Baden meeting of estates

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The Ständehaus in Karlsruhe
Seal mark of the second chamber of the Baden state estates

The Baden Estates Assembly was the parliament of the Grand Duchy of Baden that existed until 1918 . It was established on the basis of the constitutional charter of August 22, 1818 and opened on April 22, 1819. It was "divided into two chambers" in accordance with Section 26 of the Baden Constitution . The two chambers met in Karlsruhe Palace until 1822 , after which they moved into the newly built estate in the royal seat of Karlsruhe .

The Second Chamber was better known to the public because it was considered the most liberal and influential chamber parliament of the German Confederation before the March Revolution of 1848 .

The first chamber

Prince Wilhelm of Baden around 1830

The first chamber , the so-called upper house , existed according to § 27 of the constitution:

1. from the princes of the grand ducal house,
2. from the heads of the noble families,
3. the regional bishop and a Protestant clergyman with the rank of prelate appointed by the Grand Duke for life,
4. from eight members of the manorial nobility,
5. from two members of the state universities,
6. From the persons appointed by the Grand Duke as members of this Chamber regardless of their status or birth.

Although the First Chamber was partly made up of prominent opposition politicians, Karl von Rotteck initially represented the University of Freiburg , but overall the Chamber's public impact was limited, in particular because the Grand Duke's right of appointment in the Chamber always allowed the majority ratios desired by the government could be produced.

The first president was Prince Wilhelm von Baden (1819–1858), the first vice-president was Karl Egon II zu Fürstenberg .

The second chamber

The 63 members of the Second Chamber were initially elected for eight years. A quarter of the MPs were re-elected every two years, and every MP was re-elected. On April 22, 1819, the first state parliament opened a session of 31 sessions (→ see also the list of members of the Baden Estates Assembly, 1819 ). From 1904 the electoral term was four years, and from then on the people elected the MPs directly; In addition, their number was increased to 73.

Karl Friedrich Nebenius
Welcker 1848 (lithograph after a drawing by Valentin Schertle)
Contemporary representation of a session of the Second Chamber in 1845

The period from 1819 to 1831

The oppositional significance of the Second Chamber of the Assembly of Estates beyond Baden was also a result of the comparatively permissive right to vote. The election to the Second Chamber took place in a two-stage mode via electors , whereby neither the primary voters nor the electors were subject to special restrictions, so that all male citizens aged 26 and over who were registered as citizens in an electoral district had the right to vote . Although women and all men without full community citizenship were eliminated, including typically all servants, journeymen or workers, around 70% of the male population were able to take part in the elections without restriction, especially after the protection of citizenship was revoked in 1831. The entry barriers were higher for the right to stand as candidates, but the free choice of candidates outside of the electoral district also greatly increased the possibility of electing popular MPs outside of their hometown.

The budget law of the Second Chamber of the Assembly of Estates was of particular importance . In addition, the constitution drafted by Karl Friedrich Nebenius stipulated that the consent of both chambers was required for all laws that concerned “the freedom of the person or the property of citizens”.

Overall, the constitution offered comparatively extensive opportunities for oppositional influence at the time. In addition, there was a number of important liberal and democratic opposition politicians that began before 1830, including Johann Adam von Itzstein , Karl von Rotteck and Carl Theodor Welcker, and in the 1840s Friedrich Daniel Bassermann , Friedrich Hecker , Alexander von Soiron , Adolf Sander and Karl Mathy , what Metternich arranged to find “undeniably the most pronounced demagogues in Germany” in the Baden Second Chamber. The Second Chamber is also a relevant milestone for Catholic social policy because of the “ factory speech ” given by Joseph von Buß on April 25, 1837 . The factory speech is often referred to as the first socio-political speech before a German parliament.

Initially, however, the first session of the Second Chamber was strongly influenced by the policy of the German Confederation , which, as a result of the Karlovy Vary resolutions, was characterized by a fundamental restriction of civil liberties and a strengthening of the monarchical governments. In 1825, the constitution of the Grand Duchy was changed in favor of the government.

The winter era

It was not until 1831, after Winter was appointed Minister of the Interior of Baden , that the Assembly of Estates was able to set the first liberal accents, for which the parliament in the German Confederation was known as “the real school of pre-March liberalism”. attained. On the one hand, the opposition of the Reform Landtag of 1831, consisting mainly of civil servants and therefore often referred to as Privy Council liberalism, brought the government to withdraw the constitutional amendment of 1825 and thus gained a reputation as a defender of the constitution. In several laws that called peasant emancipation abolition of the remaining feudal rights as followed Fronen and tithes and a liberalization of municipal codes. The press law, which abolished previous censorship , was also of particular importance . Under pressure from Austria and Prussia, this law had to be withdrawn in 1832 and from then on formed one of the main points of contention between the opposition and the government.

The liberal catalog of demands was completed in 1831 by the Welcker motion , which for the first time publicly called for the establishment of a representative body in the Bundestag and which is thus in line with Bassermann's later motions and ultimately with the Frankfurt National Assembly .

The Blittersdorf era

After his death in winter 1838, Foreign Minister Blittersdorf gained considerable influence on Baden politics. Only now could the conservative-reactionary tendency that had prevailed in the German Confederation since 1833 after the Hambach Festival and the Frankfurt Wachensturm also have its full effect in the Grand Duchy. Blittersdorf tried to limit the influence of the Second Chamber by strengthening the First Chamber and the powers of the German Confederation. In addition, he tried above all to discipline the opposition civil servants and to commit them to government policy. In doing so, Blittersdorf took no account of the political mood in Baden and thus poisoned the domestic political climate lastingly.

The pressure of the government generated greater efforts among the opposition, so that the election campaign of 1842 was conducted with an unprecedented harshness and politicization of the population. Grand Duke Leopold was involved in the dispute, which damaged his public image. The reprimanding of the civil servants represented in the Second Chamber provoked the formation of a political camp, in which large parts of the population showed solidarity with the opposition and called on them to defend the constitution with supportive petitions and thank-you addresses. The celebrations for the twenty-fifth anniversary of the constitution in 1843 led to a large number of large-scale demonstrations against the Blittersdorf government throughout the country.

See also: List of the members of the Baden Estates Assembly 1842

The governments of Nebenius, Boeckh and Bekk

Johann Baptist Bekk
Karl Mathy, 1842 (lithograph)

In 1843, as part of the vacation dispute , in which the Baden government wanted to refuse public officials who had been elected to the Second Chamber for the opposition and thus the exercise of their mandate, the government budget was rejected and, with the first parliamentary motion of censure, forced the Germans History of the resignation of the conservative ministry under Blittersdorf. Indeed, Nebenius was appointed Minister of the Interior and, in 1844, Nebenius' companion Boeckh, Minister of State, but there was no short-term policy change. When the opposition was able to achieve a clear majority in the elections of 1845/46 and the political mood was intensified by the dispute over German Catholicism , the monarch finally had to choose between tightening the course and giving in. Leopold, advised by Joseph von Radowitz , opted for a more liberal position in December 1846 and appointed Johann Baptist Bekk as Minister of the Interior and Minister of State. In December 1846, against many expectations, Bekk secured the acceptance of the government budget by the Second Chamber, which, however, set in motion the splitting of the previously uniform opposition into a liberal wing around Welcker and a radical wing that was not willing to compromise, with Itzstein as a leader.

On February 12, 1848, Bassermann, referring to his comparable motion from 1844 ( "Bassermann Motion" ) and Welcker's motion from 1831, demanded a representation at the Bundestag in Frankfurt am Main, elected by the people . This demand was one of the factors that triggered the March Revolution in Germany and, via the Heidelberg Assembly and the Pre-Parliament, finally led to the first freely elected parliament for Germany, the Frankfurt National Assembly .

The Second Chamber in the Baden Revolution

As part of the Baden Revolution , the dissolution of the assembly of the estates was one of the three demands of the revolutionaries, which were brought to the Bekk government after the mutiny of the Rastatt garrison on May 13, 1849. The following day, the revolutionaries around Amand Goegg and Lorenz Brentano took over government. On May 17, the state committee ordered the dissolution of both chambers. Instead, the election of a constituent assembly was scheduled, which first met on June 10th. After the uprising was put down by Prussian troops, the old constitution was restored.

After the revolution

After the suppression of the revolution, 23 revolutionaries were executed throughout Baden, but most of the main leaders of the uprising had fled abroad. Despite the occupation by the Prussian Army and the appointment of a conservative ministry under Friedrich Klüber , the backlash in the political arena was comparatively mild. The democratic and liberal standpoints were no longer in demand among the population for the time being, and freedom and comprehensive civil rights were out of the question for the time being. The election results were accordingly. The representatives of liberalism, such as Georg Gottfried Gervinus , were also bullied by petty trials. Nevertheless, Baden remained a constitutional state and, with a few exceptions, the bureaucracy remained in the hands of the old civil servants. The economic hardship of the 1850s was alleviated by emigration, especially among the lower classes, which further preserved the political situation and ensured corresponding majorities in the assembly of estates. It was only in the course of the Austro-Italian War of 1859 that there were again significant political debates beyond daily politics. The rifts now ran between supporters of the small German solution , who sought rapid unification of Germany under Prussian leadership, and supporters of the greater German solution , who supported Austria and were often anti-Prussian.

Another relevant topic was the disputes between the Grand Duchy and the Catholic Church . This dispute led to the formation of a liberal government in 1860 with significant participation by members of the Second Chamber and the leadership of Anton von Stabel . Significantly influenced by Franz von Roggenbach , the government initiated a change of course and brought its working method closer to that of a democratic parliament by shaping politics together with the majority of the Second Chamber of the Estates Assembly.

This only changed again in the course of the political disputes between Prussia and Austria in 1866. After the government resigned as a result of the defeat in the war of 1866 , Grand Duke Karl Mathy appointed President of the State Ministry. Mathy, feared as a leftist as a member of the Chamber of Commerce in the 1840s, with the support of his Minister of the Interior Julius Jolly , returned to a more governmental mode of government that observed the rule of law, but did not make any particular effort to accommodate the wishes of the Second Chamber. Accordingly, the Second Chamber vehemently and ultimately successfully called for laws on freedom of the press and ministerial responsibility. The constitutional amendments of the Mathy government in 1867 and 1868 gave the Assembly of Estates the right to initiate legislation and the right to prosecute ministers . The Second Chamber was also given the right to choose its own President. In 1904 the electoral term was shortened to four years.


When dividing the electoral districts, the aim was not - as is the case today - to achieve the same number of eligible voters per deputy, but the economic importance for the state budget determined the division of the electoral districts. The 63 MPs (22 from the city electoral districts and 41 from the electoral districts) represented the economically prosperous parts of the country more strongly due to the division of the electoral districts.

A list of the electoral districts can be found in the lists of the members of the Baden Estates Assembly (e.g. list of the members of the Baden Estates Assembly 1842 ).

City electoral districts

When dividing the electoral districts, 14 cities were initially given a special status. Karlsruhe and Mannheim each had three members, Heidelberg, Freiburg, Pforzheim and Lahr two each. Überlingen, Konstanz, Offenburg, Rastatt, Baden-Baden, Durlach, Bruchsal and Wertheim each elected one member, so that in the 14 municipal electoral districts a total of 22 members were chosen.

According to § 35 of the electoral code, the number of deputies was determined “taking into account partly their commercial importance, partly their previous circumstances, partly and especially considering their greater contribution to the indirect taxes…” .

Electoral districts

The country outside the city electoral districts was divided into 41 office electoral districts, each with a representative. Section 34 of the election regulations stated that the determination should be made “with consideration for the direct tax burden of the various offices” .

Fractions in the Second Chamber until 1870

Political parties in the modern sense did not develop until after 1860. Until then, the two basic currents of a conservative or liberal sentiment of the MPs can essentially be distinguished. Conservative attitudes generally conformed to the government policy of the existing state, while liberal attitudes went hand in hand with a more or less pronounced oppositional attitude. Even in the early years of the Baden parliament, parliamentary groups were formed in the second chamber. From 1831 to the revolutionary year 1848, the following parliamentary groups were formed:

Election year Resolute
Indifferent Moderate
Total number
of seats
1831 18th 15th 20th 6th 4th   63
1833 18th 16 19th 5 5   63
1835 18th 15th 14th 9 7th   63
1837/38 17th 13 15th 10 8th   63
1839/40 17th 12 15th 12 7th   63
1841/42 17th 11 13 14th 8th   63
1842 22nd 9 4th 19th 9   63
1843/45 22nd 9 1 22nd 9   63
1845/46 22nd 12 1 20th 8th   63
1846 28 10 2 13 7th 3 63
1847/49 25th 12 2 13 8th 3 63
28 16 4th 6th 5 4th 63
1848 (December) 30th 14th 4th 6th 5 4th 63

Due to the events of the third uprising in Baden as part of the German Revolution , the meeting of the estates broke up de facto on May 14, 1849. On June 3, 1849, the men of Baden who were eligible to vote voted on the composition of a constituent state assembly in accordance with the election regulations of the German National Assembly . The activities of the Baden Constituent Assembly from 1849 were limited to the short period from June 10th to June 30th, 1849.

From 1850 to the unification of the German Empire in 1871, the composition of the Second Chamber was as follows:

Election year Democrats liberal Moderate
Indifferent Moderate
conservative Ultramontane
Total number
of seats
1850/51   24 10 7th 8th 8th 6th 63
1851/52   21st 9 8th 7th 10 8th 63
1854   18th 9 13 6th 10 7th 63
1855/56   25th 8th 13 4th 7th 6th 63
1857/58   29 7th 12 4th 6th 5 63
1859/60   37 5 6th 4th 4th 7th 63
1861/63   49 3 3 2 3 3 63
1863/65   53 2 2 2 1 3 63
1865/66 20th 39 1 2     1 63
1867/68 3 57       1 2 63
1869/70 2 55       1 5 63

The assembly of estates from 1870 to 1918

In 1870 the constituency of the Second Chamber was revised and universal and equal suffrage was introduced. In 1904 the direct right to vote was introduced. The composition of the First Chamber also changed. Representatives of the professional bodies, members of the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Agriculture and the Chamber of Crafts were accepted. The cooperation of National Liberals , Democrats and Social Democrats in the large bloc since 1905 has attracted wide attention .

The following table shows the distribution of seats in the second chamber of the Baden state parliament from the establishment of the empire until the end of the monarchy:

Election year National
People's Party
Democrats /
People's Party
Free minded Conservative
Association of
Others Total number
of seats
1871 51 9   3           63
1873 50 10   3           63
1875 47 13   3           63
1877 48 12   3           63
1879 42 15th   3   2       63
1881 31 23   5 1 3       63
1883 35 19th   6th 2 1       63
1885 43 14th   5   1       63
1887 52 9   1   1       63
1889 47 13   1 1 1       63
1891 32 21st 2 4th 2 2       63
1893 30th 23 3 4th 1 2       63
1895 32 21st 3 4th   2   1   63
1897 26th 21st 5 5 1 2   2   63
1899 23 23 6th 5 2 2 1 1   63
1901 24 23 6th 5 2 1 1 1   63
1903 25th 23 6th 6th 2       1 63
1905 23 28 12 5 1 3 1     73
1909 17th 26th 20th   7th 2 1     73
1913 20th 30th 13   5 5       73
Friedrich Kiefer (1830–1895)

National Liberals

The development of the Liberals from the club of the wealthy and educated bourgeoisie to a political party gradually got under way in the 1960s. At a people's meeting in Offenburg on July 26, 1862, 700 people present decided to come to meetings at the state level at regular intervals in future. As a permanent commission for the activities between the meetings they elected 30 people, who in turn had to set up a committee. In 1865, there was a threat of a split in Baden liberalism when, under the leadership of Friedrich Kiefer, a parliamentary group of left liberals called the Progressive Party was formed, whose almost two dozen members called for a fiercer cultural war against the Catholic Church. However, the war of 1866 initially drew attention in a different direction. The national question now supplanted the cultural warfare issues and at the beginning of November 1868 Friedrich Kiefer met with some liberals, including the three members of the state parliament August Lamey , Carl Eckhard and Johann Bluntschli , to hold talks in Offenburg on intensifying party work. As a reaction to the founding of the Catholic People's Party on May 9, the Liberals met again a little later on May 23, 1869 in Offenburg to significantly tighten the loose party structure and, as the National Liberal Party, to take Baden's path to a Prussian-led German Empire accompany. Thanks to indirect suffrage, the National Liberals managed to hold the absolute majority of the seats in the Second Chamber until 1881 and then again from 1885 to 1891 and for the last time from 1895 to 1897. Until the implementation of the electoral reform in 1905, they remained the strongest parliamentary group, which is why they had resisted direct voting rights for the state parliament for as long as possible.

Catholic People's Party and Center

Franz Xaver Lender (1830-1913)

To support their church in the Kulturkampf, Catholic members of parliament formed in the Baden state parliament in the so-called casino movement in 1862 , which, however, was soon confronted with a ban. A meeting of a few thousand Catholics in Bruchsal led to the founding of the Catholic People's Party on May 9, 1869 . The Catholics in the Grand Duchy felt themselves to be an economically and socially disadvantaged group of the population, who made up two thirds of the total population, but lived mainly in rural areas in structurally weak areas and so far could hardly express their interests adequately. Because of indirect voting rights and internal disputes, it took the Catholic People's Party, which joined the center at the Reich level , decades before it could appear as the strongest faction in the Second Chamber from 1905. The outstanding figure in this long political growth process was the party and parliamentary group chairman Franz Xaver Lender . Until the end of the monarchy, the party did not gain any decisive influence on government policy.

Social democracy

As in Baden grew the cities that took mainly in Mannheim, Pforzheim and Karlsruhe layer of factory workers to. A workers' education association was established in Konstanz as early as 1849 . The first signs of a trade union movement were found in the founding of a Mannheim printer association in 1863, which was called Typographia . It was followed three years later by a similar association of tobacco workers . The representation of cigar workers joined the General German Workers' Association (ADAV) in Mannheim in 1868 , which was the first local social democratic association in Baden. In August 1869, the union of German gold and silver workers was established in Pforzheim . In the same year a local association of the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) was established in Pforzheim . In 1875 ADAV and SDAP were absorbed into the Socialist Workers' Party . The "Law against the Public-Dangerous Endeavors of the Social Democrats" initiated by Bismarck also inhibited the development of the Social Democrats in Baden, even if the government in the years from 1881 to 1887 acted less strictly against them. When the law was repealed in 1890, a wave of founding social democratic associations began. The newly founded SPD quickly developed into a strong political force in Baden as well. In the Reichstag election in 1890 , August Dreesbach was the first SPD member to win a seat in the Reichstag . In October 1891, August Dreesbach and Philipp August Rüdt , two social democrats - both from the Mannheim constituency - moved into the second chamber of the Baden state parliament for the first time. The SPD could count on a vital network of trade unions, workers' associations and cooperatives and drew its strength from the specific milieu of the socially disadvantaged workers. The so-called class enemy , who dominated politics and society, fought social democracy and its supporters as "imperial enemies" who had to be marginalized.

Left liberals

Left liberalism had never fully recovered in Baden after the overthrow of the revolution of 1849. The successors of Friedrich Hecker and Gustav Struve were far less popular in Baden than in neighboring Württemberg, where the old revolutionaries of 1848 formed the Democratic People's Party into a decisive political force. Due to the strong influence of Prussia on Baden politics after 1850, Baden liberalism was predominantly shaped by national liberalism. While the National Liberals were always able to enjoy the favor of their Grand Duke, the Greater German-minded Democrats remained a less important small party. The Democrats, who were mainly successful in Mannheim and who refused to join a Prussian-led Reich, joined the German People's Party , which the Württemberg Democrats founded with some like-minded people from other German countries in 1866. Another left-liberal component in Baden resulted from Bismarck's 1878 shift to the right of the National Liberals, which was a consequence of the protective tariff policy and the socialist laws. A few left-wing liberal politicians, especially those living in southern Baden, therefore split off from national liberalism and found acceptance into the Liberal Party .


After the unification of the empire, the conservatives were completely irrelevant. It was not until 1879 that they made it back into the second chamber of the state parliament, but they always remained an insignificant splinter group. The leading politician of this faction was Emil von Stockhorn .

List of presidents of chambers

The following overview lists the two respective chamber presidents.

Duration President of the First Chamber
1819 to 1858 Wilhelm Margrave of Baden
1859 to 1860 Wilhelm Prince of Baden
1861 to 1863 Prince Wilhelm of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg
1863 to 1866 Wilhelm Prince of Baden (2nd time)
1867 to 1872 Robert von Mohl
1873 to 1880 Hermann Obkircher
1881 to 1882 Edwin Benckiser
1883 to 1887 Karl Rüdt von Collenberg-Bödigheim
1887 to 1888 Eugen von Seyfried
1889 to 1892 Friedrich Serger
1893 to 1897 Wilhelm Prince of Baden (3rd time)
1897 to 1906 Karl Prince of Baden
1907 to 1918 Max Prince of Baden
Duration President of the Second Chamber
1819 Johann Bernhard Siegel
1820 Josef Karl Kern
1822 to 1823 Mathias Föhrenbach
1825 Josef Karl Kern (2nd time)
1828 Isaac Jolly
1831 Mathias Föhrenbach (2nd time)
1833 to 1840 Carl Mittermaier
1841 Johann Georg Duttlinger
1842 to 1846 Johann Baptist Bekk
1846 to 1849 Carl Mittermaier (2nd time)
1850 to 1851 Johann Baptist Bekk (2nd time)
1851 to 1854 Johann Baptist Bader
1855 to 1860 Karl Junghanns
1861 to 1870 Georg Martin Hildebrandt
1871 to 1876 Ludwig Kirsner
1876 ​​to 1892 August Lamey
1893 to 1906 Albert Gönner
1906 Karl Wilckens
1907 to 1908 Constantin Fehrenbach
1909 to 1917 Rupert Rohrhurst
1917 to 1918 Johann tenth
1918 Ferdinand head

After the November Revolution

After the November Revolution of 1918, which also led to the abdication of the grand ducal house in Baden on November 14, 1918, the election for the Baden National Assembly took place on January 5. At the same time, a commission set up by the Baden state government worked out a draft constitution which, following significant pressure from the SPD, only provided for a unicameral system. In April 1919 the new constitution was approved by the people with a large majority. The state assembly was replaced by the Baden state parliament .


  • Hans Fenske: The Liberal Southwest. Freedom and democratic traditions in Baden-Württemberg , Stuttgart 1981: Verlag W. Kohlhammer (= writings on political regional studies of Baden-Württemberg , volume 5).
  • Wolfgang von Hippel: Revolution in the German Southwest , Stuttgart 1998: Verlag W. Kohlhammer (= writings on political regional studies of Baden-Württemberg , volume 26).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Baden at
  2. s. Karl Stiefel: Baden - 1648–1952; Volume 1, p. 498: the princes of Fürstenberg ; Leiningen ; von der Leyen ; from Löwenstein -Wertheim-Rosenberg; von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg and the Counts of Leiningen-Billigheim and Leiningen Neudenau
  3. the first to occupy this seat was Johann Peter Hebel
  4. s. Hippel, p. 27.
  5. s. Hippel, p. 26f.
  6. § 65 of the 1818 Constitution.
  7. cit. according to Hippel, p. 29.
  8. Text of the factory speech by MP Franz Joseph Buß on April 25, 1837 (PDF; 150 kB).
  9. Hippel, p. 34.
  10. Franz Schnabel , quoted in according to Hippel, p. 29.
  11. Hippel, p. 34.
  12. Hippel, p. 38 ff.
  13. ^ Lothar Gall : Bourgeoisie in Germany . Siedler, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-88680-259-0 , p. 249.
  14. Hippel, p. 42 f.
  15. Hippel, p. 352ff.
  16. Fenske, p. 110 f.
  17. Fenske, p. 113.
  18. Fenske, p. 126.
  19. Baden had 1,314,837 inhabitants in 1856 Movement of the population in the Grand Duchy of Baden , d. H. arithmetically there was one of the 63 MPs for every 20,870 inhabitants. Mannheim had 25688 inhabitants in 1856 and had 3 members, d. H. there was one MP for every 8563 inhabitants
  20. s. The state constitutional document for the Grand Duchy of Baden, together with the associated acts / Baden , electoral regulations - election of the representatives of the cities and offices, Karlsruhe 1819, p. 35 online at the Badische Landesbibliothek
  21. s. The state constitutional document for the Grand Duchy of Baden, together with the associated acts / Baden , electoral regulations - election of the representatives of the cities and offices, Karlsruhe 1819, p. 35 online at the Badische Landesbibliothek
  22. Hans-Peter Becht: Baden Parliamentarism 1819 to 1870. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2009, p. 832
  23. Hans-Peter Becht: Baden Parliamentarism 1819 to 1870. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2009, p. 833
  24. Left-liberal Progressive Party or the Democrats or the Democratic Party
  25. ^ National Liberal Party
  26. Martin Furtwängler: Elections In: Meinrad Schaab , Hansmartin Schwarzmaier (ed.) U. a .: Handbook of Baden-Württemberg History . Volume 5: Economic and social history since 1918, overviews and materials, complete index. Edited on behalf of the Commission for Historical Regional Studies in Baden-Württemberg . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-608-91371-2 , p. 518.
  27. ^ Paul Rothmund, Erhard R. Wiehn (ed.): The FDP / DVP in Baden-Württemberg and their history. Liberalism as a political force in the south-west of Germany (=  writings on political geography of Baden-Württemberg, 4). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 1979, ISBN 3-17-004680-2 , p. 129
  28. From 1869 to 1888 the counterpart to the center in Baden was called the Catholic People's Party ; see the external link for an explanation of the term "Catholic People's Party Baden"
  29. From 1868 to 1878 the counterpart to the German People's Party in Baden was called the Democratic Party
  30. In the year 1888 the Catholic People's Party changed the name in Baden to Zentrum ; see the external link for an explanation of the term "Catholic People's Party Baden"
  31. ^ Digital library of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation
  32. For freedom and democracy. Baden parliament history 1818–1933 . A chronicle of the democratic movement since 1818 with biographies, historical film and sound recordings, election results, image documents and a comprehensive bibliography. Multimedia CD-ROM published by the Karlsruhe City Archives 1997, ISBN 3-9805956-0-9 . System requirements Windows 95 or Apple Macintosh. The CD-ROM cannot be used with operating systems from the Microsoft Windows NT line!
  33. Fenske, p. 212.