010, an environmental zone was introduced in Heidelberg . It includes the districts of Handschuhsheim, Neuenheim, Bergheim, Altstadt, Weststadt, Südstadt and Rohrbach. Since 2013, due to the fine dust pollution in Heidelberg, only vehicles that meet at least pollutant group 4 (green sticker) have been allowed to drive .
Since 2008, as part of a project called “City on the River”, the relocation of the federal highway 37 over a length of 2.2 kilometers in a tunnel should be planned. The goal is a traffic-calmed river bank for the old town and the possibility of a new tram route as a "campus line". The current state of affairs was mentioned above.
Heidelberg is on four scenic routes:
Characterized by the Neckar Valley, the following five Neckar bridges are important for road traffic in Heidelberg:
- Old Bridge (officially Karl Theodor Bridge ) - connects the old town and Neuenheim
- Theodor-Heuss-Brücke - connects the Bismarckplatz in the Bergheim district with Neuenheim
- Ernst-Walz-Brücke - connects Bergheim and Neuenheim
- Neckar Bridge Schlierbach-Ziegelhausen - connects the aforementioned districts
- The A5 runs north of Wieblingen over the Neckar
There are also three pedestrian walkways leading over the Neckar in connection with weirs . The archaeologically documented Roman bridge stood roughly between the Theodor Heuss Bridge and the Ernst Walz Bridge.
The Czerny Bridge , which runs over the railway tracks at the main train station, is also important in terms of transport. It was named after the surgeon and cancer researcher Vincenz Czerny and connects the districts of Bergheim and Bahnstadt. The Montpellier Bridge, named after the French twin town , also runs over the railway tracks and is located in the western part of the city.
The Neckar has been used as a transport and traffic route since time immemorial. In 1920 the Reichstag decided to build the Neckar Canal. On June 15, 1925, the Wieblingen-Schwabenheimer Hof barrage was put into operation. The Heidelberg – Neckargemünd shipping route was completed in October 1928, and the footbridge over the Hirschgasse weir was opened to general traffic on December 19, 1929. In 1935 the Mannheim-Heilbronn shipping route was navigable with a length of 113 km and the Ziegelhausen-Schlierbach Bridge was inaugurated on December 12, 1954.
In 2007 around 7.5 million tons of goods were moved on the Neckar.
Today, especially in the summer season, numerous small and medium-sized excursion boats are used for tourism, usually the city panorama is visited in shorter trips. Further trips go z. B. the Neckar uphill over the places Neckargemünd , Neckarsteinach , Hirschhorn to Eberbach . You can get to Heilbronn or Stuttgart on special trips . To the west one reaches the Rhine via Ladenburg and Mannheim ; Special trips to the Middle Rhine are very popular. The “SolarSchiff” catamaran has been an attraction since June 2004, a solar boat that glides almost silently for 110 people, but can only be used when the current is low.
In the long-distance train Heidelberg is with ICE trains of the lines Basel - Frankfurt am Main , Stuttgart - Cologne , Zurich -Frankfurt am Main and Stuttgart Hamburg accessible and with EC / IC trains lines Salzburg -Frankfurt, Stuttgart Dortmund and Karlsruhe - Stralsund . Since 2017, Heidelberg can also be reached via the Flixtrain line Stuttgart– Berlin .
The most important local transport hub in Heidelberg is Bismarckplatz . Several of the city's main traffic arteries cross here, and one of the longest pedestrian zones in Europe, the main street , runs through the entire old town of Heidelberg . For a long time the main station was in the immediate vicinity , which at that time was still a combined terminus and through station. In 1955 it was moved about 1.5 km further to the west, so that the trains going south no longer needed a change of direction. The new main train station thus rose to become the second important traffic junction in Heidelberg.
Local public transport ( ÖPNV ) has existed in Heidelberg since 1885 , at that time still in the form of a horse-drawn tram , which was put into operation that year. Due to the rapidly increasing transport volume, on December 20, 1901, an extraordinary general assembly decided to convert the horse-drawn tram to electrical operation.
On March 16, 1902, the first electric tram ran on Rohrbacher Straße using the same railway facilities as the Heidelberg - Wiesloch electric suburban railway built in 1901 by the German Railway Company . The tram network was expanded bit by bit until the 1950s. When the rapidly becoming popular automobile posed ever greater problems for the operators of local public transport, the tram network was gradually reduced to a network geared towards the basic supply. It was not until December 10, 2006 that a new tram line was opened with the connection to Kirchheim. Today the RNV is responsible for the operation of the tram and bus routes. Since 1989, they can all be used with a uniform tariff within the Rhein-Neckar transport association (VRN).
Since December 14, 2003, Heidelberg has been connected to the network of the RheinNeckar S-Bahn , which opens up the entire Rhine-Neckar area and leads to the Palatinate, Saarland and southern Hesse. A connection to the S-Bahn network to Karlsruhe took place. This made the Rhine-Neckar area one of the last metropolitan areas to have its own S-Bahn. Planning began decades ago; However, because four federal states had to coordinate with each other ( Baden-Württemberg , Saarland , Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate ), implementation was delayed for so long.
The mountain railway has been running since 2005 with new railcars in the lower part from the Kornmarkt to the Molkenkur view and the historic carriages from 1907 in the upper section from the Molkenkur view to the Königstuhl . It is one of the most popular ways to get to Heidelberg Castle . The first planning for the mountain railway began in 1873. However, due to a lack of funds, the first section of the route could not be opened until 1890. In 2004 the upper mountain railway was included in the monument book of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Biking and hiking trails
The Bergstrasse cycle path begins in Heidelberg and leads to Darmstadt.
Due to the promotion of solar energy, an innovative tenant electricity model and the goal of a climate-neutral city, Heidelberg was named an “energy municipality” in February 2015. Heidelberg is a member of the Energy Cities network and, as a master plan municipality , Heidelberg has committed itself to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to almost zero by 2050 and reducing final energy consumption to 50 percent. The Heidelberger Energiegenossenschaft eG (HEG) has been implementing the energy transition in Heidelberg and the surrounding area since 2010. It operates 20 citizen solar systems and is involved in two wind turbines.
The only local daily newspaper in Heidelberg is the Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung (RNZ). It has several local editions. The city publishes a weekly gazette, the Stadtblatt. The city magazine with a calendar of events for Heidelberg aktuell is also published . The Rhein-Neckar-Journal (RNJ) - an audio newspaper for the blind and visually impaired - brings information from the Heidelberg area to the ears of the blind and visually impaired every week. Since August 2009, an online portal has also been publishing local news under the title “Die Stadttredaktion”.
The Süddeutsche Rundfunk (now Südwestrundfunk ) maintained a regional studio for many years, which is now based in Mannheim. There is also Rhein-Neckar TV as a local TV station. Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a keen interest in being represented with their own media on the part of the student body. In addition to the student newspapers Ruprecht and unimut, the campus radio Rhein-Neckar, RadioAktiv, broadcasts on FM 105.4 MHz . Heidelberg students get involved together with fellow students from the neighboring University of Mannheim to keep the radio going and to provide the student body with music and news from the campus.
Heidelberg is the location of several radio transmission systems. In addition to the SWR television tower on the Königstuhl, there is also the Deutsche Telekom AG transmitter system directly adjacent.
DVB-T is broadcast from the Heidelberg-Königstuhl television tower. 13 programs can be received on three transponders, channel 21, 474 MHz (ZDF), channel 49, 698 MHz and 60, 786 MHz (SWR or ARD). From the Rhine-Main area and from the Stuttgart telecommunications tower, private broadcasters can also be received in the Rhine-Neckar area with a roof antenna. The DVB-T signal from the Königstuhl has a range of 80 to 100 kilometers.
Courts, authorities and institutions
In Heidelberg there is a local court and a regional court , both of which belong to the Karlsruhe Higher Regional Court district , as well as a public prosecutor's office . In addition, there are external chambers of the Mannheim Labor Court in Heidelberg .
In addition, the city is home to the raw materials and chemical industry trade association , the Heidelberg church district of the Evangelical Church in Baden and the Heidelberg deanery of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .
Heidelberg was the seat of the NATO Land Headquarters Central Europe (Land Headquarters; formerly LANDCENT) under the command of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe . The headquarters of the 7th US Army was located in the Campbell Barracks ( V. US Corps Headquarters). There were also many American military installations in the vicinity. In 2008 the US armed forces employed around 1,000 civilian workers . An estimated ten million euros were spent by members of the US military and their relatives in Heidelberg retail stores, and another five million euros in restaurants. The US military's annual investment in its own buildings and facilities was around 30 million euros. By the end of 2012, however, a large part of the US armed forces had moved to Wiesbaden, where a new headquarters was established. The US military was completely withdrawn from Heidelberg by 2015.
Education and Research
University, colleges, seminar
Heidelberg is known far beyond the region for its educational institutions. The most renowned of them is the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg . It was founded in 1386 and is the oldest university in what is now Germany . Your campus is divided into two urban areas and several individual buildings: the humanities, social sciences and law are located in numerous historical buildings in the old town . The natural sciences and medicine are predominantly located on the new campus in Neuenheimer Feld.
In 1904 the Heidelberg University of Education was founded. After several extensions and renaming, it finally became a scientific university in 1971 with the current name.
With the Heidelberg University of Church Music , Heidelberg also has an institute specializing in music. It opened its doors for the first time in 1931 as an institution of the Evangelical Church in Baden.
The SRH University Heidelberg is a private university of the SRH Group (Foundation Rehabilitation Heidelberg). It was founded in 1969 and was the first private university of applied sciences to be accredited by the German Science Council in 2004 . It is located in the “Science Tower” in the Wieblingen district .
The University for International Management Heidelberg (HIM) is a private, state-recognized university. Your bachelor's and master's degree programs are accredited according to the requirements of the German and British higher education systems. The students acquire a German and a British university degree at the same time.
The Schiller International University has a campus in Heidelberg. The private American university offers Bachelor's and Master's degrees in International Business and International Relations & Diplomacy.
Heidelberg has a state seminar for didactics and teacher training (grammar schools and special schools) as well as an institute for translation and interpreting (IÜD), which is part of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität.
The most important sponsoring company in the Heidelberg research landscape is the University of Heidelberg . It houses numerous institutes such as the Heidelberg Biochemistry Center (BZH), the Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences (IZN), the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), the South Asia Institute (SAI), and the Heidelberg Center for American Studies (HCA), the Heidelberg Center Latin America and the Center for Astronomy Heidelberg (ZAH). At the beginning of 2007, the newly built center for quantitative analysis of molecular and cellular biosystems (BIOQUANT) in Neuenheimer Feld was added.
Well-known institutes are the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), founded in 1964, and the Center for Molecular Biology Heidelberg (ZMBH), which was founded in 1983. Both institutes are committed to basic research.
The central facility of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), founded in 1974, is also located in Heidelberg . in Monterotondo (Italy), Hinxton (England), Grenoble (France) and Hamburg. It is operated by 18 European countries.
With four institutes, Heidelberg is a regional focus of the Max Planck Society . The Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law , the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics , the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research are located here. The city of Heidelberg is also a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society.
Other research institutes are the State Teaching and Research Institute for Horticulture, the State Observatory Heidelberg-Königstuhl , the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences , the European Media Laboratory (EML), a private research institute for applied computer science and the research center of the Evangelical Study Community , which is run by the Evangelical Church will be carried.
There are elementary, community, secondary and vocational schools (state and private), special education and advice centers and grammar schools.
Special schools are the Free Waldorf School Heidelberg (private) and the International Comprehensive School Heidelberg (IGH) (state). The IGH is an additive comprehensive school which, along with two other comprehensive schools, is mentioned by name in the Baden-Württemberg School Act as a school of extraordinary character. At both schools there is the possibility of taking the Abitur . The private, state-recognized supplementary school Heidelberg International School (HIS) in Wieblingen also has a special character. The language of instruction is English and school fees are charged.
In addition to the adult education center, there is also the city of Heidelberg's music and singing school with the Johannes Brahms Hall. There is also a hotel management school and numerous private vocational schools such as the bfw and the F&U schools . In addition to these schools, there are also extracurricular educational institutions, such as the Life Science Lab , a school laboratory at the German Cancer Research Center .
The Academy for Elderly , founded in 1984 as an association, offers older people (60 years and older) a wide range of educational opportunities in the form of lectures and seminars. It promotes integration, the creation of new networks, voluntary engagement and political participation of older people.
The Heidelberg City Library, founded in 1904 (total inventory: over 200,000 media), achieved top positions in the “City Library” category several times in the performance measurement by the library index . After several years of municipal savings targets, the city library was able to take this top position again through a comprehensive renovation in 2009.
Culture and sights
Buildings and plants
Heidelberg is one of the few major German cities that was not destroyed in World War II. A special feature is the baroque old town , which - after the destruction in 1689 and 1693 - was rebuilt on a medieval floor plan. Most of the major buildings are located in the old town, which is 1.6 km long and has one of the longest pedestrian zones in Europe. In the entire city area, around 2830 buildings are listed (as of April 2017).
Heidelberg Castle is one of the most famous ruins in Germany and the symbol of the city. The building was originally built as a fortified castle in a strategically favorable location above a narrowing of the Neckar valley and was later expanded into the magnificent residence of the Electors of the Palatinate. Since the destruction in 1689 and 1693 in the Palatinate War of Succession , the castle has only been partially restored. In 1764 another fire after a lightning strike sealed the lot of the castle, which had just been renovated at the time. It was abandoned and the ruin was used as a quarry (building material) for the new Schwetzingen summer palace and later for the citizens of Heidelberg, before it was discovered by writers at the end of the 18th century and as a symbol of transience, but also as a symbol of transience in the era of the Napoleonic wars patriotic monument. The castle ruins rise 80 meters above the valley floor on the northern slope of the Königstuhl and from there dominate the image of the old town. The Ottheinrichsbau, one of the palace buildings of the castle, is one of the most important buildings of the Renaissance north of the Alps.
The official name of the Alte Brücke is Karl-Theodor-Brücke. It is one of Germany's oldest bridges and was first mentioned in a document in 1284. There were many previous wooden buildings that were repeatedly destroyed by ice drift. In its current form it was built in 1788, but towards the end of the Second World War two pillars were blown up by the Wehrmacht to stop the advancing Allied troops. In 1947 the bridge was completely reconstructed.
The gate of the old bridge seen from the north ...
View of the Philosophenweg with Schlangenweg (right)
Bonifatiuskirche in the Weststadt
The Heiliggeistkirche is the most famous church in Heidelberg. It is in the center of the city, not far from Heidelberg Castle . Its facade, together with the castle, shapes the silhouette of the Neckarstadt. It once served as the repository of the famous Bibliotheca Palatina , but during the Thirty Years' War the collection of manuscripts and early prints was stolen from Elector Maximilian I and presented to the Pope as a gift.
The oldest church in Heidelberg's old town is the Peterskirche . It is believed that the Peterskirche was built before Heidelberg was founded. Their age is estimated to be around 900 years. In the late Middle Ages it became a university chapel. It serves as the final resting place for around 150 professors and electoral courtiers. Marsilius von Inghen , the founding rector of Heidelberg University , is also buried here . For the 400th birthday of Martin Luther , the Luther oak was planted on the east side in 1883 .
One of the oldest surviving buildings in Heidelberg's old town is the “Zum Ritter” hotel . It was built in 1592 by a family of cloth merchants. With its location in the old town opposite the Heiliggeistkirche , it is one of the most visited sights in Heidelberg.
On the eastern edge of the old town stands the Karlstor , a free-standing archway, which was a gift from the citizens of Heidelberg to the Elector Karl Theodor . Construction lasted six years and was completed in 1781. The Karlstor is decorated, including the coat of arms of the elector and portraits of him and his wife on the archway.
In the old town there are further historical buildings of the University of Heidelberg . One of the most important is the university library, which houses the university's central library and a museum with old manuscripts and codices , also part of the university's book collection. One of them is the Codex Manesse , the most extensive and most famous German song manuscript of the Middle Ages. The entire library is located in a neo-classical building made of red sandstone.
- See also
- Ancient anatomy
- Old University
- Badischer Hof
- Grand Ducal Palace
- House to the giant
- Dutch yard
- Palais Boisserée
- Palais Morass
- Weimar Palace
- city Hall
- Villa Bosch
- Wormser Hof
The Thingstätte on the Heiligenberg dates from the time of National Socialism . The Thingstätte is an open-air stage in the style of a Greek theater. It was built by the National Socialist Reich Labor Service and inaugurated by Joseph Goebbels in 1935 . The thing site was primarily intended as a propaganda platform. Today it serves as an open-air stage for all kinds of cultural performances.
The new synagogue in Weststadt is also worth mentioning . After the Jewish houses of worship in Heidelberg were burned down in the pogrom night of November 9-10, 1938, there were no more permanent prayer rooms for Jewish citizens until the re-establishment of the Jewish community at the end of the war in 1945. After a series of moves, the congregation found its current home in the new synagogue, which was inaugurated in 1994.
The municipal cleaning and swimming pool in Bergheim, which is one of the last remaining Art Nouveau indoor swimming pools (old indoor swimming pool), has not been used as a pool since 1981 . Since 2013 it has been used as a market hall with shops, restaurants and cultural offerings.
The Heidelberg television tower , the Heidelberg telecommunications tower and the telecommunications tower of the US armed forces in Heidelberg make it clear that Heidelberg also plays an important role in telecommunications for the entire region. All three transmission towers are located on the Königstuhl .
The town hall is the congress and cultural center built between 1901 and 1903 on the banks of the Neckar in the old town with a rich red sandstone facade (Wilhelminian style, neo-Renaissance and Art Nouveau architecture).
The fire station of the Heidelberg Fire Brigade , built as a passive house , was planned by Peter Kulka and has been in use since 2007. It is considered to be one of the most modern and innovative fire stations in Germany and is therefore also a destination for architectural tourism.
A famous and often depicted views of the old town of Heidelberg has the Philosophers . The path begins in the Neuenheim district , leads halfway up the Heiligenberg , which is located on the banks of the Neckar opposite Heidelberg Castle , and then runs above the Neckar through the valley to Ziegelhausen .
The Bergfriedhof is one of the most famous final resting places in Germany. Many important personalities such as the first Reich President Friedrich Ebert or the scientists Carl Bosch and Robert Bunsen are buried here. Numerous memorials commemorate the victims of past wars and the Holocaust .
- See also
- Karlsplatz with various palaces
- Market square / town hall
- Old synagogue square
- University Square
- Kornmarkt (Heidelberg)
The Kurpfälzisches Museum is dedicated to the history of the city of Heidelberg and the Electoral Palatinate . The museum owes its existence to the commitment of the French émigré Charles de Graimberg , who from 1810 began to be interested in the annals of the Palatinate dynasty. His collection of coins, weapons, paintings and other historical pieces formed the cornerstone of the museum's holdings. The well-known twelve messenger altar by Tilman Riemenschneider was also acquired by Graimberg. In 1879 the city bought the private collection and in 1908 the museum opened its doors in the Palais Morass . The museum stock has been greatly expanded since its inception, so that today you can find out about the history of the Electoral Palatinate up to the prehistoric times.
The German Pharmacy Museum is located directly in Heidelberg Castle and shows one of the most extensive pharmaceutical history collections in the world. You can see several valuable pharmacy furnishings from the Baroque and Biedermeier periods, an extensive historical raw drug collection, tools for all aspects of the art of pharmacy and a unique collection of pharmacy jars. With the help of objects, interesting texts and exciting tours, guests experience 2000 years of cultural and pharmaceutical history in a vivid way.
The Documentation and Cultural Center of German Sinti and Roma is a national memorial and museum .
The Ethnographic Museum houses a collection of works of art and ethnographic objects from Asia , Africa and Oceania . It offers an insight into the art, worldview and rituals of the peoples of those areas. The ethnological museum dates back to 1921 and is now housed in the Palais Weimar . Since its inception, it has been the sole sponsor of the J. & E. von Portheim Foundation , which was founded in 1919 by Victor Mordechai Goldschmidt . The extensive collection of the Jewish scholar formed the basic inventory of the museum.
The Heidelberger Kunstverein , one of the largest in Germany with over 1000 members, is obliged to promote and mediate contemporary art according to its statutes, while the Museum Haus Cajeth is dedicated to "primitive art".
Five of the fourteen districts have local museums; they preserve the history of the respective district and make it accessible to the interested public.
Not far from the Alte Brücke is the birthplace of Friedrich Ebert (1871–1925), the first democratically elected head of state in German history. There, in the house at Pfaffengasse 18, in the heart of the old town, the 46 m² apartment, in which Friedrich Ebert was born on February 4, 1871, the seventh of nine children, gives an impression of the cramped living conditions of a small family of craftsmen in the second half of the 19th century. Century. In addition, the permanent exhibition “From Workers' Leader to President: Friedrich Ebert (1871–1925)” provides information about the life and political work of Friedrich Ebert against the background of the German Empire, the First World War, the November Revolution and the Weimar Republic. The Friedrich-Ebert-Haus is supported by the Reichspräsident-Friedrich-Ebert-Gedenkstätte Foundation established by federal law in 1986.
With its numerous collections and exhibitions, Heidelberg University is a giant in the city's museum landscape. Many of the university institutes and faculties have extensive holdings that are publicly accessible. Completely different subject areas such as Egyptology , botany , paleontology or zoology are also accessible to the layman in this way. The university even has its own university museum. Of all these institutions, two stand out in particular: the detention center and the university library . The student prison is part of the student museum in the old university . When the university had its own jurisdiction over students, one served detention as a prison for too unruly students. Generations of students have sat here and preserved their frustration with their alma mater for posterity with all kinds of writing utensils on the walls of the academic detention center . In addition to a large number of newer books, the university library houses one of the most famous collections of old books and writings. The showpiece of the collection is the Middle High German song manuscript Codex Manesse . The “Manessische Liederhandschrift” is the most extensive and most famous German collection of poetic works from the Middle Ages . A facsimile can always be seen in the university library.
The German Tuberculosis Archive, to which a museum belongs, has existed in the Thoraxklinik Heidelberg-Rohrbach since 2011. The Heidelberg Zoo was founded in 1933 and attracts around half a million visitors every year. The animal population includes around 1726 animals in 159 species (as of 2019). The zoo director has been Klaus Wünnemann since 1998 .
- A memorial in the mountain cemetery near the entrance to Görresstrasse commemorates 27 victims of National Socialism who are buried there, including 19 resistance fighters from the "Lechleiter Group", named after Georg Lechleiter , member of the KPD , who was murdered with the other members in 1943. Another commemorative plaque informs about French resistance fighters of the "Wodli Group" who committed acts of sabotage on armaments-important facilities. At the Goerdeler family grave, a plaque refers to Carl Friedrich Goerdeler , one of the leading figures in the assassination attempt of July 20, 1944 . He was murdered together with his brother Fritz in 1944 in Berlin-Plötzensee .
- The cemetery of honor from 1934 above the mountain cemetery was expanded in 1953 to become a memorial for 177 prisoners from satellite camps who were deported from Poland, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia to Germany for forced labor .
- At the mourning hall of the Jewish cemetery , the persecuted and murdered Jewish residents are commemorated with a plaque . Below the plaque a stone commemorates the synagogue that was destroyed in the November pogrom in 1938 . This place of worship is also remembered at its former location in Große Mantelgasse / Lauerstraße.
- On Mombertplatz in the Emmertsgrund district there is a memorial plaque for the Jewish lawyer and poet Alfred Mombert , who died of the consequences of imprisonment after being deported to the Gurs camp in 1940 .
- At the old town church of the Holy Spirit, a plaque informs about the work of the Protestant pastor Hermann Maas , who belonged to the Confessing Church and helped threatened Jews to flee. The Prelate Hermann Maas Archive preserves the memory of this honorary citizen of Heidelberg.
- On the town hall square of the Rohrbach district, a memorial stone formed as a Star of David commemorates the destroyed synagogue.
- A memorial stone in the cemetery in the Kirchheim district keeps up the memory of at least 100 prisoners of the Nazi dictatorship who fell victim to forced labor .
- In the Wieblingen district, the residents of the Elisabeth von Thadden School and other memorial symbols commemorate the bourgeois opponent of Hitler who was murdered in Berlin-Plötzensee in 1944.
- Fehrentzstraße in the Bergheim district is dedicated to the memory of the worker sportsman and wrestler Heinrich Fehrentz , who was murdered in 1943 and was buried in an honorary grave in the municipal cemetery after 1945.
The Theater der Stadt Heidelberg is the largest theater in the city, a municipal four-branch theater with music, spoken and dance theater as well as its own ensemble for children's and youth theater, which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2009.
The largest venue, the “City Stage”, was expanded and remodeled from 2009 to 2012 and reopened on November 24, 2012 with a party. The project was estimated at 52.9 million euros. This decision was made possible by the nationwide unique civic engagement in the amount of 16.5 million euros. The main venues during the renovation were the “Opernzelt” and the “Theaterkino” housed in the former castle cinema as well as the children's and youth theater “Zwinger 3” and the studio stage “Zwinger 1”. The city theater, which opened in 1853 with a performance of Friedrich Schiller's The Bride of Messina , also organizes the Castle Festival in Heidelberg Castle .
The University of Heidelberg also maintains its own stage with the theater in the Romanisches Keller . It is the largest forum for student and independent theater in the Neckarstadt. The reputation of the theater in the Romanisches Keller extends far beyond Heidelberg.
A theater with a completely different style is the room theater . It was founded in 1950 by the young actors Jochen Ballin, Claire Hahn, Helga Schmidle, Karl-Heinz Walther and Brigitte Zepf and has retained its small theater charm to this day. Thanks to its premieres and world premieres, the room theater has also become known beyond the borders of Heidelberg. It is the oldest private theater in Germany. The room theater is financially supported by the Friends of the room theater association.
The Taeter Theater is one of the younger theaters in Heidelberg. It was founded in 1984 and in 1987 found its home in the old Landfried tobacco factory. The name of the theater is a play on words with the terms theater and perpetrator , which points to the principle of the group: At the beginning there is the deed - everything else will happen .
The Puppet Theater Plappermaul is a theater that offers a program especially for younger audiences. The Roadside Theater , the English-language theater of the US armed forces in Heidelberg, is also worth mentioning . It offers an Anglo-Saxon theater program, which is based on the style of American "community theaters". Other theaters in Heidelberg that have their own venues are the stage 14 , the Cabaret Kleinkunst in the Anna-Blum-Haus , the Stephge , the theater group Vogelfrei in the garden of the Germanic seminar, the theater workshop Heidelberg , the TiKK as well as the UnterwegsTheater and the Improvisational theater DRAMA light . The theater hall in the Augustinum Heidelberg was regularly used as a venue for touring theater until the end of the 1990s. Due to the insufficient number of visitors and the many other venues in Heidelberg, theater operations in the Augustinum have almost been discontinued, but cabaret and cabaret are offered more frequently, including. in cooperation with the Kulturfenster Heidelberg .
Heidelberg was once the city with the highest density of cinema in Germany and had no commercial cinema after the cinema had died out in recent years and the Harmonie Lux cinema center was closed. A curiosity is that the Harmonie Lux Kinocenter was housed in the historic town house of the Worms bishops until the beginning of 2014 . The cinema was a remnant of the Ufa bankruptcy estate and has since been run by the employees. Since 2014 the building has been converted into a department store and literature store.
The Luxor Filmpalast Heidelberg was opened in December 2017, it has 15 halls and is the world's first passive house cinema.
The other cinemas in Heidelberg are a mixture of commercial and arthouse cinemas with a sophisticated program: Gloria & Gloriette , Kamera , Cinema Augustinum and the communal Karlstorkino. The Karlstorkino also has a regularly changing focus on which foreign-language films and documentaries are shown. As an art house cinema in the auditorium of the senior citizens' residence, the Augustinum Cinema shows around two films a month, mostly current films.
Particularly noteworthy are the annual Mannheim-Heidelberg International Film Festival , at which predominantly films by 'undiscovered' directors are shown, and the "Mediterranean Film Festival " in the Montpellier House. There is also the short film festival "Zum Goldenen Hirsch", at which only film productions from the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region can be seen.
Seniors and Citizens Centers
After fundamental planning in the 1980s, senior citizens and community centers were set up in twelve districts. They serve as a place to pass the time as well as an advice center for charities and the city administration .
The local volunteers work on very different programs . The city only finances the buildings and some of the full-time employees. This means that there are contact points for people in need and their relatives across the board.
The city of Heidelberg has had a special sports funding program to support the clubs for years. In 2006 there were 120 sports clubs, 22 municipal sports facilities and 40 sports and gymnastics halls in Heidelberg. Heidelberg is also considered a German rugby stronghold, as there are five rugby clubs in the city, of which currently (2018/19 season) three ( Heidelberger RK , RG Heidelberg , TSV Handschuhsheim ) belong to the 16 teams in the rugby Bundesliga .
The sports club in Heidelberg with the largest number of members is the Heidelberg section of the German Alpine Club, founded in 1869 with over 9,300 members, before TSG Rohrbach , which was founded as a gymnastics club in 1889 . The association currently has over 3000 members. TSG Rohrbach is one of the ten largest clubs in North Baden.
Several Heidelberg clubs have repeatedly won championships. A prominent example is the basketball club USC Heidelberg , which has won the second most German basketball championships with nine titles , two of which since the establishment of the Basketball Bundesliga in 1967. Today the club plays in the 2nd ProA league and is particularly known for its youth division. which has produced national players several times. Another example is the swimming club SV Nikar Heidelberg . The women's team of the Heidelberg TC was German team champions ten times between 1982 and 1998. The SGK Heidelberg currently runs the most successful soccer department in Heidelberg.
In 2003, a network of three Heidelberg schools - the Helmholtz-Gymnasium, the Johannes-Kepler-Realschule and the Willy-Hellpach-Schule - was awarded the title “ Elite School of Sports ” by the German Sports Association. The award was given for the special sports funding programs that these schools offer in cooperation with the Heidelberg Olympic base in Neuenheimer Feld . Young athletes who take part in this support program receive a special treat in order to bring school and training into harmony. Several German champions and international successes have emerged from the program.
The following nationally known events take place regularly in Heidelberg:
- January: WunderWelten; Since 2010 the festival has been taking place on the 1st weekend in January with live multivisions and photography workshops in the “Music and Singing School”. The series of events has become a tradition for them. It has been taking place in Heidelberg since 2010
- March / April: Heidelberg Spring , annual festival for classical and contemporary music with internationally recognized artists
- International Easter Egg Market Heidelberg
- three weeks before Easter (Sunday Laetare ): traditional summer day train
- April: Heidelberg half marathon on the last weekend in April
- April / May: Queer Festival Heidelberg
- April / May: Heidelberger Stückemarkt , theater days with young authors
- May: Heidelberg Symposium
- Early summer: Annual award of the Clemens Brentano Prize donated by the city
- May: Spring fair at the Messplatz
- May: Heidelberg rowing regatta
- July: Theater marathon in public places and at the venues
- June / July / August: Heidelberg Castle Festival in the castle courtyard
- July / August: HeidelbergMan , a triathlon competition
- June – September: on the first Saturday in June and September and on the second Saturday in July - Heidelberg castle lighting with brilliant fireworks from the Old Bridge
- September: Heidelberg autumn in the old town and on the one-kilometer pedestrian zone on the last Saturday in September
- October: autumn fair
- October / November: The Heidelberg Theatertage, an international festival for German-speaking independent theater
- October / November: Enjoy Jazz , an international festival for jazz and other things
- October / November / December: Cabaret autumn think beautifully from the culture window
- November: International Film Festival Mannheim-Heidelberg
- November / December: Heidelberg Christmas Market
Heidelberg in poetry
Heidelberg is the subject of numerous poems. Among the best known are Oswald von Wolkenstein's Ich prehm dich Heidelberg , several poems by Martin Opitz , the Ode Lange I love you already by Friedrich Hölderlin , the song of a student's arrival in Heidelberg by Clemens Brentano , Gottfried Keller's poem on the Old Bridge and Alt -Heidelberg, you fine by Joseph Victor von Scheffel .
Heidelberg also gained literary importance when Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Marianne von Willemer met here for the last time in September 1815 . At this meeting or immediately afterwards, about 15 of the poems of the West-Eastern Divan were written . Stays of other poets in Heidelberg such as Joseph von Eichendorff , Jean Paul and Nikolaus Lenau are also documented. Alfred Mombert and Hilde Domin lived and worked in Heidelberg . In December 2014, Heidelberg became the first German city to become a UNESCO City of Literature.
The local dialect of the Heidelberg area is " Kurpellsisch " or in High German : the Palatinate dialect in the Kurpfälzer form. Much in Heidelberg has an Electoral Palatinate name, such as Hendesse for the Handschuhsheim district.
A Rhine-Franconian dialect is "babbled" in innumerable small-scale variants, the high German and the high proportion of newcomers has pushed the dialect back somewhat. Elsbeth Janda's lectures will not be forgotten , for example the role of Liselotte von der Pfalz .
Many well-known personalities lived and worked in the city of Heidelberg. Memorial plaques can often be found on inconspicuous houses in the old town , reminding us that a famous person once lived or worked here.
Liselotte von der Pfalz , born in Heidelberg in 1652
King Ananda Mahidol on a contemporary postage stamp
- Carl Bosch , Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1931
- Georg Wittig , Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
- Walther Bothe , Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
- Ernst Ruska , Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
- Otto Meyerhof , Nobel Prize Winner Medicine 1923
- Bert Sakmann , Nobel Prize in Medicine 1991
- Wolfgang Ketterle , Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
- Theodor W. Hänsch , Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
- Harald zur Hausen , 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate in Medicine
- Stefan W. Hell , Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Pioneering inventions such as spectroscopy were developed in Heidelberg by scholars living there.
Well-known Heidelberg personalities include:
- Liselotte von der Pfalz , (* 1652), Duchess of Orléans
- Otto Schoetensack , (* 1850), anthropologist and paleontologist
- Max Weber , (* 1864), sociologist
- Karl Jaspers , (* 1883), philosopher
- Friedrich Ebert , (* 1871), first Reich President
- Ernst Jünger , (* 1895), writer
- Marie Marcks , (* 1922), cartoonist
- Dieter Schmitt , (* 1924), test pilot and record pilot
- Ananda Mahidol , (* 1925), King of Siam / Thailand
- Dietmar Hopp , (* 1940), entrepreneur and sports patron
- Silvia Sommerlath , (* 1943), Queen of Sweden
- Götz Werner , (* 1944), entrepreneur
- Jackson Browne , (born 1948), rock musician, singer, lyricist, composer
- Hansi Flick , (* 1965), football coach
- Cress Williams , (born 1970), actor
- Michael Fassbender , (* 1977), actor
- Ken Duken , (born 1979), actor
- Paul Ripke , (* 1981), photographer
- Ardian Bujupi , (* 1991), singer
- Elisabeth Seitz , (* 1993), artistic gymnast
- Alphabetical -
- Richard Benz : Heidelberg. Destiny and spirit. 2nd Edition. Jan Thorbecke Verlag , Sigmaringen 1975, ISBN 3-7995-4008-3 .
- Michael Buselmeier : Literary tours through Heidelberg. A city story on the move. The Wunderhorn , Heidelberg 1996; extended edition 2007, ISBN 978-3-88423-257-6 .
- Andreas Cser: A short history of the city of Heidelberg and its university. Verlag G. Braun, Karlsruhe 2007, ISBN 978-3-7650-8337-2 .
- David Depenau, Ernot Drücke, Peter Blum: Heidelberg then and now: comparative city views (= series of publications by the Heidelberg City Archives . Volume 17 ). Regional culture, Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-89735-544-6 .
- Hartmut Ellrich : The historic Heidelberg: Pictures tell. Michael Imhof Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-86568-505-6 .
- Oliver Fink: A short history of the city of Heidelberg. Pustet, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7917-1971-8 .
- Günter Heinemann: Heidelberg. Brigitte Guderjahn Verlag, Heidelberg 1996, ISBN 3-924973-01-6 .
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): Badisches Städtebuch. Volume IV-2. Volume from: German City Book. Handbook of urban history - on behalf of the working group of the historical commissions Städtetag-Städtebund-Gemeindetag . Stuttgart 1959.
- Keuchenius (Ed.): Heidelberg - Spirit and Riddle. DossenVerlag, Dossenheim 2012, ISBN 978-3-942909-03-7 .
- Christoph Mauntel, Carla Meyer, Achim Wendt (eds.): Heidelberg in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A search for clues in ten walks . Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2014, ISBN 978-3-7995-0520-8 .
- Elmar Mittler (Ed.): Heidelberg. History and shape. Universitätsverlag Winter , Heidelberg 1996, ISBN 3-921524-46-6 .
- Bernd Müller: Architectural Guide Heidelberg. Buildings around 1000 - 2000. Edited by Peter Blum on behalf of the city of Heidelberg. Mannheim 1998
- Karl Pfaff : Heidelberg and the surrounding area. Brigitte Guderjahn Verlag, Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 3-924973-26-1 . ( Reprint of the third, revised edition from 1910.)
- Anneliese Seeliger-Zeiss: Heidelberg, city of romanticism and city monument of historicism. In: Preservation of Monuments in Baden-Württemberg , Volume 6, Issue 2, 1977, pp. 51–59, ( PDF; 9.8 MB ).
- Roland Vetter: “The whole city burned down.” Heidelberg's second destruction in the Palatinate War of Succession. G. Braun Verlag, Karlsruhe 2009, ISBN 978-3-7650-8517-8 .
- Official surveys
- State archive administration Baden-Württemberg in connection with the cities and the districts of Heidelberg and Mannheim (ed.): The city and the districts of Heidelberg and Mannheim: Official district description .
- Volume 1: General Part . Karlsruhe 1966.
- Volume 2: The city of Heidelberg and the municipalities of the district of Heidelberg . Karlsruhe 1968.
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg (ed.) - The state of Baden-Württemberg - Official description by districts and communities. (In eight volumes), Volume V: Karlsruhe district. Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-17-002542-2 .
- Heidelberg - the film. The history. Documentary, Germany 2016, 44:37 min., Script and director: Anita Bindner, production: Haus des Dokumentarfilms Stuttgart , SWR , series: Geschichte im Südwesten , first broadcast: April 14, 2017 on SWR television , synopsis by HDF with preview video , 3:12 min. This documentary contains many historical private photos of Heidelberg residents.
- Goodbye GI documentary film, Germany 2014, 81:20 min., Script and direction: Uli Gaulke and Agnes Lisa Wegner, camera: Sebastian Bäumler, production: kurhaus production, SWR , first broadcast: August 12, 2014 in Das Erste , film page , synopsis by of the Baden-Württemberg Film Funding , online video .
- Heidelberg - a journey through time through the 50s and 60s. Film collage , Germany, 2013, 44 min., Script and director: Eberhard Reuß, production: SWR, first broadcast: November 1, 2013 on SWR, synopsis with photos from SWR ( memento from August 4, 2014 in the archive.today web archive ) and table of contents from ARD .
- Ballermann am Neckar - dispute over the Heidelberg party mile. TV report, Germany 2010, 28:10 min., Script and direction: Ulrike Baur, production: SWR, series: Schlaglicht , first broadcast: September 21, 2010 on SWR, synopsis by ARD.
- Picture book Germany : Heidelberg. Documentary, Germany, 2007, 45 min., Script and director: Christina Brecht-Benze, production: SWR , first broadcast: September 9, 2007, summary ( memento of October 31, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) by SWR.
- Heidelberg myth. Romance, romances and the living spirit. Documentary film, Germany, 1996, 52 min., Script and direction: Mario Damolin and Bernhard Kilian, production: Damolin & Kilian Filmproduktion, arte , first broadcast: December 10, 1996 at arte in the theme evening: Heidelberg: The shadow of a dream , synopsis by M Damolin.
- Product Heidelberg. Tourism between romance and recession. Documentary, Germany 1994, 43:30 min., Script and direction: Mario Damolin and Bernhard Kilian, production: Damolin & Kilian Filmproduktion, SDR, first broadcast: May 20, 1994 on SDR, film data in the German Digital Library .
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- Literature on Heidelberg in the catalog of the German National Library (currently 72 titles, mostly municipal publications and 471 other titles sorted by publication)
- Heidelberg Bibliography (In addition to extensive information on scientific literature about the city, this listing also contains sections on the stolen Bibliotheca Palatina, on fiction about Heidelberg and on journals / series.)
- Heidelberg and the Electoral Palatinate
- Heidelberg as a place of cultural memory
- Historical path to historical points of the siege of Heidelberg by Tilly in 1622
- Encyclopedia of the Heidelberg History Association
- Heidelberg cultural heritage on Landeskunde online
- City tour through Heidelberg - interactive panoramas
- Link catalog on Heidelberg at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- State Statistical Office of Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2020 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
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