|Basic data of the Markgräflerland|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|The highest point:||blue )(|
|Lowest point:||Rhine plain )(|
|License plate :||LÖ, FR|
|Structure:||Most of the district of Lörrach
and the southwestern part of the
district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
|Main variant:||Highly Alemannic|
The historical structure of the same name was created on September 8, 1444 through the merger of the Rötteln dominion and the Badenweiler dominion and the Landgraviate of Sausenburg . The land was owned by the Margraves of Hachberg-Sausenberg , a branch line of the House of Baden and, after its extinction, the Margraves of Baden , later the Margraves of Baden-Durlach .
In today's parlance, the term Markgräflerland is primarily used to describe the Upper Rhine region with the vineyards south of Freiburg im Breisgau to Basel . Historically, the northern border of the region runs roughly 20 km south of Freiburg roughly in a line from Heitersheim to Sulzburg along the Sulzbach . The state borders in the Rhine form further delimitations : in the south near Kleinbasel with Switzerland , in the west with Alsace ( France ); also in the east the Black Forest with the blue .
The region therefore mainly includes the southwestern foothills of the Black Forest with its foothills into the Rhine plain , z. B. the Kandertal and the lower and middle Wiesental : where this opens to the Upper Rhine Valley is Lörrach , the largest city in the Markgräflerland, which is also known as the “capital” of the region. Striking elevations are the Hochblauen (1165 m), the Hohe Möhr (988 m) and the Tüllinger Berg (460 m).
Fourteen kilometers up the Wiesental is Schopfheim , the oldest town in the Markgräflerland: It is therefore largely in the Lörrach district , the northern part from Auggen is in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district . Larger rivers and streams are the Wiese , the Kander and the Klemmbach ( Müllheim / Oberweiler ).
Until 1803 the Markgräflerland was like a patchwork quilt . Places like Schliengen belonged to the Principality of Basel until then , the Principality of Heitersheim with its places was independent. Mainly, however, the Markgräflerland was surrounded by Austria and France. Even before the Reformation in 1556, different rulers were resident in the Markgräflerland: the Zähringer , the Staufer, the Röttler, the Sausenberger, the Hachberger and some monasteries with their spiritual lords, etc.
The east of the Markgräflerland lies partly in the Black Forest , which consists of an old mountain range with a gneiss base and granite and merges to the west into the hilly terrain of the Markgräfler hill country, which occupies the local foothill zone , with fertile, loess-rich soil. The Markgräfler Rheinebene with the low terrace and the Rhine lowlands also join with loess- containing soils, which merge into sand and gravel soils towards the Rhine . Geologically, this is the remnant of a rift valley and a flood area of a river valley. The geological activity during the formation of the rift valley in the Upper Rhine Valley and the associated geothermal activity that still existed in the soil resulted in thermal springs in the Markgräflerland , which the Romans already appreciated. B. built a thermal bath in Badenweiler . In some valleys of the Black Forest traces of silver and lead ores can be found. There are sites and evidence of their mining by the Romans and the subsequent rulers in this area. a. in Badenweiler and Sulzburg .
coat of arms
The coat of arms contains the coats of arms of the united gentlemen . Heraldic top right: Margraviate Baden , heraldic top left: Herrschaft Sausenberg , heraldic bottom right: Herrschaft Rötteln , heraldic bottom left: Herrschaft Badenweiler . This coat of arms was used in this way and in various similar forms until the Markgräflerland became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806 .
Celts and Romans
This area was populated by various Celtic tribes . In the year 70 the Romans conquered this area. It was cultivated under Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus . The Celts who previously lived here were assimilated. The Romans built settlements and farms on the hills. These were called Villa Urbana . The remains of a Villa Urbana can be seen in Heitersheim east of the Maltese Castle. The area was populated by soldiers, officers, civil servants, traders, landlords and veterans. The veterans received land in the conquered areas for their services from the Senate or Emperor, so that the area and the indigenous population could be romanised more quickly.
The hills were chosen for the settlement of the area. Due to the strategically favorable and elevated location, these offered an overview of the Upper Rhine Valley. Another aspect was the climate and health. At that time, the Upper Rhine Valley was an extensive alluvial forest with countless lakes and ponds with stale water. These were only fed with new water during the floods of the Fluvius Rhenus (Rhine). The summer climate in the Rhine plain was humid. The Romans liked to surround themselves in their occupied territories with their home-grown culture. They designed their settlements like a small Roman provincial town. Because they loved wine, among other things, they brought vines with them to grow here. Remains of Roman buildings can still be seen in this area today, e.g. B. the Villa Urbana in Heitersheim or the Roman bath ruins in Badenweiler.
Alemanni and Franks
The local area was part of the Roman Agri decumates on the right bank of the Rhine , in German the tenth country. This area was secured by the Rhine, the Danube and the northeastern Limes (built around 100 by the Romans). The Alemanni , a Germanic tribe , conquered the southern right bank of the Rhine around 230. The Romans gave up Agri decumates and withdrew behind the Rhine in 260. There they built the Danube-Iller-Rhein-Limes . The abandoned Roman buildings were either destroyed or forgotten. Initially, the Alamanni did not believe in Roman culture. The Roman buildings were demolished and mostly used as a quarry. Later the Alamanni built so-called hill castles to monitor the area. They built manors and administration based on the Roman model. The Alemanni often undertook raids from the former tithe country into neighboring Roman Gaul. But they were repulsed by the Roman armies. It was not until 455 that the Alamanni managed to expand from here across the Rhine. They conquered parts of the Roman province of Gaul . Conflicts with the Franks followed , which expanded south. The Alemanni waged war with the Franks from 496 to 507, in which the Franks were able to achieve the decisive victory at Zülpich under their King Clovis I. The Alemannic area fell to the Franconian Empire of the Merovingians . The area of the later Markgräflerland and the Breisgau became the property of Franconian nobles . Around 775 Franconian nobles gave gifts to various monasteries with property from this area and the like. a. because of the salvation of the soul. The Hungarians invaded this area between 900 and 955, causing devastation and looting. After that, the area was administered by Gaugrafen, which the emperor appointed. In 962, Emperor Otto I confiscated territories from the renegade Count Guntram from Breisgau. Otto I transferred it to Bishop Konrad I from Konstanz , a Guelph . This continued for his goods a fief a -Meier while as Vogt managed this area for its bishop. After the death of Bishop Konrad in 975, the cathedral provosts of his church took over these areas. At that time they were called Dompropsteigüter.
Epochs of different noble families
In the centuries that followed, powerful aristocratic families from what was later to become the Markgräflerland came to acquire large estates. These enlarged, inherited, or lost their territory over time.
In the 11th century, the dukes of Zähringen , who came from northern Swabia , conquered many areas. Among other things, they came into the possession of today's Markgräflerland and the Breisgau. The best-known among them was Berthold II of Zähringen, who ruled from 1078 to 1111 . In the years 1075 to 1122 the investiture controversy took place. The Zähringer stood on the victorious papal side. They were thus able to acquire many monastic and secular possessions from the losers. The local Zähringer areas were administered by their bailiffs since 1122. They resided at the castle in Badenweiler . The Zähringen rule of Badenweiler came in 1147 as a dowry for Princess Clementine von Zähringen to Heinrich the Lion , a Welf prince . The Zähringers did not like the expansion attempts of the Hohenstaufers . They founded the city of Neuenburg am Rhein in 1175 . In doing so, they had secured the crossing of the Rhine into Alsace for themselves and were able to demand a tribute from users of the crossing . After the death of Berthold V , the male line of the Zähringer went out in 1218, whose territories came to the Counts of Freiburg .
The Hohenstaufen Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa forced Heinrich the Lion from Guelph to exchange these areas for possessions in the Harz Mountains in 1157 . The former Zähringen lordship of Badenweiler came into the possession of the Hohenstaufers, who also had possessions in neighboring Alsace. It made sense to create connections from there to Badenweiler. After the Hohenstaufer had died out, Badenweiler came to the Counts of Freiburg in 1268 .
Lords of Rötteln
The Lords of Rötteln and the town of Lorracho ( Lörrach ) were first mentioned in 1102 in a document from the St. Alban Monastery near Basel . Bishop Burkhard von Basel installed Dietrich von Rötteln as a guardian of the monastery possessions on the right bank of the Rhine. Dietrich III. von Rötteln died in 1204. He had left his sons large estates in the meadow valley . His sons held high offices, Walter I was the capitular of Konstanz and Basel, Liuthold I became Bishop of Basel, Konrad I was the founder of the town of Schopfheim , which was of considerable importance for the Markgräflerland that was later to develop. Dietrich IV received the Rotenburg Castle in the Kleiner Wiesental. The first documented mention of the castle comes from the year 1259. Liuthold II von Rötteln was the last male survivor of his line. In 1315 he gave the Röttel rule to the Margrave Heinrich von Hachberg-Sausenberg , son of his niece Agnes von Rötteln. The Margraves of Hachberg-Sausenberg residing at Hochberg Castle near Emmendingen became the new masters of the Rötteln rule. The Margraves of Hachberg-Sausenberg moved from Sausenburg to Rötteln Castle . They set up their administration there and set up bailiffs at Sausenburg Castle . On May 19, 1316 Liuthold II of Rötteln died as the last male representative of the Lords of Rötteln. In 1332, the people of Basel moved in front of Rötteln Castle and besieged it because Margrave Rudolf II von Hachberg-Sausenberg had stabbed the Basel mayor in a dispute. At the last moment, however, the dispute was settled through mediation. Arrowheads, crossbow bolts, etc., which were found near Rötteln Castle, date from this siege . In 1356 there was a severe earthquake in this area. Basel was destroyed and Rötteln Castle suffered severe damage.
Lords of Sausenberg
In the beginning of the 12th century, the lords of Kaltenbach (from the place Kaltenbach near Malsburg-Marzell ) donated land to the St. Blasien monastery . This monastery came into the possession of Sausenberg. It established further provosts in this area: In Bürgeln, in Sitzenkirch and in Weitenau, a district of Steinen . Bürgeln is a castle in the Schliengen district near Schallsingen that is still preserved today . The Margraves of Hachberg acquired Sausenburg in the area of Malsburg-Marzell from the St. Blasien monastery in 1232 . In 1300 the estate was divided under the Margraves of Hachberg. Margrave Rudolf I got the southern lands and became the founder of the Sausenberg line in 1306. From then on he called himself Margrave von Hachberg-Sausenberg. The donation from the Lords of Rötteln to the Hachberg-Sausenberg is the first stage in the development of the Markgräflerland. Johann, the last of the Counts of Freiburg , gave his Badenweiler rule to his nephews Rudolf IV and Hugo von Hachberg-Sausenberg in 1444 . The Markgräflerland was created on September 8, 1444 through the merger of the Rötteln rule, the Sausenburg Landgraviate and the Badenweiler rule.
Count of Freiburg
The Counts of Freiburg were the descendants of the Counts of Urach and in 1218 came into possession of the Zähringer territories. After Egino II , a son of Count Konrad I of Freiburg, died, his area was divided up in 1272. A son of Count Egino II of Freiburg named Heinrich received the southern areas with the rule of Badenweiler. The counts from Heinrich's line died out in 1303 without male descendants. Their territory went to the Counts of Straßberg, who were married into this line. The property came to Count Konrad III in 1385 . back from Freiburg. He was a descendant of the direct line of Egino II. Due to the debts of these counts, ownership changed more and more often. a. for a short time to the Habsburgs , who in 1418 after the Council of Constance , again to Count Konrad III. returned from Freiburg. The Badenweiler Castle was in 1409 in the war of the Counts of Freiburg with the Prince Bishop damaged by Basel and then renewed. Because of the Schliengen and Istein enclaves , which belonged to the diocese of Basel , the two rulers often got into a dispute with one another. Johann, the last of the Counts of Freiburg, bequeathed his rule of Badenweiler to the sons of Wilhelm , the Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg , in 1444 .
Counts of Strassberg and Prince of Fürstenberg
The Counts of Strassberg came from near what is now Neuchâtel (Switzerland) . In 1303 they took over Badenweiler from the Counts of Freiburg . Through this the rafter came into the coat of arms of Badenweiler and many other localities, which were under its rule, also in the coat of arms of the Markgräflerland. The Counts of Strassberg died out in 1363 and so Badenweiler came to the Counts of Fürstenberg near Donaueschingen , but they only had the property for a short time.
Margraviate of Baden
The second and last stage in the development of the Markgräflerland was completed on September 8, 1444, when the Margraves of Sausenberg-Rötteln also acquired the dominion of Badenweiler by donation. In 1503 the Markgräflerland came to the Margraviate of Baden under Christoph I.
On June 1, 1556, the margrave joined the Lutheran Reformation , and thus, according to the law of the time (“ Cuius regio, eius religio ”, meaning what I am subject to, I am of “Believe” ) also his subjects . Every place in the Markgräflerland became Protestant . When the Gersbach district was purchased from Catholic Front Austria , the population therefore had to switch to the Protestant denomination.
The Thirty Years' War raged from 1618 to 1648 : the Swedish , imperial and French troops, various auxiliary armies and marauding soldiers took turns looting and murdering. The population loss was enormous and was offset by the influx of immigrants from the Confederation .
The Dutch War lasted from 1672 to 1679 : French troops advanced into the Markgräflerland; they took heavy tolls in feed and money. It was on June 8, 1677 u. a. Seefelden plundered. During this war in 1678 the castles Rötteln , Sausenburg and Badenweiler were destroyed by the army of the French Marshal François de Créquy ; they were not rebuilt afterwards.
The Palatinate War followed from 1689 to 1697 . The events were similar, now committed by the advancing imperial troops, which the French threw back. After that, the previously French-occupied territories came back to the empire .
In 1727 the seat of the margraves was moved from Badenweiler to Müllheim ; The War of the Polish Succession followed from 1733 to 1738 and the War of Austrian Succession from 1740 to 1746 . During the renewed French occupation, these demanded further tribute from the places in the Markgräflerland, albeit to a lesser extent.
From 1791 to 1815 Baden was involved in the coalition wars and Napoleonic wars. As a close ally of Napoleon Bonaparte , Baden received the Breisgau, which had previously been in front of Austria, in 1805 after the Peace of Pressburg . After that there was a direct land connection to the other north Baden parts of the country for the first time and the isolated island existence of the Markgräfler Land came to an end.
- Werner D'Inka (* 1954), editor of the FAZ
- Sebastian Deisler (* 1980), former national player , born in Lörrach
- Uli Edel (* 1947), film director, born in Neuenburg am Rhein
- Johann Peter Hebel (1760–1826), poet: grew up in Hausen im Wiesental , went to school there and in Schopfheim and was a teacher in Lörrach for eight years. He wrote many poems in Alemannic dialect and made them known beyond the borders of the Markgräflerland. He is considered the most important dialect poet in the region.
- Ottmar Hitzfeld (* 1949), soccer coach , born in Lörrach
- Dieter Müller (* 1948), cook, born in Auggen
- Karlheinz Hauser (* 1967), cook, born in Heitersheim
- Otto Karrer (1888–1976), born in Ballrechte-Dottingen . Roman Catholic theologian, ecumenist, religious philosopher and spiritual writer.
- Erwin Bowien ( 1899-1972 ), author and painter. Lived in Weil am Rhein until his death.
- Christian Streich (* 1965), soccer player and coach, born in Weil am Rhein , grew up in Eimeldingen
The above-average duration of sunshine of over 1700 hours a year (average in Germany: 1541 hours) makes the region with an annual average temperature of 10.8 ° C one of the sunniest and warmest areas in all of Germany . The warm south-westerly winds that flow into the country through the Burgundian Gate are the reason why the Markgräfler Spring often begins three weeks earlier than in the rest of Germany.
The western slopes of the Black Forest Mountains also ensure that rain clouds from the Atlantic bring enough moisture into the country for the region's trademark - viticulture. With 70 l / m² of rain in the summer months, enough for the vines and yet not too much for holidaymakers who want to enjoy the sunshine. At the same time, the Black Forest forms an effective mountain barrier against excessively cold winds in winter and thus favors a year-round mild climate.
The Markgräflerland wine-growing area stretches from the Grenzacher Horn and Weil am Rhein in the south to Ehaben just before the gates of Freiburg in the north and includes the foothills between the Rhine plain and the Black Forest. The typical wine of the region is the Gutedel . This was brought to Markgräflerland from the Swiss Vevey by the Baden margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden around 1780 . Due to the favorable climate, Burgundy varieties also thrive .
Culture and traditions
The traditional costume with the distinctive horn cap is one of the traditions of the Markgräflerland . Today this clothing is mainly used in traditional costume clubs and on special (sometimes folkloric) occasions, but until around 1930 the traditional costume was generally worn by the rural population on festive occasions.
In addition to the also thoroughly and extensively celebrated Alemannic carnival (see also: Basler Fasnacht and Buurefasnacht ) is Scheibenschlagen a popular and well-known custom in the waning winter time.
The wine slices from the Markgräflerland are a particular culinary specialty .
On October 12, 2017, two related postage stamps were published in the series “Germany's most beautiful panoramas”, which show the southern protrusion of the Ehrenstetter Mount of Olives and refer to the Markgräflerland.
- History Association Markgräflerland e. V. (editor): 550 years of Markgräflerland . Anniversary volume of the magazine Das Markgräflerland , Volume 2/1994, Schopfheim 1994. Digitized version of the Freiburg University Library
- Hans Jakob Wörner : The Markgräflerland - remarks on his historical career. In: Das Markgräflerland 2/1994, pp. 56–69. Digitized version of the Freiburg University Library
- Markus Kutter: What is the Markgräflerland? A short historical report. In: Das Markgräflerland , Volume 1/2006, pp. 91–95, digitized version of the Freiburg University Library
- Dietrich Krafft: The Markgräflerland, the Breisgau and the adjacent areas. Edition in two volumes. Volume 1: History in Brief ; Volume 2: illustrated book . Munster 2009.
- Links to archived articles on the Markgräflerland in the magazine "Badische Heimat"; accessed on December 1, 2019
- badische-seiten.de: Markgräflerland
- Badische-zeitung.de , October 14, 2015, Dorothee Philipp: What is the Markgräflerland?
- freiburg-schwarzwald.de: Markgraeflerland
- geschichtverein-markgraeflerland.de: Welcome to the history association Markgräflerland!
- markgräfler-land.de: The Markgräflerland in aerial photos
- s. Wörner p. 62
- Badische-zeitung.de , letters to the editor , October 29, 2010, Werner Schäffner: The historical border is the Sulzbach (August 28, 2011)
- Natural area profile Markgräfler Hügelland (201) - LUBW (PDF; 6.4 MB; notes )
- Natural area profile of the Markgräfler Rheinebene (200) - LUBW (PDF; 6.9 MB; information )
- Hans Hofstätter and Berthold Hänel: The painters of the Markgräflerland . Ed .: District of Lörrach. Schillinger Verlag, Freiburg 2000, p. 78 .
- cf. www.markgraefler.de , climate and location of the Markgräflerland
- Publisher: Series "Germany's most beautiful panoramas" Badische Weinstrasse - Markgräfler Land - Federal Ministry of Finance - Topics. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 7, 2017 ; accessed on October 6, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.