|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Karlsruhe|
|Height :||161 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||140.21 km 2|
|Residents:||55,123 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||393 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||76530, 76532, 76534|
|Primaries :||07221, 07223|
|License plate :||BATH|
|Community key :||08 2 11 000|
|LOCODE :||DE BAB|
|City structure:||11 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Margret Mergen ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden ( Baden-Württemberg and the smallest urban district in the state. It is known as a spa town and as a media, art and international festival town. The Romans already used the hot thermal springs that arise here on the edge of the Black Forest . In the Middle Ages , Baden-Baden was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden and thus gave its name to the state of Baden . After the catastrophic city fire in 1689, it lost the status of the royal seat to Rastatt .) is a city in the west of
The spa town was rediscovered in the 19th century and, thanks in part to the income from the casino , developed into an internationally important meeting place for nobles and wealthy citizens. A rich, well-preserved tangible and intangible legacy has been preserved from this heyday in the 19th century.
The Roman settlement, like many cities with medicinal springs, was called Aquae , the Latin word for spring or bath . While no epithet is known for the place itself, the administrative district surrounding it bore the honorary title Civitas Aurelia Aquensis in the 3rd century . Many authors associated this with Emperor Caracalla ('Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus'), who had the baths expanded. According to a more recent theory, Emperor Elagabal ('Marcus Aurelius Antoninus') was the namesake.
The city has been simply called Baden since the Middle Ages . The place name was also transferred to Hohenbaden Castle , built around 1100 , the new seat of Hermann II , originally Margrave of Verona . In the course of the 12th century, Baden became part of its title; the margraviate of Baden was created, which was divided into two from the 16th to the 18th century and rose to become the Grand Duchy in the 19th century . The name of the state of Baden and thus also that of today's Baden-Württemberg has an origin in the name of the city of Baden (-Baden).
To distinguish between cities of the same name - Baden in Switzerland and Baden near Vienna , Badenweiler in the Old Baden Oberland was originally only called Baden - an addition was often necessary. This is how the city was also called Niederbaden , Margrave Baden and later Baden in Baden . The name Baden-Baden initially stood for the Catholic margraviate, which was separated from the Protestant counterpart Baden-Durlach from 1535 (meaning, for example, “Margraviate Baden, Baden Residence”). After the Catholic margraves moved their seat to Rastatt in the 18th century , Baden bei Rastatt became a common name for the city of Baden. When the Catholic line died out in 1771 and the Margraviate of Baden - now with Karlsruhe as a residence - reunited, Rastatt took a back seat. The name Baden-Baden passed from the former territory to the city of Baden, whose importance had grown again in the 19th century. The double name caught on long before it became official on September 1, 1931.
The urban district of Baden-Baden is surrounded by the district of Rastatt . Baden-Baden is located on the western edge of the northern Black Forest in the valley of the Oos , a small river that flows into the Murg about 13 km further near Rastatt . The eastern parts of the city nestle into the slopes of the Black Forest. The highest point in the urban area is the Badener Höhe at . The western parts of the city lie in the foothills zone and the Upper Rhine Plain , where the 112 m deepest point of the district is in the Geggenau in the Rastatter Ried nature reserve . Viticulture is practiced in the foothills . The Baden-Baden Rebland belongs to the Ortenau wine-growing region .
With around 54,000 inhabitants, Baden-Baden is the smallest of the nine independent cities in the state and forms a middle center with partial functions of a regional center. In addition to the city of Baden-Baden, the municipalities of Hügelsheim and Sinzheim , both of which are located in the Rastatt district, belong to the central area of Baden-Baden . There are also relations with the French north Alsace .
The city of Baden-Baden is divided into the following districts: Oos , Balg , Weststadt, city center, Lichtental with Oberbeuern and Geroldsau , Ebersteinburg , Steinbach , Neuweier , Varnhalt , Haueneberstein and Sandweier .
There are also numerous other residential areas or residential areas with their own names, some of which are very scattered: Gaisbach, Gallenbach (Varnhalt), Hungerberg, Malschbach , Mührich, Müllenbach, Schmalbach, Schneckenbach (Neuweier), Seelach, Umweg (Steinbach) and Unterer Plättig.
The districts of Ebersteinburg, Haueneberstein and Sandweier each have their own local administration with a local mayor. The districts of Steinbach, Neuweier and Varnhalt have a common local administration (Rebland) also with a local mayor.
The following cities and municipalities border the city of Baden-Baden. They are named clockwise , starting in the north, and all belong to the Rastatt district: Rastatt , Kuppenheim , Gaggenau , Gernsbach , Weisenbach , Forbach , Bühl , Bühlertal , Sinzheim , Hügelsheim and Iffezheim .
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2017.
With 85.26 km² or 60.8 percent of the city area (state average for Baden-Württemberg: 37.8%), an above-average proportion of the area is covered with forest. About 75 km² of this is in municipal ownership, making the Baden-Baden city forest one of the largest in Germany.
In the area between Badener Höhe and the Black Forest High Road , Baden-Baden has a share in the Black Forest National Park . Seven nature reserves are wholly or partially within the city limits. More than 60 percent of the community area is under landscape protection . The six extensive natural monuments in Baden-Baden include the Geroldsauer waterfall and the Wolfsschlucht . Dozens of individual trees in the gardens, parks and forests are protected as natural monuments.
The first traces of settlement in the Eastern Valley can be found from the Mesolithic around 8000 to 4000 BC. BC, grave finds in the Rhine plain and in the transition to the Black Forest are also documented for the subsequent epochs of the Stone and Bronze Ages . On the battert there are still remains of a presumably Celtic ring wall .
Baden-Baden became particularly important with the Romans , who valued the thermal springs with temperatures of up to 68 degrees Celsius . After the occupation of the areas on the right bank of the Rhine under Emperor Vespasian , they first founded a military camp south of today's old town near the secondary school on the "Rettig" plateau in the mid-1970s. After the settlement and bathing facilities in the area of the old town were created from there, the camp gave way to a representative building that served the administration. The place was named Aquae (Latin for water / bath ). It developed into a military spa and included several baths. The Kaisertherme was located in the area of today's collegiate church. According to a stone inscription, Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( Caracalla ) had it luxuriously expanded in 213 . The plan of the building was marked in the pavement of today's market square. The soldiers baths were in the area of today's Friedrichsbad and the ruins are open to the public. According to current knowledge, the core of the urban-like settlement was along the Rotenbach . According to the ceramic finds, Aquae is likely to have been built along a curved road between Lange Straße 16 and Gernsbacher Straße 42. This structure was probably already in place when it was founded around 75 AD and later only a few houses were added to the south of it. Furthermore, the excavations point to the existence of a consecration district southeast of the baths (Römerplatz) and a rubble place east of the place in the Rotenbachtal. There is also evidence of a food stall in what is now Gernsbacher Strasse and a canal which, coming from Rotenbach, ran south along Gernsbacher Strasse and was used to discharge sewage. North-west of the settlement on the Oos at today's Hindenburgplatz was a Roman burial ground with several grave monuments of both military and civilians.
The vicus was the capital of a self-governing local authority. This is first mentioned on an inscription from 197 AD as respublica Aquensis . From 213/217 the name Civitas Aquensis appears, which was later given the nickname Aurelia . The extent of this civitas is unknown, it is assumed to be in the middle Upper Rhine Valley and in the northern Black Forest.
Around AD 260, the Alemanni conquered the area.
Migration period and the Middle Ages
Around or soon after 500 the area came under Frankish rule and became a border town to the Alemannic tribal area that began south of the Oos. The first written mention of Baden-Baden is controversial. According to a document that is often referred to as a forgery of the High Middle Ages and has not been preserved in the original, Merovingian king Dagobert III. in the year 712, according to another interpretation Dagobert II. in 675, which Mark and their hot springs donated to the Weißenburg monastery . The place is referred to as "balneas [...] in pago Auciacensi sitas" ("baths located in Oosgau") and "balneis, quas dicunt Aquas calidas" ("baths they call Aquas calidas [hot springs]"). A document from the year 856 refers to the same donation and is also controversial. The first reliable post-ancient document is a deed of gift from Otto III. from the year 987, which names the place "Badon" and mentions a church for the first time. In 1046 the market rights of the place are mentioned for the first time.
Hohenbaden Castle was built around 1100 . Count Hermann II from the Zähringer family acquired the area around Baden-Baden at the beginning of the 12th century and called himself Margrave of Baden or Lord of the Margraviate of Baden for the first time in 1112 . The Lichtenthal Monastery was founded in 1245 and was the burial place of the Margraves of Baden until 1372. At around the same time (around 1250), Baden received city rights. Baden was first expressly mentioned as such in 1288.
With the permission of Margrave Friedrich II , the thermal springs were used for baths from 1306. At the end of the 14th century a castle was built on the Schlossberg, it forms the core of today's New Castle . In 1417 King Sigmund visited the city of Baden. In 1453 the parish church was converted into a collegiate church and the burial place of the margraves.
The city of Baden-Baden in modern times
The first visitor's tax was levied in 1507, and a spa director took care of the up-and-coming spa business. From 1500 the city was part of the Swabian Empire . After the division of the margraviate of Baden in 1535, today's Baden-Baden remained the capital of the Bernhardin line of the ruling house and capital of the margravate Baden-Baden .
The city was hit by witch hunts from 1570 to 1631 . 134 people in the city and its present-day districts got into a witch trial , at least 102 were killed. The last execution took place in 1631: Margaretha, wife of the locksmith Jakob Dioniss.
During the War of the Palatinate Succession , Baden-Baden was burned down by French troops on August 24, 1689, and as a result the spa operations also came to a standstill. In 1705 Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden moved the residence to Rastatt; Baden-Baden remained an official city.
With the Rastatt Congress , Baden-Baden was rediscovered at the end of the 18th century and subsequently expanded by the Baden state into a fashionable health resort . Many stately guests made the place the summer capital of Europe . Paris was the winter capital . Luxury hotels were built, the Kurhaus (1821-1824) and the casino (1810-1811), which, however, were closed again in 1872 and reopened from 1933 to 1943. International horse races have been taking place on the Iffezheim racing course since 1858 . Initially, these were organized by the early tourism entrepreneur and patron Edouard Bénazet and financed with income from the Baden-Baden casino, of which he was the leaseholder. In 1872 the International Club Baden-Baden, founded in the same year, took over the organization of the horse races.
In 1844 the Badische Hauptbahn connected the suburb of Oos to the railway network. With the branch line to the city station in 1845, the health resort itself received its rail connection. From 1910 the Baden-Baden tram ran within the city, which was replaced by trolleybuses from 1949 to 1971 .
In 1863, the Baden district was established, to which the districts of Achern, Baden-Baden, Bühl, Rastatt and Gernsbach belonged.
During the so-called " Reichskristallnacht " the synagogue was destroyed and numerous shops and apartments of Jewish citizens were devastated and looted in front of the police. The Jewish residents were deported to the Dachau concentration camp in order to force them to emigrate and to " Aryanize" their property .
During the Second World War , 4,365 people were interned as Nazi forced laborers in the camps in Baden-Baden, Steinbach, Malschbach and Sandweier. At the Lichtental cemetery there is a memorial stone for the 235 Soviet dead from Malschbach.
Baden-Baden was not one of the main targets of the strategic air war. On March 11, 1943, however, the Lichtenthal district was hit by bombs, with the St. Bonifatius Church being badly damaged and completely burned out. After the Balg district was hit by bombs on December 17, 1944, around 300 houses (i.e. around a third of Oos) were destroyed or - such as, for example, in an air raid on the Oos district on December 30, 1944. For example, the Oos Church - badly damaged, and on January 2, 1945, another air raid on Oos train station and the barracks on Schwarzwaldstrasse caused extensive damage again. A total of 3.1% of the city was destroyed by air strikes. A total of 125 people were killed. Of the 9,615 apartments in existence in 1939, 296 (3.07%) were completely destroyed and 557 (5.77%) were badly damaged, and at the end of the war, 79,000 m³ of rubble had to be removed.
After the Second World War, Baden-Baden became the seat of the French zone government and the headquarters of the French armed forces in Germany . The casino resumed operations in 1950. The Südwestfunk came into being in Baden-Baden, whose successor Südwestrundfunk still produces an important part of its program here today. In 1977 the branch line in the city center was closed and the Oos train station was renamed Baden-Baden station . In 1981 Baden-Baden hosted the second state horticultural show in Baden-Württemberg.
In 1963 an IOC session was held in Baden-Baden and the 11th Olympic Congress in 1981 . In both conferences, enormous problems were on the agenda, which were solved in Baden-Baden and ultimately ensured the continued existence of the Olympic Games. In addition, in 1981 the two cities of Calgary ( Canada ) and Seoul ( South Korea ) were nominated as host cities for the 1988 Olympic Games . The International Olympic Committee (IOC) awarded Baden-Baden the title “Olympic City” in 1996 for its services to the Olympic movement. Baden-Baden is the ninth city in the world to be awarded this title. Its external symbol is the "Olympic Cup" created by Pierre de Coubertin, which IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch personally presented in 1997 in Baden-Baden.
The German Media Prize has been awarded in Baden-Baden since 1992 . With the withdrawal of the French armed forces, which was completed by 1999, large areas of land and buildings were made available for civil use in the western urban areas. The new Cité district has been under construction there since then .
On April 3rd and 4th, 2009, Baden-Baden was one of the host locations of the summit for the 60th anniversary of NATO . A working lunch for the heads of state and government of the member states took place in the Kurhaus.
The following cities and municipalities were incorporated into the city or the urban district of Baden-Baden:
- 1909: Lichtenthal
- 1928: Oos and Oosschünsch
- April 1, 1939: Bellows
- January 1, 1972: Ebersteinburg , Rastatt district
- July 1, 1972: Neuweier , Steinbach (town) and Varnhalt , all districts of Bühl
- January 1, 1974: Haueneberstein , Rastatt district
- January 1, 1975: Sandweier , Rastatt district
Population figures according to the respective area. The figures are census results (¹) or official updates from the respective statistical offices (main residences only).
Currently (as of January 2020) of the 55,930 inhabitants, 21,352 (38.2 percent) are Roman Catholic, 9,130 (16.3 percent) Protestant, while 45.5 percent either belong to other denominations or religions or are non-denominational. At the end of 2015, 42.1% of the 55,863 inhabitants were Roman Catholic, 17.8% Protestant, while 40.1% either belonged to other denominations or religions or were non-denominational.
Baden-Baden was initially part of the Speyer diocese and the Mainz church province . Soon after the Diet of Worms , Margrave Philip II allowed Protestant preachers into the city, and the entire city is said to have been Protestant as early as 1538. The Reformation was not officially introduced until 1556. But after his death his children had to become Catholic again under pressure from their guardian Duke Albrecht V , and Protestant worship was banned from 1571. In 1610 a Protestant court preacher was appointed again; but Margrave Wilhelm brought the Jesuits into the city, who carried out the re-Catholicization . Those who wanted to remain Protestant had to leave the city, so that from 1650 there were no longer any Protestants in Baden-Baden. From 1771, under Margrave Karl Friedrich , only Catholic services were allowed. The believers initially still belonged to the diocese of Speyer, after its dissolution to the general vicariate Bruchsal, and in 1821/1827 the community became part of the newly founded archdiocese of Freiburg . Baden-Baden became the seat of a deanery . The parishes assigned to the deanery were reorganized in 1976. The boundaries of the deanery were adapted to the new city district of Baden-Baden.
Roman Catholic Church
In the urban area of Baden-Baden there are the following Catholic church and parish communities today: Stiftskirche (old town), St. Bernhard (Weststadt), St. Josef (city center) , St. Bonifatius (Lichtental), St. Dionysius (Oos) , St. . Eucharius (bellows), Holy Spirit (Geroldsau), St. Antonius (Ebersteinburg), St. Bartholomäus (Haueneberstein), St. Jakobus (Steinbach), St. Katharina (Sandweier), St. Michael (Neuweier), Herz- Jesu (Varnhalt) and the St. Christophorus motorway church at the Baden-Baden service area. With the Lichtenthal monastery there is a Cistercian abbey in the city.
The few Protestants in Baden-Baden at the beginning of the 19th century were able to found their first congregation in 1832. Like all other parishes of today, this belongs to the Evangelical Church in Baden (parish of southern Baden). In 1855 the community was able to build its own church, today's town church . 1960/1964 which was parish divided into the Lukas church and the St. Mark's church. Other Protestant parishes in the city are the Luther parish of Lichtental (parish established in 1936), the Paulus parish in der Weststadt (parish established in 1946), the Friedensgemeinde Baden-Oos (parish established in 1949) and the Matthäusgemeinde Steinbach-Sinzheim. All of Baden-Baden's evangelical parishes now belong to the parish of Baden-Baden and Rastatt.
In addition to the two large churches, there are also free churches and congregations in Baden-Baden , including a Lutheran congregation (founded in 1912), which belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baden , and a Seventh-day Adventist congregation . There is also an old Catholic congregation, whose services are celebrated in the hospital church . The Anglican Episcopal Church is also represented in the city with a congregation and mainly looks after American believers.
In the Steinbach district there is a mosque under the supervision of the Turkish DİTİB .
Baden-Baden was initially spared the worst excesses of the National Socialists . During the November pogroms on November 10, 1938, many of the Jews living in Baden-Baden were led away by the police in the early hours of the morning and taken to the courtyard of the old police headquarters (next to today's Caracalla Therme ). Around noon they were escorted to the synagogue as a guarded column. Eyewitnesses report humiliation by the SS and brutal attacks by citizens of Baden-Baden. Quite a few Jews were pelted with stones, beaten, whipped, knocked unconscious, degraded and sometimes physically abused. Inside the building, SS men from the Baden-Baden area were busy setting a fire on the women's gallery. The synagogue was desecrated by the mob. With the exception of about 60 people, all Jews who had been rounded up were finally taken to the train station by bus. From there, the Baden-Baden Jews were deported to the Dachau concentration camp on a special train together with other Jews from the Black Forest area . The synagogue in Baden-Baden burned down completely. A printing company later bought the property. Today a memorial stone with the inscription can be found on the site of the former synagogue:
"Here was the Baden-Baden synagogue, destroyed by arson on November 10, 1938."
On October 22, 1940 106 Jews from Baden-Baden were under the Wagner-Bürckel action in the Camp de Gurs deported. At least 14 of them died in Auschwitz , one in Lublin-Majdanek and 22 in various other camps. In 1941 there were still 44 Jews in the city district. They were deported to Lublin and Theresienstadt . Only two returned to their hometown, all the others perished.
The Jewish cemetery in Baden-Baden (Lichtental) was not closed or sold due to a decree by the Baden Minister of the Interior of September 12, 1941, as happened to many other Jewish cemeteries. On November 25, 1976, a memorial stone for the Jewish victims of the National Socialist tyranny was inaugurated; the memorial stone contains a floor slab from the Baden-Baden synagogue.
"For day and night I weep the slain of my people"
The long-destroyed Israelite Community of Baden-Baden was formally deleted from the register of associations on February 23, 1951, and re-established in 1956. The service is still held today in a prayer room, Werderstrasse 2, in the Kurhaus building complex.
The election to the municipal council on May 26, 2019 brought the following result:
|Party / list||Share of votes||Seats|
|Green||27.34% (+ 7.1)||11 seats (+ 3)|
|CDU||23.15% (- 7.0)||9 seats (-3)|
|SPD||12.34% (- 4.4)||5 seats (- 2)|
|FDP||7.74% (- 0.7)||3 seats (± 0)|
|AfD||6.28% (+ 6.3)||3 seats (+ 3)|
|left||0.93% (+ 0.9)||0 seats (± 0)|
|FBB||11.11% (+ 1.7)||5 seats (+ 1)|
|FW||11.10% (- 3.4)||4 seats (- 2)|
In addition, the separately elected mayor is a member of the municipal council as chairwoman.
At the head of the city of Baden-Baden since the 15th century mayor , the mayor, the court and the Council with 12 members. They formed the city regiment. The mayor presided over the court, the mayor over the council. But he depended on the instructions of the mayor and the council. In 1507 the city was given city regulations. At the beginning of the 19th century there was a magistrate , which included two mayors and twelve councilors. After the Baden town code was introduced in 1874, the mayor was given the title of Lord Mayor .
Today, the mayor is directly elected by the eligible population for a term of office of eight years. His permanent representative is the “First Alderman” with the official title “First Mayor”.
- Mayor and Lord Mayor since 1815
- 1815–1829: Felix Schneider
- 1830–1835: Anton Jörger
- 1835–1840: Robert Schlund
- 1840–1858: Josef Jörger
- 1858–1859: Ignaz Leile
- 1860–1874: August Gaus
- 1874-1875: A. Zachmann
- 1875–1907: Albert Gönner
- 1907–1929: Reinhard Fieser
- 1929–1934: Hermann Elfner
- 1934–1945: Hans Schwedhelm (during the absence due to military service, Mayor Kurt Bürkle was in charge of official business)
- April 12, 1945 to May 13, 1945: Ludwig Schmitt, Städt. Administrative Director
- May 14, 1945 to January 13, 1946: Karl Beck, Städt. Superior Legal Council
- January 14, 1946 to September 1946: Eddy Schacht
- 1946–1969: Ernst Schlapper (CDU)
- 1969–1990: Walter Carlein (CDU)
- 1990–1998: Ulrich Wendt (CDU)
- 1998–2006: Sigrun Lang (independent)
- 2006–2014: Wolfgang Gerstner (CDU)
- since June 10, 2014: Margret Mergen (CDU)
coat of arms
|Blazon : “The coat of arms of the city of Baden-Baden is placed on the flag in three broad fields in the colors red and yellow. The border and the top of the wall are dark brown on the flag. "|
Founding of the coat of arms: Baden-Baden is an urban district and has always had the coat of arms of the sovereigns in its seal. The first print is from 1421. The coat of arms of the former sovereigns, the dukes of Zähringen, is a red bar on a golden shield on the right. To distinguish it from the state coat of arms, the city coat of arms was provided with a three-pronged wall. In the 18th century the seals showed a crown of leaves, from the 19th century a three-tower wall.
The flag is the city's official flag, which is intended for public buildings including schools.
Baden-Baden maintains city partnerships with the following cities :
- Menton in France , since 1961
- Moncalieri in Italy , since 1990
- Freital in Saxony , administrative partnership since 1990
- Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary) in the Czech Republic , since 1998
- Yalta in Ukraine , since 2000
- Sochi in Russia , since 2012
According to the 2007 municipal survey by the Federation of Taxpayers of Baden-Württemberg, municipal tax revenues totaling 57.863 million euros in 2006 and estimated tax revenues for 2007 totaling 60.357 million euros are offset by the following municipalities' debts:
- 2006 total of 81.421 million euros in debts (29.335 million euros in debts of the finance house and 52.086 million euros in debts of the city's own operations / special assets)
- 2007 a total of 99.610 million euros in debts (39.340 million euros in debts of the treasury budget and 60.270 million euros in debts of the city's own operations / special assets).
Culture and sights
Theaters and venues
The Baden-Baden theater is a theater with a permanent ensemble. The mirror foyer in the theater is also used for smaller productions. The TIK (Theater in the Scenery House) located next to the theater serves as a stage for children's and youth plays.
The Festspielhaus Baden-Baden , created through the complete renovation of the former city train station, is the second largest concert hall in Europe with operas, musicals and concerts.
In Baden-Baden Kurhaus regular concerts, balls and dance, children's and comedy / cabaret events. The Kongresshaus on Augustaplatz hosts trade fairs, conferences and events such as the presentation of the German Media Prize .
- Baden-Baden City Museum
- State art gallery Baden-Baden
- Museum Frieder Burda , built by Richard Meier
- Museum for Art and Technology of the 19th Century in the Lichtentaler Allee
- Roman bath ruins Baden-Baden
- Fabergé Museum
- Brahms house in Maximilianstrasse. 85
- Art museum Gehrke-Remund with a photo exhibition on Frida Kahlo (no original paintings), Güterbahnhofstr. 9
The Philharmonie Baden-Baden is the permanent orchestra of the city of Baden-Baden. It is one of the most traditional ensembles in Germany. The first beginnings date the establishment of the court orchestra to the year 1460. A detailed list of the instruments of the orchestra conducted by Francesco Guami (trombone master of the Munich court orchestra directed by Orlando di Lasso ) exists from 1582 . Since the beginning of the 19th century there has been a summer orchestra, predominantly made up of Bohemian musicians, and after 1854 there has been an orchestra that performs all year round. The orchestra has probably played around 60,000 concerts since then. Hector Berlioz directed the city's summer festival for many years. The Baden-Baden theater opened with its opera Béatrice and Bénédict . Many of the most famous soloists and conductors worked with the orchestra. Johann Strauss , Johannes Brahms , Luise Adolpha Le Beau , Richard Strauss , Pietro Mascagni , Arthur Nikisch , Wilhelm Furtwängler , Bruno Walter , George Szell , Otto Klemperer and many others set highlights in the history of the Philharmoniker. From Franz Liszt to Pablo Casals to Plácido Domingo , the world's top musicians met on the historic stages of Baden-Baden.
Concerts take the Philharmonie far beyond the borders of Baden-Baden. Not only the large German concert halls - such as the “Alte Oper” in Frankfurt and the Baden-Baden Festival Hall - also China, Dubai, France, Belgium, Switzerland and the Ukraine were on the ensemble's program. With the Carl Flesch Academy , the orchestra offers one of the most internationally renowned master courses for string instruments every summer.
Baden-Baden was the second seat of the SWR Symphony Orchestra Baden-Baden and Freiburg . It was one of the leading radio symphony orchestras in Germany and performed several times a year in the Festspielhaus. The orchestra's chamber music series has been taking place at the Museum Frieder Burda since 2006. Every year in September, the SWR also organizes the SWR3 New Pop Festival .
The Philharmonic Choir Baden-Baden was founded in 1998 and takes part in choral symphonic concerts and events with changing line-ups.
Baden-Baden did not suffer any major damage during World War II and is one of the best preserved health resorts in Germany. The cityscape is characterized by outstanding examples of spa architecture from the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Kurhaus with the famous casino is the architectural and social center as well as the city's landmark .
The old town of Baden-Baden has numerous shops and cafes. In the Bäderviertel there is the modern Caracalla Therme , the Friedrichsbad from the 19th century and Roman bath ruins . The first luxury hotel was the Hotel Badischer Hof ; Another well-known hotel is Brenners Park-Hotel & Spa .
Other sights include the classicist Villa Hamilton , such as the Kurhaus designed by Friedrich Weinbrenner , the Paradies water art installation , the Lichtenthal Abbey , Hohenbaden Castle , the New Castle and the Brahms House.
Two buildings by Weinbrenner's successor Heinrich Hübsch , a leading exponent of German Romanticism, are also worth mentioning: the Baden-Baden drinking hall (pillared hall next to the Kurhaus) and the former steam bath (below the New Palace).
The following churches should be mentioned: Collegiate Church , Evangelical City Church, Spitalkirche, St. Bernhard , St. Johannis as well as the Russian Church , the Stourdza Chapel and the St. Christophorus motorway church . In the vineyards at the Lichtentaler Eckhöfe there is a Marienkapelle .
The Merkurbergbahn takes you to Baden-Baden's high Merkur mountain with its observation and transmission tower . The Fremersberg Tower is located on the Fremersberg , a directional radio tower with a viewing platform. At the highest point of the Baden-Baden district on the Badener Höhe ( ) there is a 30 meter high observation tower , the Friedrichsturm.
The most famous park in Baden-Baden is the Lichtentaler Allee with the rose garden in the patronage complex , which leads from the Lichtenthal Abbey to the Theater an der Oos . The inner-city landscape park continues to the left of the Oos at the Kurhaus and the Trinkhalle, along the Kaiserallee and on the Michaelsberg around the Stourdza Chapel. Hundreds of exotic trees are planted in the grounds and benefit from the mild climate influenced by the Upper Rhine Plain, including some of the thickest sequoia trees in Germany . For the State Horticultural Show in 1981, the park design of the valleys and hills to the east and north of the New Palace was created. The rose novelty competition takes place annually in the new rose garden in Beutig.
Baden-Baden maintains more than 20 circular hiking trails in its heavily forested, mountainous area, which is largely under landscape protection. The 40 km long panorama trail leads around the city on five designated stages. It was redesigned in 1997 and in 2004 was named the “most beautiful hiking trail” by the German Tourism Association. Like the 9.4 km long Ebersteinburg circular route, it is certified as a premium hiking route. The wilderness path and the lynx path are two themed trails in the Black Forest National Park . The long-distance hiking trail Westweg of the Black Forest Association leads over the Badener Höhe , the highest point in Baden-Baden. The Ortenauer Weinpfad long-distance hiking trail runs from Gernsbach through Baden-Baden into the Rebland region and on through the Baden wine-growing regions on the edge of the Black Forest. The Murgleiter and Gernsbacher Runde predicate hiking trails lead in the Merkur and Ebersteinburg areas also across the Baden-Baden district.
SC Baden-Baden is the most successful of the Baden-Baden football clubs . He played in the top German amateur leagues in the 1970s. The venue is the Aumatt Stadium in Weststadt, which has a capacity of around 6,000 spectators.
The SR Yburg Steinbach played in 1951 for the German championship in field handball.
The “Rot-Weiss” tennis club in Baden-Baden is the oldest tennis club in Germany. It was founded in 1881 as the Baden-Baden Lawn Tennis Club, initially for English spa guests. These also introduced golf here . The Golf Club Baden-Baden, founded in 1901, is one of the oldest golf clubs in Germany. The Baden-Baden golf course is located south of the Fremersberg at the upper end of the Michelbach valley.
The up to 60 m high Battertfelsen in the nature reserve on the Battert are the most important climbing area in the northern Black Forest. The German Alpine Club Section Baden-Baden / Murgtal has had a climbing hall in Baden-Oos since 2011 .
- February: Awarding of the German Media Prize
- March: Mr. M's Jazz Club and awarding of the Joachim-Ernst-Berendt Prize of the City of Baden-Baden
- March / April: Easter Festival in the Festspielhaus
- April / May: Russian Culture Days in the Kurhaus
- May: European Dance Award in the Kurhaus Baden-Baden
- May: Brahms Days (every two years)
- May: Spring meeting at the Iffezheim racecourse
- May: Whitsun Festival in the Festspielhaus
- June: Medieval winemaker days in the Steinbach district - "Summer Gala"
- July: International rose novelty tests
- July: International Oldtimer Meeting Baden-Baden
- July: Philharmonic Palace Concerts in Neuweier Palace
- August: Big week on the racecourse in Iffezheim
- September: Grand Prix Ball (gala event in the Bénazet hall of the Kurhaus)
- September: SWR3 New Pop Festival
- October: Sales & Racing at the Iffezheim racecourse
- October / November: World Dance Gala
- November: Baden-Baden TV Film Festival
- December: Awarding of Sportsman of the Year in the Kurhaus
- December: Christmas market
- December: Badenia Advent Music Festival
- Saddle of venison Baden-Baden
- Baden-Baden roulette balls (chocolates)
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, the city of Baden-Baden generated a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 2.833 billion. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 52,234 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and thus above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 1.7%. In 2016 there were around 41,400 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 4.6% in December 2018 and is thus above the Baden-Württemberg average of 3.0%.
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the independent city of Baden-Baden was ranked 93rd out of 402 rural districts, municipal associations and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with “future opportunities”. In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 67th out of 401, making it one of the places with "high future opportunities".
Baden-Baden is on the A5 ( Karlsruhe - Basel ) and can be reached via the Baden-Baden and Bühl junctions. Another driveway is in the Sandweier district by the Autobahnkirche . The panorama and tourist road Schwarzwaldhochstraße - B 500 - begins in Baden-Baden and ends in Freudenstadt . Partly over 1000 meters high, it offers motorists a glimpse into the northern Black Forest and views of the Rhine plain, the Vosges , the Swabian Alb or the Alps .
In order to relieve the city center from the through traffic that was previously concentrated in the narrow valley floor, the Schlossberg tangent was built to the north and the Michael tunnel to the west of the city center. The B 500 has been running through this, at 2544 meters, the second longest road tunnel in Baden-Württemberg since 1989. The central Leopoldsplatz has been closed to through traffic since then.
The B 3 leads past the districts of Steinbach, Oos as well as Sandweier and Haueneberstein (B3 new).
The Baden-Baden station (formerly: Baden-Oos ) is InterCity Express -Haltepunkt on the Rhine Valley line from Mannheim to Basel. The Black Forest Railway , which commutes between Karlsruhe and Konstanz , stops every hour at Baden-Baden station. The regional express Karlsruhe - Basel also stops hourly in Baden-Baden during rush hour. The tram lines S 7 and S 71 of the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft offer direct connections to Bühl , Rastatt , Ettlingen and Karlsruhe . In 2010, Baden-Baden station was voted “ Station of the Year ” in the small-town station category by the Pro Schiene Alliance .
Further local public transport (ÖPNV) is provided by the public transport company , which uses several bus routes to serve the entire city district and some of the neighboring cities. The main line is bus line 201, which runs every ten minutes during the day from the train station in the Oos district, through the Weststadt, via the city center to Lichtental or Oberbeuern.
The city tram opened on January 24, 1910 and closed on February 28, 1951. It had meter-gauge routes of around 15 km in length and was replaced by the Baden-Baden trolleybus , which had been in operation on a parallel route from June 26, 1949 until July 31, 1971.
Baden-Baden possessed formerly two train stations, since 1845 to 1977 joined a branch line railway station Baden-Oos (now Baden-Baden ) on the Rhine Valley line with the terminal station Baden-Baden . The station building, which was called the “ old station ” after it was closed , has served as the entrance area of the festival hall since 1998 . On September 24, 1977, the last passenger train ran on the branch line. The railway systems from Baden-Baden to Baden-Baden-Oos were converted into the so-called "green entrance" as part of the state horticultural show in Baden-Baden. The festival hall, the entrance to the Michael tunnel, an underground car park and a green area with a pond are located on the site of the former terminus.
In addition, the two current districts of Haueneberstein and Steinbach had stations on the Rhine Valley Railway, which were abandoned in the 1970s. They were reactivated in the course of the extension of the light rail line from Karlsruhe to Achern. The stop in Steinbach was renamed Baden-Baden Rebland .
The city of Baden-Baden has a stake in Karlsruhe / Baden-Baden Airport , the second largest airport in Baden-Württemberg with around one million passengers annually. It is located in Baden-Airpark , a former Canadian air force base, around 10 kilometers west of Baden-Baden city center in Rheinmünster - Söllingen . Among other things, it serves as a base for the low-cost airline Ryanair . Mainly cities and holiday destinations in Europe and around the Mediterranean are approached.
On August 22, 1910, an airship hangar was inaugurated at Baden-Oos airfield west of the train station. This made it the first German Zeppelin landing site outside of Friedrichshafen . After the Second World War it developed into a heavily frequented airfield . From 1997 onwards, general aviation operations were relocated to Baden-Airpark. The Oos airfield continues to serve as a special landing site - on part of the former area - as the home of the Aero Club Baden-Baden eV and the Fliegergruppe Gaggenau eV for sports and leisure aviation.
Along with Stuttgart and Mainz, Baden-Baden is one of the three main locations of Südwestrundfunk . The two program directorates Information and Culture as well as the Directorate Technology and Production are based in the broadcasting house complex on Fremersberg . SWR-Hörfunk produces the national programs SWR2 , SWR3 , DASDING and SWR Aktuell in Baden-Baden. The TV studios produce, among other things, the weekday program ARD-Buffet as well as interior shots for the series Die Fallers and Tatort . SWR talk shows have been broadcast from the old E-Werk since 2000, initially People of the Week with Frank Elstner and since 2015 Night Café with host Michael Steinbrecher . The ARTE Germany TV GmbH also has its headquarters in the city. Every year the German Academy of Performing Arts and the 3sat broadcaster organize their television film festival in Baden-Baden .
In Baden-Baden, the German Media Prize is awarded annually by the Baden-Baden company Media Control.
Since 2009, the Baden-Baden Event and Media Award has been given annually by the European Media and Event Academy and the Karlsruhe Chamber of Commerce and Industry to outstanding trainees in the stage and media sector .
The Baden-Baden fire brigade is divided into an operational department of the professional fire brigade and 10 operational departments of the voluntary fire brigade.
Baden-Baden has numerous educational institutions. Above all, the European Media and Event Academy should be mentioned. There are also the following secondary schools in Baden-Baden:
- the Lichtental secondary school ,
- the Realschule Baden-Baden (public Realschule ),
- the Theodor Heuss School (public special needs education and advice center with a focus on learning),
- the Richard-Wagner -Gymnasium (public high school ),
- the Markgraf-Ludwig-Gymnasium (public high school),
- the Hohenbaden high school (public high school),
- the monastery school of the Holy Sepulcher (private high school),
- the pedagogy with secondary school, grammar school, business grammar school, socio-educational grammar school (private grammar school with boarding school ),
- the Stulz-von-Ortenberg-Schule elementary school, secondary school, secondary school, special school (school for educational assistance),
- the Robert Schuman School (commercial and home economics schools; from secondary school diploma to high school diploma ),
- the Louis Lepoix School (trade school),
- the Heinz-von-Förster-Schule in Oosschänen (special education and advice center with a focus on social and emotional development).
There is also the Vincenti elementary school , the Baden-Oos elementary school with a bilingual train and one elementary school each in the districts of Balg, Ebersteinburg, Lichtental, Neuweier and Varnhalt. The Theodor-Heuss-Schule (elementary and secondary school with Werkrealschule ) and corresponding facilities in the districts of Steinbach, Haueneberstein, Sandweier and Lichtental exist at primary and secondary schools .
The largest private educational institution is the Pädagogium Baden-Baden (Realschule, Gymnasium, Wirtschaftsgymnasium ; with boarding school), as well as the Stulz-von-Ortenberg-Schule für Erziehungshilfe and the two vocational schools BBS Baden-Badener Sprachschule GmbH and the Baden-Baden Business Institute in the Merkur Academy International.
As further private educational institutions, the IB Medical Academy with schools for speech therapy, physiotherapy and podiatry as well as the Bernd Blindow schools with physiotherapy and PTA have set up a school location in Baden-Baden.
Nationally known resident companies
- Acura clinics
- Arvato Infoscore
- Brenners Park-Hotel & Spa
- Carasana Bäderbetriebe GmbH (including Caracalla Therme , Friedrichsbad )
- Grenke AG
- Biological Remedies Heel
- L'TUR Tourism AG
- Media Control
- Nomos publishing house
- Sans Soucis Cosmétique GmbH
- Schöck Components GmbH
- ARKU Maschinenbau GmbH
The people who were born in Baden-Baden and who have become particularly well-known include the Reich Chancellor Max von Baden , the writer Reinhold Schneider , the National Socialist Rudolf Höß , the journalist Erich Kuby and the pop singer Tony Marshall . Well-known residents include the writers Werner Bergengruen , Otto Flake , the Russian writer Iwan Turgenew , the pianist and composer Clara Schumann and Frank Elstner . The honorary citizens include a. Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, Otto von Bismarck, Albert Gönner, Konrad Adenauer, the art collector Frieder Burda and the composer and conductor Pierre Boulez .
Baden-Baden in art
In the literature
"It is strange that no writer has yet used Baden's heyday (1845–1869) for a novel," wrote Otto Flake in the foreword to his novel Hortense or The Return to Baden-Baden , which was published in 1933. This novel reflects the flair of the health resort's heyday in the 19th century. Flake may not have been familiar with Ivan Turgenev's 1867 novel Rauch , which criticized and caricatured the life of Russian nobles in the fashion spa.
Baden-Baden also flowed into other works as the scene of the events: records of a loiter in Baden-Baden can be found in Reinhold Schneider's The Balcony from 1957.
In the second and third parts of his novel Ein Sommer in Baden-Baden (1982), Leonid Zypkin portrayed Fyodor Dostoyevsky's gambling addiction at the roulette table in Baden-Baden during his trip to Germany with his second wife Anna in 1867, using motifs from his 1866 novel The Gambler .
The author Rita Hampp has published several thrillers and novels since 2005, which are set in Baden-Baden.
In film and television
The Südwestrundfunk located here and the production companies associated with it often use the city as a backdrop for film and television recordings. The series Der Forellenhof and Bloch as well as various television films played in Baden-Baden . Ernst Jacobi , Heinz Schimmelpfennig and Karin Anselm investigated the crime scene commissioners in Baden-Baden .
The fictional Mommsen-Gymnasium from Baden-Baden served between 1968 and 1972 as the setting for the short series Die Lümmel von der Erste Bank , which was shot mainly in Munich . The film The Romantic Englishwoman with Michael Caine and Glenda Jackson is set for the most part in Baden-Baden, an episode in Claude Miller's film Das Auge with Isabelle Adjani in Brenners Park-Hotel & Spa . The Baden-Badener Spielbank has also been a film set several times, for example in The Last Pedestrian with Heinz Erhardt from 1960 and in Otto's Eleven with Otto Waalkes in the leading role from 2010.
- Working group for the history of the city of Baden-Baden: Aquae. Contributions to the history of the city and the health resort Baden-Baden. .
- Helmuth Bischoff: Baden-Baden - the romantic spa town in the valley of the Oos. (DuMont art travel guide.) DuMont, Cologne 1996, ISBN 3-7701-3086-3 .
- Ulrich Coenen: From Aquae to Baden-Baden - The building history of the city and its contribution to the development of spa architecture. Verlagshaus Mainz, Aachen, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-8107-0023-0 .
- Volkmar Eidloth: Baden-Baden, European spa towns and the UNESCO World Heritage. Basics of a cross-border joint application . In: Preservation of Monuments in Baden-Württemberg , 42nd year 2013, issue 3, pp. 134–144 ( online )
- Dagmar Kicherer: A short history of the city of Baden-Baden , DRW-Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-7650-8376-1 .
- Clemens Kieser, Karlfriedrich Ohr, Wolfgang Stopfel, Martin Walter: Art and cultural monuments in the Rastatt district and in Baden-Baden. Konrad-Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8062-1599-5 .
- Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg (ed.), Wolf Deiseroth (edit.): City of Baden-Baden. (Ortskernatalas Baden-Württemberg.) Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 978-3-89021-564-8 .
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, City of Baden-Baden (ed.): The city district of Baden-Baden. (District descriptions of the state of Baden-Württemberg.) Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1995, ISBN 3-7995-1356-6 .
- Petra Mayer-Reppert, Britta Rabold: The Roman "soldiers baths" in Baden-Baden (Aquae Aureliae). (= Guide to archaeological monuments in Baden-Württemberg. Volume 25). Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8062-2243-2 .
- Franz Simon Meyer : The whole story of my indifferent life. Edited by Sebastian Diziol.
- Link catalog on the subject of Baden-Baden at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Official website
- City wiki Baden-Baden
- Literature on the keyword Baden-Baden in the catalog of the German National Library
- Rich, beautiful and Russian city. In: Merian , August 2010, with picture gallery
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- City of Baden-Baden - residents by district
- Egon Schallmayer : Aquae - the Roman Baden-Baden . Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-8062-0555-8 , p. 55 ff.
- Raimund Rosch: What Roman signposts still show us today . In: Working Group for City History Baden-Baden (ed.): Aquae 2015 . Contributions to the history of the city and the health resort Baden-Baden. tape 48 . Baden-Baden 2015, p. 68-87 .
- Rolf Gustav Haebler: Dr. Johannes Widmann. Life story of a great doctor and scholar. In: Die Ortenau No. 43, 1963, p. 208.
- Clemens Kieser, Karlfriedrich Ohr, Wolfgang Stopfel, Martin Walter: Art and cultural monuments in the Rastatt district and in Baden-Baden. Konrad-Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, p. 39
- Robert Erhard: Baden-Baden history of baths from the Middle Ages to modern times. In: Petra Mayer-Reppert, Britta Rabold: The Roman "soldiers baths" in Baden-Baden (Aquae Aureliae). (= Guide to archaeological monuments in Baden-Württemberg. Volume 25). Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8062-2243-2 , p. 81.
- Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg (ed.), Wolf Deiseroth (arrangement): City of Baden-Baden. (Ortskernatalas Baden-Württemberg.) Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 978-3-89021-564-8 , p. 11.
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, City of Baden-Baden: Der Stadtkreis Baden-Baden, 1995, p. 282.
- City of Baden-Baden: Statistical figures , accessed on January 4, 2010
- land according to type of actual use in 2015
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, City of Baden-Baden (ed.): The city district of Baden-Baden. (District descriptions of the state of Baden-Württemberg.) Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1995, ISBN 3-7995-1356-6 , p. 336.
- Protected area directory of the State Agency for the Environment (select type of area and city or district)
- Egon Schallmayer, Peter Knierriem, Elke Löhnig: "Aquae-Baden-Baden. The ancient spa town in the light of more recent excavations and research", DenkmPflBadWürt 23, 1994, 139–147.
- Matthias Riedel: The Roman Baden-Baden - Investigation of the settlement history . In: Find reports from Baden-Württemberg Volume 7. State Office for Monument Preservation, Stuttgart 1982, pp. 273-300.
- Petra Mayer-Reppert, Britta Rabold: The Roman "soldiers baths" in Baden-Baden (Aquae Aureliae). (= Guide to archaeological monuments in Baden-Württemberg. Volume 25). Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8062-2243-2 , pp. 9-22.
- Ernst Wagner, Ferdinand Haug [Ed.]: Sites and finds from prehistoric, Roman and Alemannic-Franconian times in the Grand Duchy of Baden (Volume 2): The Badische Unterland: Districts of Baden, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Mosbach - Tübingen, 1911. P. 42
- History of Baden-Baden: Middle Ages. Website of the city of Baden-Baden, accessed on April 21, 2017.
- Hansmartin Schwarzmaier : Baden-Baden in the early Middle Ages. The earliest records from the Weissenburg and Selz monasteries. Regional association Badische Heimat, local group Baden-Baden 1988.
- Theo Kölzer : Weissenburg Abbey and Baden-Baden. In: Karl Borchardt and Enno Bünz (eds.): Research on the history of the empire, the pope and the country. Volume 1, Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 978-3-7772-9805-4 , pp. 15-24.
- Martin Burkart: Witches and witch trials in Baden. Self-published, Durmersheim 2009, pp. 308–389.
- City Map of Baden-Baden, official edition, Municipal Surveying and Property Office Baden-Baden, 1983
- Baden-Baden in the 19th century ( memento from April 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) on the pages of the LA8 cultural center
- The night when the synagogues burned , State Center for Civic Education Baden-Württemberg, accessed on December 28, 2014
- Yad Vashem: Kristallnacht in Baden-Baden, Germany , accessed on 28 December 2014
- Nazis even kidnapped 15-year-olds in the spa town. , Badisches Tagblatt, August 4, 2000, accessed December 28, 2014
- baden-baden.de: Cemeteries in Baden-Baden
- Catholic parish office St. Bonifatius: Wir über uns , p. 3. Baden-Baden 2002
- Dieter Baeuerle et al. City Guide Baden-Baden , p. 14. Baden-Baden 1994
- Heinz Bardua: War damage in Baden-Württemberg 1939–1945 . Epithet to Card 7.11. In: Commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.): Historical Atlas of Baden-Württemberg . Explanations. Leonberg 1975, p. 13 ( leo-bw.de [PDF; 2,3 MB ; accessed on January 26, 2018]).
- Statistical Yearbook of German Communities, p. 378. Braunschweig 1952
- Application as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. City of Baden-Baden, accessed on November 25, 2016.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 493 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 481 .
- Baden-Baden facts and figures on January 1, 2020 , accessed on February 28, 2020
- Statistical Yearbook 2015 Stadtkreis Baden-Baden , accessed on February 11, 2020
- Baden-Baden, Final results of the 2019 municipal council elections , accessed on September 18, 2019
- cities - City of Baden-Baden. Retrieved August 28, 2019 .
- Kunstmuseum-Gehrke-Remund, official website
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, City of Baden-Baden: Der Stadtkreis Baden-Baden, 1995, p. 459.
- Wolfgang Niess, Sönke Lorenz: Cult baths and bath culture in Baden-Württemberg. Markstein-Verlag, Freiburg i. Br., ISBN 3-935129-16-5 , pp. 13-31.
- Bernd Weigel: Park Guide Baden-Baden. Baden-Baden city administration, gardening department, 2003, ISBN 3-00-010770-3 .
- City of Baden-Baden: Hiking. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- Tennis Club "Rot-Weiss" Baden-Baden - The club. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, City of Baden-Baden: Der Stadtkreis Baden-Baden, 1995, p. 444
- German Alpine Association, Baden-Baden / Murgtal section: Climbing Center Baden-Baden. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- DAV - German Alpine Association opens climbing hall in Baden-Baden / Oos. Baden-Baden TV from September 24, 2011, accessed on June 29, 2016.
- 10th International Choir Festival and Orchestra Festival in Baden (Germany) - MRF MusicFestivals. Retrieved August 18, 2020 .
- Current results - VGR dL (gross domestic product, gross value added in the urban and rural districts of the Federal Republic of Germany 1992, 1994 to 2016). Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- Future Atlas 2016. Accessed December 5, 2018 .
- PROGNOS future atlas. Handelsblatt, accessed on December 10, 2019 .
- Merkurbergbahn - technical data. Stadtwerke Baden-Baden, accessed on July 6, 2018 .
- Passengerat Karlsruhe / Baden-Baden airport. (PDF) Retrieved December 5, 2018 .
- Reiner Haehling von Lanzenauer : A hundred years ago: Baden-Baden airfield. In: Working group for the history of the city of Baden-Baden (ed.): Aquae 2010 . Issue 43, Baden-Baden 2010, , p. 16.
- stadtwerke-baden-baden.de: historical electrical works
- Nadja Milke: goodnews4® Baden-Baden - online daily newspaper for Baden-Baden and the surrounding area. Latest news, interviews, video, audio. In: www.goodnews4.de. Christian Frietsch, accessed October 22, 2017 .
- City of Baden-Baden: Education and Schools: Elementary and Werkrealschulen: Elementary School Oos , accessed on February 16, 2013
- The interpretation of the fictional place Roulettenburg in Dostoyevsky's novel is controversial. When describing the spa town, the writer is probably referring to his experiences in Wiesbaden in 1865, where he gambled away his travel budget.
- Michael Reufsteck, Stefan Niggemeier: Baden-Badener Roulette. In: The television dictionary. Retrieved September 24, 2018 .