|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|County :||Breisgau-Upper Black Forest|
|Height :||425 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||13.02 km 2|
|Residents:||4442 (December 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||341 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||79410|
|Area code :||07632|
|License plate :||FR|
|Community key :||08 3 15 007|
|LOCODE :||DE BJ4|
|Community structure:||3 districts|
|Address of the
|Mayor :||Vincenz Wissler ( FDP )|
|Location of the municipality of Badenweiler in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district|
Badenweiler ( Alemannic : bathers , Roman Latin Aquae villae , water place ) is a community in Markgräflerland , about 30 kilometers south of Freiburg in the western foothills of the southern Black Forest at the foot of the Blauen .
Badenweiler is located between the cities of Freiburg im Breisgau and Basel , Switzerland (each about 30-35 km away) about five kilometers east of Müllheim at the foot of the Blauens (also Hochblauen ) in the Markgräflerland , in the Weilertal above the Klemmbach .
- Coats of arms of the districts
In addition to the main town Badenweiler, the districts belong to the municipality of Badenweiler
- Lipburg-Sehringen (officially only Lipburg)
- Oberweiler (completely transferred to Badenweiler after the municipal reform in 1975)
The districts are officially named by adding "Badenweiler" in front of them and adding the proper names of the districts with the exception of the Oberweiler district , which was combined with Badenweiler in 1935. The area of the three districts is identical to the communities of the same name that were independent until the community reform in the 1970s. In the course of this reform, Lipburg-Sehringen was incorporated in 1974 and Schweighof in 1975 . The two districts of Lipburg-Sehringen and Schweighof form both residential districts and localities within the meaning of the Baden-Württemberg municipal code, each with its own local council and a local mayor as chairman.
The Lipburg-Sehringen district includes the villages of Lipburg and Sehringen , as well as the Gipswerk and Haus Baden residential areas . The Schweighof district includes the Schweighof village and the trout farms and Guggenmühle farms . In the Lipburg district is the abandoned village of Grüneck .
The local area with its boundaries is tong-shaped around a tongue of the urban area of Müllheim. The area of the municipality is 13,023 km². Badenweiler's area consists of almost 90% forest, the rest, in addition to the settlement, of vines, some meadows and fruit trees.
In the west lies the city of Müllheim and in the north its districts Britzingen and Zunzingen, further east it connects Sulzburg . To the east lies Malsburg-Marzell and in the south are closing gene districts Schallsingen and Obereggenen.
Badenweiler lies on the edge of the southwestern Black Forest, an old mountain range. It consists of a gneiss base with granite and porphyry parts. The place is on a hill with fertile loess soil, as a remnant of a flood area of a river valley. Due to the geological activity during the formation of the rift valley in the upper Rhine Valley and the associated geothermal activity still present in the soil , some thermal springs were created, including a. also in Badenweiler, which is a health resort, which the Romans already appreciated and built a Roman thermal bath.
Badenweiler is climatically favorable, in a warm air current from the southwest, it is shielded from the cold continental climate by the mountains of the Black Forest to the east . This allows the cultivation of grape varieties such as Burgundy and Gutedel , which only occur in this area in Germany. In this almost Mediterranean climate, southern plants that were planted in the spa gardens also thrive; u. a. Badenweiler is one of the few places in Germany where firmly planted palm trees survive the winter outdoors.
Celts and Romans
The Romans conquered the areas east of the Rhine up to the Danube and the Main . In the year 70, the Romans under Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus began to cultivate and develop the area. The Celts who previously lived here were assimilated. The Romans built Aquae Villae from the strategically favorable elevated location with an overview of the Upper Rhine Valley and from climatic, health and balneological aspects. The Upper Rhine Valley at that time was a vast floodplain , with countless lakes and ponds with stagnant water. These were only fed with new water when the Fluvius Rhenus (Rhine) flooded. The lakes and ponds were full of mosquitoes and the climate in the Rhine valley in summer was muggy. The Romans wanted to be surrounded by their home culture in their occupied territories. So they designed Aqua Villae like a small Roman provincial town. They enjoyed bathing, but the local rivers and lakes were too cold for that for most of the year. So they used the warm springs that were available in the Upper Rhine area and built a. a. the thermal baths Aquae Villae . They consecrated them to the Celtic fertility goddess Abnoba and her hunting goddess Diana . The thermal bath was visited by soldiers, officers, officials, traders, landlords and settled veterans. The bricks for the construction of the bath were made in a brick factory on site. The veterans were given land in the conquered areas by the Senate or Emperor for their services so that they could be romanised all the faster. Since they also loved wine, among other things, they brought vines with them, which they cultivated here. The remains of Roman buildings can still be viewed in this area today, the Villa Urbana in Heitersheim or the Roman bath ruins in Badenweiler.
Alemanni and Franks
The local area was part of the Roman Agri decumates on the right bank of the Rhine (in German: "the tenth country"). This area was delimited by the Rhine, the Danube and the Limes to the northeast . The Limes was built around 100 by the Romans. The Alemanni , a Germanic tribe , conquered the southern right bank of the Rhine around 230. The Romans gave up Agri decumates and withdrew behind the Rhine in 260. There they built the Danube-Iller-Rhein-Limes . The abandoned Roman buildings were either destroyed or forgotten. Later the Alemanni built so-called hilltop castles to monitor the area. They built manors and administration based on the Roman model. The Alemanni often undertook raids from the former tithe country into neighboring Roman Gaul. But they were repulsed by the Roman armies. It was not until 455 that the Alemanni managed to expand from here across the Rhine. They conquered parts of the Roman province of Gaul . Conflicts with the Franks followed , which expanded south. The Alemanni waged a war with the Franks from 496 to 507. The Franks achieved the decisive victory at Zülpich under their King Clovis I. The Alemannic area came to the Franconian Empire of the Merovingians . The area of the later Markgräflerland and the Breisgau became the property of Franconian nobles. Franconian nobles gave gifts to various monasteries with properties from this area around 775. a. because of the salvation of the soul. Franconian nobles took Badenweiler back into possession , at that time still under its Latin name Aquae . From 774, several donations in favor of the Lorsch Monastery in Willaner marca (district hamlet) or Wilere marca as well as in Lipburg are documented in the Lorsch Codex , u. a. a basilica. The Hungarians invaded this area between 900 and 955, causing devastation and looting. After that, the area was administered by Gaugrafen, which the emperor appointed. In 962, Emperor Otto I had confiscated the local areas from the renegade Count Guntram from Breisgau. Otto I bequeathed it to Bishop Konrad from Constance , who was a Guelph . This put a for his possessions fiefdom - Meier one. As Vogt he administered this area for his bishop. After Konrad's death in 975, the cathedral provosts of his church took over his territory. At that time they were called Dompropsteigüter. In 1028 the name " Badenweiler " appears in what was then "German", still without the addition "Weiler", for the first time in a file of Emperor Konrad II from the Frankish Salier family - a permit for the diocese of Basel , minerals such as silver and mine lead in and around Badenweiler.
In the 11th century, the dukes of Zähringen , who came from northern Swabia , conquered many areas. Among other things, they came into the possession of today's Markgräflerland and the Breisgau . The best known among them was Berthold II of Zähringen, who ruled from 1078 to 1111 . In the years 1075-1122 the investiture controversy took place. The Zähringer stood on the victorious papal side. They were thus able to acquire many monastic and secular possessions from the losers. The local Zähringer areas were administered by their bailiffs since 1122. They resided at the castle in Badenweiler . The Zähringen rule of Badenweiler came in 1147 as a dowry for Princess Clementia of Zähringen to Heinrich the Lion , a Guelph prince. The Zähringers did not like the Hohenstaufer's attempts to expand . They founded the city of Neuchâtel am Rhein in 1175 , thus securing the crossing of the Rhine into Alsace for themselves. This enabled them to demand tribute from the unfamiliar users of the Rhine crossing. After Bertold V's death , the male line of the Zähringer family died out in 1218, and their territories fell to the Counts of Freiburg .
The Hohenstaufen Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa forced the Guelph Prince Heinrich the Lion to exchange these areas for possessions in the Harz Mountains in 1157 . The former Zähringen lordship of Badenweiler came into the possession of the Staufers. The Hohenstaufen had u. a. Properties in neighboring Alsace. It was only natural to create connections from this area to Alsace. After the Hohenstaufen dynasty died out, their property in Badenweiler passed to the Counts of Freiburg in 1268.
Epoch of various noble families in Badenweiler
Count of Freiburg
The Counts of Freiburg were the descendants of the Counts of Urach and in 1218 came into possession of the Zähringer territories. After Egino II , a son of Conrad I , Count of Freiburg, died, his area was divided up in 1272. A son of Eginos II. Count of Freiburg, named Heinrich received the southern areas with the rule of Badenweiler . The counts from Heinrich's line died out in 1303 without male descendants. Their territory went to the Counts of Strassberg, who were married into this line. The property came to Konrad III in 1385 . Count of Freiburg back. He was a descendant of the direct line of Egino II. Badenweiler Castle was damaged in the war between the Count of Freiburg and the Prince-Bishop of Basel in 1409 and was then renewed. Because of the enclaves of the diocese of Basel Schliengen and Istein , the two rulers often got into a dispute with one another. Due to the debts of the Counts of Freiburg, ownership changed more and more often. a. for a short time to the Habsburgs . These were given back to Count Konrad III in 1418 after the Council of Constance . back from Freiburg. Johann, the last of the Counts of Freiburg, bequeathed his rule of Badenweiler to the sons of Wilhelm, the Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg, in 1444 .
The Counts of Strassberg and the Princes of Fürstenberg
The Counts of Strassberg came from near what is now Neuchâtel in Switzerland. In 1303 they took over Badenweiler from the Counts of Freiburg. External fortifications were added to the castle in the 14th century. Through the Counts of Strassberg, the rafter came into the coat of arms of Badenweiler and many places that were under its rule, including that of the Markgräflerland.
For a time, the Counts of Strassberg are said to have owned Neuenfels Castle, not far from Badenweiler. The Lords of Neuenfels were an old knightly family. They owned properties around their Neuenfels Castle. The ruin of the castle lies above Britzingen. From 1307, they performed various functions, including as bailiffs under the rule of Badenweiler. The Counts of Strassberg died out in 1364 and handed over Badenweiler to the Counts of Fürstenberg near Donaueschingen . They owned the property until 1385, after which it was returned to the Counts of Freiburg.
Margraviate of Baden
In 1503, the Markgräflerland with Badenweiler came through inheritance to the Margraviate of Baden under Christoph I (Baden) and was thus part of the Swabian Empire until the beginning of the 19th century . In 1525 this region was also the scene of the “ German Peasants' War ” (“Revolution of the Common Man”); the insurgents lost: every house in the margraviate had to pay 5 guilders to the margrave for compensation. On June 1, 1556, the Margrave and his subjects joined the Reformation , making the Markgräflerland Protestant .
From 1618 to 1648 the Thirty Years' War raged : alternately Swedish, imperial and French troops, various auxiliary armies and marauding soldiers plundered and murdered the area. The population loss was enormous, it was filled by the influx of immigrants from the area of the Confederation . The Dutch War lasted from 1672 to 1679 : French troops moved into the Markgräflerland, demanding high tributes in feed and money. During the Dutch War in 1678 the castles of Rötteln , Sausenburg and Badenweiler were destroyed by the army of the French Marshal Crecque. After that, they were not rebuilt.
From 1689 to 1697 was the Palatinate War of Succession . The same happened, now also of the advancing imperial troops, which the French threw back. The previously French-occupied territories came back to the empire. The War of the Spanish Succession took place from 1701 to 1714 : In 1702, the Markgräflerland was not spared from looting and requisitions by French troops.
In 1727 the seat of the margraves was moved from Badenweiler to Müllheim. From 1733 to 1738 the Polish War of Succession and 1740 to 1746 the Austrian War of Succession took place. During the renewed French occupation, this war demanded further tribute from the places in the Markgräflerland, albeit to a lesser extent.
From 1746 the Markgräflerland was without an occupation and was ruled again by Baden-Durlach and his Margrave Karl-Friedrich . In 1783, Margrave Karl Friedrich abolished serfdom in his area and promoted viticulture in the Markgräflerland. The French Wars took place from 1791 to 1815 , Napoléon I conquered the areas on the right bank of the Rhine with the Markgräflerland. In 1806 the Markgräflerland became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden .
Grand Duchy of Baden
On the west side of the promenade around the castle hill, the so-called coffee mill, stands the monument to Grand Duke Friedrich I (1826–1907); it was created in 1912 by Karl Friedrich Moest from the Karlsruhe Art Academy. It is the largest monument in Badenweiler and at the same time symbolizes an important era in the Baden region as an independent state. The popular father of the country, married to Luise von Prussia , came frequently to Badenweiler and celebrated his 80th birthday here in 1906 as the longest-serving monarch in Europe.
In 1904 the Russian writer, novelist and playwright Anton Pavlovich Chekhov died here . He was one of Badenweiler's most famous guests at the Hotel Sommer. In the same year, the successful performance of his play " Der Kirschgarten " took place.
time of the nationalsocialism
In the course of the municipal reform in Baden-Württemberg on January 1, 1974, the previously independent municipality of Lipburg was incorporated into Badenweiler. Schweighof was incorporated on January 1, 1975.
Badenweiler is a member of the Municipal Administration Association of Müllheim-Badenweiler, which performs the tasks of the lower administrative authority. In addition to Müllheim and Badenweiler, the communities Sulzburg , Auggen and Buggingen are members of the association.
The first church building at this point was built on the remains of an ancient Roman podium temple, which dates from the year 145 AD ; the first documented mention of a church at this point comes from the year 774 AD: In the files of the Lorsch monastery , a basilica in Villaner is mentioned here . In the 11th / 12th The first new building was erected in the 19th century, and from 1556 the church became Protestant in the course of the Reformation . After being repeatedly damaged in several wars, the " Pauluskirche " was rebuilt in neo-Romanesque style after the demolition of the old Gothic building from 1892 under the chief building officer Joseph Durm : the foundation stone was laid on October 18, 1893, the inauguration on June 26, 1898 with Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden and his wife Luise . The bell of the church tower consists of four bronze bells.
In the choir of the Evangelical Pauluskirche there are original frescoes from around 1380, which come from the tower vestibule of the Gothic parish church of St. Peter that was once there . These murals show the old legend of the meeting of the three living and the three dead . This motif of the Memento Mori , the memory of mortality , comes from North Africa and came to Europe via Spain . Each figure is framed by a banner containing verses in late Gothic minuscule, the content of which can be summed up in the traditional saying of the dead: "What you are, we were - what we are, you will be". A dialogue between wealthy citizens and the dead is depicted as a reminder that the rich are also mortal. The wall paintings are - after Sempach-Kirchbühl / Canton of Lucerne - the oldest of all dance-like representations in the German-speaking area.
Former Jewish community
Before the seizure of power of Hitler and the Nazis in 1933 several were from the second half of the 19th century in Badenweiler Jewish families resident for. As that of the textile merchant Adolf Monasch, who had his business in Luisenstrasse 2 or 1896 Protestant converted doctor Albert Fraenkel . A memorial plaque in the cemetery commemorates members of the Monasch and Mager families who fell victim to the Shoa in Auschwitz . The Hotel Bellevue of the Levi-Mager family , which opened in 1863 and was almost completely destroyed in the local November pogrom in 1938, was the center of local Jewish life until then. Eight in July 2008 in an action of local René-Schickele -Schule with the Cologne sculptor Gunter Demnig laid stumbling blocks recall of the place of the murdered and more during the Nazi dictatorship or less extinguished Jewish families.
In October 2010, as a result of another project by the René Schickele School, students set a “memorial stone” in the Badenweiler cemetery: To commemorate those who left the village in the French internment camp Gurs in October 1940 during the “ Wagner-Bürckel Action ” deported people of the Jewish faith . Another memorial stone manufactured in the project was brought to the central memorial on the subject in Neckarzimmern .
The town's Marienkapelle was built in 1862 as an octagonal building (octagon) in the Byzantine style for the catholic-believing spa guests . Responsible was the Grand Ducal Building Director Heinrich Hübsch (1795–1863), a student of Friedrich Weinbrenner : its facade shows some clear similarities to that of the Speyer Cathedral , on which H. Hübsch had worked from 1854 to 1858. Inside there are 14 colored woodcuts depicting the Way of the Cross , they come from the sculptor , graphic artist and poet Ruth Schaumann (1899–1975), a student of Joseph Wackerle .
The Lady Chapel was the first Catholic church on the site since the Reformation : 1904 was here corpse of the deceased on July 19 of the year in Anton Chekhov before its transfer to Russia laid out . 1986 / 87 to a fundamental renovation.
St. Peter's Church
From 1958, the Catholic parish built the church of St. Peter with the architect Erwin Heine from Freiburg to supplement the Marienkapelle, which had become too small . The foundation stone was laid on November 16, 1958, and consecrated by the incumbent Archbishop of Freiburg , Hermann Schäufele, on March 27, 1960. Apostle Peter was chosen as the patron saint because there was a St. Peter's Church in Badenweiler in 1556 before the Reformation: one of its last priests had been the Dean Wernherus Buger († 1521 ); his grave slab was built into the right side wall of the new one in memory of the former church.
Inside there is a blue altar wall , designed by Hubert Kirchgäßner from Remscheid , a tabernacle , ambo and Stations of the Cross motif by Josef Henger from Ravensburg and a baptismal font by Franz Gutmann from Münstertal and a Klais organ with 25 registers from 1970. The stained glass windows in the baptistery were designed by Hans-Günther van Look , those of the church interior by Angela von Hofer.
The local elections on May 26, 2019 resulted in the following distribution of the 14 seats (2014: 13 seats) in the local council (the difference to the previous 2014 election in brackets):
|Party / list||Share of votes||Seats||(+/-)|
|Green||27.0%||4 seats||(+ 2)|
|SPD||26.1%||4 seats||(± 0)|
|CDU||22.3%||3 seats||(- 1)|
|BfB / FDP||16.0%||2 seats||(+ 1)|
|FWG||8.5%||1 seat||(- 1)|
Karl-Eugen Engler (CDU) had been mayor of Badenweiler since 1991. In the mayoral election on April 12, 2015, he was confirmed in office for the third time with a turnout of 59.19% with 59.24% and can therefore look back on more than 25 years of activity.
After Engler announced his resignation at the end of 2019, Vincenz Wissler (FDP) was elected as the new mayor on October 13, 2019. In the first ballot he prevailed against four competitors with 70.82%. The turnout was 56.66%. He took office in January 2020.
- With Vittel in the Vosges department ( France ), also a health resort, there has been a community partnership since 1957, which was celebrated in 2017 as part of the 60th anniversary of the signing of the partnership agreement in both communities.
- A community friendship / cultural partnership exists with Taganrog in Russia , the birthplace of Anton Pawlowitsch Chekhov, who died in Badenweiler.
Economy and Infrastructure
The main branches of business in Badenweiler are tourism and the spa business with its thermal baths, rehabilitation clinics, sanatoriums, hotels, guest houses and guest rooms. Then there are the craft and service businesses in connection with the spa and tourism business. In addition, there are winegrowing, agricultural and logging companies. From the Roman era to the middle of the 19th century, iron, lead and silver ore were mined in and around Badenweiler and granite and porphyry were extracted from quarries up to the present day .
The origins of tourism in Badenweiler can be traced back to Roman times. The tourism industry experienced its first boom in recent times in the early 19th century. The transport of people and loads on donkeys from the Müllheim train station via Niederweiler, Oberweiler and back, including to the Hochblauen local mountain, can be seen as the forerunner of today's local public transport . The hard-working animals are remembered today by means of a small memorial in the spa park and in the name of the local carnival guild Eselstupfer ( Zunftruf I A ). In addition, guests of the resort can be driven through the village in small electrically powered vehicles called donkeys.
Between February 15, 1896 and May 22, 1955, Badenweiler was connected to the neighboring town of Müllheim (Baden) by the Müllheim – Badenweiler railway. Südwestdeutsche Verkehrs AG is currently operating a bus route to Müllheim.
In addition to the René Schickele elementary school with an all-day school, Badenweiler also has two kindergartens , one right next to the school and a branch in the village of Schweighof. Further education schools are located in Müllheim (Baden).
- The annual Badenweiler Music Days, formerly known as the Römerbad Music Days, are of national importance in the field of avant-garde music.
- The literary scholar and writer Rüdiger Safranski , who moved to Badenweiler in 2009 , initiated the Badenweiler Literature Days, which also take place annually.
- Art exhibitions and Sunday matinees with stage performances are held regularly in the Grand Ducal Palace.
Regional: The over 205 year old Kurpark, the Sophienruhe (rock formation above the community), various hiking trails, etc.
The Belvedere is located below the castle ruins. From 1811 to 1813, on the initiative of the district director August von Kalm, it was built in the classical style of Friedrich Weinbrenner as a “ pleasure palace ”. The Grand Duchess Stephanie von Baden appreciated it very much during her stay in Badenweiler. Around 1900 the building served as an Anglican church, from 1930 to 1933 it was the studio of the painter Emil Bizer : Today it is used for exhibitions as well as for civil weddings.
Cassiopeia thermal baths
The Cassiopeia Therme emerged from the former Markgrafenbad (built 1874-75 by Heinrich Leonhard ) after its renovation. It consists of various thermal baths with a water surface of over 1,000 m². Inside is the domed bath with a water temperature of 32 ° C with its architectural combination of light and water, which was awarded the German Steel Construction Prize. There is also the marble bathroom with 34 ° C. It has a "bathing grotto" with 36 ° C and a cold water pool with 12 ° C water temperature. Outside is the outdoor swimming pool with the sun terraces. From there you can see the spa gardens and the Roman bath ruins. It is equipped with a flow channel, neck showers and the round pool with a water temperature of 30 ° C.
This building was built in 1958 under the name of the architect Horst Linde . In 2004 it was renovated for 10 million euros. In today 's Lindebad wellness sauna area there is a sauna area and a wellness oasis .
Grand Ducal Palace
The Grand Ducal Palace was built in 1587 as the office of the Margraves of Baden . Until 1689 it was used as the seat of the upper office with interruptions . In 1727 the official seat was moved to Müllheim . From 1887 to 1888 the palace was rebuilt under Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden into the Grand Ducal Baden summer residence . The renovation was carried out by the court building director Friedrich Hemberger in the neo-renaissance style . The associated palace gardens were laid out by the grand ducal court gardener Ernst Krautinger. The palace was owned by the Baden family until 1952 , after which it became the property of the Badenweiler community; Today it houses various art exhibitions, and music events are also held as part of Sunday matinees. The organizer of the art exhibitions and matinees is the non-profit association "KunstPalais Badenweiler eV"
The spa park is dominated by the mighty castle ruins. It lies in the influence of a stream of warm air from the southwest from the Burgundian gate . Because of the Mediterranean climate, many southern and subtropical plants can be seen here. You can find oleanders , hibiscus , magnolias , giant cedars and sequoias , bananas , lemons , palms , eucalyptus , bamboo and numerous native plants. The spa park is laid out around the castle hill with numerous hiking trails and panoramic spaces. From the castle hill you have a wonderful view of the Markgräflerland as well as the Rhine plain and the Blauen mountain . The spa park pond was rebuilt in 2006.
Hildegard von Bingen Garden
At the beginning of the 2000s, a " Hildegard von Bingen garden" was laid out on the west side of the spa gardens, in which the abbess Hildegard von Bingen (1098–1179) knowledge of medicine is shown on beds along the retaining wall with a variety of medicinal plants .
Below the Hildegard von Bingen garden is the Gutedelgarten, a botanical show garden. Gutedel vines in all kinds of variations and mutations are grown in this garden . The planting was supplemented by numerous new varieties of fungus- resistant table grape varieties.
Baden Castle ruins
The "Burgberg" with the ruins of Baden Castle rises above the spa gardens and town : The castle of the Zähringen dukes was first mentioned in a document in 1122. From 1147 it was owned by Henry the Lion , was acquired by Emperor Friedrich I in 1158 and fell at the latest after his death in 1190 again to the Zähringer. In 1398 it belonged to Upper Austria as a pledge , and from 1404 to 1406 it served the Duchess Catherine of Burgundy as a residence. During the Dutch War in 1678, Baden Castle was destroyed by the troops of Louis XIV .
Ruins of the Roman bath "Aqua Villae"
Below the Cassiopeia Therma, the Romans built a Roman settlement in 75 AD, it was probably called Aquae Villae (water town). It was dedicated to the goddess Diana Abnoba , as can be seen from a consecration stone found during the excavation. In the Roman bath ruins, the individual architectural components of a Roman bath can still be clearly seen, which is divided into a hot, warm and cold bath area. Remnants of the Roman hypocaust, a forerunner of modern underfloor heating, can also be seen here. The building is symmetrical and is still considered the largest and most valuable thermal bath ruin north of the Alps. In 1783, under Margrave Karl Friedrich , the bathing facilities were rediscovered and excavated. The thermal springs already used by the Romans, the warmest of which has a temperature of 26.4 ° C, established Badenweiler's reputation as a health resort. So that the ruin of the bathroom does not continue to disintegrate due to the weather, a transparent and airy glass roof was built over it in 2001 to protect it. A permanent exhibition gives a picture of the high Roman bathing culture.
Consecration altar for Diana Abnoba
"Sommercafe" by Horst Linde
From 1947 to 1950, the well-known south German architect Horst Linde was able to build his first post-war work on Badstrasse , the Waldstrasse from Badenweiler to Schweighof, across from the former “Waldeck” sanatorium: the “Sommercafe”. In the 1970s, the former state insurance institute (LVA) Baden (today “ Deutsche Rentenversicherung Baden-Württemberg ”) took over the building and turned it into a “ therapeutic workshop”. Horst Linde is also the architect of the Lindebad, which was built next to the Markgrafenbad in 1958 .
The Chekhov Salon is a literary museum and was housed in the Kurhaus until July 2015. Today, the museum, which has been expanded and has since paid tribute to other writers associated with Badenweiler, is located in Badenweiler's town hall (Ernst-Eisenlohr-Str. 4). This museum is still mainly dedicated to the Russian writer, novelist and playwright Anton Pavlovich Chekhov . He was born on January 29, 1860 in the southern Russian port city of Taganrog in a small house on Polizejskaya Street ("Police Street") as the third child of six siblings. Because of his pulmonary tuberculosis , he moved to Yalta on the Crimean peninsula on the Black Sea coast . In the summer of 1904 he traveled to Badenweiler. There he died on July 15th (according to other sources on July 14th) of the year. The playwright's grave is in Moscow . The museum commemorates the famous writer with testimonies, pictures, letters and texts. Chekhov's monument is located below the castle ruins.
The same balcony, with the statue “ The Seagull ” on Anton Chekhov Square
sons and daughters of the town
- Albert Buss-Wenger (1862–1912), Swiss building contractor
- Gustav Faber (1912–1993), author of numerous geographic and cultural history books
- Georg Adam Gmelin (1721–1799), officer
- Wilhelm Friedrich Gmelin (1760–1820), engraver and painter
- Karl Christian Gmelin (1762–1837), natural scientist and botanist
- Hermann Grenacher (1843–1923), zoologist
- Julius Levi-Mager, former hotelier of the "Bellevue", at that time the center of Jewish life in the area
- Fanny Moser (1872–1953), marine biologist and parapsychologist
- Erwin Hasenclever (1880–1914), lawyer, mining manager and politician.
- Alfred Saupe (1925–2008), physicist
- Wolfgang Alexander Thomas-San-Galli (1874–1918), music writer
- Martin Venedey (1860–1934), lawyer, member of the state parliament
Other personalities with connections to Badenweiler
- The landscape painter Emil Bizer , the writer Annette Kolb , the writer René Schickele and the painter Oskar Schlemmer settled in Badenweiler and formed a “colony” of painters and poets along today's Kanderner Strasse . They were often visited by their friends Thomas Mann , Bruno Walter and Hermann Kesten .
- Stephen Crane , Theodor Heuss and Johannes Rau are among the personalities who stayed in Badenweiler for the cure . In 1935/36 Jawaharlal Nehru , then Chairman of the Indian National Congress and from 1947 to 1964 first Prime Minister of India, spent five months in Badenweiler with his daughter Indira Gandhi .
- Albert Fraenkel settled as a country doctor in Badenweiler and made the place an international health resort , among other things by founding the sanatoriums Villa Hedwig and Villa Paul . His most prominent patient was Hermann Hesse , with whom he formed a lifelong friendship. In 1920 Fraenkel became an honorary citizen of the community. In that year he moved to Heidelberg , where he lived and worked until his death on December 22, 1938 and was able to teach until his “leave of absence” (withdrawal of his teaching license ) by the National Socialists.
- The TV chef Horst Lichter lived in Badenweiler from 2010 to 2020.
- In 1925 the artist Ephraim Moses Lilien died in Badenweiler
- The actor Charles Regnier (1914–2001) found his final resting place in the Lipburg-Sehringen cemetery .
- Rolf Rienhardt , lawyer and right-hand man of Hitler's financial advisor and SS-Obergruppenführer Max Amann , died here on March 16, 1975 , was the real driving force in the press empire of Franz-Eher-Verlag and the most influential person in the press system of the National Socialist German Reich .
- The writer Ernst Sander lived in Badenweiler from 1948 to 1960. Among other things, his Dalmatian Adventure was created there .
- In 1904 Anton Chekhov (1860–1904), the important Russian poet and writer, died in Badenweiler. The Chekhov Monument and the Chekhov Museum in the town hall commemorate him.
- Konstantin Stanislawski (1863–1938), co-founder of the famous “Moscow Art Theater”, spent many months of his life in Badenweiler between 1908 and 1932.
- The Bauhaus - painter - sculptor and - stage designer Oskar Schlemmer (* 1888, † 1943 Baden-Baden ) retired in 1936 before Nazi oppression in a house built in what is now the district Sehringen house back.
- The cabaret artist Georg Schramm (* 1949) lives in Badenweiler.
- Rüdiger Safranski (* 1945), philosopher and writer, has lived in Badenweiler since 2009.
- The publicist and politician Jacob Venedey (1805–1871) ran a pension in Badenweiler and died in Oberweiler in 1871.
- Roman bath ruins Badenweiler - discovery, research, fascination . Catalog for the exhibition of the Museum of Prehistory and Early History in the University Library of the City of Freiburg im Breisgau , February 14 to April 25, 2004.
- A cleverly humane cure - Hermann Hesse and Badenweiler in texts, letters and pictures . Verlag Suhrkamp, 2009, ISBN 978-3-9811965-5-9 .
- Gustav Faber : Badenweiler - A piece of Italy on German land. 2nd Edition. Verlag Karl Schillinger, Freiburg 1981, ISBN 3-921340-17-9 .
- Norbert Fichtlscherer: Historical miniatures from Badenweiler. 1st edition. Digital + Print, Freiburg 2003, ISBN 3-932172-03-5 .
- Johannes Helm: Famous personalities in and from Badenweiler. Schmidt, Müllheim 1996, ISBN 3-921709-18-0 .
- Peter Kirch: Baths and pool structures in Badenweiler. In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg. 25th year 1996, issue 1, pp. 103-108. ( PDF; 10.4 MB )
- Adolf J. Schmid : Chekhov memorial in Badenweiler - after 74 years a new memorial at the “Vosges view”. In: Badische Heimat. 1992, p. 299 ff.
- Franz Xaver Kraus : The art monuments of the Grand Duchy of Baden. Volume 5: District of Lörrach. Tübingen / Leipzig 1901, pp. 65–95. (on-line)
- Maritta Schneider: Badenweiler, Sanitas per aquam. In: W. Niess, S. Lorenz (Ed.): Cult baths and bath culture in Baden-Württemberg. Filderstadt 2004, ISBN 3-935129-16-5 .
- Rolf Schuhbauer: "Take this little home piece" - traces and stations of the suffering of Jews from Müllheim and Badenweiler between 1933 and 1945 . Edition Isele, Eggingen 2001, ISBN 3-86142-238-7 .
- Gustav Wever: Chronicle of the bailiwick of Badenweiler: a contribution to the development history of the health resort Badenweiler. Badenweiler 1869. (online in the Baden State Library)
- Gabriele Wohmann : Early autumn in Badenweiler . Luchterhand, Darmstadt 1978, ISBN 3-472-86467-2 .
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- Main statute of the municipality of Badenweiler from May 26, 2003 ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume IV: Freiburg administrative region. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-17-007174-2 , pp. 144-146.
- Minst, Karl Josef [transl.]: Lorscher Codex (Volume 4), Certificate 2707, December 4, 774 - Reg. 1126. In: Heidelberg historical stocks - digital. Heidelberg University Library, p. 211 , accessed on April 23, 2018 .
- List of places for the Lorsch Codex, Weiler , Archivum Laureshamense - digital, Heidelberg University Library.
- List of places for the Lorsch Codex, Lipburg , Archivum Laureshamense - digital, Heidelberg University Library.
- Gustav Faber : Badenweiler - A piece of Italy on German land. 2nd Edition. Verlag Karl Schillinger, Freiburg 1981, ISBN 3-921340-17-9 , p. 157.
- Sigrid Umiger: Remembering the victims of the Nazi regime . In: Badische Zeitung . March 24, 2015 ( online [accessed December 12, 2018]).
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 508 f .
- Evangelical Church District Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald , ekbh.de: Evang. Badenweiler parish
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- badenweiler.de: Paul Church . After: Rudolf Gfell: cultural historical guide through Badenweiler. ISBN 3-932172-07-08 .
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- Hans Georg Wehrens: The dance of death in the Alemannic language area. "I have to do it - and don't know what" . Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-7954-2563-0 , p. 27f.
- Badenweiler (Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district) - Jewish history / prayer hall . In: Alemannia-Judaica.de .
- Memorial for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation , Volume I, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 24.
- Today's Chinese restaurant Mandarin
- Memory of Julius Levi-Mager . In: Badische Zeitung . December 15, 2014 ( online ).
- ardmediathek.de: The Jewish hotelier gave up the Bellevue in Badenweiler after heavy reprisals. ( Memento from December 15, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) SWR2 , Stolperstein zum Hören , December 10, 2014.
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- Bernd Michaelis: So that something like that never happens again . In: Badische Zeitung . May 31, 2008 ( online ).
- Bernd Michaelis: "You have a name again" . In: Badische Zeitung . July 23, 2008 ( online ).
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- Sigrid Umiger: Remember, look, not be silent . In: Badische Zeitung . October 26, 2010 ( online ).
- badenweiler.de: Lady Chapel . After: Rudolf Gfell: cultural historical guide through Badenweiler. ISBN 3-932172-07-08 .
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- Sigrid Umiger: Dream wedding in the spa. In: Badische Zeitung. January 14, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Badische-zeitung.de , January 18, 2014: From Markgrafenbad to Cassiopeia
- baufachinformation.de: History of the "Summer Cafe" in Badenweiler ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Literary Museum Chekhov Salon. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 14, 2016 ; accessed on April 14, 2016 .
- Horst Lichter is fed up with the Black Forest - that's why he's moving back to the Rhineland. Stern , accessed January 11, 2020 .
- bad-bad.de: Oskar Schlemmer (1888–1943)