Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg
|Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg|
The truth will set you free.
( Joh 8,32 EU )
|place||Freiburg in Breisgau|
Hans-Jochen Schiewer (since July 23, 2008)
(from October 1, 2020: Kerstin Krieglstein )
|Students||24,391 (WS 2019/20)|
|Employee||6,738 (2018, without hospital)
thereof scientists: 4,602 (including professors, without hospital)
|including professors||327 (2018, without hospital)|
|Annual budget||€ 1,109.6 million (2018, including € 192.6 million third-party funding)
|Networks||DFH , Eucor , German U15 , IAU , LERU|
The university has a long tradition and enjoys a high academic reputation both nationally and internationally. Among the lecturers were u. a. 10 Nobel and 13 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners , the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg is associated with 23 Nobel Prize winners.
On April 20, 1455, Pope Calixtus III met. the request of Archduke Albrecht VI. of Austria in which the Diocese of Constance in front Austria belonging Freiburg a general studies establish, that this other not only to him imputed state and the inhabitants of his country, but also the benefit and welfare of parts of the world should serve. The Pope grants Bishop Heinrich von Konstanz the power to dispose of the necessary after detailed inquiries and findings of the circumstances . The locally responsible bishop usually had the university supervision, with which he entrusted the chancellor appointed by him, who in turn let a university professor as vice-chancellor manage the business. The fact that the educated and art-loving wife of Albrecht, Mechthild von der Pfalz , was the driving force behind the founding of the university named after its founder "Albertina" (Latinized form of the name Albrecht) is controversial today. However, 20 years later, Mechthild encouraged her son from her first marriage, Eberhard, to found the University of Tübingen . According to the latest opinion of Konstantin M. Langmaier, Albrecht VI. the university to encourage people to move to the heavily indebted city of Freiburg and thus improve their fiscal opportunities.
In the deed of foundation of September 21, 1457, Albrecht emphasized that he wanted to help dig the well of life with other Christian princes, from which inexhaustible enlightening water of comforting and healing wisdom would be drawn from all ends of the world, to extinguish the fatal fire of human irrationality and blindness . The university was to be financed by income from church loans, which the Habsburgs had ceded to the university. These included the parish churches of Freiburg , Breisach , Ensisheim and Winterthur . Since this money did not flow at the beginning, the city had to step in and grant the appointed professors under the stat (city) sigel sold, housing and wood .
After Matthäus Hummel's preparatory work , the university began teaching on April 26, 1460. Hummel, elected the first rector of the Albertina, based his opening address in Latin on the motto of Solomon: Sapientia aedificavit sibi domum et excidit in ea columnas septem (The high wisdom has built a house, has cut its pillars seven). In the first part of his address, Hummel praised wisdom and the pursuit of truth; in the second, he denounced the lack of education of the clergy at the time and harshly criticized the nepotism of the nobility.
Development in the Middle Ages
After Vienna, Freiburg was the second Austrian-Habsburg university. Like all medieval universities, the Albertina had four faculties: theology, law, medicine and philosophy. A successful degree in philosophy in the seven liberal arts ( grammar , rhetoric , logic , arithmetic , geometry , music and astronomy ) with the Baccalaureus artium degree was the prerequisite for further studies in the other three faculties. The number of students was around 140 in the first few decades.
The seal of the university shows the teaching Christ in the temple in Jerusalem , who sits on a late Gothic throne and holds the Holy Scriptures in his right hand, to which he points with his left hand. Audiences are Jewish scribes visible at his feet and in the canopy (recognizable by their hats). The throne is flanked by two towers, which are to be understood as an indication of Jerusalem (or the temple there). The three coats of arms indicate those involved in the founding: On the right side of Christ the coat of arms of the Austrian duchies , on the other side the Habsburg shield and below the coat of arms of Freiburg. The legend says that this is the seal of the University of Freiburg (in Latin ). It was used shortly after the university was founded (documented in 1462) and is still valid today, almost unchanged.
In the years that followed, the Albertina developed into a high-ranking educational institution with professors such as the Carthusian monk Gregor Reisch , who in 1503 published the encyclopedia Margarita Philosophica for the faculty of artists . Reisch taught such important students as Johannes Eck , the later opponent of Luther , Martin Waldseemüller , the "inventor" of the name America, and Sebastian Munster , the author of the famous Cosmographia .
Since its founding, the university had fought an intellectual battle for church reforms, and that is why many professors in Freiburg welcomed Luther's clear words. Philipp Engelbrecht saw the reformer as the greatest apostle of our day and stuck a note on the university building with the following Knittel verse as a request to the students: Lutherum ut redimas , Hembd, Schuh, Buch, omnia vendas (You can win Luther's writings, sell everything: Books, shirts, shoes). Huldrichus Zasius , too , initially read Luther's writings enthusiastically, but when the university obeyed the Edict of Worms , he developed into an opponent of the Reformation and described Luther as the most worthless of all two-legged creatures . The city council ordered house searches and had the executioner burn around 2000 books of Reformation content on Münsterplatz. On the occasion of his visit on May 13, 1524, Archduke Ferdinand ordered an expert opinion from the university to combat the ecclesiastical tenets of innovators. In the first part it repeated well-known Catholic dogmas, in the second part, however, the experts denounced the grievances in the church. They concluded their writing with the wish that a careful and vigorous handling of these points requested by them could expect a new structure of the Church of Christ that was pleasing to all . This report has never been used. When the Reformation in Basel reached its climax with the iconoclasm in 1529 , Erasmus from Rotterdam and with him many professors from the university there fled to Catholic Freiburg. The Basel University was then suspended until 1532.
Archduke Ferdinand II had already written to the university in 1577 that he intended to set up a college of the Society of Jesus in his countries in the east of Austria . At that time the university had successfully defended itself against the Jesuit intrusion. However, when the Reformed faith was taught at the neighboring universities in Basel and Heidelberg and Tübingen and Strasbourg had become Protestant, Archduke Leopold wanted to religiously upgrade the University of Upper Austria with the help of the Jesuits in the old faith. This time all resistance was futile. The Jesuit introductory document of November 16, 1620 stipulated: With the current school year, the fathers of the Society will begin to fill humanistic studies with their teachers in addition to philosophy, and for the time being two positions in theology . In the centuries that followed, the Albertina developed into a bulwark of the Catholic faith, which initially brought about a modern humanistic mindset, but over the years this became a hindrance to research and science. Also in 1620, the medical faculty founded a botanical garden , an institution that continues to this day at various locations.
In the Peace of Nijmweg in 1679, Freiburg became a French city. Louis XIV disliked the Austrian university. He gave the Jesuits a free hand to set up a Studium gallicum and the necessary money for new buildings. With this bilingual course, the university reopened its doors on November 6, 1684, while the former Freiburg professors who had fled to Constance did not start university there until November 11, 1686. With the Peace of Rijswijk (1697) Freiburg became Austrian again and the university also returned to the city.
With the new beginning, reforms were called for to make the Freiburg University attractive for sons of the nobility in the German-speaking area, such as the Protestant universities of Halle and Göttingen, whose educational offerings were broad. The Breisgau estates took the initiative and financed teaching positions in the legal faculty for natural law and history. Extraordinariats for civil and criminal trials, civil and military architecture, public law and feudal law, which should be taught in German and no longer in Latin, dance and fencing masters and language masters for French and Italian, completed the offer. These measures rubbed off on the University of Vienna , for which Maria Theresa issued new study regulations with even more extensive reforms in 1749, because adherence to the old teaching methods, which still largely correspond to medieval practice, e.g. For example, reading texts aloud had made the level of the Austrian universities fall behind that of the foreign universities . When the Viennese study regulations were to become binding for the Albertina in 1752, the professors opposed it. That is why Emperor Joseph II decided in 1767 to force the required teaching reforms. He appointed the energetic government councilor Hermann von Greiffenegg as the sovereign commissioner of the Freiburg University in order to finally bring the university into a bigger bloom . The emperor suspended the existing university constitution and dismissed the senate. An imposition of the highest institutional resolution and the establishment of a new Senate by the government severely restricted the university's autonomy.
A high point in university life was Marie Antoinette's visit to Freiburg on her trip from Vienna to Paris to marry the Dauphin Louis Auguste, later Louis XVI. The Albertina erected a Rococo-style gate of honor in front of the main building at that time (now the New Town Hall ) on Franziskanerplatz (now the Town Hall Square). In the ballroom of the Jesuit college, concerts and theater performances without Caressen took place in honor of the 14-year-old daughter Maria Theresa .
From the Albertina to the Albertina-Ludoviciana
With the enlargement of Baden ordered by Napoleon in the Peace of Pressburg to include areas in the Palatinate and Upper Austria, “Großbaden” inherited the Albertina and the older Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg in 1806 . The continued existence of the Freiburg University seemed to be endangered because the comparatively small Baden was financially overwhelmed with the maintenance of two universities. Elector Karl-Friedrich had said on the question of the dissolution of one of the two universities: Not at all, they do not belong to our country alone, they belong to mankind , but in the following years there were repeatedly voices in the Baden government, the Freiburg University close. Grand Duke Ludwig von Baden , however, granted the Albertina a fixed budget from 1817 onwards and secured its existence again in writing in 1820, not least thanks to the tireless efforts of Freiburg professor Carl von Rotteck , who several times personally addressed the Grand Duke's concern for the preservation of the university presented. In addition to the scientific advantages of a second university, the Grand Duke was particularly interested in the idea that the two major denominations should each find a university shaped by them (Heidelberg University was shaped by Protestants).
The founding document and the building, then also the university in the 18th century (Albertina), were named after Albrecht / Albertus. Since 1820, the 700th anniversary of the city of Freiburg, the University has been called the Albert Ludwig University or Alberto Ludoviciana.
On March 1, 1832, a liberal press law came into force in Baden. Then the newspaper Der Freisinnige appeared in Freiburg , in which the editors, Professors Carl von Rotteck and Carl Theodor Welcker turned against the Carlsbad resolutions and developed their liberal ideas about freedom and unity in Germany. Under pressure from the Frankfurt Bundestag , the Grand Ducal Government decided on May 19 to put an end to the treasonous goings-on . The subsequent student demonstrations lasted until early autumn, when on September 12 the government ordered the closure of the university and Rotteck and Welcker closed on October 26 because of the pernicious political and moral direction the university had taken for a long time retired. After the liberal university constitution had been cashed in, teaching began again after a purposeful reorganization of the university, both in ob- and in a subjective direction , which had eliminated the previous ailments .
While the number of students at the University of Freiburg was 378 in 1850 (288 residents of Baden, 90 foreigners), it rose sharply from the 1880s onwards. Shortly before the First World War , the university had 3,000 students. At the beginning of the 20th century, the construction of numerous new buildings was necessary for modern university operations. The decision was made consciously against the construction of a central campus and instead set architectural accents in Freiburg's old town and its surroundings. The college building I, the main building and seat of the theological and philosophical faculties, is an Art Nouveau building . It was built between 1907 and 1911 according to plans by Friedrich Ratzel and Hermann Billing . With its red sandstone facade and the tower, which also houses two detention rooms , it is still one of Freiburg's landmarks today. The entrance is flanked by sculptures of Homer and Aristotle , which were created in 1915 by the sculptor Cipri Adolf Bermann from Vöhrenbach . On the west facade, above the windows of the auditorium, the university motto is carved: "THE TRUTH WILL MAKE YOU FREE" ( Jn 8:32 EU ).
time of the nationalsocialism
During the time of National Socialism there were reprisals against Jewish university members. Rectors during this period were Wilhelm von Möllendorff (April 15 to 20), Martin Heidegger (April 21, 1933 to April 27, 1934), Eduard Kern in 1934, Friedrich Metz in 1936 , Otto Mangold in 1938 and Wilhelm Süss in 1940 . The rector's speech by then rector Heidegger on the subject of self-assertion of the German University on May 27, 1933, achieved dubious fame, which was understood by many as a public affirmation of the National Socialist regime. In a fire in the main university building (today Collegiate Building I) on July 10, 1934, numerous institutes and the auditorium on the top floor as well as the two studios of the painter Julius Bissier and many of his works were destroyed. When it was rebuilt in 1936, the building was extended and the university management had the inscription “Dem eternal Germanness” affixed to the facade above the entrance. Originally the inscription was painted gold, but the French had it scratched out after the war.
the post war period
After its closure due to the war, the university was reopened a few months after the end of the Second World War under Sigurd Janssen . The university, which was badly hit in the war, had to work under provisional conditions. In the post-war period there were numerous extensions and new buildings; buildings for the natural science faculties were built especially in the so-called institute quarter.
Since the university was founded and its first rector, Matthäus Hummel, in 1460, it was common for 500 years until 1965 and Hans-Heinrich Jescheck for rectors to hold their office for exactly one year. This changed with Helmut Baitsch , who was rector from 1965 to 1968. The development of a multi-year rectorate finally culminated in a 13-year term of office for Wolfgang Jäger from 1995 to 2008. The longer terms of office led to an increased identification of the university with the rector as a representative of the university.
In 2007 the university celebrated its 550th anniversary with numerous scientific and popular events.
The number of students has risen sharply in the last few decades. In 1961 the university had 10,000 students; in 1980 the number had doubled to 20,000. At the beginning of the 2016/2017 winter semester, more than 25,150 students were enrolled.
Development since 2000
At the beginning of the 21st century, around 430 professors, 2950 scientific and 8400 non-scientific employees work at the university, which makes it one of the most important employers in Freiburg and southern Baden.
In the rankings of German media ( Zeit , Focus , Spiegel , etc.), the departments of biology, law, medicine, history, German studies, English studies and educational sciences repeatedly achieve top positions, which leads to high numbers of applicants.
In the summer semester of 2007, tuition fees of 500 euros per semester were introduced in Baden-Württemberg for the first degree . In the years before, Freiburg had developed into a center of protest against these charges. The high point of the protests was the occupation of the rectorate by students in 2005 as part of the “Freiburg Spring”.
In January 2006, as part of the First Excellence Initiative of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research , the university was shortlisted from ten German universities to promote future concepts for top university research . As the best university in Baden-Württemberg, the University of Freiburg was initially able to qualify with a graduate school . The Spemann Graduate School for Biology and Medicine (SBGM) has been funded since November 1st, 2006 and is based on cooperation with established training programs in research and teaching: on four graduate colleges (GRKs), an international "Max Planck Research School" (IMPRS), four Collaborative Research Centers and the “Bernstein Center for Computational Neurosciences” (BCCN), which are recognized by a high standard of research and leading scientists worldwide.
In January 2007, the university was again shortlisted for German universities in the excellence initiative of the federal and state governments, which had the opportunity to be successful in the third funding line (“future concept”) and to receive the title of “university of excellence ”. On October 19, the University of Freiburg was confirmed as one of a total of nine Universities of Excellence in Germany. The future concept as well as the excellence cluster "Center for Biological Signal Studies" ( bioss ), which for the first time combines the methods of synthetic biology with biological signal studies and enables the training of a new generation of bioengineers, as well as the Spemann Graduate School for Biology and Medicine, approved in 2006 ( SBGM).
In October 2009, the Donors' Association for German Science awarded the University of Freiburg in the "Excellent Teaching" competition.
On June 15, 2012, the university lost its elite status again because it was unable to assert itself against its competitors as part of the Second Excellence Initiative. The bioss excellence cluster and the graduate school remained, however, and the new BrainLinks - BrainTools cluster was added.
The renovation of the Collegiate Building II should begin in 2019 and last three years. At more than 70 million euros, the project will be more expensive than building the new university library. Only the steel skeleton of the listed building including the windows, which were financed in 2010 by the federal government's economic stimulus package, remains. Now the renovation is to begin in summer 2020 andlast until 2025 , whereby the external appearance will be retained.
The theater hall of the old university on Bertoldstrasse was converted into a literature house. Now students can continue to play theater there on weekends.
Since May 2017 the institute has also been one of the most innovative universities in Europe. It ranks 24th out of 100.
On May 27, 2020, Kerstin Krieglstein was elected rector as the first woman in the history of the university. She will take up the position on October 1, 2020.
In 1969 the long-standing division into 14 (from 1994: 15) faculties was introduced; in 2002, the number was reduced to eleven:
- Biology with
- Chemistry and pharmacy
- Medicine with
- Math and physics
- Philological Faculty
- Philosophical Faculty
- Technical faculty, consisting of
- Environment and natural resources
- Economics and Behavioral Sciences
The largest admission-restricted courses in terms of the number of places per year include the law (360) and medicine (337) courses as well as the bachelor’s courses in biology (150), psychology (100) and forestry and the environment (92).
The Freiburg University Library fulfills the tasks of a university library, which provides the members of the university as well as those of the Catholic University , the Protestant University , the University of Education and the Freiburg University of Music with literature and information, but is also open to all interested citizens.
The university facilities are essentially spread over six locations in the city: the humanities, social sciences and law are located in the city center. The natural sciences and mathematics have their own campus (the so-called institute quarter in the Neuburg district ), around five minutes' walk north of the Altstadtring. Further north is the "Biologicum" with biological institutes, bioss and the botanical garden. The technical faculty is located on the edge of the airfield in the west of the city. The Freiburg University Medical Center forms a spacious complex, also in the western part of the city, with a branch in the Herdern district . In the east on the Dreisam are the sports facilities with the university stadium.
University College Freiburg (UCF)
The University College Freiburg is the central institution for the promotion and administration of international and interdisciplinary teaching activities. It complements and supports the work of the faculties in this area, serves as a laboratory for innovative teaching approaches and instructional design and includes projects such as the four-year Bachelor's degree in Liberal Arts and Sciences (LAS). This program is the first undergraduate, interdisciplinary courses offered by the University of Freiburg in English and is unique in this form in Germany. It has been offered since the winter semester of 2012.
Center for Key Qualifications (ZfS)
As a department of the Freiburg Academy for University Continuing Education (FRAUW), the Center for Key Qualifications offers an extensive teaching program in the field of "Occupational Competencies" (BOK) v. a. for bachelor students. Student teachers attend events at the ZfS to support the orientation internship (OSP). The range of courses complements the technical studies of the students with offers for the acquisition and promotion of key competences and also offers insights into different, overarching professional fields within the framework of practical modules and accompanied practical phases. The range of courses is implemented by more than 250 experts from business, science and society.
uniCross is a cross-media platform for students at the University of Freiburg. As a portal for campus media, the student editorial teams use images, sound and text to inform the students about topics at the university, the campus and everything that concerns students, interested and moving. Students can also receive regular information on current issues in the magazine through a newsletter . At the same time, they have the opportunity to get involved in the editorial offices of "uniTV", "uniFM" and that of the "uniONLINE" magazine under the guidance of professional journalists and thus gain an insight into journalistic work.
aka film club
The Akademische Filmclub e. V. at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg ( aka-Filmclub ) is one of the oldest university cinemas in Germany and is run by students on a voluntary basis. Every semester, the aka film club organizes around 40 screenings in the 2006 lecture hall of Kollegiengebäudes II, including silent film concerts, film talks and film parties.
The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize was awarded to 13 academic employees . Ten Nobel Prize winners taught at the University of Freiburg, five of them chemists , two biologists , two physicians and one economist .
The Albert-Ludwigs-Universität maintains partnerships with several universities abroad. The Université de Strasbourg , Penn State University , Nagoya University and Nanjing University are considered to be “key partners” .
Another partner is Isfahan University in Iran . It came under fire in 2016 when its Islamic Student Association launched a Holocaust caricature competition. The caricatures were supposed to "expose the wrong scenario of the Holocaust", as it was said in the announcement, over which an anti-Jewish poster was emblazoned. Rector Hans-Jochen Schiewer warned of the danger of “lasting damage” to the “trustful dialogue that had been built up over the years” between the two universities and urged his Isfahan colleagues in the letter to “urgently distance themselves from this competition that despised the victims of the Nazi regime ".
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550 years of the Albert Ludwig University. Festschrift. 5 volumes. Verlag Karl Alber, Freiburg / Munich 2007
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Freiburg contributions to the history of science and universities. New episode. On behalf of the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, ed. by Karl-Heinz Leven , Sylvia Paletscheck, Hartmann Römer and Dieter Speck. Verlag Karl Alber, Freiburg / Munich
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- Volume 3: Stefan Grill: Denomination and History. Conflicts over the filling and establishment of historical professorships at the University of Freiburg in the 19th and early 20th centuries. 2008, ISBN 978-3-495-48314-5 .
- Volume 4: Bernd Grün: The rector as a leader? The University of Freiburg i.Br. from 1933 to 1945. 2010, ISBN 978-3-495-49607-7 .
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