|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|County :||Breisgau-Upper Black Forest|
|Height :||290 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||8.18 km 2|
|Residents:||2879 (December 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||352 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||79285|
|Area code :||07664|
|License plate :||FR|
|Community key :||08 3 15 028|
|LOCODE :||DE EBN|
|Community structure:||2 districts|
|Address of the
|Mayor :||Rainer Mosbach|
|Location of the municipality of Ebringen in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district|
A detailed presentation of the geography, geology as well as fauna and flora on the Ebringer district can be found in the article Schönberg (Ehaben) .
Ehaben is about four kilometers from the southwestern outskirts of Freiburg at an altitude of 245 to 644 meters. The place is located in a rising valley basin of the 644 m high Schönberg, is open to the west and south to the Upper Rhine Plain and thus offers ideal conditions for viticulture.
The Schönberg is characterized by a very diverse surface geology, which comes from all periods of the Triassic and Jurassic as well as conglomerates and volcanic layers from the Paleogene . Thick loess deposits in the vineyards are evidence of the Ice Age .
Expansion of the settlement area
The built-up area of Ebringen is only separated from the neighboring town of Wolfenweiler to the west by a narrow settlement caesura 200 meters wide - through which the L125 runs and which limits the Rhine Valley Railway to the west - so that Schallstadt (with Wolfenweiler) and Ehaben a nearly contiguous settlement area 4 km long in an east-west direction.
The village of Eringen, the hamlet of Talhausen, the farms of Oberer Schönbergerhof and Unterer Schönbergerhof as well as the Berghauser Chapel belong to the municipality of Ehaben. The Schneeburg ruin is located in the municipality . The main settlement axis in Ehaben extends from the western boundary over a length of around 1700 meters to the lower slopes of the Schönberg, starting at around 240 meters above sea level up to around 350 meters above sea level .
The main axis is divided into the Ebringen districts of Unterdorf with an industrial area, Mitteldorf and Oberdorf as well as the district of Tyrol, which was structurally separated from the core town until the middle of the 20th century (referred to as "Beim Schlemmer" or "Bim Schlemmer" until the 1920s) . South of the bypass road, south-west of the center and almost at right angles to the main settlement axis, is the district of Talhausen, which extends over a length of about 600 meters. At the site of the medieval Berghausen settlement on the southern slope of Schönberg, only the chapel, which was expanded several times after the settlement was abandoned, still exists. There are also two courtyards on the Schönberg. While the Obere Schönberger Hof only operates cattle ranching, the Untere Schönberger Hof is an excursion restaurant with a view of Freiburg and the Freiburg Bay .
The climate in Ehaben is typical for the eastern edge of the Upper Rhine Rift. The average annual temperature is 11.6 ° C, with the minimum of 2.5 ° C in January and the maximum of 21 ° C in July for the period from 1983 to 2014. The average annual rainfall is 958 liters / m².
This data, measured at a private weather station in Ehaben since 1983, shows as a trend - in sync with the DWD data from the Freiburg-St.Georgen station - an increase in the annual average temperatures over time.
Together with the neighboring communities of Schallstadt and Pfaffenweiler, Ehaben forms an administrative community. As of 2006, a merger with the neighboring administrative community of the Hexentalgemeinden was in preparation. The Ehrenkirchen-Bollschweil administrative community, which was originally included, withdrew from the merger negotiations in 2007. After Schallstadt also left the project in 2008, the administrative reorganization failed.
The Ebringer municipal council has 12 simple members and the mayor as chairman who is also entitled to vote.
In the elections on May 26, 2019 , the trend of the elections on May 25, 2014 continued. With over 30.3% of the vote, the citizens of Ebringen achieved their best result to date in a local election and are now providing four local councils for the first time. Conversely, the CDU is now represented in the local council with only two councilors after its historically worst election result with only 18.2%. With 29.8%, only just behind the citizens for Ehaben, the women's list also achieved its historically best result, which was not reflected in an increase in mandates despite an 8% gain in votes. The newly formed citizens 'list, made up of representatives from the previous citizens' list and the perspective for Ebringen, was able to hold its three mandates, despite a total vote drop of 9% compared to the 2014 election, when they ran separately.
After the 2019 election, the proportion of women will remain at 50%. This was already achieved again with the move up of two municipal councilors in autumn 2017, after five councilors or 42% after the 2014 municipal elections. Before that, the proportion of women between 2013 and 2014 was six councilors or 50% when they moved up. In terms of age structure, after the 2019 election there was a range between those born in 1955 and 1991 compared to 1948 and 1968 after the 2014 election.
|Party / list||%
|Citizens for Bringing||30.3||4th||26.3||3||23.3||3||21.6||3||17.6||2||2||B.|
|List of women||29.8||3||21.6||3||17.2||2||18.2||2||14.6||2||1|
|Perspective for Brings||-||-||12.0||1||8.9||1||8.0||1||-||-||-||C.|
A: List candidates ran repeatedly for Free Voters in the district elections .
B: List candidates repeatedly ran for the SPD and Greens in the district elections .
C: In the 2004 and 2009 elections as FDP / DVP , the top candidate ran for the FDP in the district council elections in 2014 and 2019. In the municipal council, he joined the list of citizens, for which he was elected to the municipal council in 2019.
D: The top candidate on the list, who failed in 1999, ran successfully for the local council in 2004 for the citizens of Ehaben and for the district council for the SPD.
In the mayoral elections on March 16, 2014, incumbent Rainer Mosbach was confirmed in office with 60.6% of the votes and a voter turnout of 70.5%.
- since 2006 Rainer Mosbach
- 1990-2006 Hans-Jörg Thoma
- 1963–1990 Eugen Schüler
- 1947–1962 Otto Missbach
- 1945–1947 Max Alfons Zimmermann (again)
- 1933–1942 Josef Franz
- 19 ?? - 1933 Max Alfons Zimmermann
- 1904-19 ?? Josef Bechtold
- 1892–1904 Julius student
- 18 ?? - 1892 Alois Linsenmeier
- 1877–1880 Johann Männer
- 1860-18 ?? Sebastian student
- 1825–1860 Aloys Mayer
The community can look back on the oldest documented viticulture in the Markgräflerland . In a deed of donation from Rebland to the St. Gallen monastery, Ehaben is mentioned alongside an Openwilare: Propterea vernacula terra juris mei in loco, qui dicitur Openwilare, tradimus sancto Galloni viginti juchos, et in Eberingen unum juchum de vinea. The document is dated January 16, during the reign of the Frankish King Chilperich II , who ruled from June 715 to March 721, without a year, only a ruling King Chilperich is mentioned. The reign of Chilperich I (561-584) is ruled out because the St. Gallen monastery did not yet exist at that time. There were no other Chilperichs, so the dating can be narrowed down to the period from 716 to 721. The internal conditions of the Franconian Empire make the establishment of the charter in 720 most likely, since Chilperich II only ruled the Eastern Empire from 720 onwards, in which St. Gallen and Ehaben were located.
The neighboring towns of Pfaffenweiler and Wolfenweiler in Ebringen have long claimed to be identical to Openwilare. The research at Openwilare is based on a submerged hamlet in the northern Schneckental between the two localities.
The oldest traces of settlement in the Ebringer district can be found on the summit plateau of Schönberg. These are dated to the Neolithic Age (approx. 5000 BC).
No archaeological evidence is known from the Celtic period, but there was an estate in the Ebringer district in Roman times . In the district of Talhausen, the remains of a building from Roman times were also discovered during construction work in the 2010s. In the time of Roman rule (around from the birth of Christ to AD 260) the introduction of viticulture should therefore also fall.
Migration and Early Middle Ages
In AD 260, the Alemanni crossed the Limes . The Romans withdrew to the Rhine border, but remained politically decisive in the Breisgau area. The Alemanni founded smaller settlements. It is not only because of the name ending -ingen that Ehaben was one of the first Alemannic settlements, because in the southwestern area of the town the Alamannes are laying a larger burial ground that was used as a cemetery from around 300 to 700 AD.
First rule of St. Gallen (approx. 720-1349)
With the Christianization beginning with the incorporation of the Alamanni into the Franconian Empire, the monastery of St. Gallen has been gaining influence rapidly since it was founded in 719. This is also evidenced by the deed of donation mentioned above around the year 720, in which u. a. Ebringer Rebland is bequeathed to the monastery. The document is both the oldest written record of viticulture between Freiburg and Basel and the first real estate owned by the Sankt Gallen monastery. This marks both the beginning and the end of the Sankt Gallen monastery, as it was also the last remaining territory in 1805.
The district Talhausen is first mentioned in 817. Berghausen, which was abandoned around 1400, was first mentioned in 968.
The influence of the Prince Abbey of St. Gallen in Ehaben remained throughout the Middle Ages and early modern times until the abbey was dissolved in 1805. When the monastery was abolished, Ehaben was the last remaining domain of the monastery, and the castle was the residence of the prince abbot in exile.
After the donations in the 8th century, a Sanktgall manor developed over the three villages Ehaben, Talhausen and Berghausen. The latter, however, were parishly independent for a long time and were spiritually subordinate to the St. Trudpert Monastery in the Münstertal.
Originally, Wittnau in Hexental was the focus of the St. Gallen property administration in Breisgau, but later the monastery lost considerable influence in the High Middle Ages, which made a reorganization of the rule necessary. Presumably in the first half of the 13th century the administrative seat was relocated to Ehaben, as a document from 1250 mentions an unnamed St. Gallen provost based in Ehaben.
Aristocratic manor (1349–1621)
In the early summer of 1349, the region was ravaged by the Great Plague . Most of the monks in the monastery of St.Gallen fell victim to this. According to the sources for other places, 33–50% fatalities must also be assumed for Ehaben.
Therefore, for this reason, there was a change in the rulership in November 1349. Werner von Hornberg transferred his own property, the snow castle on Schönberg, to the prince abbey , and then received it as a fief together with the bailiwick over the St. Gallen rule in Ehaben, Talhausen and Berghausen as well as the other monastery income in Breisgau. St.Gallen may simply have lacked the staff to directly control the distant rule. Von Hornberg, in turn, needed an influential ally to fend off the claims of the Freiburg city nobility on Schönberg.
Around this time, the Habsburg sovereignty over Ehaben began. The Habsburgs extended their rule from their home lands in today's Aargau in competition with the Zähringer and later their Baden branch line northwards into the Black Forest. While the neighboring town of Wolfenweiler was under the rule of Baden, Ehaben belonged to Austria until 1803/06 . The administrative center of the Vorlande was the Alsatian Ensisheim from 1431 to the Thirty Years War .
Berghausen, located on Schönberg, was given up at the beginning of the 15th century, as was the snow castle, as the local rulers took their seat in the area of today's town hall instead. The local rule itself was mostly exercised by servants of the noble lords, as they did not reside in Ehaben.
In the following decades, the Hornbergers succeeded in de facto greatly reducing their fiefdom dependency on the monastery. Konrad von Hornberg enforced the female line of succession for his wife Benignosa von Rathsamhausen at the monastery in 1428, whereby the fief could also fall to her husband if the widow remarried.
The Lords of Staufen tried in 1457, urged by their Pfaffenweiler subjects, based on a document from 1331, to assert claims on Talhausen and Berghausen. The reason was the parish affiliation of Tal- and Berghausen to the St. Trudpert Monastery, whose patrons were the people of Staufen. But the Austrian bailiff Peter von Mörsberg decided in favor of Konrad von Hornberg.
After Benignosa's death, Hans von Hohenems married Helena von Klingenberg .
The Lords of Staufen tried again in 1478 to enforce their claim to Talhausen and Berghausen (and thus the Hohfirst ) in court for Pfaffenweiler , but the claim was rejected on all points by the court court of Ensisheim in Alsace and Ehaben with Talhausen, Berghausen and the Schneeburg as fiefs St. Gallens confirmed. In the 1480s, the Lords of Staufen therefore turned directly to Emperor Friedrich III. as the Habsburg sovereign, who referred the matter to the court of men in Breisgau responsible for feudal matters. There, too, the Staufers were unsuccessful.
During the festival on the occasion of the parish fair on August 16, 1495 there was a mass brawl of drunken participants in which a journeyman from Freiburg was killed in a fall over a bank. A few days later, more than 700 citizens of Freiburg moved to Ebringen to take revenge. Since the population had fled in the woods, the place was only looted. In addition, the city of Freiburg banned Ebringer citizens from accessing their market. The approach of Freiburg was assessed by the government of Upper Austria in Ensisheim as a breach of the peace. The dispute between Freiburg and Ebringen was then settled on October 30, 1495 with a settlement by the Austrian governor. Three atonement crosses set in a wall in the Ebringer Unterdorf remind of this parish fair.
After Sigmund's death in 1533, Ehaben passed on to his son Christoph in 1537, who died in 1559 without heirs. Christoph von Falkenstein was Imperial Councilor and President of the Upper Austrian Government in Ensisheim. Grave monuments in the parish church in Ebringen still remember Sigmund and his son. After Christoph's death the rule came to his nephew Hans Wolf von Bodman . Grave monuments in the parish church in Ebringen still remember Sigmund and his son.
During the Reformation , unlike the neighboring village of Wolfenweiler, Ehaben remained Catholic, which led to a reorganization of the parish boundaries. Before the Reformation, parts of the Ebringer Unterdorf were parishly assigned to Wolfenweiler. Now the areas of secular rule and the parish became congruent. Christoph von Falkenstein is said to have personally prevented the residents of the lower village from going to church in Wolfenweiler.
In 1584 the plague struck Ehaben.
Second rule of St. Gallen (1621–1806)
Hans Wolf von Bodmann's son, Hans Ludwig von Bodmann, sold Ebringen to Gerwig von Hohenlandsberg. From his son Hug Dietrich, the prince-abbey of Sankt Gallen acquired back the undivided rule in Ehaben in 1621. Norsingen had already fallen back under direct St. Gallen rule in 1607 . The rule of Ehaben remained formally secular. The St. Gallen governor therefore belonged to the Breisgau estates as a knight of Ehaben .
In 1629 the plague broke out in Ehaben.
In 1637 the St. Gallen authorities left Ehaben during the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War . The population had also largely fled to the Sundgau and Switzerland.
In 1640 the Freiburg city commander Friedrich Ludwig Kanoffski (1592–1645) occupied Ehaben and declared it a personal domain. He ignored all St. Gallen objections. St. Gallen and the Swiss Confederation therefore turned to the French court, which, however, initially also ignored the objections.
In June 1644 Bavarian troops conquered Freiburg, the Weimar garrison under Kanoffski received free retreat to the allied French Breisach. This also ended Kanoffski's rule over Ehaben. The place itself was now in a military no man's land between a French camp on the Batzenberg with troops waiting there for reinforcements to recapture Freiburg, and the Bohl - the strategically located western foothills of the Schönberg, directly above Ebringen, where Bavarian troops have a strong position had built.
On August 3, 1644, the French attacked the Bohl and were able to drive the Bavarians out with heavy losses. The battle near Freiburg then continued on August 5th and 9th on Schlierberg, today's Lorettoberg, on the other side of Schönberg. The days of interruption were due to the cold and damp weather and the gunpowder that had become damp.
A battle cross commemorates the Battle of the Bohl. It stands in the place of the ossuary, where the bones of the fallen, which had been scattered all over the mountain, were not buried until 30 years after the battle. The mass grave developed - not to the delight of the church - into a place of pilgrimage for the Catholic population from the surrounding area, and bones were apparently stolen as relics again and again. Since the church could not stop the pilgrimages, Ildefons von Arx , who was banished to Ebringen, finally arranged for the remaining bones of the fallen to be transported away in 1791, which slowly led to a standstill in the following decades.
After the battle of Freiburg severely weakened the French position in Breisgau - Breisach remained French - the French returned the place to St. Gallen. In 1646 the authorities returned and with them many refugees.
In 1648, shortly before the Peace of Westphalia, Ehaben was sacked again by French troops. The population fled to Todtnau .
With the Peace of Westphalia, Austria lost Alsace to France and the government of the Vorlande took its seat in Freiburg. The St. Gallen local authority established a representative office in the new administrative center with the Ebringer Hof in the Freiburg city center ("Haus zur liebe Hand").
In the decades after the Thirty Years' War, immigration from Switzerland and Tyrol took place in Ehaben as well as in the entire south-west of Germany, with which the authorities tried to compensate for the population losses.
The connection between the prince abbey of St. Gallen and the confederates was much closer than that with the empire, although it repeatedly had difficulties with the reformed Zurich . The year 1676 was then particularly unpleasant for Ehaben: In the 1670s, the abbey turned away from Austria and instead, like the rest of the Swiss Confederation, turned to France. Several thousand citizens of St. Gallen served as mercenaries in the French army, which at that time repeatedly attacked the Holy Roman Empire on the Upper Rhine with the Austrian Breisgau. In response, Emperor Leopold ordered that the rule of Ebringen, although part of Austria, be treated as "the property of a hostile sovereign". At the same time, the prince abbot was threatened with the withdrawal of his title. After the St. Gallen governor and later Prince Abbot Leodegar Bürgisser ignored the summons of the Austrian government to Freiburg, Austrian troops plundered Ehaben from October 16 to 18, 1676. The damage amounted to over 20,000 guilders. The prince abbey now leaned on Habsburg again, in contrast to the rest of the Swiss Confederation, which continued to support France.
During the French siege of Freiburg in November 1677, the Ebringer population fled and stayed away for three months. For the prince abbey, the change of side to Habsburg was not very profitable in Breisgau either, since France now ruled the region militarily and annexed Freiburg in 1679, even if the rest of Breisgau remained Habsburg. France now demanded the delivery of oaks to the value of 20,000 guilders for the expansion of the fortress of Freiburg from the Ebringer rule. For this purpose, the stately forest on the southwestern Schönberg, the Herrenbuck, was cut down. The grape harvest in 1678 was stolen by soldiers, and in 1679 the vineyards lay fallow because the place was largely deserted. Only from 1679 did the population gradually return.
In the late year 1690 the population left the place again for a few weeks because of the approach of a large French army. In the following years up to 1713 the village was repeatedly looted by French troops, even after Freiburg was returned to Austria in the summer of 1698. The ruling abbot Leodegar Bürgisser, who ruled from 1696 to 1717, therefore considered selling the unprofitable rule of Ehaben, but ultimately refrained from doing so, not least because of his conflicts with the reformed towns of the Swiss Confederation. Instead, Lukas Graß, who ruled as governor in Ehaben from 1705 to 1725, built the Ebringer Castle, today's town hall, a representative mansion of the St. Gallen rulership between 1711 and 1713.
The tensions between the Prince Abbey of St. Gallen and their rule of Toggenburg escalated and their mostly Reformed subjects declared themselves independent in the spring of 1710. The reformed places of the Confederation anticipated an intervention by Austria in favor of the prince abbot and supported the Toggenburg militarily, which led to the Toggenburg War. Prince Abbot Bürgisser fled on May 29, 1712 with the convent to Neuravensburg , an imperial territory of the monastery north of Lake Constance in the Holy Roman Empire. In July the abbot sent the Ebringer governor Lukas Grass to Vienna to - unsuccessfully - ask the Austrian government for military help to restore the monastery. 25 citizens of Ebringen used the catastrophic overall political situation for the monastery and the absence of the governor to file a lawsuit against the St. Gallen rulers at the Upper Austrian estate court regarding the rights of rulers against their subjects. The municipal bailiff was officially neutral. However, governor Grass showed himself to be uncompromising in the matter, which dragged on for more than two years, and won the trial, which was temporarily interrupted due to the war.
In the early autumn of 1713, towards the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, a large French army besieged Freiburg for seven weeks. As was customary at the time, the troops plundered the surrounding area. Only the new mansion was spared in Ehaben. The rulers had bought themselves free from the plunder through a Sauvegarde . The population fled again, u. a. to Bartenheim in the Alsatian Sundgau .
In 1714 the estate court finally decided the action in favor of the prince abbey and the citizens of Ebringen had to acknowledge serfdom in a declaration of submission to the prince abbey. Grass also received the right of first instance ( iudicium primae instantiae ) of the manorial system, which is common in Breisgau, from the Austrian rulership . Thus, all disputes between Ebringer citizens and the manorial rule initially became an inner-Sanctuary affair and had to be negotiated before a Sankt Gallen court. The Upper Austrian Estates Court confirmed the declaration of submission on January 24th, 1715. After this success in Breisgau, the abbey was able to reach an acceptable peace agreement in the Toggenburg War after the death of Abbot Bürgisser in 1717. In 1718 her rule in Eastern Switzerland was restored, so that the Ebringen Castle, which was only finally completed in 1718, did not have to serve as the exile residence of the convent.
In the following three decades, a relative calm returned, in which the place recovered. In 1742, the village pastor Joseph Benedikt Müller, who was transferred from Weisstannen to Ebringen by the abbey of St. Gallen, introduced compulsory schooling in Ehaben, as in his previous parish. In 1744 French troops besieged under the personal command of King Louis XV. Freiburg again as part of the War of the Austrian Succession . French cavalry quartered themselves in the rooms of the residential buildings, whose residents had to move to the granaries under the roofs. Although there were practically no attacks on the civilian population, the sticks from the vineyards were used for heating. When the St. Gallen abbot Coelestin Gugger von Staudach received homage from his Ebringer subjects in 1745, the desolate condition of the vineyards was mentioned.
In 1748 the chapel, which still stands today, was built in the area of the former Berghausen settlement.
This was followed by a relatively peaceful period that lasted a good four decades until the French Revolution , which was also reflected in a significant increase in population. During this time Austria tried to expand its rule over the landlords. The centralization as well as the reforms of Emperor Joseph in Breisgau met with resistance from the local estates until the end of the Habsburg rule, including in Ehaben.
On July 1, 1782, the regional president of Upper Austria, Johann Adam von Posch , abolished the rights of the landlords to the first instance in legal matters and replaced them with the rights of the Upper Austrian land. On December 20, 1782, serfdom was also revoked in Upper Austria. This largely disempowered the manor and the declaration of submission from 1714 was practically repealed. However, the rulers were still entitled to 62.5% of the local tax revenue, compared to 37.5% for the rulers.
In 1788/89, Prince Abbot Beda Angehrn transferred the four opposing monks Pankraz Vorster , Ildefons von Arx, Gerald Brandenberg and Ambrosius Epp to Ehaben, which meant that they were politically excluded due to the great distance.
Vorster acquired the Untere Schönberger Hof for the monastery and established a lucrative dairy farm in the Bethlehem area above today's Ebringen district of Tyrol.
In 1792, Father Ildefons von Arx wrote the first Ebring village chronicle with the title History of the Ehaben rulership , which was supplemented and completely edited several times in the following decades up to 1860 for the period 1792–1860.
In 1795 Beatus Schumacher, who had been governor in St. Gallen until then, was transferred to Ehaben as governor due to mismanagement. He was also deprived of his power over the economic affairs of the property in Ehaben.
In 1796 Ildefons von Arx had forty young Ebringer women evacuated to Switzerland for fear of being raped by an approaching French army. The young women soon returned to Ehaben. In the same year Pankraz Vorster reconciled himself with the prince abbot and went back to St. Gallen, where he was elected the new prince abbot on June 1st after Angehrn's death. In September 1796 von Arx also returned to St. Gallen.
In 1798/99 the secular rule of the St. Gallen Monastery in Switzerland collapsed, but the monastery kept its assets. The secular rule of the prince abbey was then limited to New Ravensburg and the rule of Ehaben in the Holy Roman Empire.
The Sanktgaller Konvent fled to Ehaben and the Ebringen Castle became the royal residence in exile, even if Prince Abbot Pankraz Vorster only stayed in Ehaben from August 1801.
In the years 1800 and 1801 there were civil unrest in Ehaben as well, but this was not directed against the authorities.
In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, the prince abbey of St. Gallen was able to keep its already indirect possessions in Ehaben and Norsingen, but lost Neu-Ravensburg, which was directly part of the Reich. Ehaben and Norsingen were the last remaining territories of the prince abbey. Prince Abbot Vorster, who had left Ehaben on June 4, 1803, returned to Ehaben on October 8 of the same year.
On May 8, 1805, the canton of St. Gallen also dissolved the St. Gallen monastery and confiscated its possessions. The liquidation plan provided for the sale of the monastery's possessions and lords outside the canton. Initially, the canton was not able to implement this decision in Ehaben. When the third coalition war broke out on September 26, 1805, Pankraz Vorster finally left Ebringen and fled to Austrian Slavonia via Innsbruck and Zagreb. In 1806 he still unsuccessfully demanded that the canton grant the right to lifelong rule and an annual pension of 4,000 guilders from Vienna.
After the Habsburg rule in Breisgau was finally ended in 1806 and the newly formed Grand Duchy of Baden took its place, the canton of St. Gallen was able to take possession of Ehaben that same year. Baden had - not least in order not to further burden the tense relationship with Switzerland - recognized St. Gallen's claims to Ehaben, while it immediately confiscated other manors in Breisgau after it took over on April 15, 1806.
In January 1807, the canton of Ehaben and Norsingen sold it for 140,000 guilders to Margraves Friedrich and Ludwig von Baden, who transferred them to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1809. As a result, Ezüge had become politically insignificant - not to the detriment of its residents.
In family law it was customary until the end of the rule of St. Gallen that wives kept their maiden names for life, but legitimate children were given the father's surname. Property deeds, parish registers, the census of 1792 and Ildefons von Arx in his chronicle always mention wives and widows by their maiden name; for example in the census of 1792, where Verena Weislämle is mentioned several times as the owner of houses without any reference to her second husband, Hofrat Ruttershausen. Only the title “Hofratin” refers to her husband, who was the most influential local St. Gallen official at the time. Widows are listed in the census without reference to previous spouses whose last names can only be deduced from those of their children. Accordingly, wives had an independent position as legal subjects vis-à-vis their husbands when it came to property issues, which was also reflected in their names.
List of governors of the S. Gallen lordship of Ehaben
Prince Abbot of St. Gallen
- 1801–1805 Pankraz Vorster (Ebringen is the exile residence of the prince abbot)
St. Gallen governor
1807 to 1918
The grape harvests from 1813 to 1817 were all of low yield and in 1816/17 also of very poor quality, which correlates well with the famine that raged throughout Europe during the year without summer in 1816/17 . From the 1820s, there was a strong emigration to America. In the village itself, the bourgeoisie began to emancipate themselves. In the 1830s the mayor (until 1832 the official title of the village chief was Vogt ) succeeded in gaining the upper hand in a dispute with the village pastor Martin Walser and in 1838 in the ordinariate to have the pastor recalled.
On June 15, 1847, the Rhine Valley Railway to Schliengen was opened and with it, presumably, also the stop on the Wolfenweiler district, which was already planned for 1845 and which was later named Ehaben.
At the time of the Baden Revolution , political debating clubs sprang up all over Baden. a. disguised as choral societies. The founding of the men's choir Ehaben (MGV) in 1847 should also be seen under this aspect. After the revolution was suppressed by Prussian troops, the MGV suffered the fate of many other associations founded around 1848: It was banned and was only allowed to be re-established more than a decade and a half later.
Julius Schüler (1850–1914), Mayor from 1892 to 1904, was a member of the Baden Landtag for the Catholic German Center Party from 1891 to 1913 and a member of the German Reichstag for the Offenburg / Kehl constituency from 1900 to 1912 .
In 1912 Ebringen was connected to the power grid.
1919 to 1933
In the Reichtag election on July 31, 1932, which brought the NSDAP's best result in Germany before 1933 , 69.9% of the votes went to the center, 28.9% to the NSDAP, 1.3% to the SPD, 0.6 % on the DNVP / CVP and 0.4% on the KPD .
Nazi rule and World War II 1933–1945
Mining on Schönberg made an important contribution to the development of the village. A miners' settlement with 24 houses for 48 families, which is still in existence today, was built for the southern field in Ehaben. This influx from the Rhineland in 1936 and 1937 had an impact on the social structure of the place, which was previously almost exclusively agricultural. This was made more difficult by the fact that farmers had been expropriated in order to be able to build the settlement on their land. The simpler accommodations for 150 other single miners have now completely disappeared. The iron ore extracted at Schönberg was transported to Sankt Georgen by cable car and loaded there for rail traffic. The mining was operated from 1937 to 1942 and then abandoned because of the low productivity and quality. However, the systems and shafts were maintained until 1957 for the purpose of a possible resumption of mining.
In 1938, an unheated outdoor pool with swimmers and non-swimmers pools opened in the previous year in the Talhausen district. It was fed by the Nussbach and was named after its builder, the mayor Josef Franz, Franz-Josef-Bad. The basin was damaged by hand grenades in 1945 and has not been used since. The site has been used for residential development since the 1970s, so nothing of the basin is visible today.
In 1937/38, 211 parcels of land on the mountain mats of Schönberg were bought up by a middleman for the German Reich and a military training area was set up for the Schlageter barracks located on the site of today's Freiburg district of Vauban , which was used by the French occupation troops and the German police after the war was continued to be used. It operated until the early 1990s. In 1995 the municipality of Ebringen bought the area with state aid from the Federal Republic of Germany as the legal successor to the German Reich and rededicated it as a nature reserve .
Between 1939 and 1945, 84 Ebringen citizens died as a result of the immediate effects of the war, mainly as soldiers in the Wehrmacht, the majority in the last year of the war. While the men and sons had moved in, forced laborers and prisoners of war were used as helpers on farms . They came at least from France , Poland and the Soviet Union , and perhaps from other countries as well. The prisoners of war from France and Russia employed in the mining industry were never housed in Ehaben, but in a camp in Sankt Georgen.
On April 22, 1945, after a small exchange of fire with an external popular storm, Ehaben was occupied by French troops (some of them Moroccans ). On the morning of that day, several of the four railway bridges had been blown up, which was not a problem for the French approaching from Wolfenweiler. A branch of the Breisach town hall was located in Ehaben.
The church bells that were brought to Karlsruhe to be melted down on April 20, 1942 , could be retrieved undamaged from the storage area after the war.
In 1951 Max Schüler (1904-95) initiated the founding of the winegrowers' cooperative Ehaben and played a key role in tackling the land consolidation of the Ebringer vineyards, since the underdevelopment of real estate, retaining walls and outdated grape varieties would otherwise lead to the decline of viticulture due to a no longer competitive economy was foreseeable.
The serial killer Heinrich Pommerenke committed his fourth murder of a woman in 1959, whose body he knocked out of the train when he braked at the level of the Ezüge station in the Wolfenweiler district after he had stabbed her to death during the night's journey.
During the term of office of Mayor Eugen Schüler (1963–90), the land consolidations of the three Ebringer vineyards (1964–74), which gave the Ebring landscape a completely new face. The lower part of the station path there fell victim to the re-laying on the Winterberg. The wayside shrines in small chapels have since stood in the vineyard without any direct connection. The old station path is only preserved in its upper part.
On January 1, 1975, as part of the regional reform, Ebringen was incorporated into Schallstadt-Wolfenweiler together with Mengen . Ehaben became Schallstadt-Wolfenweiler 4. The name Ehaben disappeared from official documents, but a competition was held for a new name for the entire community, in which the name “Weingau” was the winner.
Even before the incorporation was completed, Ehaben lodged an objection with the State Court of Baden-Württemberg , as it had only approved the incorporation contract on the premise that Pfaffenweiler would also join the new community as a whole. Pfaffenweiler , however, remained independent. The mayor of Schallstadt-Wolfenweiler, Oskar Hanselmann, was appointed local administrator until the legal dispute was resolved. On February 6, 1976, the Baden-Württemberg State Court declared the incorporation of Ebringen null and void and the municipality regained its political independence.
Ehaben remained Catholic during the Reformation. Since the lower village belonged to the Wolfenweiler parish at that time, which changed denominations, the parish boundaries were reorganized in 1564. In 1858, 100% of the population was nominally Catholic. Only towards the end of the 19th century was there an influx of people of other denominations. In 1925, 97.6% Catholics were 2.4% Protestants. In 1970 the number of nominal Catholics was 83.4% against 13.5% Protestants and 3% other.
When the parishes were restructured in 2014, the archbishop's ordinariate stated the number of registered Catholics as 55% of the population. If the trend continues, the number of Catholics can therefore be expected to fall below 50% by 2019.
A population of 560 is recorded for 1574. Although outbreaks of the plague in 1584 and 1629 reduced the population noticeably, the number increased to 730 inhabitants by 1722 due to immigration. The population also increased significantly in the further 18th century. As early as 1735, 809 and then 873 residents were counted in 1757. In 1792 the population exceeded the 1000-inhabitant mark for the first time. The census carried out by the St. Gallen lordship also records 148 residential buildings. In the district of Talhausen 60 inhabitants were counted. In the first half of the 19th century, the number of inhabitants fell to just over 900 people due to emigration and epidemics and then commuted between 900 and a little over 1000 people by 1930. With the construction of the mine in the 1930s, an influx of over 200 people began. At the end of the 1950s the place had over 1500 inhabitants and at the end of the 1980s the mark of 2000 inhabitants was exceeded.
According to the 2011 census , exactly 2,746 people lived in Ebringen on May 9, 2011.
coat of arms
Today's coat of arms is evidenced in a similar form by the bailiff's seal on a document from 1471 and connects the turned away black hunting horns ( horns ) from the Hornberg coat of arms with a vine and a vine knife . In 1811 the municipality had a coat of arms with a vine, which they presented to the General State Archives in 1898 so that they could continue to use it. However, the General State Archives submitted the proposal to the municipality to use the coat of arms from 1471. Ten years later, Ezüge put this proposal into practice. In 1966, the handle of the vine knife on the coat of arms was colored red, which stands for Ebringen's affiliation to Upper Austria . Since then, the municipality has also been allowed to use the flag colors blue / gold (yellow).
Berghauser Chapel of St. Trudpert
The village of Berghausen was south of the Kienbergsattel. A bull from Pope Lucius II from 1144/45 states that Berghausen had a parish church that was subject to a tithing of the St. Trudpert monastery . Since the seven farms that made up the village could hardly support a pastor, the two parishes Berghausen and Ehaben were merged in 1526. An unknown master builder built today's chapel in 1748. There is a small hermitage next to the chapel. For a long time the pilgrimage to Mary of the Good Council was of regional importance. The representation of Mary can be found in the left side altar. Since 1751 there has been a station trail with seven stations that begins at the cemetery in Ehaben. In 1979 the chapel was renovated outside and in 1984/85 inside. In 1989 the Jäger & Brommer organ workshop in Waldkirch installed a new organ in the baroque case. Today the chapel is often used for weddings and was the main location of the 2012 film Jesus Loves Me .
- Ehaben Castle , built 1711–13 as the residence of the St. Gallen governors, today the town hall
- Catholic parish church of St. Gallus and Otmar
- Snow castle ruins
Monuments and landmarks
- Hohebannstein (district stone in the Hohfirstwald, which is bordered by the five communities of Bollschweil , Ehaben, Ehrenkirchen , Pfaffenweiler and Schallstadt ; there is now a replica on site, the original stone is in the Pfaffenweiler village museum)
- Battle cross Battle of Freiburg in the Thirty Years' War between Bavaria and the French on August 3, 1644 at Schönberg - in memory of the first day of the
- Olympiabrunnen / Nepomukbrunnen 1936 Summer Olympics , contains an image of St. Nepomuk and an older sandstone trough addition to the Olympic rings , inaugurated in the year of the
- Scharretenacker (Alemannic burial ground) - According to the excavations, the Alemannic burial ground in the south-west of Ebringen was in use between 300 and 700 AD, i.e. until the time Ebringen was first mentioned in a document. It was rediscovered in the 19th century. After 1990, on the one hand the bypass road of the village was led through the middle of the burial ground, on the other hand the industrial area was built on it in the eastern part.
- Schönberggipfel - The summit plateau of Schönberg housed a Neolithic settlement.
- Jennetal (nature reserve) - The special thing about the Jennetal nature reserve with the “Sumser Garten” is its variety of native orchid species. A large part of the orchid species growing in Germany can be found in a unique variety in the Ebringer district. The Sumsergarten is opened to the public by volunteer conservationists on weekends during the flowering period.
- A second nature reserve is the Berghauser Matten , in which the Berghauser Chapel is located.
Culture, society and sport
Ebringen's original Alemannic dialect is part of High Alemannic . In the meantime the dialect has largely given way to a more or less strongly Lower Alemannic colloquial language. As usual in the Freiburg area, the Alemannic dialect in its original form has an extremely low social prestige and its speakers are exposed to numerous open or subtle discrimination.
The dialect has almost completely disappeared among the under twenty-year-olds and the colloquial language only contains a few bits of dialect, as the dialect is hardly ever passed on to children.
Every year, the Ebringer Carnival and the popular Narreblättli give a good impression of the decline of the Alemannic dialect.
The colloquial language of the older local residents, which is even more dialectical, usually prefers the diphthonged variants, which are related to Swabian, to the monophthonged variants (e.g. mei, dei, be in the possessive pronoun instead of mi, di, si ) and uses the Swabian -le in the diminutive instead of the Alemannic -li form.
In the 1990s the community also Germanized Alemannic collective names and z. B. renamed the Winning Schluch to Hose . Only the Fränzliweg in Jungholzwald is an exception here and uses the correct Alemannic diminutive.
- Ebringer Shrovetide
- Dirty Dunnschdig with Hemmglunkiumzug
- Fasnetfridig with a Juckihu party by Guggemusik Gässlifätzer Ebringen
- Fasnetsamschdig with the Ebringer Narreobend
- Carnival time with the carnival procession
- Fasnetzischdig with the Ebringer Kinderfasnet and the evening Fasnetverbrennig
- Ebringer Wine Days (annually on the 3rd weekend in August) in historic cellars and courtyards
- Wine and sparkling wine festival (annually on the 3rd weekend in July) around the Ebringer Castle
- Christmas market (annually on the 3rd Advent) around the Ebringer Castle
- Schönberg School (elementary school)
- Kindergarten Ehaben
Charitable associations / organizations
- Malteser Aid Service, local group Ebringen
- Youth fire brigade Ehaben
- Working group Ebringer village history in the Breisgau history association Schau-ins-Land e. V.
- Working group culture and nature in Ehaben e. V.
- Catholic church choir Ehaben
- Male choir Ehaben 1847 e. V.
- Musikverein Ehaben e. V.
- Musisches Zentrum Ehaben e. V.
- Traditional costume group Ehaben
Sports and games clubs
- Football club Ehaben
- Motorclub Ehaben e. V.
- Cycling club "Wanderlust" Ehaben e. V.
- Schachclub Ehaben e. V.
- Gymnastics Club Ehaben e. V.
Mardi Gras guilds
- Guggemüsig Gässlifätzer Ehaben e. V.
- Klämlediebeel Ehaben
- Castle witches Ehaben e. V.
Economy and Infrastructure
The viticulture dominated with just one square kilometer acreage to agricultural use in Ebringen. According to information from the Badischer Weinbauverband , the cultivated varieties, the so-called variety mirror , amounted to : 33% Pinot Noir , 29% Gutedel , 21% Müller-Thurgau , 4% Nobling , 3% White Burgundy , 3% Ruländer , 7% other varieties such as Noble varieties or new breeds including Dornfelder , Gewürztraminer , Merzling , Muskateller , Chardonnay , Regent , Riesling , Bronner . Since then, the weights have shifted. The Nobling variety was z. B. 2008 below 1% and the variety Freisamer is no longer grown.
Ehaben is connected to the L 125 / B3 with its bypass road (K 4953). The city center of Freiburg can be reached by car in around 15 minutes, the Haid industrial park in around 6 minutes. A community road leads to Wittnau over the Schönberg. The bypass road, including its continuation as a community connecting road to Wittnau, is called "K66" in the place according to the original planning designation. The official name has not prevailed.
The closest motorway is the A5 / E35 . The connection to the north is Freiburg-Mitte, to the south Freiburg-Süd.
The Markgräfler Radwanderweg and the Freiburg-Mulhouse long-distance cycle route lead through Ehaben. The ascent of the bypass road to the Berghauser Kapelle is popular for racing cyclists (mountain classification of the German Road Cycling Championships 2004).
Ehaben belongs to the regional transport association Freiburg . The DB stop Ehaben on the Rheintalbahn is in the Wolfenweiler district. It is operated every hour from Monday to Friday and every two hours on weekends as part of the integrated cycle traffic in Baden-Württemberg.
In Freiburg (travel time approx. 10 minutes), since the 2006/07 timetable change, there have usually been transfers of around 30 minutes to long-distance Deutsche Bahn services.
With the bus you can reach the eight stops densely-developed over the line 7240 Freiburg-Bad Krozingen / Staufen. During the day on working days there is a half-hourly service between Ebringen and Freiburg with further intensification during peak times, in the evenings and on Saturdays and to Bad Krozingen and Staufen there is an hourly service, on Sundays and public holidays there is an hourly service during the day and a two-hour service during off-peak times.
The closest international airport is Basel-Mulhouse Airport , about 50 km south-southwest of Ehaben.
- Eugen Schüler, Mayor from 1963 to 1990 (1922–2012, honorary citizen since 1991)
- Otto Goldschmidt (1918–2013, honorary citizen since 2002)
Sons and daughters of the church
- Julius Schüler (1850–1914), mayor, member of the Reichstag and Landtag
- Alois Herth , 1853–1937, member of the state parliament, mayor of Furtwangen 1903–1919, honorary citizen of Furtwangen
- Franz Sales Kuhn (1864–1938), architect, honorary citizen of the city of Heidelberg
- Natascha Thoma-Widmann (* 1971), German Wine Queen 1997/98
- Georg von Wildenstein († 1379), 1360–1379 prince abbot of the St. Gallen monastery , is mentioned for the first time in 1347 as provost of Ehaben.
- Gallus Alt (1610–1687), 1654–1687 prince abbot of the St. Gallen monastery, was governor from 1645 to 1650.
- Pankraz Vorster (1753–1829), last prince abbot (1796–1805) of the St. Gallen monastery, transferred to Ehaben from 1788 to 1796, 1801–1805 as a prince abbot mostly in exile.
- Ildefons von Arx (1755–1833), father of the St. Gallen monastery, archivist and historian, exiled to Ehaben from 1788–96, wrote the first Ebring village chronicle.
- Hermann Oechsler (1849–1930), Catholic. Theologian and pastor, honorary doctorate from the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, pastor from 1898–1930 in Ehaben and buried there.
- Norbert Ruf (1933–2012), Catholic clergyman and canon lawyer, pastor from 1961 to 1965, and from 1965 to 1969 parish administrator in Ehaben
- Manfred Hermann (1937–2011), pastor and art historian, pastor from 1979 to 2006, then retired until his death in Ehaben and buried there.
- Ariel Hukporti (* 2002), professional basketball player
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