Crossmedia refers to the communication via several channels linked in terms of content, design and editorial, which guides the user in a targeted manner through the various media and refers to a return channel.
Today, cross media means a combination of new developments in social and visual media, for which catchwords such as Web 2.0 , virtual reality , branded entertainment , viral media , visual music, scientific visualization, micromovies and applications such as YouTube , Google Earth , Flickr and Facebook stand . They encompass a variety of ways to produce and distribute content . The use of cross-media strategies in the cultural or media sector increasingly requires an understanding of the social significance of visual and participatory media use. Crossmedia also combines new developments in the culture of participation and convergence, digital media literacy, media convergent strategies, transmedia storytelling, media law and cyberlaw and crossmedia management. Last but not least, cross media has considerable implications for media theory .
In connection with the distribution policy , crossmedia is used in the sense of multichannel marketing . This involves the parallel sale of products or services via different sales channels in order to be able to reach different end users. In the context of marketing, the term cross media refers to the communication mix of a campaign and describes the parallel, networked use of several instruments.
The term "cross media" is used in connection with coordinated measures that take place within the framework of communication policy. The special thing about cross-media communication is not just the transmission of an advertising message on various communication channels (see integrated communication ). Rather, the advertising message is designed in such a way that the customer, recipient or consumer is offered at least three media in order to receive the advertising message or to interactively deal with and identify the associated product (see also the topic of involvement ).
The technical connection of the various media is possible and is driven by developments in technological convergence between the media. The selected means of communication must therefore be integrated in terms of content, form and time within a cross-media campaign.
The content integration ensures the transmission of a consistent message across all media channels. This thematic coordination is achieved through the implementation of a consistent guiding principle that supports the strategic goals of a company with regard to products and services and adapts to the specifics of the various channels, as well as images, claims and slogans that are used continuously.
The formal integration ensures better differentiation and easier recognition of the campaign or brand. These are achieved by adhering to coordinated formal design principles, which include uniform logos and symbols, fonts, colors and shapes (see corporate design ).
The temporal integration includes the temporal commitment and the coordination of all means of communication to consolidate the advertising message. With the increasing use of directly measurable online channels in marketing communication, methods are being introduced in which companies can, for example, use dynamic linear models (DLM) to calculate cross-media advertising impact models on a scientifically sound basis, including offline channels and the temporal decay of the individual advertising impact .
Mahrdt (2008) defines crossmedia as follows: Crossmedia is
- the implementation of communication measures with a consistent guiding principle
- in various media genres suitable for the target group,
- which are integrated in terms of content, form and time.
The speech should
- and - as far as possible and sensible - multi-sensory
- with references to target media and
- offer the customer a benefit.
In Germany there is hardly a press product that is not represented on the WWW . Publishing houses are mutating more and more into diversified "media houses". The financially strong, supraregional print brands either produce in-house television formats or cooperate with television broadcasters (e.g. Axel Springer with DIE WELT and N24). Some operate their own TV channels. The Financial Times Germany produced up to their attitude in December 2012 contributed to several private radio stations such as FFN , Classic Radio and Energy Stuttgart and the business newspaper integrated to their final out also in many ways the mobile phone in her medial total supply.
The media types of print, radio, TV, WWW and mobile radio are converging technically, economically, productively, in terms of content and function. Through technological convergence, formerly distinct media are becoming increasingly compatible with one another. This means that the same content can be distributed via different media. The media users move more and more detached from individual media through the delimited spaces of converging media environments.
There are three levels of networking:
- The production level, where print, TV and online editorial teams work together from information exchange to cross-editorial research teams in order to release synergies in the production processes.
- The content level on which the stories of the current day's events in the diversified product range of a company are told across multiple media, are networked through references and partly follow a cross-media dramaturgy ("cross-media storytelling").
- The brand level at which attention and credibility transfers are generated by extending journalistic brands into new media areas. For the user, the brand becomes a quality and identity continuum: He reaches the brand he trusts with the same quality across many channels.
Importance for journalists
For more and more journalists, cross-media work and conception are part of everyday business: the online presence of the weekly magazine must be coordinated with the print edition, and the radio station's websites must correspond to the current programs. In the case of pure online editorial offices, cooperation and networking make synergy effects possible. The constant presence of technology changes and shapes the processes in the online editorial department, the workflow . The possibilities of content management range from content sharing to intelligent database concepts to dynamic content .
A large part of the online publications supplements a mother medium from the press , radio or television or from several media. This is where journalistic cross-media concepts have their roots: Journalists noticed early on that simply transferring content to the Internet and distributing it via it was not enough. They each developed media-specific online supplements and extensions.
The technology allows journalistic articles and their components to be managed independently of the output medium. For example: Texts can be output for the print version or the online presence or read aloud by a machine via voice output, radio programs can be published both on-air and online. Journalists work for several media or platforms (multi-platform journalism).
The convergence of journalistic products today demands journalists who can produce competently not just for one medium, but for several. In particular, the ability to think in at least two media is required: not only for the printed edition of the magazine, but also for the online edition; To work not only for the radio or television program or the respective broadcaster, but also for the associated online presence.
- Scientific presentation of a cross-media advertising model. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013 ; Retrieved August 17, 2014 .
- Niklas Mahrdt: Crossmedia: planning and implementing campaigns successfully . Gabler GWV Fachverlage, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-8349-1211-4 , p. 29.
- Gabriele Hooffacker : Online journalism. Writing and designing for the internet. A Manual for Education and Practice. 4th unchanged edition. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-430-20096-7 ( examples and current additions to the book )
- Christian Jakubetz : Crossmedia. UVK, Konstanz 2008 ISBN 978-3-86764-044-2
- Klaus Meier (ed.): Internet journalism. 3rd revised and expanded edition. UVK, Constance 2002
- Plank, Christiane: Public Relations - cross-media. Falkenberg, Bremen 2011, ISBN 978-3-937822-47-1
- Schneider, Martin: Crossmedia Management , Dissertation, Cologne 2007
- Schultz, Stefan: Bridges across the media disruption. Cross-media strategies of contemporary print media at company, editorial, content and brand level. Development of a theoretical model and application of this to the case study "Spiegel" LIT-Verlag, Münster 2007, series: Medienwirtschaft Vol. 2, ISBN 978-3-8258-0532-6
- Innovation in the media. Crossmedia - Story Worlds - Change Management , ed. by Markus Kaiser, Munich 2013, free download as PDF
- Interview with Christian Jakubetz (2010)
- Christoph Neuberger / Christian Nuernbergk / Melanie Rischke: Weblogs and Journalism: Competition, Complement or Integration? In: Media Perspektiven 2/2007, pp. 96–112 (PDF; 314 kB)
- Further information on the use of cross media in online trading