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Journalists interview each other: Reporter Heinz Abel ( Phoenix ) in conversation with Peter Fahrenholz ( Süddeutsche Zeitung , in the picture on the right) for the live broadcast "Wahl '05"

A journalist [ ʒʊʁnaˈlɪst ] participates “full-time in the dissemination and publication of information , opinions and entertainment through the mass media ” (definition of the German Association of Journalists ). The job title of journalist is not legally protected in Germany . There is free access to journalism due to the freedom of opinion and freedom of the press in accordance with Article 5 of the Basic Law .

Fields of work

Journalists work for a variety of media: print media such as newspapers , magazines and advertising papers , in online journalism in online editorial offices , but also in radio and television , for news agencies or in public relations in press offices of commercial enterprises, authorities or organizations. You work locally or worldwide as a reporter or foreign correspondent .

Journalists work in a variety of activities and functions such as investigative journalist , correspondent , editor , reporter , managing editor , picture editor , columnist , columnist , editorial writer , photojournalist , video journalist , fashion journalist or presenter . There are freelance journalists and employed journalists. Of the 45,000 full-time journalists in Germany, a third work for daily newspapers and a quarter for radio. The rest is distributed among magazines, online services and employees in press offices and agencies. According to industry statistics, these journalists achieve an average annual gross income of around 36,000 euros, and the trend is currently falling. In addition to the employed journalists, there are also around 40,000 freelance journalists.


Heinrich Heine , poet and journalist

The professional history of journalism is inextricably linked with the history of newspapers and magazines . In 1928 Dieter Paul Baumert distinguished between four periods of development of journalism in Germany as a recognized profession:

  1. the pre-journalistic phase up to the middle of the 16th century (rather sporadic, basically not professionally operated news system):
  2. the corresponding / referring journalism up to the middle of the 18th century (purely neutral reporting without editorial processing),
  3. the writing / reasoning journalism until the end of the pre-March period (intellectually demanding flyer and magazine literature) and
  4. the editorial journalism since (-planned interaction of Communications and literature of the day).

All four phases denote only the dominant appearance. Heinz Pürer added a fifth epoch to the structure. Due to the changes in newspaper production techniques that had occurred since around 1975, he advocated a fifth phase of editorial journalism .

The period between 1750 and 1850 was distinguished by Jörg Requate with regard to two types of press:

  1. The publishing press - mostly short-lived - the restrictive press law and political framework conditions made them give up quickly; the name is inextricably linked to that of the founder; the publisher alone bears the commercial and political risk;
  2. the publishing press - mostly long-lived - the focus was more on business than political success; the editorially supervised journalism developed through this form.
    Newspaper publisher and journalist Edmund Schiefeling around 1932

The development of the content of the journalistic profession in Germany was shaped by four factors: the degree of freedom of the press and censorship , the course of the party formation process, the commercialization of the press and the development of journalistic self-image. In the 17th and 18th centuries, a journalist was a writer who sometimes also worked as the editor (usually also as the sole author) of a journal - in the case of the literary journal , he reviews the latest scientific writings , in the case of the historical or political journal the commentator of newspaper reports, which at that time newspapers usually published anonymously and without comment . The associated division of labor - the journalist could withdraw at any time, he only commented on the correspondent's news, but was not responsible for it himself - mainly took into account the unstable protection of expression of opinion.

The German press developed roughly parallel to the press in England , the USA and France until around 1819, when the Karlsbad Decisions unified opinion control in the German federal states .

With the introduction of more stable press law from 1871 in the German Empire , journalism broke away from the journal. The analysis and the commentary made their way into the newspapers, which became platforms for public debate; In the differentiation in reporting and commentary, the old division of labor lives on within the newspaper. The journalist profession itself changed from a sideline to a main job in life towards the end of the 19th century. Since these changes, his work has primarily consisted of researching , processing and offering information in the daily media of the printing sector. In the 1870s, parliamentarisation in the Reichstag and the political fractionation of social life also had a strong impact on the press . The formation of the party press , which had already begun in 1848, was now fully established.

As a result of technical progress, especially in the area between editing and production (e.g. printing), the functions of journalists expanded. Depending on the size and organization of the company, tasks are performed that used to be done by a typesetter , a layouter or a lithographer . Hardware and software products in this area, in particular, enable the writing journalist to see the finished page on his screen and to help shape it himself. Accordingly, the range of writing skills is expanded to include specialist knowledge from the world of images, graphics and layout.

Job description and training

Photojournalists at the 2008 European Football Championship

Anyone can call themselves a journalist - without any special prerequisites or a specific training path, as the job title was not protected by law. Press photographers and photo editors are also assigned to journalists. The designation “editor” is also not protected, but is defined in a collective agreement.

The earlier notion of the “talented profession” has been replaced by a more professional job description with definable training courses and categories for professional quality in journalism. As a rule, is a prerequisite studies, followed by a two-year training in one or more editors than voluntary . Experience gained in internships and freelance journalistic work is already gained during the course. Other options for access include attending a journalism school or studying journalism or journalism. The professional field is open to career changers, especially those with specialist knowledge.

The prerequisite for the job of a journalist is first and foremost communication , be it in the area of language , photo or film . In addition, it comes down to social and socio-political responsibility, logical and analytical thinking, creativity and the ability to communicate. Apart from the local journalist, who should be an all-rounder, there is an increasing demand for specialists in the editorial offices of the print media as well as in radio and television.

A degree, especially journalism and journalism , usually forms the basis today. Then a traineeship should be completed in which one gets to know the practical side of the job. Most editorial offices now require a university degree before they offer a traineeship.

Schools of journalism impart media practice, as they are more practical than the courses at universities. They are often attended after or in parallel with your studies.

Practical experience should be gained during your studies, for example as a freelancer in a local editorial office, otherwise it is difficult to get a traineeship position. A traineeship lasts between 15 and 24 months.

Fields of activity

Press box in the Lower Saxony state parliament
Photographers playing football

Around 75% of employees in press offices have completed journalistic training. A large number of German journalists now work in parallel as freelance journalists in these areas.

Journalists also work as press spokespersons or press officers in the press offices (also PR or marketing departments ) of commercial enterprises, authorities or organizations.

A large proportion of the daily newspapers work as local journalists. In the case of national daily newspapers, magazines and in the areas of radio and television there is usually a specialization in certain departments , e.g. B. news, sports, business, culture, music, science, but also for page design and headline formulation, research, coordination.

working conditions

Anyone who works on news within an editorial team in the press , radio or news agencies is considered an editor. A distinction is made between image and text editors. In contrast to this, the reporter works on site, for example in the event of a major accident or a natural disaster, i.e. researches the facts of a story. A correspondent works for his home editorial office (newspaper, radio, television, news agency) in Berlin , a state capital or abroad. There is also the presenter who presents programs either on television or on the radio.

According to Schneider / Raue, around 14,000 editors worked for daily newspapers in 2003 , around half for magazines, around 8,000 for broadcasters and 5,000 for advertising papers.

In addition to the employed journalists, there are also around 40,000 freelance journalists. This is particularly the case with subject-specific journalists from the capital (e.g. business journalists ), as many smaller newspapers cannot afford their own editors in the capital or for each individual department. These work on a fee basis or negotiate flat-rate contracts. However, they do not get regular assignments and have to maintain their own office. To do this, they have to orientate themselves towards their customers and their topic requests. A freelance journalist in the press industry is usually rewarded according to printed lines (newspapers) or pages (magazines). Many television presenters are freelance journalists. In addition to those who have voluntarily decided against a permanent position and are earning well, the army of journalists with short or no orders with part-time jobs is increasing significantly. Even the big media have laid off permanent employees and freelancers.

Magazines, television and radio are dependent on the "free" because they are cheaper and more flexible to use and publishers and newspaper houses have rationalized comprehensively in recent years, as the cost pressure has increased due to falling circulation. The proportion of freelance journalists in the content of newspapers and magazines is increasing very sharply. According to research by the professional association Freischreiber , for example, 55% of the texts in the science magazine PM come from freelance journalists. 60% is her share in Zeit-Magazin . According to the association, the business magazine Brand eins has a figure of 68%.

In addition to the employed and freelance journalists, there are the so-called flat-rate journalists who receive a flat-rate fee and have no fixed working hours.

Occupational medical findings

According to data that Siegfried Akermann, the chief physician of Allianz Lebensversicherungs-AG, collected over many years of observation, the number of journalists who have to retire early or who are not at all or are only able to work to a limited extent is relatively high. The occupational disability occurred on average at the age of 50 or after 16 years of employment. Psychological and neurological complaints as well as diseases of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system are particularly common.

Forms of representation

The journalist uses different forms of representation in his work . In addition to conveying facts ( news , report ), narrative elements are used in other forms of presentation : interviews , reports and features . An evaluation, classification or explanation of a situation can be found in the comment and in the gloss . The forms of representation run through all media such as text, photography , film or radio . Mixed forms are increasingly emerging.

Self-image of the journalists

Lothar Loewe , German correspondent (1929-2010)
Sign with a quote from Hans Joachim Friedrichs: "You can recognize a good journalist by the fact that he does not have something in common - not even with a good cause." (April 2020)

The self-image of journalists from England and America differs from that of their colleagues on the European continent. Clichéd views such as “All The News That's Fit To Print” or “Tell it like it is” characterize the Anglo-Saxon view of things. Tissy Bruns sums up a diametrically opposite view in the foreword to a recent study by Weichert and Zabel: “Journalists want and should explain the world”. According to Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, the different attitudes towards the role and task of the profession do not remain without influence on the intentions of the two journalist groups: “In various studies, a predominance of the more active and participatory role with the aim of social and political was shown among German journalists To influence the process itself, while in Anglo-Saxon countries the role of the information broker is at the top of the value hierarchy ”. Renate Köcher speaks of “a right to spiritual guidance” (German journalists) and “unscrupulous enthusiasm for research” (British journalists).

In contrast to many other countries, since the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany one has avoided actively involving the journalists in the respective government policy, since the danger of repeated instrumentalization of the press as a propagandistic fulfillment organ of Nazi propaganda is feared. Since then, Germany has been the only country whose highest organizational form of journalists, the Federal Press Conference , invites government spokesmen to the press conferences . Embedded journalism , as practiced in the USA during the Iraq war, was not planned in Germany until now.

In many countries the image and self-image of journalists are documented through numerous novels, short stories, plays and films. In the USA, for example, The Front Page , the standard work by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur premiered in 1928 , repeatedly appears in new adaptations both on Broadway and in Hollywood (e.g. The Front Page 1931, His Girl for special cases 1940, extra sheet 1974, a woman stands her husband 1988).

Political attitude of journalists

After a series of surveys in German-speaking countries over the past few decades, a large proportion of the journalists surveyed position themselves as left of center. On the other hand, they perceive the political orientation of their medium as something or significantly further to the right of their attitude.

In 2005, a survey of a representative sample of 1,536 journalists from all media branches showed that journalists in Germany have an above-average number of sympathies for the Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen party (35.5%), followed by the SPD (26.0%). CDU / CSU (8.7%) and FDP (6.3%) have a significantly below average number of followers among journalists. A fifth of journalists (19.6%) did not name a party. One possible reason for this is the lower average age of the journalists in contrast to the general population, which is associated with a more frequent preference for the Greens.

A survey of 500 representatively selected journalists in Austria in 2008 also came to the result that media people more than average (34%) named the Greens as the party closest to them. The ÖVP came to 14%, the SPÖ to 9%. A journalist survey carried out throughout Switzerland as part of a journalism study between 2014 and 2016 by the Institute for Applied Media Studies at the ZHAW in collaboration with the University of Neuchâtel showed that almost 70% of the 163 SRG journalists surveyed classify themselves as left or more left. 16% positioned themselves in the political center, 16% saw themselves as right-wing. In private media in Switzerland, 62% of journalists described themselves as left-wing. 14.5% located themselves in the middle and 24% describe themselves as right. Almost 10% placed themselves on the far left, almost 2% on the far right.

The media scientist Vinzenz Wyss , who evaluates the Swiss data, suspects that the journalistic criticism and control function generally correlates with a left-wing social position. Whereby he regards the uniform classification of journalists as left or right as misleading due to the wide range of these terms. The same data shows that the higher the respondents are on the career ladder, the further to the right they position themselves. The studies on Germany do not provide sufficient information on this due to the lack of figures.

The authors of the studies at Freie Universität Berlin point out that the editorial line of the respective medium is usually more important for reporting than the respective individual self-regulation. The personal orientation of a journalist and the editorial line of the associated medium differed in part very clearly.

Changing role self-image

According to two representative journalist surveys in 1993 and 2005, the role self-image, i.e. how the actors see their task in society, has changed in Germany. The ambitions of criticism and control have accordingly decreased, with pure information journalists and news managers dominating. The proportion of journalists who state “criticizing grievances” as a target has fallen from 63% to 57%. The proportion of journalists who state that they are “committed to helping the disadvantaged in the population” has fallen from 43% to 29%, and the proportion of those who “want to control politics, the economy and society” from 37% to 24 %. Conversely, the proportion of journalists who “want to inform as neutrally and precisely as possible” rose from 74% to 89%. The proportion of journalists who “want to explain and convey complex facts” rose from 74% to 80%, and that of those who “want to depict reality exactly as it is” from 66% to 74%.

The picture is somewhat modified for political journalists. According to a study from 2010, the proportion of political journalists who say they “influence the political agenda and put issues on the agenda” or “want to control the areas of politics, economy and society” is less than 50%, but significantly higher than that Average of journalists.

A representative survey of 1,536 journalists showed that journalists reject "morally controversial research methods" in principle, but would still use appropriate working methods "depending on specific situations."

As part of the 2011 Worlds of Journalism Study, journalists from 18 countries were asked about their self-assessments. Using the psychological method of “centering”, the research team worked out the four basic types of the “audience-oriented mediator”, the “critical world changer”, the “opportunistic supporter” and the “distant controller”.


Oprah Winfrey , TV talker from the USA

At the end of the 20th century, writing in newspapers on the continent was still generally regarded as a man's business of high satisfaction. Journalism is largely a male occupation , as can be read in the journalism reference work (1971). A study carried out by the Allensbach Institute for Demoskopie on behalf of the Stiftervereinigung der Presse in 1969 shows that all editors-in-chief, 98% of the department heads and 85% of the editors were men. Noelle-Neumann gave the following explanation for this: Most female journalists give up their jobs with increasing age . Siegfried Weischenberg found in the representative survey "Journalism in Germany II" that the proportion of women of the 48,000 people who are full-time journalists in Germany in 2005 was 37%. But only every fifth editor-in-chief is occupied by a woman, 29% of the department heads and CvDs are women. “In the central departments of current affairs, politics, economics and local issues, journalists are represented according to their share in the profession” writes communication scientist Margreth Lünenborg. "The sports department is still proving to be a high-quality male job, with more women working in the features section."

In contrast to the situation in the print media , women have been able to achieve top positions in the high-paying and high-profile areas of television journalism for many years. Examples are: Sabine Christiansen , Anne Will (news editors); Sandra Maischberger , Maybrit Illner (political talk shows) or Franca Magnani , Gabriele Krone-Schmalz (foreign correspondents).

In Austria, women made up the majority of young journalists (up to 29 years of age) at 58% in 2008. The 30- to 39-year-olds, the largest group among Austria's journalists, were close to parity.

The percentage of women killed while practicing their profession (from 1992) is around 7%.


General assessments

The American journalist and media critic Walter Lippmann coined the term gatekeeper for journalists ; they decide what is withheld from the public and what is passed on. The journalist and non-fiction author Thomas Leif believes that in “agenda-setting” the media can focus on certain topics by picking up and weighting as well as with presentation and placement, while with “agenda-cutting” attempts are made to prevent, suppress or hide certain topics to delay.

Jean Baudrillard sees the most prominent feature of the journalistic profession in the prevention of communication. The exchange of information (parole et réponse) is effectively prevented by the journalist. Instead of a reciprocal space that creates a personal correlation, we are dealing with a “speech without an answer”. Alibi exercises such as letters to the editor etc. do little to change this fact.

The communication scientist Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, who was active as a journalist herself during the National Socialist era , saw the journalism class as particularly resistant to totalitarianism . According to their research, there were only a few journalists who sympathized with the NSDAP before 1933 . The Fischer-Lexikon der Journalistik, published by her, sees this as a reason why the party never succeeded in achieving its goal of seamless control of the press. More recent journalism scholars such as Horst Pöttker , on the other hand, refer to the media empire of Alfred Hugenberg , which journalistically paved the way for later media control by the NSDAP even before 1933. The more recent journalism scholars are thus following the tradition of assuming development to be the result of manipulations by powerful organizations. In contrast, in the Anglo-Saxon region, following the analyzes by Czesław Miłosz , the focus is on the thinking of the individual, “the writer's betrayal of freedom”.

Trust in journalists

A representative survey of 32,000 people across Europe, which professions they trust most, was carried out in 2010 and showed that only 27% of people trust the profession of journalists; they were only three places ahead of the politicians.

On the 2013 professional prestige scale of the Allensbach Institute for Demoscopy, the journalist ranks 12th out of 18, which is in the lower midfield. 13% of Germans consider journalists to be one of the five professions they value most or for which they have the most respect. The television presenter listed separately occupies the penultimate place on the Allensbacher ranking list with a reputation of 3%.

According to the international “GfK Trust in Professions 2014” survey conducted by the GfK Verein, journalists in Germany are one of the professions that the population considers least trustworthy. Only 37% of the Germans surveyed trust this professional group “completely” or “predominantly”. On the corresponding ranking list, the journalist profession ranks 29th out of 32 and thus ranks behind the group “bankers / bank employees”. Only advertising experts, insurance agents and politicians enjoy even less trust on this scale .

In the “Trusted Brands 2015” survey conducted by Reader's Digest magazine , only 26% of survey participants in Germany said they had a lot or quite a lot of trust in journalists. 68% had little or no trust in this profession. Similar values ​​(28% / 66%) were determined for Austria and Switzerland.

The 2013 Global Corruption Barometer by the anti-corruption organization Transparency International also showed a decline in trust: 54% of those surveyed in Germany considered the media to be corrupt or very corrupt, only political parties and the private sector performed even worse.

In 2012, for example, Transparency International called for the abolition of special conditions and price discounts for journalists on goods and services, the so-called journalist discounts or press conditions. 74% of all daily newspaper journalists stated in a study that they use journalist discounts or press conditions. Half of the respondents saw this practice as problematic and 80% are sure that companies offer discounts because they hope it will influence reporting.

Journalism as the fourth estate

Oriana Fallaci (1929–2006), one of the most famous Italian journalists

The freedom of the press anchored in Art. 5 of the Basic Law gives journalists a special role. The journalists are not allowed to be influenced by the state, and besides doctors , lawyers , priests etc. they can also invoke the right to refuse to testify . That is, they can refuse to testify in court about who gave them information about a particular story.

Because precisely because an informant can be so certain that he will not be named , a “control function” can be exercised over the state by exposing irregularities such as corruption . For this reason, journalists and the media are often referred to as the fourth estate in the state .

In addition, journalists inform the public about facts or events that are of general, political, economic or cultural importance. In doing so, they contribute to the process of forming political opinions and will and fulfilling an important social and public task. In order to be able to do justice to their task as a supervisory authority of the society, journalists have special research powers, which regulate the press laws of the countries under the terms "right to information" or "right to information". The areas of assurances and receipt of information of general interest from authorities and offices have already been extended by the highest court rulings to companies where research was necessary in order to uncover corresponding grievances and undesirable developments.

The duty of care is also one of the journalistic tasks. The journalists are obliged to check their content, origin and truthfulness before distributing their news.

Finally, the state press laws of the federal states simply regulate press law by law.


Bob Woodward (* 1943), one of the journalists who uncovered the Watergate affair

During the media crisis from 2002 onwards, the poor order situation for advertisements resulted in the reduction of editorial positions. In 2005, just under 70% of the staff from 1993 worked for newspapers, less than half for news agencies and advertising papers. In 2005, significantly fewer people were able to make a living from journalism than in 1993. In parallel with the better economic development, the number of unemployed journalists decreased again from 2006, and the number of jobs increased significantly. Since the end of 2008, however, several media companies have been cutting jobs due to the severe economic downturn.

Journalists are required to work more and more in the production area. Overall, the work pressure in the editorial offices is increasing, while the number of permanent journalists is falling. At the same time, the number of freelance journalists is growing, while their fees are falling. The trend is towards content suppliers. Abuse of power and greed for sensation brought tabloid journalism in particular into criticism. The journalists' union DJV states: "Quality in journalism requires professional working conditions and social security that meet the journalistic requirements and the responsibility of permanent employees and freelancers."

On the other hand, there are a number of committed investigative journalists who, starting in the late 1960s, have made it their task to use journalistic research to raise awareness of all kinds of grievances. In most cases, this is done through summarized publications in the form of corresponding non-fiction books (such as by Günter Wallraff or Ernst Klee ), for television journalists through critical broadcast formats such as. B. Panorama or Report Munich .

Danger at work

Because of their activity as disseminators and publishers of information and opinions, journalists are the target of terrorists and rulers around the world . Several journalists are killed every year in connection with their work. These figures differ depending on the source. For 2011, Reporters Without Borders named 66 journalists killed, while PEC (Press Emblem Campaign) counted at least 106 journalists killed.

See also



Web links

Commons : Journalists  - Collection of Pictures
Wiktionary: Journalist  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Journalist  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Torsten Oltmanns , Ralf-Dieter Brunowsky: Manager in der Medienfalle BrunoMedia, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-9811506-7-4 , pp. 39-40
  2. ^ Heinz Pürer, Johannes Raabe: Media in Germany. Volume 1: Press, 2nd, revised edition, Konstanz 1996.
  3. Jörg Requate: Journalism as a Profession: Origin and Development of the Journalism Profession in the 19th Century . Germany in International Comparison (=  Critical Studies in History . Volume 109 ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995, ISBN 3-525-35772-9 , pp. 118 f . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  4. Wolf Schneider, Paul-Josef Raue: The new manual of journalism , Reinbek 2003, ISBN 3-499-60434-5 .
  5. , accessed on January 30, 2010
  6. ^ Eckart Klaus Roloff : Editorial deadline at 48 years of age. Occupational medicine / burned out, stressed, seriously ill - this is not uncommon among journalists, even if they suppress the topic. In: Rheinischer Merkur, March 18, 2004, p. 10.
  7. Ian Mayes: Journalism. Right and Wrong , Guardian Books, 2007.
  8. ^ Stephan Weichert and Christian Zabel: Die Alpha-Journalisten . Portrait of Germany's spokesman , Halem, Cologne 2007.
  9. ^ Journalism Mass Communication , Das Fischer Lexikon, editors: Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, Winfried Schulz and Jürgen Wilke, Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt a. M. 1989, p. 63ff
  10. Renate Köcher: Spürhund und Missionar - a comparative study of the professional ethos and understanding of tasks of British and German journalists. Dissertation, Munich 1985, p. 209.
  11. Gunnar Krüger: We're not an exclusive club! The Federal Press Conference in the Adenauer era , LIT-Verlag 2005, ISBN 3-8258-8342-6
  12. a b c d KATAPULT - German journalism: left green and lifted. In: Retrieved April 11, 2019 .
  13. ^ Siegfried Weischenberg, Maja Malik and Armin Scholl: Journalismus in Deutschland 2005. Central findings of the current representative survey of German journalists . In: Media Perspektiven 7/2006, p. 353.
  14. A third of journalists feel green ( memento from August 15, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Die Presse, from December 8, 2008.
  15. ↑ The Greens have a majority among journalists Der Standard, accessed on January 10, 2015
  16. a b Almost three quarters of all SRG journalists are links, accessed on February 14, 2018.
  17. ^ Siegfried Weischenberg / Maja Malik / Armin Scholl: The prompter of the media society. Report on the journalists in Germany . ifk Institute for Communication Science. 2006. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  18. Margreth Lünenborg, Simon Berghofer: Political journalists . Berlin, May 2010, p. 43
  19. ^ Siegfried Weischenberg, Maja Malik and Armin Scholl: Journalismus in Deutschland 2005. Central findings of the current representative survey of German journalists. In: Media Perspektiven 7/2006, p. 357.
  20. Florian Meißner: Cultures of disaster reporting 1st edition. Springer VS, p. 29
  21. Thomas Hanitzsch: Deconstructing Journalism Culture. Toward a Universal Theory. Cultural Meaning of News, 2011, p. 279
  22. Thomas Hanitzsch: Populist Disseminators, Detached Watchdogs, Critical Change Autonomy in 18 Countries. International Communication Gazette, pp. 477-494
  23. ^ Journalism , Das Fischer Lexikon, editors: Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann and Winfried Schulz, Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt a. M. 1971, p. 65.
  24. Margreth Lünenborg in M ​​- People make media, 3/2008 ( Memento from May 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  25. Andy Kaltenbrunner, Matthias Karmasin, Daniela Kraus, Astrid Zimmermann: The Journalists Report . Facultas, Vienna 2007.
  26. ^ Walter Lippmann: Public Opinion (1922), German: The public opinion, Bochum: Brockmeyer 1990.
  27. Agenda Setting / Intermedia-Agenda Setting Federal Agency for Civic Education, accessed on June 2, 2017.
  28. Power without responsibility. The rampant influence of the media and the disinterest of the Federal Agency for Civic Education, accessed on June 2, 2017.
  29. ^ Jean Baudrillard: Pour une critique de l'économie politique du signe , Gallimard, Paris 1995
  30. ^ Journalism , Das Fischer Lexikon, editor: Professor Dr. Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann and Dr. Winfried Schulz, Fischer paperback, Frankfurt a. M. 1971, p. 258
  31. Czeslaw Milosz: Seduced Thinking , Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1959.
  32. In good hands: The most trustworthy professions in Austria Die Presse, accessed on January 11, 2015
  33. ^ Institute for Demoskopie Allensbach: Allensbacher Berufsprestige-Skala 2013. . Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  34. GfK-Verein publishes international study on trust in professions. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  35. Reader's Digest: Trusted Brands 2015 / Trust in Professions. Retrieved on March 20, 2015 ( Memento of the original from March 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  36. In the English original: "a great deal / quite a lot" vs. "not much / not at all" (trust in professions).
  37. Global Corruption Barometer 2013. For the first time, media are perceived as more corrupt than public administration and parliament. (No longer available online.) In: ransparency International Deutschland eV, July 9, 2013, archived from the original on August 23, 2015 ; Retrieved October 30, 2015 (press release). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  38. Transparency International: The majority of Germans consider the media to be corrupt. In: Zeit Online, July 9, 2013, accessed October 30, 2015 .
  39. Global Corruption Barometer 2013 - National results. In: Transparency International, accessed October 30, 2015 .
  40. Transparency calls for the end of the journalist discounts ( memento of the original from December 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Transparency International, accessed October 30, 2015 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  41. Discounts with aftertaste ( memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Media Monitor, accessed October 30, 2015 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  42. Media industry: A lot of work, but few permanent jobs -, January 21, 2008 ( Memento from January 3, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  43. Source:
  44. ^ Claudia Mast: Journalism in the Internet Age. Content supplier or more? (PDF; 1.4 MB). Klaus Jarchow: The content suppliers.
  45. Charter “Quality in Journalism”, DJV 2002
  46. Reporters Without Borders 2011 annual balance sheet (PDF; 154 kB) As of December 22, 2011.
  47. Press Emblem Campaign PEC Annual Report 2011 Status: December 19, 2011.