Heinrich Heine

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heinrich Heine (painting by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim , 1831)
Heinrich Heine's signature

Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (* December 13, 1797 as Harry Heine in Düsseldorf , Duchy of Berg ; † February 17, 1856 in Paris ) was one of the most important German poets , writers and journalists of the 19th century.

Heinrich Heine is considered to be one of the last representatives and at the same time as a conqueror of Romanticism . He made everyday language capable of poetry , elevated the feature pages and travelogue to an art form and gave German literature a previously unknown, elegant lightness. The works of hardly any other poet in the German language have been translated and set to music so often to this day. As a critical, politically engaged journalist, essayist , satirist and polemicist , Heine was both admired and feared. In the German Confederation occupied by publication bans, he spent his second half of life in the Parisian exile . Anti-Semites and nationalists were hostile to Heine because of his Jewish origins and his political stance beyond death. The outsider role shaped his life, his work and the history of its reception .

life and work

Origin, youth and years of apprenticeship

Betty Heine (painting by Isidor Popper )
Heine later described Napoleon's entry into Düsseldorf in 1811 in Ideas. The book Le Grand .
Salomon Heine (1767-1844); supported his nephew Heinrich as a wealthy uncle until his death
Amalie Heine, Heinrich's cousin and first love

“The city of Düsseldorf is very beautiful, and when you think of it in the distance and you happen to be born there, you feel strange. I was born there and I feel like I'm going home right away. And when I say go home, I mean Bolkerstrasse and the house where I was born [...] "

- Heinrich Heine : 1827 in ideas. The book Le Grand

Heine's place of birth is known, but his exact date of birth is still unclear. All contemporary files that could provide information about this have been lost over the past 200 years. Heine jokingly described himself as the “first man of the century” because he was born on New Year's Eve 1800. Occasionally he also gave 1799 as the year of birth. In Heine research, December 13, 1797 is the most likely date of birth.

The Heine family has been recorded in Bückeburg since the 17th century . Harry Heine - his maiden name - was the oldest of four children of the cloth merchant Samson Heine (born August 19, 1764 in Hanover; † December 2, 1829 in Hamburg) and his wife Betty (actually Peira) , née van Geldern (* 27. November 1771 in Düsseldorf; † September 3, 1859 in Hamburg). She was the great-granddaughter of the electoral court chamber agent Joseph Jacob van Geldern , in whose house the first synagogue in Düsseldorf was established at the beginning of the 18th century . Through his mother's family, Heine was a third cousin of Karl Marx , with whom he later became friends. His siblings were

  • Charlotte (born October 18, 1800 in Düsseldorf, † October 14, 1899 in Hamburg),
  • Gustav (* approx. 1803 in Düsseldorf; † November 15, 1886 in Vienna ), the later Baron Heine-Geldern and publisher of the Vienna Foreign Gazette as well
  • Maximilian (* approx. 1804; † 1879), later a doctor in Saint Petersburg .

They all grew up in a home that was largely assimilated and shaped by the spirit of the Haskala - the Jewish Enlightenment .

From 1803 Harry Heine attended Hein Hertz Rintelsohn's private Israelite school. When the Palatinate-Bavarian government, to which the Duchy of Berg and its capital Düsseldorf were subordinate, allowed Jewish children to attend Christian schools in 1804, he switched to the municipal elementary school, today's Max School in Citadellstrasse, and in 1807 to the preparatory class in Düsseldorf Lyceum, today's Görres-Gymnasium , which worked in the spirit of the late enlightenment. He had been attending the lyceum, which was run by Catholic religious, since 1810. He and his brother were the only Jewish students there for a long time. In 1814, Heine left the Lyceum without a leaving certificate because, following family tradition, he was supposed to prepare for a commercial profession at a commercial school.

As a result of the French Revolution , Heine's childhood and youth fell at a time of great change. In 1811, the 13-year-old saw Napoleon I enter Düsseldorf. Maximilian Joseph von Bayern ceded sovereignty over the Duchy of Berg to the Emperor of the French in 1806. In some biographical writings there is the unsubstantiated assumption that Heine could have claimed French citizenship for this reason. Contrary to later claims of the anti-Semitic historian Heinrich von Treitschke , he never did this. As the Grand Duchy of Berg , his home was ruled by Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat from 1806 to 1808 and by Napoleon himself from 1808 to 1813. As a member state of the Rhine Confederation , the country was under strong French influence. Heine revered the emperor all his life because of the introduction of the civil code , which came into force in 1804 and legally equated Jews and non-Jews. After the fall of Napoleon, Heine experienced the political and territorial reorganization of the continent under the restorative Metternich system , which was considered to be the epitome of the persecution and suppression of democracy, freedom of the press, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly.

In the years 1815 and 1816, Heine initially worked as a trainee at the Frankfurt banker Rindskopff. At that time, in the Judengasse in Frankfurt , he got to know the oppressive and previously alien ghetto existence of many poorer Jews. At that time, Heine and his father also visited the Frankfurt Masonic lodge at the rising dawn . Under the Freemasons, they experienced the social recognition that they as Jews were otherwise often denied. Many years later, in 1844, Heine became a member of the Les Trinosophes Lodge in Paris.

In 1816 he moved to the banking house of his wealthy uncle Salomon Heine in Hamburg . In contrast to his brother Samson, he was highly successful in business and a multiple millionaire. Until his death in 1844, Salomon supported his nephew financially, although he had little understanding of his literary interests. His saying has been passed down: "If he had learned something right, he wouldn't have to write books." Harry Heine had already made his first lyrical attempts during his school days at the lyceum. Since 1815 he wrote regularly, and in 1817 poems by him were published for the first time in the magazine Hamburgs Wächter . Nevertheless, Heine did not feel comfortable in Hamburg. In letters to his Düsseldorf school friend Christian Sethe, he described the city as a "haggling town" and a "lousy merchant's nest", in which there were "enough whores, but no muses". According to the literary scholar Anna Danneck, Heine's self-image as a rebellious poet was already evident here in the Hamburg area, which was perceived as materialistic.

Since Heine had neither an inclination nor a talent for financial transactions, his uncle finally set up a cloth business for him in 1818. But "Harry Heine & Comp." Had to file for bankruptcy in 1819 . Even then, the owner preferred to devote himself to poetry. Harry's unhappy love for his cousin Amalie was also detrimental to family peace . He later processed the unrequited affection in the romantic love poems in the Book of Songs . In the poem Affrontenburg , he described the oppressive atmosphere in his uncle's house, where he felt increasingly unwelcome .

Studied in Bonn, Göttingen and Berlin

Memorial plaque on the house at Oberstrasse 24 in Harzgerode

Probably the quarrels in the Salomon family finally convinced Heine to give in to his nephew's insistence and enable him to study far away from Hamburg. In 1819 Heine began studying law and camera science , although he was not interested in either of these subjects. First he enrolled in the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn and became a member of the Allemannia fraternity , which appeared under the cover name of generality .

Heine took only a single legal in Bonn lecture , however, he heard in the winter term 1819/20 the lecture on history of the German language and poetry of August Wilhelm Schlegel . The co-founder of Romanticism exerted a strong literary influence on the young Heine, but this did not prevent him from mocking Schlegel in later works. The same thing happened to another of his Bonn teachers, Ernst Moritz Arndt , whose nationalist views Heine repeatedly targeted in later poems and prose. During his time in Bonn, Heine translated works by the romantic English poet Lord Byron into German.

In the winter semester of 1820/21 he went to the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen , which he found extremely backward and not very stimulating. He only rated the historian Georg Friedrich Sartorius' lecture on German history as positive . Years later he still described the university town in Die Harzreise full of sarcasm and irony:

“In general, the inhabitants of Göttingen are divided into students, professors, Philistines and cattle; what four classes are nothing less than strictly separated. The livestock is the most important. To count the names of all students and all decent and disorderly professors here would be too long; Also, at this moment I don't remember all the student names, and there are some professors among the professors who don't yet have a name. The number of Philistines from Göttingen must be very large, like sand, or rather, like dung by the sea; verily, when I saw them in the morning, with their dirty faces and white bills, planted in front of the gates of the academic court, I could hardly understand how God could only create so many rags. "

- travel pictures

Just a few weeks after his arrival, Heine had to leave the university again. The university management had heard that he had challenged his fellow student Wilhelm Wibel to a duel because of an insult . Wibel as the offender was then expelled , while Heine received the consilium abeundi . After Heine had contracted a venereal disease in a brothel , the fraternity he had joined in Bonn excluded him a little later for "offenses against chastity ". Klaus Oldenhage sees the exclusion more as a consequence of the anti-Semitic resolutions of the Dresden Boys' Day of 1820.

Memorial plaque on the house at Behrenstrasse 12 in Berlin-Mitte

Heine moved to the Berlin University , where he studied from 1821 to 1823 and u. a. Heard lectures by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel . Its philosophy shaped Heine's understanding of history and art theory. Like the Young Hegelians, however, he converted the conservative elements of Hegelian thought "into social and religious radicalism". Heine's anecdote about his philosophy teacher, which is often retold, fits in with this: “When I was once displeased with the word: 'Everything that is is reasonable', he smiled strangely and remarked: It could also mean 'Everything that is reasonable must be '. He looked around hastily, but soon calmed down, because only Heinrich Beer had heard the word. "

Heine soon made contact with the literary circles of Berlin and was a regular guest at the Elise von Hohenhausen salon and the so-called Rahel Varnhagen's second salon . Rahel and her husband Karl August Varnhagen von Ense remained on friendly terms with Heine and promoted his career by discussing his early works positively and establishing further contacts for him, for example to Varnhagen's sister Rosa Maria Assing , whose salon he frequented in Hamburg . Varnhagen von Ense was in lively correspondence with him until Heine's death.

During his time in Berlin , Heine made his debut as a book author. At the beginning of 1822 his poems were published in Maurer's bookstore , and in 1823 the tragedies were published by Dümmler Verlag , along with a lyrical interlude . Heine had initially attached great importance to his tragedies Almansor and William Ratcliff , but they were unsuccessful. The first performance of the Almansor had to be canceled in Braunschweig in 1823 due to public protests, the Ratcliff never came on stage during his lifetime.

In the years 1822 to 1824, Heine dealt intensively with Judaism for the first time: In Berlin he was an active member of the Association for Culture and Science of the Jews . a. with Leopold Zunz , one of the founders of the science of Judaism , and in 1824 began work on the fragmentary novel The Rabbi von Bacherach . On a trip to Posen , which he undertook from Berlin in 1822, he first encountered Hasidism , which fascinated him but with which he could not identify. In the spring of 1823, two years before his conversion to Christianity , he wrote in a letter to his friend Immanuel Wohlwill: "I too do not have the strength to wear a beard, and to have Judemauschel called after me, and to fast, etc." Baptism pushed Jewish topics into the background in Heine's work. However, they kept him busy for a lifetime and came to the fore again, especially in his later work, for example in the Hebrew Melodies , the third book of the Romanzero .

Heinrich Heine monument in the spa gardens of Heiligenstadt

Doctorate, baptism and platen affair

In 1824 Heine returned to Göttingen, where he became a member of the country team's Corps Guestphalia . He passed his exams in May of the following year and was awarded a doctorate in law in July 1825. In order to increase his chances of employment as a lawyer, Heine was baptized Evangelical-Lutheran in Heiligenstadt in June 1825, immediately after passing his exams, and took the first name Christian Johann Heinrich . From then on he called himself Heinrich Heine.

At first he tried to keep the conversion to Christianity a secret: He was not baptized in the church, but in the pastor's apartment with the godfather as the only witness. Religiously completely indifferent, he saw in baptism "nothing but a mere usefulness fact " and in the baptismal certificate only the "Entre Billet to European culture". However, his plans to settle down as a lawyer in Hamburg failed at the end of the same year. And he found that many bearers of this culture did not accept a baptized Jew like him as their own. Heine, however, was not prepared to accept dismissals and insults without being contradicted.

August Graf von Platen, with whom Heine got into a violent argument

This was particularly evident in the so-called Platen affair : a literary dispute with the poet August Graf von Platen developed into a personal dispute, as a result of which Heine was also attacked because of his Jewish origins. In a comedy published in 1829, Platen described him as “ Petrark of the Tabernacle Festival ” and “the most insolent of the mortal sex of the people”. He accused him of "pride in the synagogue" and wrote: "... but I don't want to be his sweetheart [...] because his kisses have a garlic smell."

Heine evaluated these and other statements as part of a campaign that was supposed to thwart his application for a professorship at Munich University.

“When the priests in Munich first attacked me and brought the Jews up to me, I laughed - I thought it was mere stupidity. But when I smelled the system, when I saw how the ridiculous ghost picture gradually became a threatening vampire , when I saw through the intentions of the Platan satyrs , [...] I girded my loin and hit as hard as possible, as quickly as possible. "

- Letter to Varnhagen von Ense

The blow came in literary form in the third part of the travel pictures: In The Baths of Lucca , Heine criticized Platen's poetry as sterile and attributed this to the count's homosexuality , which he made public with it. He called him a warm friend and wrote that the Count was more of a rump than a man of head .

The dispute ultimately damaged both adversaries significantly. Platen, who saw himself made socially impossible, remained in voluntary exile in Italy . Heine, in turn, found little understanding and little public support for his approach. Without mentioning the cause and circumstances of the affair, critics accused him again and again of “lack of character” because of his statements until the recent past. Others, like the contemporary literary critic Karl Herloßsohn , admitted that Heine had only paid Platen back with the same coin.

King Ludwig I of Bavaria was the target of numerous mocking verses by Heine

Heine blamed the anti-Jewish attacks Platen and others responsible for the fact that King Ludwig I of Bavaria did not award him the professorship, which was already believed to be safe . For this he later also thought of the monarch with a whole series of mocking verses, for example in hymns of praise to King Ludwig :

“This is Mr. Ludwig von Bayerland.
Likewise there is little;
The Bavarians revered in him
the ancestral king. "

- New poems

The hoped-for consequences of baptism did not materialize, and Heine later expressly regretted his conversion to Christianity. He wrote to his friend Moses Moser in January 1826:

“I very much regret that I was baptized; I still don't see that I've been better since then, on the contrary, I've had nothing but bad luck since then. "

- Letter to Moses Moser dated January 9, 1826

And from the North Sea he wrote to him in August 1826:

“But it is quite certain that I feel compelled to say valet to the German fatherland. Less the pleasure of hiking than the agony of personal circumstances (e.g. the Jew who can never be washed up) drives me away. "

- Letter to Moses Moser dated August 8, 1826

For Klaus Briegleb , this quote is key evidence for his thesis that Heine should be understood as a genuinely Jewish writer in the diaspora , indeed as a “modern Marrane ”, i.e. H. as a “baptized person who remains Jewish at heart”. Briegleb “fixed his comprehensive interpretation of the way of thinking and writing of the exiled Heine” to the leading figure of the “eternal Jew”. Briegleb's thesis met with disagreement among experts. Nonetheless, almost all biographers emphasize, albeit less pointedly than Briegleb, the importance of Heine's Jewish origins and the equality he was denied for Heine's life and poetry. The literary critic Marcel Reich-Ranicki , in particular , took the view that Heine's emigration to Paris was less politically motivated than his exclusion from German society. In France, Heine was considered a German and thus a foreigner , in Germany, however, he was always considered a Jew and thus an outcast .

With the Platen affair, Heine's last attempt to get a job as a lawyer in one of the German states had failed. He therefore decided to earn his living as a freelance writer, which was unusual for the circumstances at the time.

First literary success

Heine published his first poems ( A Dream, Even Strange, and With Roses, Cypresses and Flittergold ) as early as 1816 in the magazine Hamburgs Wächter . They appeared under the pseudonym Sy. Freudhold Riesenharf , an anagram by Harry Heine, Dusseldorff . After the publishing house FA Brockhaus had rejected the publication of his first volume of poetry in 1821, he published the poems of H. Heine in 1822 at Maurer's bookstore in Berlin. The narrow volume comprised 58 of his own works, including later well-known such as Die Grenadiers and Belsatzar , as well as four translations of poems by Lord Byron. In 1823 the tragedies followed, along with a lyric interlude , which u. a. included the Almansor created in 1821 . In it, Heine dealt for the first time in detail with the Islamic culture of Moorish Andalusia , which he repeatedly celebrated in numerous poems and whose demise he mourned. The play takes place shortly after the fall of Granada and deals with the situation of the remaining Muslims, the Moriscs , who were no longer allowed to practice their religion under the government of the Catholic Kings . In the Almansor there is Heine's famous anti- book burn quote , which refers to the destruction of the Koran and other works of Arabic literature in early modern Spain.

That was just a prelude, where you
burn books , you end up burning people.

In 1824 the collection of thirty-three poems , including Heine's best-known work in Germany: The Loreley , appeared in the magazine Der Gesellschafter or Blätter für Geist und Herz . In the same year, during a trip to the Harz Mountains, he visited Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whom he greatly admired, in Weimar . Two years earlier he had sent him his first volume of poetry with an exuberant dedication, without Goethe's answering. “This meeting was uncomfortable for both of them,” writes his biographer Joseph A. Kruse. In contrast to his temperament, Heine was self-conscious and, in his opinion, Goethe received him “unduly coldly”. In many of Heine's descriptions of his life, it is described that he answered Goethe's question about his current work: “a Faust”. Then Goethe said goodbye to him ungraciously. Max Brod casts doubt on this anecdote, since it was passed down solely through Heine's "unreliable brother Max". There is no mention of this in Heine's letters about the meeting.

Book of songs , title page of the first edition, 1827
Heine's publisher Julius Campe
Heinrich Heine (1829), drawing by Franz Theodor Kugler

In 1826, Heine published the travelogue Die Harzreise , which was his first major public success. With its descriptions of nature and landscape, interspersed poems, narrated dreams and frequent allusions to fairy tales and legends, this report is most strongly committed to romantic patterns of all his travel pictures . In the same year, Heine's lifelong business relationship began with Julius Campe in Hamburg, and Heine's works were published by his publisher from then on. In October 1827 , Hoffmann and Campe published the volume of poetry, Buch der Lieder , a complete edition of Heine's previously published poetry. According to Heine's own admission, the basic motif of unhappy, unfulfilled love returns in an almost monotonous way. The publication established Heine's fame and is still popular today. The romantic, often folksong-like tone of these and later poems, which Robert Schumann , among others, set to music in his Dichterliebe , hit the nerve not only of its time.

Heine saw himself as a “runaway romantic”. He wrote to his college friend Karl August Varnhagen von Ense from Paris: “The millennial empire of romanticism has come to an end, and I myself was his last and abdicated fable king.” Heine overcame the romantic tone by he ironically undermined it and also used the stylistic devices of the romantic poem for verses of political content. Here is an example of the ironic break in which he makes fun of sentimental-romantic feelings of being moved by nature:

The young lady stood by the sea
And sighed long and fearfully.
She was so moved by
the sunset.

My girl! Be awake,
this is an old piece;
Here in front it goes under
and returns from behind.

Heine himself experienced the sea for the first time in 1827 and 1828 while traveling to England and Italy . He described his impressions in further travel pictures , which he published between 1826 and 1831 in a total of four volumes. These include the North Sea cycle as well as the works The Baths of Lucca and Ideas. The book Le Grand , the latter a commitment to Napoleon and the achievements of the French Revolution . Heine's admiration for Napoleon was nonetheless not undivided, in the travel pictures it is said: “[...] my homage is not to the actions, but only to the genius of the man. I absolutely love him only up to the eighteenth Brumaire - then he betrayed his freedom. "He proved to be a funny and sarcastic commentator when, for example, during his trip to Italy in Genoa he wrote:" Yes, it seems to me at times, the devil, the nobility and them Jesuits only exist as long as one believes in them. ” Although his travel pictures often refer to models such as Laurence Sternes Sentimental Journey through France and Italy or Goethe's Italian Journey , they consciously set themselves apart from the usual travel literature through“ dedicated subjectivization and politicization of perspective ” from. The travel pictures were of central importance for a whole generation of liberal German intellectuals, especially for the authors of Junge Deutschland , who “took up Heine's model both in terms of content and form”. Towards the end of his life he remembered that they "struck like a thunderstorm in the time of putrefaction and mourning".

The time of the restoration was a. shaped by the Karlsbad resolutions of 1819. The censorship introduced with them in the German Confederation , to which all Heine's publications were also subject, he knew how to circumvent satirically, as in 1827 in the book Le Grand with the following, allegedly censored text:

 The German censors —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— - -
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— - - —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— Fools —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— —— ——
—— —— —— —— ——

From November 1827, when he became editor of the New General Political Annals in Munich, according to Georg Lukács , Heine got into a “constant guerrilla war with the censors for the general public”. Since that time he was gradually perceived as a great literary talent, and his fame spread throughout Germany and Europe.

Exile in Paris

Heinrich Heine (1837)
Eugène Delacroix 'painting Freedom Leading the People from 1830 celebrated the spirit of the July Revolution

During a recreational stay on Heligoland in the summer of 1830, Heine learned of the beginning of the July Revolution , which he welcomed enthusiastically. In his letters from Helgoland , which were only published as the second book of his Börne memorandum in 1840, it says under August 10, 1830:

“I am the son of the revolution and I take up my feyed weapons again, about which my mother pronounced her magic blessing ... flowers! Flowers! I want to crown my head in agony. And the Leyer, hand me the Leyer so that I can sing a battle song ... Words like flaming stars that shoot down from above and burn the palaces and illuminate the huts ... "

- Ludwig Börne. A memorandum

Increasingly hostile to his Jewish origins and his political views - especially in Prussia - and tired of the censorship in Germany, Heine moved to Paris in 1831 . At that time it was not yet possible to speak of exile in the strict sense of the word, only the later publication bans in 1833 and 1835 made it so. His second phase of life and creativity began in Paris. For him, Paris had a "similarly vitalising meaning" as "for Goethe the flight to Italy", judges his biographer Max Brod . Georg Lukács also considers the move after the July Revolution to be eminently significant for Heine's biography: it made “a revolutionary publicist of European format and European significance out of him”.

In October 1832, Heine wrote in a letter to the composer Ferdinand Hiller :

“If someone asks you how I am here, you say: like a fish in the water. Or rather, tell people; that when a fish in the sea asks the other how it is, the latter answers: I am like Heine in Paris. "

His first work from France was a report on the painting exhibition in the Paris Salon of 1831 for the German magazine Morgenblatt for educated estates . In it he discussed u. a. the painting Liberty Leads the People by Eugène Delacroix from the previous year .

The French capital inspired Heine to write a veritable flood of essays, political articles, polemics, memoranda, poems and prose works. But throughout his life he longed for Germany, as his poem In der Fremde shows:

I once had a beautiful fatherland.
The oak tree
grew so tall there, the violets nodded gently.
It was a dream.

That kissed me in German and spoke in German
(you can hardly believe how good it sounded)
the word: "I love you!"
It was a dream.

He was only to see this fatherland again twice, but remained in constant contact with the conditions there. In trying to bring the Germans closer to France and the French to Germany, he achieved analyzes of almost prophetic quality. Earlier than most of his contemporaries, Heine recognized the destructive trait in German nationalism , which - unlike the French - was increasingly distancing itself from the ideas of democracy and popular sovereignty. Rather, the poet felt in him an underlying hatred of everything foreign, as he wrote in the poem This side and the other side of the Rhine (appendix to the Romanzero ):

But we understand each other bass,
We Teutons on the hatred.
It wells from the depths of the soul,
German hatred! But it swells immensely,
And with its poison it almost fills
the Heidelberg barrel .

Johann Friedrich von Cotta

While he familiarized the French audience with German Romanticism and German philosophy, Heine tried to bring his German readers closer to French culture and to counteract the French hatred that was widespread in Germany. He increasingly assumed the role of a spiritual mediator between the two countries. Although he sometimes made use of national stereotypes, he certainly contributed to a differentiated image of the other country. He wrote for the two most important journalistic organs of both countries: the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung and the Revue des Deux Mondes (which is still published today) . From 1832 he was the Paris correspondent for the Allgemeine Zeitung . Founded by Johann Friedrich Cotta , the most important publisher of Weimar Classics , it was the most widely read German-language daily newspaper at the time. In it, Heine presented his position for the first time in a pan-European framework.

For example, he wrote a series of articles for the Allgemeine Zeitung , which his Hamburg publisher Julius Campe published in book form in December 1832 under the title French Conditions . It is considered a milestone in German literary and press history, as Heine founded modern, political journalism with it in terms of form and content, a history of the present whose style has shaped the German feature pages to this day.

The articles, which fully breathed the liberal spirit of the July Revolution, were perceived as a political sensation. Cotta's paper printed the reports anonymously, but anyone interested in politics knew who the author was. As enthusiastic as the readership, the authorities were outraged by the articles. As a result of the July Revolution in Paris in 1830, the national-liberal, democratic opposition had formed in Germany, which demanded ever louder for constitutions in the federal states . The Austrian State Chancellor Metternich had Cotta intervene, so that the Allgemeine Zeitung stopped the series of articles and no longer reprinted Chapter IX supplied by Heine. Against Heine's will, Julius Campe also submitted the manuscript of French conditions to the censorship authority.

Heine knew French so well that he could take part in the discussions in the Paris salons, but not well enough to write sophisticated texts in this language. That is why he continued to write his texts published in France in German and had them translated.

Publication bans in Germany

Censorship and police in the German Confederation reacted to French conditions with bans, house searches, confiscations and interrogations. Especially Heine's preface to the German book edition aroused the displeasure of the authorities. Campe then did not print it, a decision that put a strain on his relationship with Heine and prompted Heine to publish an uncensored separate edition of the preface in Paris . Campe then also brought a reprint, but it had to be pulped again. In 2010 the Hoffmann und Campe publishing house published a facsimile edition of the manuscript “French Conditions”, the original of which was previously thought to be lost.

As a result, Heine's works - including all future works - were initially banned in Prussia in 1833 and, by resolution of the Frankfurt Bundestag , in all member states of the German Confederation in 1835 . The same fate met the poets of Junge Deutschland . In the resolution of the Bundestag it was said that the members of this group aimed to "attack the Christian religion in the most impudent way in fictional writings accessible to all classes of readers, to degrade the existing social conditions and to destroy all discipline and morality". On April 16, 1844, the Kingdom of Prussia issued border arrest warrants against Marx, Heine and other employees of socialist periodicals in the event that they should set foot on Prussian soil; In December 1844, deportation orders were issued against them by the French Foreign Minister François Guizot . Heine was protected from deportation by the fact that he was born in the Rhineland, which was then occupied by France. Paris finally became Heine's exile .

The publication bans in Germany deprived Heine of part of his sources of income. In doing so, he later justified the temporary acceptance of a state pension by the French government. The payments, which totaled 37,400 francs, were granted to him for almost eight years and canceled after the February Revolution of 1848.

Friendships and marriage

Heine enjoyed life in the French capital and came into contact with the greats of European cultural life living there, such as Hector Berlioz , Ludwig Börne , Frédéric Chopin , George Sand , Alexandre Dumas and Alexander von Humboldt . It gradually became a matter of course that prominent German writers would visit him when they were in Paris, including Franz Grillparzer , Friedrich Hebbel and Georg Herwegh . The composer Richard Wagner also interacted with Heine during his two-year stay in Paris. Among the compatriots who sought Heine's acquaintance were a number of Metternich's spies, whose secret reports were made public in 1912.

For a while, Heine also associated with utopian socialists such as Prosper Enfantin , a pupil of Saint-Simon . Heine's hope of finding a “new gospel”, a “third testament” in his quasi-religious movement, had contributed to his decision to move to Paris. After an initial fascination, he soon turned away from the Saint-Simonists, also because they asked him to put his artistry at their service. In 1835, when the failure of the movement became evident, Heine wrote:

"We [the pantheists] do not want to be seyn seyn , no frugal citizens, no cheap presidents: we are creating a democracy of equally glorious, equally holy, equally blessed gods. [...] The Saint-Simonists understood and wanted something of this kind. But they stood on poor ground and the surrounding materialism weighed them down, at least for a while. In Germany she was better appreciated. "

Heine's wife Mathilde (Augustine Crescence Mirat)

In 1833, Heine met Augustine Crescence Mirat (1815-1883), then 18-year-old shoe seller, whom he called Mathilde. He lived with her probably since October 1834, but did not marry her until seven years later. The marriage should be childless.

Mathilde had lived as a so-called grisette in Paris since 1830 , that is: as a single, working, young woman who was not considered "respectable" by the standards of the time. She was attractive, with large dark eyes, dark brown hair, a full face, and a much admired figure. Her high-pitched "warbler" voice was characteristic, which made an infantile impression on many, but was probably fascinating on Heine. He seems to have fallen in love with Mathilde spontaneously. Many of his friends, on the other hand, among them Marx and Engels, rejected his association with the simple and fun-loving woman. But Heine also seems to have loved it because it offered him a contrast to his intellectual surroundings. At the beginning of their relationship he had tried to give his country friend a little education. At his instigation, she learned to read and write, and he financed several visits to educational institutions for young women.

Their life together was sometimes turbulent: violent marital quarrels, often triggered by Mathilde's generous use of money, were usually followed by reconciliation. In addition to loving descriptions of his wife, Heine also contains malicious verses, such as the one from the poem Celimene :

Your tricks, your pitfalls,
I certainly endured quietly
Andre people in my place would
have beaten you to death long ago.

Heine valued her even though - or precisely because - Mathilde spoke no German and therefore had no real idea of ​​his importance as a poet. Her saying has come down to us: “My husband kept making poetry; but I don't think that was worth much, because he was never satisfied with it. ”It was precisely this ignorance that Heine interpreted as a sign that Mathilde loved him as a person and not as a prominent poet.

Heine kept quiet about his Jewish origins all her life. The marriage took place on August 31, 1841 in Paris, in the Church of St-Sulpice , at Mathilde's request according to a Catholic rite. The reason for the wedding was a duel that had resulted from an initially purely literary dispute.

Romantic school and controversy with Ludwig Börne

Ludwig Börne (around 1835)

Important works of those years were The Romantic School (1836), the fragment of the novel The Rabbi von Bacherach (1840) and the memorandum of Ludwig Börne (1840).

The Romantic School summarized magazine articles that had appeared in 1833 under the title On the history of modern beautiful literature in Germany . In it, Heine wanted to give the French a more up-to-date and realistic picture of German Romantic literature than the influential De l'Allemagne by Madame de Staël from 1813 had drawn. While he sharply criticized the Romantics for their turn to the Catholic Middle Ages and a narrow, anti-French patriotism ordered from above, he placed Goethe with great respect alongside Homer and Shakespeare . Nonetheless, he also accused his poetry of being unrealistic. As early as 1830, in a letter to Varnhagen, he had critically commented on the “artistic comfort of the great genius who rejects time, who is himself the ultimate purpose”. The central message of the scripture is that not only the romantic school, but also the “art period” he had shaped, came to an end with Goethe's death. A new literary school no longer ignores social reality and stands for the unity of word and deed. This meant Junge Deutschland and its predecessor Jean Paul , who represented such a program. He saw himself at the same time as the last poet of the old lyric school and the pioneer of the “new school”, the “modern German poetry”. In particular, Heine confessed to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in the Romantic School , whom he saw as a kindred spirit and as a “champion of freedom of thought and a fighter against clerical intolerance”, in keeping with the ideal of Young Germany. He is the one writer he "loves most in the whole history of literature [...]". A year before the Romantic School appeared , Heine had already stated in On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany that “what time feels and thinks and needs and wants” is “the material of modern literature”.

With the Börne memorandum, according to the literary scholar Gerhard Höhn "one of the most artfully crafted works of Heine", the author responded to the letters from Paris (1830–1833) of his former friend, who died in 1837. In them Börne had “radically questioned Heine's integrity” and accused him of “weakness of character” and “commercial opportunism” and accused him of having betrayed the goals of the revolution. Similar to the dispute with von Platen , personal animosities also played a role in the dispute with the radical republican publicist Ludwig Börne , who was better known than Heine in his day . The real causes, however, were of a fundamental nature: In Heine's dualistic perspective, it was a duel between “Jewish spiritualism”, which he assumed to Börne, and the “Hellenistic glory of life”, which he, following Goethe, claimed for himself. In this respect, the Börne portrait turned into a self-portrait of his self-image as a poet and intellectual.

Throughout his career, Heine sought to be non-partisan as an artist. He saw himself as a free, independent poet and journalist and was not committed to any political trend throughout his life. He initially distinguished himself from Ludwig Börne in a way that he could find benevolent: “I am an ordinary guillotine , and Börne is a steam guillotine.” But when it came to art and poetry, Heine always admitted the quality of a work rank higher than the intention or disposition of the author.

Borne found this attitude opportunistic. He repeatedly accused Heine of a lack of conviction and demanded that a poet take a clear position in the struggle for freedom. With the dispute over whether and to what extent a writer should be partisan, Heine and Börne anticipated later debates about political morality in literature. There were similar disputes in the 20th century, for example between Heinrich and Thomas Mann , Gottfried Benn and Johannes R. Becher , Georg Lukács and Theodor W. Adorno , Jean-Paul Sartre and Claude Simon . Hans Magnus Enzensberger therefore considers the dispute between Heine and Börne to be the "most momentous controversy in German literary history".

The memorandum did not appear until 1840, three years after Börne's death under the misleading title Heinrich Heine about Ludwig Börne, which was not authorized by Heine, and contained mockery about the triangular relationship between Börne, his girlfriend Jeanette Wohl and her husband, the Frankfurt merchant Salomon Strauss. Heine was resented for this even by otherwise benevolent readers. For example, the former young German Karl Gutzkow wrote in a review of the book (1840) that it showed Heine “completely in his moral dissolution”. The young Friedrich Engels described the work as “the most worthless thing that has ever been written in German”. Strauss, on the other hand, felt himself embarrassed by the publication, later claimed that he had publicly slapped the poet because of his statements. Then Heine challenged him to a pistol duel. Before that happened, he married Mathilde in 1841, whom he wanted to have materially provided for in the event of his death. During the exchange of fire, Heine was only slightly injured in the hip. Strauss was completely unharmed.

Travel to Germany and inheritance dispute

In 1844 Heine's second volume of poetry, Neue Gedichte, was published . Its first parts ( New Spring and Various ) were still related to the book of songs in terms of their history and content . There are "echoes of the early poetry", although "for the German lyric unusually open sensual eroticism" of Different excited critics and audiences offense. Other parts, like Germany. A winter fairy tale , which only appeared later as a separate print, and the Zeitgeichte prompted the Prussian authorities to confiscate and ban them immediately after publication, although the publisher's concerns had already prevented some particularly sharp political poems, including the Weberlied , from being recorded. Gerhard Höhn pointed out the “hidden basic structure” of the individual parts of the volume: “Love and suffering are treated in four different ways in the four parts […]. Thus, in New Spring, failing love dominates, in Various disillusioned suffering from the purely physical enjoyment of love, in romances deceptive love and in the end of the poems the suffering love for the changed, German fatherland. "

Heine at the time of his trips to Germany (1843/44)

The night thoughts from 1843 with the often quoted opening verse form the conclusion of the New Poems

If I think of Germany at night,
then I am brought to sleep,
I can no longer close
my eyes, And my hot tears flow.

The poem ends with the lines:

Thank God!
French bright daylight breaks through my windows ;
My wife comes, beautiful as morning,
And smiles away the German worries.

Heine's “German worries” related not only to the political situation on the other side of the Rhine, but also to his now widowed mother, who lived alone and whose apartment had fallen victim to the great Hamburg fire of 1842. Not least to see her again and to introduce her to his wife, he made his last two trips to Germany in 1843 and 1844. In Hamburg he met his publisher Campe and, for the last time, his uncle Salomon Heine. With the verses about the Israelite Hospital in Hamburg, which Salomon had donated, Heine set a literary monument to his long-time sponsor. It says in it

The dear man! He built a shelter here
for suffering, which can be cured by the arts of the
doctor, (or even death!)
, Provided for cushions, refreshment drink, maintenance and care -

A man of action, he did what was just done;
For good works he gave the daily wages in the
evening of his life, in a philanthropic
manner, recovering from work by doing good

When Salomon died in December 1844, an inheritance dispute that lasted more than two years broke out between his son Carl and his nephew Heinrich Heine. After the death of his father, Carl stopped paying an annual pension, which Salomon Heine granted his nephew in 1838, but which he had not ordered in his will to continue paying. Heinrich Heine, who felt humiliated by his cousin, also used journalistic means in the further course of the dispute and publicly put pressure on Carl. In February 1847 he finally agreed to continue paying the pension, on the condition that Heinrich Heine was not allowed to publish anything about the family without his consent.

The dispute arose from Heine's constant concern about his own financial security and that of his wife. He was not only an artistically but also economically very successful writer: In his prime in Paris he earned up to 34,700 francs a year, which would have corresponded to a current purchasing power (2007) of well over 200,000 euros. He owed part of this income to the aforementioned French state pension, which, however , was canceled after the February Revolution in 1848 . Nevertheless, Heine always felt his financial situation to be uncertain and usually presented it in public as worse than it actually was. In the later years it was primarily a matter of securing his wife materially. After Heine's death, Mathilde proved himself to be extremely business-minded and negotiated very successfully with Campe about the further exploitation of her husband's works.

Heine and socialism

Germany. A winter fairy tale. Binding (interim brochure) of the first separate edition in 1844.

In the mid-1840s, Heine's great verses Atta Troll were written . A Midsummer Night's Dream (1843), which goes back to his trip to the Pyrenees in 1841, and - inspired by his trip to Germany in 1843 - Germany. A winter fairy tale (1844). The titles of both works allude to plays by William Shakespeare , A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Winter's Tale . According to Gerhard Höhn, this refers to their “antithetical togetherness”. In the form of an animal pose, Atta Troll ironizes contemporary literature and praises the autonomy of art:

“Dream of the summer night!
My song is fantastically useless. Yes, pointless
like love, like life,
like the creator together with creation! "

- Atta Troll, Caput III

As early as 1837, Heine had announced in a theater letter to a friend: “I am for the autonomy of art; Neither religion nor politics should she serve as a maid, she is herself the ultimate end, like the world itself. "

Nevertheless, he put up with Germany a little later . A winter fairy tale presents an undisguisedly committed poem in which he criticized the state, church and social conditions in Germany in an extremely biting manner. In the opening verse, for example, he describes a scene immediately after crossing the border, in which a girl sings a pious tune to the harp "with true feelings and a false voice":

She sang the old renunciation song,
Das Eiapopeia vom Himmel,
With which one lulls when it grins,
The people, the big lout.

I know the way, I know the text,
I also know the gentlemen authors
I know, they secretly drank wine
And preached water in public.

A new song, a better song,
O friends, I want to write for you!
We want to establish the
kingdom of heaven here on earth .

We want to be happy on earth,
And don't want to starve anymore;
The lazy belly should not feast on
what hard-working hands acquired.

Karl Marx

These verses echo ideas from Karl Marx , whom he had met in those years and with whom he had a close friendship. Marx took over from him the metaphor for religion as intellectual opium from the Börne memorandum and often peppered his articles for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung with Heine quotations during the revolutionary years of 1848/49. In his main work Das Kapital , Marx emphasized the “courage of my friend H. Heine”. According to Georg Lukács , Heine was "closer to the revolutionary standpoint of Marx and Engels than any other contemporary" at the time. Heine's tone had become increasingly radicalized since the beginning of the 1840s. He was one of the first German poets to take note of the consequences of the emerging industrial revolution and to take up the misery of the newly emerging working class in their works. An example of this is his poem The Silesian Weavers , also known as the weaver's song , from June 1844. It was inspired by the weavers' revolt that began in the Silesian towns of Peterswaldau and Langenbielau that same month .

Title page of the Forward! with Heines Weberlied , 1844

No tears in
your gloomy eye, you are sitting at the loom and baring your teeth;
Germany, we weave your shroud.
We weave into it the triple curse -
We weave, we weave!

A curse to God, to whom we asked
In winter cold and famine;
We hoped and waited in vain,
He apeded and teased and fooled us -
We weave, we weave!

A curse to the king, the king of the rich, whom
our misery could not soften,
who extorted the last penny from us
and had us shot like dogs -
we weave, we weave!

A curse to the false fatherland,
where shame and shame flourish,
where every flower is
broken early, and rot and mold refreshes the worm -
we weave, we weave!

The boat flies, the loom cracks,
We weave busily day and night -
Old Germany, we weave your shroud,
We weave into it the triple curse,
We weave, we weave!

The “triple curse” refers to the battle cry of the Prussians from 1813: “With God for King and Fatherland!” Mediated by Karl Marx, the poem appeared on July 10, 1844 under the title Die poor Weber in the weekly Vorwärts! . 50,000 copies of it were distributed as a leaflet in the uprising areas. The Prussian Minister of the Interior Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg described the work in a report to King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. As “an address to the poor in the people in a rebellious tone and filled with criminal remarks”. The Royal Prussian Court of Justice ordered the poem to be banned. A reciter, who nevertheless dared to perform it publicly, was sentenced to prison in Prussia in 1846. Friedrich Engels , who had met Heine in Paris in August 1844 and described him as the “most outstanding of all living German poets”, translated the weaver's song into English and published it in December of the same year in the newspaper “The New Moral World”. In addition to Heine's collaboration on Vorwärts! , who published a number of Heine's contemporary poems, Heine also wrote for the German-French yearbooks edited by Marx and Arnold Ruge , of which only one was published, however. Both publications were banned by the Prussian Ministry of the Interior and the imprisonment of their employees when crossing the border was ordered.

In December 1844, a young student visited Heine in Paris: Ferdinand Lassalle , who later became the founder of German social democracy . The energetic left Hegelian impressed the poet immensely because of his declaration of war on capitalism as an “organized state of robbers”. Heine wrote enthusiastically to Lassalle's father: "In this nineteen-year-old boy I see the Messiah of our century."

In addition, since the beginning of his time in Paris, Heine maintained contacts with representatives of Saint-Simonism , an early socialist movement. There was an intellectual exchange about his social philosophy and the revolutionary role of German philosophy, especially that of Hegelians, with Pierre Leroux in particular , who belonged to George Sand's close circle of friends . In a portrait for a German newspaper he described him as “the first church father of communism”. As a leading figure of socialism and possible pioneer of the future revolution, Heine paid tribute to Louis Blanc , in whose work L'organization du Travail he had the “ardent imagination for the sufferings of the people” and at the same time the “preference for order [,] that thorough aversion to Anarchy ”. Despite his friendly relations with Marx and Engels, however, he had an ambivalent relationship with Marxist philosophy . Heine recognized the plight of the emerging working class and supported their cause. At the same time, he feared that the materialism and radicalism of the communist idea would destroy much of what he loved and admired about European culture. Motifs of his “ libertarian and hedonistic socialism” can also be found in the preface to the French edition of “Lutezia”, which Heine wrote the year before his death:

"I made this admission that the future belongs to the Com <m> unists in a tone of greatest fear and concern, and alas! this key was by no means a mask! In fact, I think only with horror and horror of the time when those dark iconoclasts will rule: with their raw fists they then smash all the marble pictures of my beloved art world, they smash all those fantastic strings pfeifereyen that were so dear to the poet; they hook my laurel forests over and plant potatoes on them <n> […] and oh! My Book of Songs is the Krautkramer to Düten use coffee or snuff to pour in for the old women of the future - Oh! I foresee all of that and an unspeakable sadness seizes me when I think of the downfall with which my poems and the whole old world order is threatened by communism - and yet I confess it freely, it casts a magic on my mind, which I can not resist, in my chest two voices speak in his favor, which cannot be silenced [...]. Because the first of these voices is that of logic. [...] and if I cannot contradict the premise: "that all people have the right to eat", then I have to submit to all conclusions [...]. The second of the two compelling voices I am talking about is even more powerful than the first, because it is that of hatred, the hatred that I dedicate to that common enemy who forms the most definite contrast to communism and that of the angry giant when he first appeared - I am talking about the party of the so-called representatives of Nazism in Germany, of those false patriots whose patriotism consists only in a stupid aversion to foreign countries and neighboring peoples and who pour out their gall on a daily basis, especially against France. "

- Heine's draft for the Préface for the French edition of Lutezia (1855)

The failed revolution

Barricade fight in Rue Soufflot, Paris, June 25, 1848 ( June Uprising )

"A revolution is a misfortune, but an even greater misfortune is an unsuccessful revolution."

- Ludwig Börne. A memorandum

The liberal - constitutional movement related parties pursued Heine European revolutions of 1848-49 with mixed feelings. He was largely in agreement with the political conditions created in France by the July Revolution of 1830. He therefore had no problem accepting the French state pension. He saw the Parisian February Revolution and its effects with growing skepticism. He wrote to his mother in March 1848: “You have no idea what misery is now here. The whole world becomes free and bankrupt. ”In a letter to Julius Campe dated July 9, 1848, he characterized the“ events of the times ”as“ universal anarchy, world muddle, God's madness made visible ”. Heine's critical stance on the February Revolution emerges from the so-called “Waterloo Fragment” of 1854, which Campe refused to print.

In the states of the German Confederation , however, the revolutionaries wanted to create a democratically constituted national state , as Heine had already seen it implemented in France. This goal, which Heine supported, was initially also pursued by the liberals during the March Revolution . Since the advocates of a republican-democratic form of government formed a parliamentary minority both in the newly occupied chamber parliaments and in the Frankfurt National Assembly , Heine turned away from developments in Germany, disappointed. In the attempt of the first all-German parliament to create a monarchy under a hereditary empire, he saw politically unsuitable, romantic dreams of a revival of the Holy Roman Empire, which fell in 1806 .

Black, red and gold flags during the March Revolution in Berlin

In the poem Michel after March he wrote:

But when the black-red-gold flag,
The old Germanic junk,
Aufs Neu 'appeared, my madness vanished
and the sweet fairy tale miracles.

I knew the colors in this banner
and their premonition:
Of German freedom they brought me
the worst newspaper.

I already saw Arndt , the father Jahn
The heroes from other times
approaching from their graves again and fighting
for the emperor.

The fraternity members all
from my youthful years,
which inflame for the emperor
when they were drunk.

I saw the sin-gray sex of
the diplomats and priests,
the old squires of Roman law ,
create at the temple of unity - (...)

In Heine's eyes, the colors black-red-gold were a backward-looking symbol, the colors of the German fraternity members, whom he accused of "teutomania" and "phrase patriotism". He had critics of this attitude as early as 1844 in the preface to “Germany. A winter fairy tale "replied:" Plant the black, red and gold flag at the height of German thought, make it the standard of free humanity, and I want to give my best heart and soul for it. Calm down, I love the fatherland as much as you do. "

The first phase of the revolution failed when, in the spring of 1849, King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia rejected the hereditary imperial dignity, which had been proposed to him by an imperial deputation sent by the National Assembly . As a reaction to this, a new democratic insurrection emerged, particularly in West and Southwest Germany , which wanted to force the princes to accept the Paulskirche constitution . By the end of July 1849, Prussian troops in particular suppressed this last wave of revolution , most recently in the Grand Duchy of Baden . Resigned, Heine commented on the events in his poem In October 1849 :

The strong wind has settled
and it's quiet again at home.
Germania, the big child is
enjoying his Christmas trees again. (...)

The forest and the river rest comfortably,
poured over by gentle moonlight;
Only sometimes it pops - is that a shot? -
There maybe a friend you shot.

Christian Liedtke , archivist at the Heinrich Heine Institute , evaluates this poem as "exemplary for his [Heine's] entire political poetry in the post-March", which he describes in a word from Klaus Briegleb as "the poetry of the vanquished".

According to Walter Grab , Heine attributed the failure of the German Revolution to subjective factors, namely the “stupidity, cowardice and political mediocrity of their intellectual spokesmen”. They had not succeeded in linking their political demands with the “social concerns of the masses of the petty bourgeoisie, the farmers, artisans and workers” as the Jacobins in the “Great Welfare Committee ” in 1793 were still able to do.

The actual German revolution was still pending for Heine, but he was sure that it would come one day. Because he was fundamentally of the opinion that every knowledge and every insight becomes action at some point. In Caput VI of the “Winter Tale” he dresses this conviction in the image of the mysterious, dark figure that follows him everywhere and finally reveals itself to him:

I am your lictor, and I keep walking behind you
with the shining
ax - I am
the deed of your thought.

With regard to a coming German revolution, Heine had given expression to this idea, according to which every great idea will manifest itself in reality at some point, as early as 1834 in these later much-quoted sentences:

“Christianity - and that is its greatest merit - has to some extent soothed that brutal Germanic belligerence, but could not destroy it, and when the taming talisman, the cross, breaks, the savagery of the old fighters, the nonsensical berserker rage, rattles up again […] The thought precedes the deed like lightning precedes thunder. The German Donner is of course also a German and is not very agile and rolls up a little slowly; but it will come, and when you hear it crash like never before in world history, know: the German thunder has finally reached its destination. At this sound, the eagles will fall dead from the air, and the lions in the farthest desert of Africa will pinch their tails and crawl into their royal caves. A play will be performed in Germany, whereas the French Revolution only wants to appear like a harmless idyll. "

- from: On the history of religion and philosophy in Germany

This text was aimed at the German "natural philosophers", as Heine described thinkers such as Kant , Fichte or Hegel to his French readers . In the 20th century, this passage was understood as a prophecy from various perspectives. Some saw the victory of Marxism predicted in the "German thunder" , others saw the text as a warning against the excesses of violence of National Socialism .

Mattress tomb

When Heine left the house alone for the last time in May 1848, he suffered a collapse - according to his own account in the Louvre in front of the Venus de Milo . Almost completely paralyzed, he was to spend the remaining eight years up to his death bedridden in what he called the “mattress tomb”. The first symptoms of the disease - paralysis, headache attacks and poor eyesight - appeared as early as 1832. Since 1845 the nervous condition had dramatically worsened in several attacks. In 1846 he was even pronounced dead prematurely. Stays in health resorts, around 1846 in Barèges in the Pyrenees or in 1847 in the countryside near Montmorency , no longer brought any noticeable relief. Added to this were the burdens of the longstanding inheritance dispute with his Hamburg cousin Carl Heine, which was only settled in early 1847. At this point, Heine's health was largely shattered.

Friedrich Engels reported in January 1848, even before the final collapse: “Heine is about to break down. I was with him 14 days ago and he was in bed and had a nervous attack. He was up yesterday, but extremely miserable. He can no longer take three steps, he sneaks, leaning against the walls, from armchair to bed and vice versa. Add to that the noise in his house that drives him crazy. "Heine wrote to his brother Maximilian on September 12th, 1848:" So much is certain that in the last 3 months I endured more torments than the Spanish Inquisition could ever imagine. "

Heine's disease

The sick Heinrich Heine (pencil drawing by Charles Gleyre , 1851)

Heine himself was convinced that he suffered from syphilis , and many of the symptoms that had become known actually point to a syphilitic character of his suffering. For example, the neurologist Roland Schiffter speaks of “ neurosyphilis in the form of chronic meningitis”. Numerous biographers adopted Heine's self-diagnosis, which is still questioned to this day. One of the arguments against a syphilitic illness, for example, is that Heine's intellectual creativity did not weaken during the agonizing years of the sick bed.

After an in-depth examination of all contemporary documents on Heine's medical history in the 1990s, the most important symptoms were assigned to a complex, tubercular disease. Another study of the poet's hair in 1997 suggested chronic lead poisoning. Other suspicions are that Heine's disease may have been amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis . A hereditary character of his ailment is also discussed, since Heine's father had also suffered from a disease of the central nervous system.

Since Heine could hardly write himself, he usually dictated his verses and writings to a secretary or left them with his handwritten drafts for a fair copy. He did not give up the proofreading of print templates until the end, although this represented an additional burden for the nearly blind person.

Late work and death

As the last major work before his collapse, Heine completed the dance poem Der Doktor Faust at the end of 1846 . The ballet, which the London Opera Director Benjamin Lumley had commissioned from him, was not performed. What is remarkable about the libretto is that Heine created the devil as a female Mephistophela and that his Faust, in contrast to that of the admired Goethe, is not saved, but mercilessly judged.

But even under the difficult conditions of his illness, Heine created and published a number of important works. a. dictated to his secretary Karl Hillebrand . Hillebrand's friend Wilhelm Liebknecht , later one of the founders of the SPD , also briefly did editorial work for Heine. The works from the mattress tomb include three volumes of mixed writings from 1854. They contained, among other things, the confessions and the poems. 1853 and 1854 as well as Lutezia , according to the subtitle a selection of "Reports on Art, Politics and Popular Life". Heine had originally written these reports between 1840 and 1846 for the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung , which, however, was often only able to print them in an abbreviated or mutilated form because of the censorship. In Lutezia - the title is the Latin name of Paris - they now appeared in the original version. They also reflected Heine's efforts to “historicize” the Napoleon phenomenon. On the occasion of the transfer of his "remains" from St-Helena to Paris to find their resting place in the Invalides, he wrote:

“The emperor is dead. With him the last hero died according to old taste, and the new Philistine world breathes a sigh of relief, as if redeemed from a shining alp. An industrial bourgeois era rises above his grave and admires completely different heroes, such as the virtuous Lafayette or James Watt, the cotton spinner. "

- Lutezia. Reports on politics, art and popular life.

Heine's best-known late work, however, is the third volume of poems Romanzero , published in 1851 , which consists of three parts. Especially in the middle part, in the lamentazions , Heine thematized the suffering of those years in which he looked back on "the pile of broken glass of his life". In the Lazarus cycle the "theme of suffering finds its most subjective and radical expression". In the final poem of the second book, Enfant Perdu , he took stock of his political life:

Lost post in the war of freedom,
I have been faithful to endure for thirty years.
I fought with no hope of winning.
I knew I would never come home healthy.
A position is vacant! - The wounds gape -
One falls, the others move up -
But I fall undefeated, and my weapons
are not broken -. Only my heart broke.

In the last part, in the Hebrew Melodies , Heine interwoven the “sufferings in the mattress tomb with the millennia-old Jewish pain in exile”, identifying himself with poets “who are more foreigners in this world” and “who their poetry with death and humiliation have paid".

The epilogue to “Romanzero” from September 1851 shows that Heine came to a milder assessment of religion in the years before his death:

“Yes, I have returned to God, like the prodigal son, after having been herding the pigs with the Hegelians for a long time. Was it misère that drove me back? Maybe a less miserable reason. Heavenly homesickness overwhelmed me and drove me away through forests and ravines, over the most dizzying mountain paths of dialectics. On my way I found the god of pantheists, but I couldn't use him. This poor dreamy being is interwoven and fused with the world, imprisoned in it, as it were, and yawns at you, willless and powerless. To have a will one must be a person, and to manifest it one must have one's elbows free. If one now desires a God who is able to help - and that is the main thing - one must also accept his personality, his extra-worldliness and his holy attributes, all-goodness, all-wisdom, all-righteousness, etc. The immortality of the soul, our persistence after death, is then given to us, as it were, into the purchase, like the beautiful marrowbone that the butcher, when he is satisfied with his customers, shoved into their basket free of charge. […] However, I have to expressly contradict the rumors that my steps backwards had led me to the threshold of some church or even to its lap. No, my religious convictions and views have remained free from any kind of church; no bells tempted me, no altar candle blinded me. I have not played with any symbolism and have not completely renounced my reason. I have renounced nothing, not even my old heathen gods, from whom I turned away, but parting in love and friendship. "

- Epilogue to the Romanzero
Heinrich Heine and Elise Krinitz, woodcut by Heinrich Lefler

In his will of November 13, 1851, too, Heine professed his belief in a personal God, without coming back to one of the Christian churches or Judaism. There it says:

“Although I belong to the Lutheran denomination through the act of baptism, I do not want the clergy of this church to be invited to my funeral; I also renounce the official act of any other priesthood to celebrate my funeral . This desire does not arise from a free-spirited impulse. For four years I have renounced all philosophical pride and returned to religious ideas and feelings; I die believing in one God, the eternal Creator of the world, whose mercy I implore for my immortal soul. I regret that I have at times spoken of sacred things in my scriptures without the reverence due to them, but I have been carried away more by the spirit of my age than by my own inclinations. If I have unknowingly offended good manners and morals, which are the true essence of all monotheistic doctrines, then I ask forgiveness from God and men. "

- from Heine's will
Heine's grave in the Montmartre cemetery in Paris
Heine's grave bust, created between 1899 and 1901 by Louis Hasselriis
The poem Where on Heine's grave

Despite his suffering, Heine's sense of humor and passion did not go missing. The last few months of his life made it easier for him to visit his admirer Elise Krinitz , whom he affectionately called "Mouche" after the fly (French: mouche ) in her letter seal. The 31-year-old native German came to Paris as an adopted child and earned her living with "piano lessons and German language lessons". She later became a writer herself under the pseudonym Camille and Camilla Selden . Heine made his girlfriend his "adored lotus flower" and "lovely muskrat". Elise Krinitz also genuinely loved the terminally ill, almost blind man, as he was once the “favorite poet of her younger years”. Because of Heine's frailty, however, this passion could only develop on a purely spiritual level. He commented on this self-ironically in the verses

Words! Words! no deeds!
never meat, beloved doll.
Always mind and no roast,
no dumplings in the soup!

His poem Der Scheidende shows that he could even joke about death - and was fully aware of his position in German literature :

Every worldly vain pleasure has died in my breast, sheer has
also died in it.
The hatred of the bad, even the sense of my
own as well as the need of others -
and only death lives in me!

The curtain falls, the piece is out,
And yawning now walks home
My dear German audience,
The good people are not stupid,
They now
dine happily at night, And drinks their little bowl, sings and laughs -
He was right, the noble one Heros,
Der weiland spoke in the book Homeros':
The smallest living Philistine
Zu Stukkert am Neckar, he is much happier
than I, the Pelide, the dead hero,
the shadow prince in the underworld.

Heinrich Heine died on February 17, 1856. According to the diary of the brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, his friend, the philologist Frédéric Baudry, passed on the poet's last words to Mathilde. When Heine heard that she was praying next to his deathbed that God would forgive him, he interrupted her: “N'en doute pas, ma chère, il me pardonnera; c'est son métier! ”-“ Do not doubt it, my dear, he will forgive me. It's his business! ”Three days after his death, Heine was buried in the Montmartre cemetery. According to his express will, Mathilde, whom he had appointed as his universal heir, found her final resting place in the same tomb after her death 27 years later. The tomb, created in 1901, is adorned with a marble bust by the Danish sculptor Louis Hasselriis and his poem Where? .

Where will the
last resting place of the weary wanderer be?
Under palm trees in the south?
Under linden trees on the Rhine?

Am I carved into a desert
by another hand?
Or do I rest on the shore
of a sea in the sand.

After all, I am surrounded by the
heaven of God, there as here,
And at
night the stars hover over me as death lamps .

Meaning and afterlife

Due to its independence as well as its formal and content-related breadth, Heine's work cannot be assigned to any clear literary trend. Heine emerged from romanticism , but soon overcame its tone and theme - also in poetry. His biographer Joseph Anton Kruse sees elements of the Enlightenment , the Weimar Classic , realism and symbolism in his work .

Heine as "magazine writer"

Heine is primarily considered a politically critical author of the Vormärz . With the writers of Junge Deutschland , to whom he was assigned, he was united by the pursuit of political change towards more democracy throughout Europe, especially in Germany. The fact that he could imagine the realization of democracy in a constitutional monarchy such as that of the citizen king Louis-Philippe earned him criticism from staunch Republicans. Heine's distancing from the “ tendency literature ”, which he compared with “rhyming newspaper articles”, was made less for political than for aesthetic motives. Heine was personally close to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, but without fully sharing their political philosophy.

For Jürgen Habermas, Heine was the “first great magazine writer” in the age of the emerging mass press. He followed Gerhard Höhn's reference to a new type of poet who appeared in the transition from the feudal class society to the bourgeois class society : the "journalist", who "already combines all the essential traits of the critical, modern intellectual " and his most important publication organs, newspapers and Magazines are. Significantly, the cycle of political poems in Heine's second volume of poetry is entitled "Zeitgedichte". Habermas also calls Heine a "proto-intellectual". He had not yet been able to be an intellectual in the sense of the Dreyfuss party of 1898 because he was kept away from the formation of political opinion in the German federal states in two ways: "physically through his exile and mentally through the censorship". In this, Höhn contradicts him, who relocated the birth of the modern intellectual to Paris in 1832, in which Heine's first major political series of articles, “French Conditions”, was written.

Karl Kraus, on the other hand, was extremely critical of Heine's alleged role as the founder of German-language columnism . He brought in "the French disease" and accused him of "loosening the bodice of the German language so much" that "today all clerks can finger their breasts". In his work Die Wunde Heine , the literary scholar Paul Peters proves that Kraus' invectives are not free from anti-Semitic undertones with numerous phrases.

As a political writer, according to Klaus Briegleb, "the liberals and early socialists in the middle of the 19th century [...] were no less suspicious [...] than the priests and aristocrats and their vassals". Heine attacked actual or supposed opponents as harshly as he was attacked himself and did not shy away from any polemics . After his death, the disputes about him increased even more - and lasted for more than a century.

Monument dispute and monuments

The 100-year-long dispute over worthy monuments for the poet in Germany was symptomatic of the ambivalent handling of Heine's legacy. This dispute prompted Kurt Tucholsky to comment in 1929: "The number of German war memorials to the number of German Heine monuments in this country is like power to spirit."

Since 1887 there have been efforts to erect a memorial to the poet in his native city of Düsseldorf to celebrate his upcoming 100th birthday. The public perception of Heine at that time was increasingly shaped by nationalist and anti-Semitic arguments from literary scholars. Adolf Bartels, for example, subsequently denounced the Düsseldorf monument plans in his notorious essay “Heinrich Heine. Also a monument "as" Kowtow before Judaism "and Heine himself as" Decadence Jews ". In view of similar hostilities, the Düsseldorf city council had already withdrawn its approval for the erection of the monument that the sculptor Ernst Herter had created in 1893 . The representation of the Loreley was finally acquired by German-Americans for the New York borough of the Bronx . It stands today in Joyce Kilmer Park near Yankee Stadium and is known as the " Lorelei Fountain ". A memorial plaque was later attached to Heine's birthplace in Düsseldorf, but it was dismantled in 1940 and melted down for war purposes.

A second attempt, made in 1931, to a Heine monument in Düsseldorf failed two years later when the National Socialists came to power . The already finished, allegorical sculpture “ Aufsteigender Jüngling ” by Georg Kolbe was initially installed in a museum without any recognizable reference to Heine and after the war in the Düsseldorf courtyard . An inscription on the base has only been pointing to Heine since 2002. In 1953, a Heine memorial with a sculpture by Aristide Maillol was erected on Napoleonsberg in the Düsseldorf Hofgarten . Heine's hometown did not officially honor the poet with a memorial until 1981, almost 100 years after the first efforts to do so, and an argument broke out again about it. The Heinrich Heine Society did not support the implementation of a design that Arno Breker had already made for the 1931 competition. Breker, who had been one of the leading sculptors during the Nazi era, created an idealized, seated figure depicting the poet as a young, reading man. The Düsseldorf head of culture declined this sculpture. It was later set up on the island of Norderney . The design by the sculptor Bert Gerresheim , today's Heine monument on Düsseldorf's Schwanenmarkt , was finally realized .

The monument dispute in Hamburg was similar to that in Düsseldorf. Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary , who adored Heine and had supported the first Düsseldorf monument initiative, intended to give the Hanseatic city a statue of the seated Heine. Her plaster model, a design by the Danish sculptor Louis Hasselriis , who was later to make Heine's grave bust, had already attracted her attention at the World Exhibition in Vienna in 1873. However, Hamburg refused the gift. Therefore, in 1890, Empress Hasselriis privately commissioned the execution of his model in marble. The monument, completed in September 1891, was erected in the park of her Achilleion Castle on the island of Corfu . After Elisabeth's death in 1898, her heirs sold the Achilleion to the German Emperor. Wilhelm II , who described Heine as the “dirty finch in the German poet's forest”, had the marble sculpture removed in 1909 and given to the Hamburg publisher Heinrich Julius Campe, the son of Julius Campes. He offered it a second time to the Hamburg Senate, which refused the gift again and with reference to Heine's allegedly “anti-patriotic attitude”. In this case, too, there had been another public debate, in which Adolf Bartels participated with anti-Semitic polemics. The memorial was finally erected on the private property of Hoffmann und Campe Verlag on Mönckebergstrasse and was not erected publicly until 1927 in Altona. To protect it from destruction by the National Socialists, the daughter Campes had it dismantled in 1934 and shipped to her place of residence, the southern French port city of Toulon , in 1939 . Hidden during the German occupation of France, the well-traveled monument found its final place in the botanical garden of Toulon in 1956. A few years ago, an initiative by the actor Christian Quadflieg to bring the sculpture back to Hamburg failed.

Hamburg only received a public Heine monument in 1926, when a statue was unveiled in Winterhuder Stadtpark, which the sculptor Hugo Lederer had made in 1911. This memorial was removed by the National Socialists in 1933 and melted down during World War II. A new Heine statue by the sculptor Waldemar Otto has stood on the Rathausmarkt since 1982 .

The probably first Heine monument erected in Germany goes back to a private initiative: In 1893, Baroness Selma von der Heydt had an approximately two-meter-high truncated pyramid built on the Friedensaue in Küllenhahn (now part of Wuppertal ), in which three inscriptions were embedded . A corresponding flagpole had already disappeared in 1906, the rest was destroyed by the Hitler Youth during the Nazi era . In 1958 the city of Wuppertal donated a new Heinrich Heine monument in Von-der-Heydt-Park . The sculptor Harald Schmahl used three shell blocks from the rubble of the Barmer town hall.

The first city in Prussia to receive a Heine monument was Halle . The social-democratic Heine-Bund had a bust of the poet put up in the Trothaer Schlösschen in 1912, but it was destroyed by the National Socialists in 1933. In 1956 a rock on the banks of the Saale was named after Heine. There, in the Reideburg district and since 1997 also at the former location of the bust, memorial plaques commemorate the poet. Since 2002 there has been a new Heine memorial on the University Square in Halle.

The oldest still existing Heine monument in Germany and at the same time the first to be erected by the public sector is in Frankfurt am Main . It is an allegorical sculpture of a striding youth and a seated young woman, which was created in 1913 by Georg Kolbe on behalf of the city. 20 years later, Kolbe also received the order for the Heine memorial in the Düsseldorf courtyard. The Frankfurt monument was hidden in the cellar of the Städel Museum under the innocuous name “Spring Song” during the Nazi era . It was the only German Heine memorial to survive the Hitler dictatorship and the Second World War . Today it is back in the Frankfurt ramparts .

Bert Gerresheim , the creator of the Düsseldorf monument from 1981, also designed Heinrich Heine's marble bust, which was set up on July 28, 2010 in the Walhalla donated by King Ludwig I of Bavaria . The Düsseldorf Circle of Friends of Heinrich Heine had campaigned for this for ten years. In 2006, the Bavarian state government approved Heine's admission to the “Hall of Fame”, which he himself had once ridiculed as a marble skull . In Munich's financial garden there is a Heinrich Heine fountain created by Toni Stadler in the form of a small grotto.

Controversial reception until the post-war period

Hardly any other German poet caused such violent controversy among his contemporaries and posterity as Heine. According to Klaus Theodor Kleinknecht, the repertoire of the Heine critics had been developed since his time in Paris: “Heine the Jew, the friend of the French, the despiser of the fatherland, the liar, the characterless, the seducer of youth, the irreligious materialist, but also: the only- Poet, the only esthete, who only plays with the revolution, all of this has already been formulated, as well as the insight that Heine generally eludes any attempt to fix him on a position. "

While Friedrich Nietzsche praised the perfection of Heine's poetry and saw in him the "first artist of the German language", the German national, anti-Semitic historian Heinrich von Treitschke believed he could characterize Heine's "Jewish mind" as follows: "Ingenious without depth, witty without conviction, selfish, lustful, mendacious and yet at times irresistibly amiable, he was also without character as a poet and therefore strangely unequal in his work "-" a poet who is just as capable of beauty as of malice. "

For completely different reasons, Karl Kraus criticized the poet in his work Heine and the consequences of 1910. Kraus regarded him as the originator of the columnism he bitterly opposed: “Without Heine, no column. That is the French disease that he brought us. ”Like hardly any other pamphlet , Kraus’s contribution has contributed to“ a generation of German-Jewish intellectuals [...] alienating Heine ”. Because, as Elias Canetti wrote from personal experience, “they never took into their hands any of the authors whom Kraus had condemned”. Among those who, under the spell of Kraus' verdict, rated Heine's poetry in a derogatory way, were Friedrich Gundolf , Rudolf Borchardt , Walter Benjamin and Theodor W. Adorno , who came from Jewish families . In his radio lecture on the 100th anniversary of Heine's death, the philosopher and sociologist Adorno at least separated the prose writer as a stylist from the lyric poet, to whom he assumed a “poetic technique of reproduction” and the proximity to “commodities and exchange”. In his commemorative speech, Adorno spoke of the “wound Heine”, which later became “a winged signature”.

During the National Socialist era , the work of the poet, who had died 80 years earlier, was suppressed and officially banned in 1940. Contrary to popular belief, however, Heine's works did not fall victim to the 1933 book burning . There is also no evidence for the assertion of the German scholar Walter A. Berendsohn that Heine's Loreley song appeared in reading books from the Nazi era with the indication “Author unknown”. The fact that the extremely extensive collection of individual documents, manuscripts and books by Heine in the Düsseldorf State and City Library survived dictatorship and war is primarily thanks to the library director at the time, Hermann Reuter (1880–1970). He knew about Heine's friendship with Prince Alexander zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (1801–1874), who had also studied at the University of Bonn in April 1820. In the autumn of 1943, Reuter, with the consent of Alexander's grandson, Prince August zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (1868–1948), had the entire inventory moved to the chapel of Wittgenstein Castle near Laasphe . There he survived the chaos of war and the collapse unscathed. In February 1947, the British military government had the collection, housed in 40 book boxes, transported back to Düsseldorf.

Even after 1945, Heine's work in Germany was judged ambiguously for a long time and was the subject of various controversies, not least because of the division of Germany. While Heine was received rather cautiously and at best as a romantic poet in the Federal Republic of Germany during the Adenauer period , the GDR integrated him into their “heritage” concept at an early stage and tried to popularize his work. The focus was mainly Germany. A winter fairy tale and Heine's contact with Karl Marx are the focus of interest. The first international scientific Heine Congress was held in Weimar in the commemorative year 1956, in the same year the five-volume work edition appeared for the first time in the Library of German Classics (supplemented by the volumes Lutetia 1960 and Letters 1969), first by Volksverlag Weimar, then by Aufbau-Verlag ( 18th edition 1990). An all-German, historical-critical complete edition (secular edition) initiated by Weimar in the mid-1950s did not materialize due to the delaying tactics of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1967, GDR German studies specialist Hans Kaufmann presented the most important Heine monograph of the post-war period to date.

On the occasion of Heine's 100th anniversary of his death, the Heinrich Heine Society was founded in Düsseldorf in 1956 , but it wasn't until the 1960s that interest in the poet increased noticeably in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1963 Heinrich-Heine-Allee was named after him in his hometown and established itself as the center of West German Heine research. The Heinrich Heine Institute with archive, library and museum developed step by step from the Heine archive . The Heine Yearbook has been published regularly since 1962 and has become the international forum for Heine research. In addition, the city of Düsseldorf has been awarding the Heinrich Heine Prize since 1972 . Nevertheless, a local professors' dispute over Heine continued: three times - in 1972, 1973 and 1982 - the constitutional convention of the University of Düsseldorf refused to name the university after the most important poet the city produced. It was not until 1988, after around 20 years of conflict, that the university was officially called Heinrich Heine University .

The Heine picture since the 1970s

Apart from official honors, the political writer Heinrich Heine experienced - forced by the student movement of 1968 - an increasing interest among young academics and politically committed readers. The fact that the Federal Republic had caught up with the GDR in terms of Heine reception was evident in 1972, in the poet's 175th year of birth, when competing Heine congresses (in Düsseldorf and Weimar) were held in the two German states. Because of the German-German competition, the first volumes of two large-scale historical and critical editions of works appeared almost simultaneously: those of the Düsseldorf Heine edition and the Heine secular edition in Weimar.

After the consolidation of the Heine Renaissance in the 1970s, the ideological dispute about the poet noticeably diminished in the 1980s and finally gave way to canonization. Gerhard Höhn, the editor of the Heine Handbook , noted a change of attitude at this point in time: "The fighter for freedom and progress is no longer slandered, but celebrated and honored everywhere." This was not only reflected in the name given to the Düsseldorf University, but also of the numerous German schools according to Heinrich Heine. Several “Heinrich-Heine-Strasse” and “Heinrich-Heine-Alleen” as well as one of the first Intercity Express trains ( ICE 4 ) also commemorate the poet. Above all, however, since this time Heine's work has been increasingly included in the teaching and reading plans of schools and universities, which also resulted in a significant increase in didactically oriented Heine literature. The specialist science, on the other hand, turned to previously neglected focal points, for example the late Heine. The Heine Renaissance reached its preliminary climax with numerous events on the occasion of his 200th birthday in 1997.

Regardless of the ideological controversy and scientific paradigm shift, Heine's poetry in particular enjoys unbroken popularity, especially since his romantic, often folk-song-like poems - above all the Book of Songs - can be set to music very well. In the theater , Heine is rarely present with his own dramas, but Tankred Dorst made the poet the subject of a play in Heine's 1997: " Harry's head ".

Reception by German writers and journalists

Numerous German writers of the 19th and 20th centuries took up Heine's works, including the great storytellers Theodor Fontane and Thomas Mann . Like Heine, Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Tucholsky dared to walk the tightrope between poetry and politics. The Heine Prize winners Wolf Biermann , Hans Magnus Enzensberger and Robert Gernhardt are also in the tradition of the poet . Biermann, for example, dedicated the song Auf dem Friedhof am Montmartre to his role model in 1979 . It says in typical Heinean diction:

His bones freeze under white marble In exile
Frau Mathilde lies there with him.
And so he does not freeze alone.

Gernhardt parodied Heine's style and the Loreley poem in his volume of poems, the folding altar from 1997, to point out the rejection that the poet's work experienced in German schools into the 20th century. After the opening verse “I don't know what that means”, he names the prejudices that his generation, influenced by Karl Kraus , had harbored against Heine since “early school days”. He concludes:

Heine doesn't seem to be able to do it,
the pupil said to himself.
That is what
Der Studienrat Kraus did with his singing .

Heine's prose style has shaped German-language journalism, especially the features section, to the present day. Many of the terms he coined also found their way into everyday German, such as the word “ fiasco ”, which he took from French, or the metaphor “advance praise ”, which he used in the poem Plateniden , directed against Graf Platen .

Heine reception worldwide

While Heine was widely rejected in Germany for a long time because of his Jewish origins, he is still controversial in Israel today because of his turning away from Judaism. So there was a debate in Tel Aviv between secular and Orthodox Jews about the name of a street after Heine. While some see him as one of the most important figures of Judaism, others condemn his conversion to Christianity as unforgivable. Eventually, a street in a remote industrial area was named after him, rather than a street near the university as suggested by the honor's advocates. The Tel Aviv weekly newspaper Ha'ir scoffed at the “exile on Heine Strasse”, which symbolically reflected the poet's life. In the meantime, other streets in Jerusalem and Haifa have been named after Heine, and a Heine company is also active in Israel.

The reception of Heine's work in the rest of the world was much more straightforward. Heine was one of the first German authors whose works could be read in all world languages. This explains the influence he had on other national literatures. Poets such as the Spanish romantic Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer were influenced by Heine as early as the 19th century . Heine is also particularly well received in France, England, the United States of America, Eastern Europe and Asia.

In Japan , the literary scholar Onoe Saishū brought out a first selection of Heine's poems in 1901. It was followed in 1919 by another authoritative translation by the German scholar Shungetsu Ikuta. The choice of the conservative Onoe shaped the perception of Heine in Japan as a romantic love poet for decades. It was not until the late 1920s that Heine was increasingly perceived as an eminently political author. The impetus for this came from writers and literary scholars such as the Heine biographer Shigeharu Nakano, who opposed the increasingly authoritarian politics of their country. In 2017, two essays by Adorno on Heine were translated into Japanese.

Heine and the music

Heinrich Heine did not play a musical instrument himself and was also a layman in questions of music theory . Since, according to his artistic understanding, there were no strict boundaries between different art forms, as a journalist - for example in the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung - he repeatedly commented on musical performances and works of his time, including those by international greats such as Giacomo Meyerbeer , Franz Liszt , Robert Schumann or Richard Wagner .

His interest in music also flowed into his poetry, for example in the mocking poem Zur Teleologie :

God gave us both ears to
masterpieces from Mozart, Gluck and Hayden -
if there were only music colic
and hemorrhoidal music
from the great Meyerbeer,
one ear would be enough!

Despite his lack of theoretical knowledge in the field of music, many contemporary composers and interpreters valued his opinion, probably because, as a lyric poet, they granted him a certain competence in musical questions. Still, it would not be correct to call Heine a music critic. He was aware of his limited abilities in this area and always wrote as a columnist who approached the subject matter of a piece subjectively and intuitively.

Of greater importance than Heine's remarks about music is the musical arrangement of many of his works by composers. This happened for the first time in 1825 with his poem Gekommen ist der Maie , which Carl Friedrich Curschmann processed into a song.

In his work Heine in Music. Bibliography of the Heine settings, Günter Metzner lists all of the poet's works in chronological order. In 1840 he lists 14 musicians who composed 71 pieces based on works by Heine. Four years later there were already more than 50 composers and 159 works. The reason for this rapid increase is likely to have been the publication of the volume of poetry "New Poems" by Campe. The number of Heine settings reached its peak almost 30 years after the poet's death, in 1884 - with a total of 1,093 pieces by 538 musicians and composers. Never before and never since have more works by a single poet formed the basis of musical compositions in a year. Metzner's bibliography includes a total of 6,833 Heine settings, including works by Franz Schubert , Robert and Clara Schumann , Johannes Brahms , Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Franz Liszt , Richard Wagner , Pjotr ​​Iljitsch Tschaikowski , Alexander Borodin , Wendelin Weißheimer , Alma Mahler-Werfel and Charles Ives . Among other things, Schumann's Liederkreis (op. 24) and Dichterliebe (op. 48) as well as Franz Schubert's Schwanengesang ( D 957) belong to the regular repertoire of concert halls around the world. The most popular Heine setting in Germany is likely to be Friedrich Silcher's song Die Lorelei , followed by You are like a flower , which, also from the Romantic period, attracted over three hundred composers to set.

Like Schumann, Richard Wagner, who was on friendly terms with Heine in Paris, set the poem The Grenadiers glorifying Napoleon , albeit in a French translation. In addition, Wagner was inspired by Heine for two operas: A story in Heine's From the Memoirs of Herr von Schnabelewopski provided the template for Der Fliegende Holländer and the epic-ballad-like poem about the Tannhäuser legend from the New Poems was processed by the composer in Tannhäuser and the singing war on the Wartburg . However, all of this did not prevent Wagner later from attacking Heine in his anti-Semitic pamphlet Das Judenthum in der Musik .

In the opinion of the music theorist and critic Theodor W. Adorno , the history of the German art song is unthinkable without Heine. According to him, the “self-forgotten melancholy” of Schumann's compositions would not have been possible without Heine's late romantic texts.

Heine's importance for musical creation lasted until the First World War. After that, increasing anti-Semitism let the “Heine boom” largely subside, until it came to a complete standstill in Germany during the Nazi era. In 1972 the pop and chanson singer Katja Ebstein received bitter criticism from the conservative side after she had released an LP with songs by Heinrich Heine. Today musicians and composers take up Heine's work again, including opera composers like Günter Bialas , whose opera From the Mattress Crypt was premiered in 1992.

Quotes about Heine

How much Heinrich Heine polarized after his death and how strongly the reception of his work was shaped by the respective zeitgeist can also be seen in what his contemporaries and those born after him thought and wrote about him.

“Heine says very snappy things, and his jokes hit the mark. He is believed to be fundamentally evil, but nothing is more false; his heart is as good as his tongue is bad. He is tender, attentive, self-sacrificing, romantic in love, even weak, and a woman can control him indefinitely. "

"If Germany doesn't love Heine, we'd be happy to take him in, but unfortunately Heine loves Germany too much."

- Alexandre Dumas , 1839

"Heine is different from most other poets because he despises all hypocrisy, he always shows himself to be who he is, with all human qualities and all human errors."

"Do the gentlemen completely forget that Heine is a song writer, next to whom only Goethe may be mentioned?"

- Otto von Bismarck : around 1890

“Heinrich Heine gave me the highest concept of the poet. I search for free in all the realms of the millennia for an equally sweet and passionate music. He possessed a divine malice, without which I cannot imagine what is perfect (...). - And how he handles the German! One day it will be said that Heine and I were by far the first artists to speak the German language. "

“In general, Heine, the Jew - and this brings us to the main point - was the worst enemy of Germanness, all the more dangerous because he knew its strengths and weaknesses so well, instinctively fearing them to render them harmless for himself through skillful comedy sought, shamelessly pacted with them. Just read 'Germany, a winter fairy tale' and see whether what Heine attacks and mocks has not made the new Germany big and strong, and what he raises is still devouring us today. It took the unbelievable lack of national instincts to really make Heine, whose rascality is quite obvious in the end, a favorite German author. "

“If you say to a German author that he must have gone to school with the French, then it is only the highest praise if it is not true. Because it means: he owes to the German language what the French gives to everyone. Here you are still linguistically creative when you are already playing with the children who came in, you don't know how. But since Heinrich Heine imported the trick, it has been a pure hard work when German columnists go to Paris to get talent. (…) Esprit and grace, which were certainly part of getting the trick and using it, he passes on automatically. With a light hand, Heine pushed open the gate of this terrible development, and the magician who helped the inability to develop talent is certainly not too high above development. (...) She thanks Heinrich Heine for her best advantage, who loosened the bodice of the German language so much that all clerks can finger her breasts today. "

“He is the immortal father of modern German prose, whether it reflects the beauty of the landscape and life or mocks the wretchedness of the German bourgeoisie. From him go those German political poets who, from Frank Wedekind to Bertolt Brecht, from Erich Mühsam to Erich Weinert, have acquired citizenship in world literature for all those suffering, tortured, persecuted and rebels. "

"The number of German war memorials to the number of German Heine monuments is in this country like power to the spirit."

“Heine is the most amusing German classic. He has all the merits of a brilliant journalist, all the grim virtues of a humorist. He is a great poet. With all the fairytale glamor and dream life of romanticism, he remained the funniest realist in German literature. "

“Heine tore poetry, tore the word, out of the dim regions of Classical and Romanticism and planted it in the middle of life. I think he was the first truly modern German writer, rooted in his time and yet decades, centuries ahead of it. This life, he felt, cannot be viewed separately from the social struggle and the political conflicts. In his work, Heine, the poet des tiers état, created a synthesis between life and art, and he did so under the most difficult, agonizing conditions: the Metternich reaction in Germany, the constraints of exile, and his Judaism, belonging to one Minority that was oppressed then as it is now. The constraints under which he had to work were also the incentive of his creative spirit, and since these constraints, only slightly changed, still apply today, they help to keep his work so terrifyingly up-to-date and to give it validity for now."

"In Heine's homeland there is a lack of moral courage to openly confess to the singer of a new song, a better song, all the more since he committed the unforgivable sin of seeing the light of day as the son of Jewish parents."

- The New York Construction , August 9, 1968

“The melodious sound, the ingenuity and the style - and this already characterizes what distinguishes Heine's groundbreaking work from almost all of its predecessors and almost all of its successors. Groundbreaking? Isn't that a word too big? No, I am not taking it back, nor will I tone it down […]. He succeeded in what Europe hardly trusted the Germans any more: a piece of world literature in German. "

"The Heine wound is beginning to heal, crooked."

- Heiner Müller : (Alluding to a speech by Adorno , on Heine's 100th anniversary of his death.)

“It has always been very difficult to say something about Heine that he would not have said about himself a long time ago. Heine has tirelessly reflected on himself - his role, his person and his work - both relentlessly self-critical and in love with himself, and what he said about himself was seldom entirely wrong despite the pitfalls of narcissistic self-reflection. "

Works (selection)

Original editions

Heinrich Heine: Doctor Faustus . Original brochure of the first printing
The poem The Golden Calf , illustrated by Ignatius Taschner (around 1900)

According to the year of publication in book form

From the estate

  • 1857: tragedies
  • 1869: last poems and thoughts
  • 1884: Memoirs (written 1854–1855)
  • 1892: Heinrich Heine's family life. 122 family letters of the poet and 4 pictures . (Digital reconstruction: Bielefeld University Library )

Total expenditure

Binding of the complete edition from 1867
  • Heinrich Heine's complete works. 9 double volumes. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1867.
  • All works. Legitimate original edition . Edited by Adolf Strodtmann. 21 volumes, two supplement volumes. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1861–1884.
  • Heinrich Heine Secular Edition (HSA). Works, correspondence, life testimonies. Edited by National Research Centers and Memorials of Classical German Literature in Weimar / Center National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris. 53 volumes, Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1970 ff. The editions of the letters are accessible online in the Heinrich Heine portal
  • Düsseldorf Heine edition (DHA): Heinrich Heine - historical-critical complete edition of the works. Edited by Manfred Windfuhr. 16 volumes, Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1973–1997. Accessible online in the Heinrich Heine portal
  • Klaus Briegleb (Ed.): Heinrich Heine. All writings. Six volumes, Hanser, Munich 1968–1976, ISBN 978-3-446-10726-7 .
  • All works in 4 volumes. 4th edition. Artemis & Winkler, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-538-05107-2 .
    • Licensed edition for the Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1992–1994.

Recent editions (selection)


Introductions and general presentations

Conference and anthologies

  • Heine yearbook
    • 1962–1972 ed. from the Heine archive of the State and City Library Düsseldorf
    • 1973–1976 ed. by Eberhard Galley, Heinrich Heine Institute, Düsseldorf
    • 1977-2009 ed. from Joseph A. Kruse, Heinrich Heine Institute, Düsseldorf
    • 2010 ff. Ed. Sabine Brenner-Wilczek, Heinrich Heine Institute, Düsseldorf
  • Wolfgang Kuttenkeuler (Ed.): Heinrich Heine. Artistry and commitment. Metzler, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-476-00347-7 .
  • Joseph A. Kruse et al. a. (Ed.): I fool of luck. Heinrich Heine 1797-1856. Pictures of an exhibition. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 1997, ISBN 3-476-01525-4 .
  • Joseph A. Kruse et al. a. (Ed.): Enlightenment and skepticism. International Heine Congress 1997 on the 200th birthday. Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01621-8 .
  • Christian Liedtke (Ed.): Heinrich Heine. New ways of research. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2000, ISBN 3-534-14466-X .
  • Jeffrey L. Sammons: Heinrich Heine. Alternative Perspectives 1985-2005. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2006, ISBN 3-8260-3212-8 .

To the biography

To work and reception

  • Theodor W. Adorno: The wound Heine . In: ibid .: Notes to Literature I . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1958, pp. 144–152.
  • Theodor W. Adorno: Toward a Reappraisal of Heine [1949]. In: Ders .: Collected Writings , Volume 20.2: Mixed Writings II . Frankfurt am Main 1986, pp. 441-452.
  • Albrecht Betz: Aesthetics and Politics. Heinrich Heine's prose . Hanser, Munich 1971.
    • Heinrich Heine's prose. Aesthetics and politics I . Rimbaud, Aachen 1999, ISBN 3-89086-833-9 .
    • The charm of the troublemaker. Aesthetics and Politics II . Rimbaud, Aachen 1997, ISBN 3-89086-820-7 .
  • Ralf G. Bogner (Ed.): Heinrich Heine's journey to hell. Obituaries for a contentious writer. Documents 1846-1858. (= Bibliotheca Funebris. 1). Palatina, Heidelberg 1997, ISBN 3-932608-02-X .
  • Klaus Briegleb: Victim Heine? Attempts on writing the revolution . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt 1986, ISBN 3-518-28097-X .
  • Klaus Briegleb: At the waters of Babels. Heinrich Heine, Jewish writer in modern times . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-423-30648-3 .
  • Jürgen Brummack (Ed.): Heinrich Heine. Epoch - work - effect. Beck, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-406-07946-6 .
  • Lion Feuchtwanger : Heinrich Heine's Rabbi von Bacherach . With Heine's narrative fragment. A critical study. Dissertation at the University of Munich in 1907; New edition S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-596-25868-5 .
  • Eberhard Galley , Alfred Estermann (Ed.): Heinrich Heine's work in the judgment of his contemporaries. (Continued by Sikander Singh and Christoph on the Horst ). 13 volumes, Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg (from volume 7 Stuttgart, Metzler) 1981–2006.
  • Willi Goetschel : Heine and Critical Theory . Bloomsbury Academic, London a. a. 2019, ISBN 978-1-350-08726-2 .
  • Dietmar Goltschnigg, Hartmut Steinecke (ed.): Heine and posterity. History of its impact in German-speaking countries . Schmidt, Berlin 2006–2011, ISBN 978-3-503-07989-6 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-3-503-07992-6 (Vol. 2), ISBN 978-3-503-07993-3 ( Vol. 3).
  • Regina Grundmann : “Rabbi Faibisch. What is called Apollo in High German ”. Judaism, poetry, Schlemihltum in Heinrich Heine's work . Metzler, Stuttgart, Weimar 2008.
  • Jürgen Habermas : Heinrich Heine and the role of the intellectual in Germany . In: Ders .: A kind of claims settlement (= Small Political Writings VI). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-518-11453-0 , pp. 25-54.
  • Jürgen Habermas: Contemporary Heine: “There are no more nations in Europe now” (speech on the occasion of the award of the Heinrich Heine Prize by the city of Düsseldorf on December 14, 2012). In the S. In the wake of technocracy (= Small Political Writings. XII). Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-518-12671-4 , pp. 47-64.
  • Walter Hinck : The wound Germany. Heinrich Heine's poetry in the conflict between the national idea, Judaism and anti-Semitism . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1990, ISBN 3-458-16117-1 .
  • Hans Kaufmann : Heinrich Heine. Spiritual development and artistic work . Structure, Berlin 1967.
  • Hartmut Kircher: Heinrich Heine (= Literature Compact. Vol. 1). Tectum, Marburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8288-2924-4 .
  • Jürgen Klein (Ed.): Heinrich Heine. Poet and Democrat , Flandziu 2016/2, ISSN  1614-7170 .
  • Bernd Kortländer : "I am a German poet". Love and unhappiness in Heine's "Book of Songs" . In: Heine yearbook 2006 . Metzler, Stuttgart-Weimar 2006, pp. 59-73.
  • Karl Kraus : Heine and the consequences . In: Ders .: Fall of the world through black magic . Kösel Verlag, Munich 1960, pp. 188-219.
  • Leo Kreutzer: Dreaming, dancing, drumming. Heinrich Heine's future . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-518-28929-2 .
  • Joseph Anton Kruse : Heine and the consequences . Metzler, Stuttgart 2016, ISBN 978-3-476-02652-1 .
  • Helmut Landwehr: The key to Heine's Romanzero . Kovac, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-8300-0316-1 .
  • Christian Liedtke (Ed.): Heinrich Heine in portrait. How the artists of his time saw him . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-455-09513-5 .
  • Christian Liedtke: Heinrich Heine. An ABC . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-455-40335-0 .
  • Günter Metzner: Heine in music. Bibliography of the Heine settings . 12 volumes. Schneider, Tutzing 1989–1994.
  • Walther Müller-Jentsch : Adorno's ambivalent Heine reception . In: Heine-Jahrbuch 2019 , pp. 93–99.
  • Günter Oesterle: Integration and Conflict. Heinrich Heine's prose in the context of oppositional literature from the restoration era . Metzler, Stuttgart 1972, ISBN 3-476-00254-3 .
  • Paul Peters: The wound Heine. On the history of the Heine picture in Germany . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997.
  • Josef Rattner , Gerhard Danzer: Heinrich Heine - A singer of freedom, also for Eros and Sexus. In: Eros and Sexus - Your Liberators from 1500 to 2000. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8260-3703-0 , pp. 81–94.
  • TJ Reed, Alexander Stillmark (Ed.): Heine and the world literature . Oxford 2000.
  • Marcel Reich-Ranicki : The Heine Case . DVA, Stuttgart 1997, as well as dtv, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-423-12774-0 .
  • Marc Rölli, Tim Trzaskalik (Ed.): Heinrich Heine and philosophy . Turia + Kant, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-85132-475-4 .
  • Frank Schwamborn: No mask. Carnivalism and theatricality with Heinrich Heine . Iudicium-Verlag, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-89129-320-8 .
  • Renate Stauf, Cord-Friedrich Berghahn (Ed.): Poetic Zeitgenossenschaft. Heine studies . Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-8253-6565-3 .
  • Hartmut Steinecke : Heinrich Heine in the Third Reich and in exile . Schöningh, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-506-76688-5 .
  • Jürgen Voigt: O Germany, my distant love ... The young Heinrich Heine between national romanticism and Judaism . Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1993, ISBN 3-89144-174-6 .
  • Manfred Windfuhr : Heinrich Heine. Revolution and reflection. Metzler, Stuttgart 1969.


Settings (selection)

Web links

Wikisource: Heinrich Heine  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Heinrich Heine  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

About Heine


Unless otherwise stated, texts by Heinrich Heine are quoted according to the Düsseldorf Heine Edition (DHA) for the works and according to the Heine Secular Edition (HSA) for the letters.

The texts of both editions are now available in digitized form (with search function) on the Heinrich Heine portal (see web links).

  1. travel pictures. Second part: ideas. The book Le Grand , chapter 6
  2. rheinische-geschichte.lvr.de
  3. ^ J. Loewenberg: Heines Lottchen. Memories of Charlotte Embden-Heine. (PDF; 11.5 MB) In: Youth. Vol. 4 (1899), H. 50, pp. 818/820.
  4. Dirk Brietzke: Embden, Charlotte . In: Franklin Kopitzsch, Dirk Brietzke (Hrsg.): Hamburgische Biographie . tape 4 . Wallstein, Göttingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-8353-0229-7 , pp. 93-94 .
  5. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. P. 35.
  6. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. P. 35.
  7. ^ Andreas Mettenleiter : Personal reports, memories, diaries and letters from German-speaking doctors. Supplements and supplements II (A – H). In: Würzburg medical history reports. 21, 2002, pp. 490-518; P. 513 (* 1805 or 1807).
  8. Bernd Füllner, Christian Liedtke (ed.): "... and greet me the world". A life in letters . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2005, p, 28.
  9. Dietmar Goltschnigg, Hartmut Steinecke: Heine and posterity. History of its impact in German-speaking countries . Volume 2, Schmidt, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-503-07992-0 , p. 620.
  10. ^ Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner, Dieter A. Binder: International Freemason Lexicon. 2000, p. 387.
  11. Quoted from Ernst Pawel: The poet dies. Heine's last years in Paris. Berlin 1997, p. 7.
  12. ^ Letter of October 27, 1816, cited above. according to HSA, Volume 20, p. 21.
  13. ^ Letter of July 6, 1816, quoted in according to HSA, Volume 20, p. 17.
  14. Anna Danneck: "Motherland of civilization and freedom". Images of France in Heinrich Heine's work. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2020, p. 116. See also Bernd Füllner, Christian Liedtke (Eds.): “… And greet me the world”. A life in letters . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2005, p. 30.
  15. ^ Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , pp. 301-311.
  16. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: "The purpose of life is life itself". Heinrich Heine. Eine Biographie , Cologne 1997, p. 64
  17. From: Travel Pictures. First part: Die Harzreise (1826), cited above. according to: DHA, Volume 6, p. 84.
  18. ^ Heinrich Heine: Correspondence 1815-1856. Secular edition Volume 20, p. 26 and Hauschild / Werner, Zweck , p. 65
  19. On Heine's membership in the Göttingen fraternity, the reasons for his expulsion and the later membership in the Corps Guestphalia Göttingen see Oskar Scheuer : Heinrich Heine als Student . 1922. DNB 576000418
  20. Jost Hermand : A youth in Germany - Heinrich Heine and the fraternity. (PDF)
  21. ^ Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , p. 302.
  22. ^ Georg Lukács : Heine as a national poet . Verlag Dein Buch, Ess 1956, p. 47 f.
  23. For detailed evidence of Heine's "dialectical optics" going back to Hegel in numerous of his writings see Jost Hermand: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial . Böhlau, Cologne 2007, pp. 11–15.
  24. Most recently by Klaus Vieweg; Hegel. The philosopher of freedom . Biography. Beck, Munich 2019, p. 468.
  25. Quoted from: De Staël Critique, 1844 , in: DHA, Volume 15, p. 170. - Heinrich Beer was considered the intimate of Hegel and was a brother of Giacomo Meyerbeer .
  26. ^ Letter of April 7, 1823, quoted in according to: HSA, volume 20, p. 72.
  27. Kösener Corps Lists 1910, 69 141
  28. See baptismal register from 1825. Illustration in: Heine. Life 1797 to 1819 ( Memento of the original from March 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / p9789.typo3server.info archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . (Accessed December 13, 2017)
  29. Max Brod: Heinrich Heine . Non Stop-Bücherei, Berlin undated [1956], p. 162.
  30. From: Prose Notes. quoted according to: DHA, Volume 10, p. 313.
  31. Excerpt from The romantic Oedipus .
  32. In a letter to Varnhagen von Ense. Quoted from HSA 20, p. 385.
  33. From: Travel Pictures. Third part: Italy. The baths of Lucca. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 7/1, p. 134.
  34. From: Travel Pictures. Third part: Italy. The baths of Lucca. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 7/1, p. 141.
  35. From: Appendix to New Poems . Quoted from: DHA, Volume 2, p. 142.
  36. Quoted from HSA, Volume 20, p. 234.
  37. ↑ Erroneously in the original: July 8th. Quoted from HSA, Volume 20, p. 265.
  38. Klaus Briegleb: At the waters of Babels. Heinrich Heine, Jewish writer in modern times . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1997, p. 56.
  39. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time - person - work . 3. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart and Weimar 2004, p. 34.
  40. ^ Regina Grundmann : "Rabbi Faibisch, What is Apollo in High German": Judaism, poetry, Schlemihltum in Heinrich Heine's work . Metzler, Stuttgart, Weimar 2008. P. 39 f. - Olaf Briese: Exile on earth. Facets of an imposition in Heine's late work . In: Heine-Jahrbuch : 42 (2003), p. 33.
  41. See the detailed research report by Regina Grundmann in her book "Rabbi Faibisch, What is Apollo in High German": Judentum, Dichtertum, Schlemihltum in Heinrich Heine's work . Metzler, Stuttgart, Weimar 2008. pp. 32-45.
  42. Marcel Reich-Ranicki: The Heine case. Stuttgart 1997, p. 103.
  43. Thomas Freller: Granada. Kingdom between Orient and Occident. Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2009, ISBN 978-3-7995-0825-4 , p. 148.
  44. From: Almansor (1823), verse 243, cited above. according to: DHA, Vol. 5, p. 16.
  45. Jost Hermand: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2007, p. 35.
  46. ^ Josef A. Kruse: Heinrich Heine . Suhrkamp BasisBiographie, Frankfurt am Main 2005, p. 29.
  47. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 104.
  48. Max Brod: Heinrich Heine . Non Stop-Bücherei, Berlin undated [1956], p. 133.
  49. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, p. 163.
  50. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, p. 95.
  51. DHA Volume 15, p. 13.
  52. Quotation from HSA, Volume 22. P. 180.
  53. Heine's ironization of romanticism should not be confused with the so-called romantic irony advocated by Friedrich Schlegel.
  54. From: New Poems. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 2, p. 15 f.
  55. From: Travel Pictures. Third part: journey from Munich to Genoa. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 7/1, p. 68.
  56. On Heine's sarcasm see: Burkhard Meyer-Sickendiek : What is literary sarcasm? A contribution to German-Jewish modernity. Fink Verlag, Paderborn / Munich 2009, pp. 193-257.
  57. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, pp. 146 and 156.
  58. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, p. 147 f.
  59. ^ Heinrich Heine: II. Préface de la dernière édition des travel pictures . Quoted from: HDA, Volume 6, pp. 355-358, here p. 358.
  60. From: Travel Pictures. Second part: ideas. The book Le Grand . Chapter XII, cit. according to DHA, Volume 6, p. 201 - whereby the line break here is the typography of the first print  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. was adjusted.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / germa83.uni-trier.de  
  61. ^ Georg Lukács: Heinrich Heine as a national poet . Verlag Dein Buch, Essen 1956, p. 13.
  62. ^ Eckhard Wallmann: Heinrich Heine on Helgoland. Letters, reports and pictures . Heligoland 2002.
  63. Quoted from DHA, Volume 11, p. 50.
  64. Anna Danneck: "Motherland of civilization and freedom". Images of France in Heinrich Heine's work . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2020, p. 61.
  65. Max Brod: Heinrich Heine . Non Stop-Bücherei, Berlin undated [1956], p. 184.
  66. ^ Georg Lukács; Heinrich Heine as a national poet . Verlag Dein Buch, Essen 1956, p. 19.
  67. Quoted from HSA, Volume 21, p. 41.
  68. From: New Poems. Quoted from DHA, Volume 2, p. 73.
  69. ↑ This side and the other side of the Rhine. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 3/1, p. 276.
  70. Anna Danneck: "Motherland of civilization and freedom". Images of France in Heinrich Heine's work . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2020, p. 266.
  71. Anna Danneck: "Motherland of civilization and freedom". Images of France in Heinrich Heine's work . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2020, p. 65.
  72. See Volkmar Hansen: Heinrich Heine's political journalism in the Augsburger "Allgemeine Zeitung". Exhibition catalog: Heine's article in the “Allgemeine Zeitung”, City of Augsburg 1994.
  73. Anna Danneck: "Motherland of civilization and freedom". Images of France in Heinrich Heine's work . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2020, p. 62.
  74. From: Ban on the Writings of Young Germany. Federal decision of December 10, 1835, quoted in according to: verfassungen.de
  75. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, pp. 194 and 203.
  76. Jan-Christoph Hauschild ; Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 386 ff.
  77. Max Brod: Heinrich Heine . Non Stop-Bücherei, Berlin undated [1956], p. 192.
  78. Max Brod: Heinrich Heine . Non Stop-Bücherei, Berlin undated [1956], p. 193. - The secret reports were uncovered by the Austrian literary historian Karl Glossy with his publication Literary Secret Reports from the Vormärz . Konegen, Vienna 1912.
  79. Quoted from Jörg Aufenanger: Heinrich Heine in Paris. dtv, Munich 2005, p. 20.
  80. In the quote, Heine reveals himself as a pantheist in the footsteps of Baruch Spinoza . Quoted from: DHA, Volume 8/1, p. 61.
  81. ^ Edda Ziegler: Heinrich Heine. The poet and the women. Düsseldorf / Zurich 2005, p. 57.
  82. ^ Edda Ziegler: Heinrich Heine. The poet and the women. Zurich / Düsseldorf 2005, pp. 57–58.
  83. Quoted from DHA, Volume 3/1, p. 360.
  84. Quoted from Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. P. 314.
  85. see Pawel: The poet dies. Pp. 79-81.
  86. DHA, Vol. 8/1, p. 141.
  87. DHA, Vol. 8/1, p. 158.
  88. ^ Letter to Karl August Varnhagen von Ense dated February 28, 1830. Quoted from HSA, Volume 20, p. 389.
  89. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work . 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, pp. 308 and 317.
  90. Confessions . DHA, Vol. 15, p. 13.
  91. The Romantic School . Quoted from DHA, Volume 8/1, p. 135
  92. ^ Keyword Lessing in: Christian Liedtke: Heinrich Heine. An ABC. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2015, p. 113.
  93. The Romantic School . Quoted from DHA, Volume 8/1, p. 135.
  94. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 8/1, p. 45.
  95. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 424.
  96. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 422 f.
  97. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 426.
  98. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine. Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, p. 292.
  99. Quoted from Willi Jasper : Ludwig Börne. Born to no fatherland. Structure of Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 2003, p. 18.
  100. Christian M. Hanna, Friederike Reents (Ed.): Benn-Handbuch: Leben - Werk --ffekt , JB Metzler Verlag, Stuttgart 2016, pages 171 f, 243, 247 f u. 366-368
  101. ^ Hans Magnus Enzensberger: Editorial note. In: Ludwig Börne and Heinrich Heine, Ein deutsches Zerfnis. The Other Library, Nördlingen 1986, p. 365.
  102. Quoted from: Gerhard Höhn: Heine-Handbuch. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 433.
  103. Friedrich Engels: Alexander Jung, Lectures on the Literature of the Germans (1842). In: Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels works . Volume 1. Dietz, Berlin 1961, p. 441.
  104. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, p. 101.
  105. ^ Bernd Kortländer: Heinrich Heine . Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, p. 101.
  106. Jan-Christoph Hauschild , Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 504.
  107. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work . 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 102.
  108. From: New Poems. Quoted from Heine: Werke, Volume II, p. 129 f.
  109. See u. a. Ludwig Rosenthal: Heinrich Heine's inheritance dispute. Background, course, consequences . Grundmann, Bonn 1982.
  110. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work . 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 82.
  111. He announced the work to his publisher Campe as the “deliberate opposite of all trend poetry”. Quoted from HSA, Volume 22, p. 33.
  112. Quoted from DHA, Volume 4, p. 55
  113. Quoted from DHA, Volume 12/1. P. 259.
  114. From: Germany. A winterstory. DHA, Vol. 4, p. 92.
  115. Jost Hermand: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2007, p. 89.
  116. Jost Hermand counted thirty-three times. Jost Hermand: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2007, p. 98
  117. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy . First volume. Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels: Works , Volume 23. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 637.
  118. ^ Georg Lukács: Heinrich Heine as a national poet . Verlag Dein Buch, Essen 1956, p. 23.
  119. DHA, Vol. 2, p. 150.
  120. ^ Friedrich Engels: Rapid progress of communism in Germany . In: Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels: Works , Volume 2. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 512.
  121. ^ Friedrich Engels: Rapid progress of communism in Germany . In: Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels: Works , Volume 2. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 512.
  122. Jost Hermand: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2007, p. 91.
  123. Walter Grab: Heinrich Heine as a political poet . Book guild Gutenberg, Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 158 f.
  124. Walter Grab: Heinrich Heine as a political poet . Book guild Gutenberg, Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 159.
  125. Jan-Christoph Hauschild , Michael Werner: "The purpose of life is life itself." Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 234 f.
  126. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: "The purpose of life is life itself." Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 236.
  127. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 251 f.
  128. Quoted from HSA, Volume 10, p. 137.
  129. Jürgen Habermas: Heinrich Heine and the role of the intellectual in Germany . In: Ders .: A kind of claims settlement (Small Political Writings VI). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1987, pp. 25-54, here p. 52, fn. 24.
  130. DHA, Volume 13/1, p. 294 f.
  131. ^ German Historical Museum
  132. Quoted from DHA, Volume 11, p. 74.
  133. Quoted from HSA, Volume 22, p. 270.
  134. Quoted from HSA, Volume 22, p. 287.
  135. HSA, Vol. 12; online , on the page below; for the following pages the page number above left. change and tap "open", or kl. Up right arrow keys. use. French version from p. 194.
  136. From the appendix to the Romanzero , cit. according to: DHA, volume 3/1, p. 240.
  137. See HSA, Volume 12, p. 36.
  138. From: Romanzero. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 3/1, p. 117.
  139. Christian Liedtke: "I can hardly stand the scent of the winner". On Heinrich Heine's political poetry after 1848 . In the S. (Ed.): Heinrich Heine. New ways of research . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2000, pp. 216–236, here: p. 217.
  140. ^ Klaus Briegleb: Victim Heine? Attempts on writing the revolution . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1986, p. 127.
  141. Walter Grab : Heinrich Heine as a political poet . Book guild Gutenberg, Frankfurt 1992, p. 174 ff.
  142. From: Germany. A winter fairy tale quoted from: Heinrich heine, Complete Works, Volume 1: Poems , Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf, Zurich 1997, SS 388.
  143. Quoted from DHA, Volume 8/1, p. 118 f.
  144. Wolfgang Harich, On the ideological front. Hegel between Feuerbach and Marx , Schriften aus dem Nachlass, Vol. 5, Textum, Marburg 2013, pp. 341f, pp. 353–355, p. 400
  145. ^ Afterword to Romanzero , DHA, Volume 3/1, p. 181.
  146. ^ Letter to Karl Marx of Jan. 14, 1848, quoted in after Michael Werner (Ed.): Encounters with Heine. Reports from contemporaries. Volume 2: 1847-1856. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1973, p. 99.
  147. HSA, Volume 22, p. 292.
  148. Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography , Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 549
  149. Roland Schiffter: The suffering of Heinrich Heine. In: Advances in Neurology. Psychiatry. 73 (2005), pp. 30-43. Summary: Gisela Klinkhammer: Heinrich Heine: "She kissed me sick" . In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt 102-11 (2005). on-line
  150. Henner Montanus: The sick Heine. Metzler, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-476-01282-4 .
  151. See H. Kijewski / W. Huckenbeck / U. Reus: Illness and death of the poet Heinrich Heine from the point of view of new forensic examinations on hair. In: Forensic Medicine. 10 (2000), pp. 207-211 and 13 (2003), pp. 131-136. But see Chr. Auf der Horst / A. Labisch: Heinrich Heine, suspected lead poisoning and Heine's opium abuse. In: Heine yearbook. 38 (1999), pp. 105-131.
  152. So z. B. Susanne Tölke: I am bad as a dog. Bayerischer Rundfunk ( radio report ); What did Heine suffer from? ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed June 27, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.dmsg.de
  153. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 451 f.
  154. Jost Hermand: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2007, p. 81.
  155. From: Lutezia , first part. Quoted from DHA, Volume 13/1, p. 110.
  156. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 141.
  157. From: Romanzero. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 3/1, p. 121 f.
  158. Walter Grab: Heinrich Heine as a political poet . Book guild Gutenberg o. J. [1992], p. 239.
  159. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 148.
  160. Quoted from: Romanzero . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1851, p. 303 f., Afterword ( Wikisource )
  161. Heine's will in full text at zeno.org
  162. In evangelistic Christian literature Heine is sometimes ascribed the following poem: " The old lyre is smashed / on the rock, which is called Christ [...]." Peter Walter traced the origin of this poem and was able to trace it back to 1973 - even there without citing the source. This poem is unknown in Heine research and does not fit into Heine's thinking of the later period (Peter Walter: "Was Heine converted at the end of his life? Criticism of religion and old-age religiosity in Heinrich Heine", factum 9/1987, pp. 35–46 ; 10/1987, pp. 28-37).
  163. Ludwig Marcuse: Heinrich Heine in self-testimonies and image documents. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1960, p. 157.
  164. Ludwig Marcuse: Heinrich Heine in self-testimonies and image documents. 1960, p. 158.
  165. From the lyric estate, quoted in according to: DHA, Volume 3/1, p. 396.
  166. From: Reread poems. quoted according to: DHA, Volume 3, p. 1505.
  167. Journal des Goncourt: Mémoires de la vie littéraire. Année 1863 fr.wikisource , 23 février.
  168. According to research by the Heine biographer Adolph Strodtmann , the two Hamburgers Wilhelm Grabau and Henry Sloman are said to have been the last to see his body before the coffin was locked. Enzo Maaß: No doctor on Heine's coffin. Dr. Grabau, Dr. Sloman and a relic. A correction . In: Heine yearbook . tape 2018 . JB Metzler, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-476-04665-9 , pp. 3-23 .
  169. From the appendix to: New poems. Quoted from: DHA, Volume 2, p. 197.
  170. Lutezia , chap. LV of March 20, 1843, quoted in according to: DHA, Volume 14/1, p. 48.
  171. ^ In 1867, in the first volume of Capital , Marx called him his friend. S. Karl Marx: Capital. Critique of Political Economy. First volume . (MEW 23). Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 637.
  172. Cf. Marcel Reich-Ranicki: The Heine case. dtv, Munich 2000, p. 34 ff.
  173. Jürgen Habermas: Heine-Jahrbuch 2013 , p. 191.
  174. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 2 f.
  175. Jürgen Habermas: Heinrich Heine and the role of the intellectual in Germany . In: Ders .: A kind of claims settlement (Small Political Writings VI). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1987, pp. 25-54, here p. 29
  176. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual time, person, work. 3rd, revised. u. exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, p. 36.
  177. Karl Kraus: Heine and the consequences . In: Ders .: Fall of the world through black magic . Munich 1960, pp. 188–219, here p. 193.
  178. Paul Peters: The wound Heine. On the history of the Heine picture in Germany . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997, p. 119 ff.
  179. ^ Klaus Briegleb: Victim Heine? Attempts on writing the revolution . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1986, p. 74.
  180. For a complete list of the Heine monuments see Christian Liedke: Heines Denkmäler, 1891–2012. An annotated directory. In: Heine-Jahrbuch 2014. Volume 53, pp. 170–214.
  181. The politically influential Göttingen orientalist Paul de Lagarde , who wanted to see himself understood as a theologian, described Heinrich Heine as “one of the most disgusting subjects that ever pressed the earth”: Mittheilungen. (Second volume), Göttingen 1887, chapter Jews and Indo-Europeans. A study after life. P. 346.
  182. Joachim Petsch: Heinrich Heine Monument by Arno Breker on Norderney - a provincial farce? 1984, Retrieved May 16, 2019 .
  183. Dietrich Schubert: "… a stranger foreigner" - the Heine monument to Empress Elisabeth of Austria in 1890 on Corfu . In: Critical Reports . 16.Jg, Heft 3, 1988, p. 33-45 .
  184. Memorial HEINRICH HEINE I. In: Hamburg picture archive. Retrieved April 16, 2019 . See also Ernst-Adolf Chantelau: The historical Heine Bozzetti by Hugo Lederer . In: kunsttexte.de . No. 1/2017 ( hu-berlin.de [PDF]). For Alfred Kerr's speech on the unveiling of the monument see Deborah Vietor-English: Alfred Kerr. The biography . Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2016, pp. 374–376.
  185. Heinrich Heine Monument. Gedenkstaetten-in-hamburg.de, accessed on April 16, 2019 .
  186. See Herman Hipp: Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg - History, Culture and Urban Architecture on the Elbe and Alster . Cologne 1989, p. 129 f.
  187. Jan Niko Kirschbaum: Heinrich Heine Monument (1893) . March 6, 2012.
  188. Jan Niko Kirschbaum: Heinrich Heine Monument (1958). Retrieved April 16, 2019 .
  189. Each illustrated article on the “Halle im Bild” page: Memorial plaque for the first memorial. , Heinrich-Heine-Felsen. , Monument Universitätsplatz. all accessed on April 16, 2019.
  190. Heinrich-Heine-Brunnen, Munich. literaturportal-bayern.de, accessed on April 16, 2019 .
  191. ^ Karl Theodor Kleinknecht: Introduction . In the S. (Ed.): Heine in Germany. Documents of its reception 1834–1956 . Niemeyer, Tübingen 1976, pp. VII-XXXII, here: p. VII.
  192. ^ Karl Theodor Kleinknecht: Introduction . In the S. (Ed.): Heine in Germany. Documents of its reception 1834–1956 . Niemeyer, Tübingen 1976, pp. VII-XXXII, here: pp. XVIII f.
  193. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche: Ecce Homo . In: Ders .: Works in three volumes . Second volume. Darmstadt 1997: 1063–1159, here: p. 1088.
  194. Quoted from Karl Theodor Kleinknecht: Heine in Germany. Documents of its reception 1834–1956 . Niemeyer, Tübingen 1976, p. 58.
  195. Quoted from Karl Theodor Kleinknecht: Heine in Germany. Documents of its reception 1834–1956 . Niemeyer, Tübingen 1976, p. 71.
  196. Karl Kraus: Heine and the consequences . In: Ders .: Fall of the world through black magic. Kösel, Munich 1960, pp. 188-219.
  197. Karl Kraus: Heine and the consequences . In: Ders .: Fall of the world through black magic. Kösel, Munich 1960, pp. 188-219, here: p. 189.
  198. Paul Peters: The wound Heine. On the history of the Heine picture in Germany . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997, p. 142.
  199. Quoted from: Paul Peters: Die Wunde Heine. On the history of the Heine picture in Germany . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997, p. 142.
  200. Paul Peters: The wound Heine. On the history of the Heine picture in Germany . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1997, pp. 143–153.
  201. Theodor W. Adorno: The wound Heine . In: ibid .: notes to Literature I . (= Library Suhrkamp , Volume 47). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1958, pp. 144–152.
  202. Theodor W. Adorno: The wound Heine . In: ibid .: Notes to Literature I . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1958, pp. 145 and 147.
  203. Dietmar Goltschnigg: The torch into the sore heart. Kraus over Heine. A "settlement"? Texts, analyzes, comments . Passagen Verlag, Vienna 2000, p. 22.
  204. On Adorno's Heine reception see Walther Müller-Jentsch : Adornos ambivalent Heine reception . In: Heinrich-Heine-Gesellschaft (Ed.): Heine-Jahrbuch 2019, pp. 93–99.
  205. “So far there is no clear evidence of the widespread opinion that Heine's works were a victim of the auto dairy.” Hartmut Steinecke: “End with Heine!” The poet and his work in National Socialist Germany . In: Heine yearbook 2008 . Metzler, Stuttgart-Weimar 2008, pp. 173–205, here: 177.
  206. Anja Oesterheld: "Author unknown"? The myth of anonymity and Heinrich Heine's Loreley . In: Stephan Pabst (ed.): Anonymity and authorship. On the literature and legal history of namelessness . de Gruyter, Berlin 2011, pp. 325–358.
  207. Hermann Reuter: The rescue of the Heine collection . Reprint of the publication from Rheinische Post, No. 99, December 13, 1947, In: Wittgenstein. Leaves of the Wittgensteiner Heimatverein, Vol. 87, September 1999, Vol. 63, H. 3, pp. 101-103.
  208. Jürgen Habermas : Contemporary Heine. Finally he is "our" - but what else does he tell us. Acceptance speech . In: Heine-Jahrbuch 2013. Stuttgart – Weimar 2013, pp. 187–200, here: p. 190
  209. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work . 3rd edition Stuttgart – Weimar 2004, p. VII.
  210. ^ Bahn baptizes new trains: An ICE4 named Einstein
  211. Jewish postcards ... ( Memento of the original from August 4, 2014 in the web archive archive.today ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. haGalil onLine. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hagalil.com
  212. Cf. Carmen Gómez García: Heine as a pioneer of a new art of poetry in Spain. History of the first readers of Heine. In: Dietmar Goltschnigg (Ed.): Harry Heinrich Henri Heine. German, Jew, European. Erich Schmidt, Berlin 2008, p. 427.
  213. Naoji Kimura: The East-West Goethe: German Language Culture in Japan , German-East Asian Studies on Intercultural Literary Studies, Vol. 2, Verlag Peter Lang, Bern a. a. 2006, pp. 382-384
  214. Hiroki Hashimoto: Two lectures by Adorno on Heine or cultural criticism and society . In: New Contributions to German Studies [Japanese edition by Doitsu Bungaku ], year 16 (2017), no. 2, pp. 174–191 [Japanese with a German summary].
  215. ^ Günter Metzner: Heine in the music. Bibliography of the Heine settings. 12 volumes. Schneider, Tutzing 1989–1994.
  216. Jan-Christoph Hauschild; Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 395.
  217. ^ Theodor W. Adorno: Toward [s] a Reappraisal of Heine . In: Ders .: Collected Writings , Volume 20.2: Mixed Writings II . Frankfurt am Main 1986, pp. 441-452, here: 441.
  218. ^ Theodor W. Adorno: Toward [s] a Reappraisal of Heine . In: Ders .: Collected Writings , Volume 20.2: Mixed Writings II . Frankfurt am Main 1986, pp. 441-452, here: 441.
  219. Quoted from Christian Liedtke: Heinrich Heine. Rowohlt Monograph, Reinbek 2006, p. 190.
  220. Quoted from Jan-Christoph Hauschild; Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 12.
  221. From her diary, quoted in after Joseph A. Kruse: Heinrich Heine. Life and work in data and images. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1983, p. 11.
  222. Quoted from Jan-Christoph Hauschild, Michael Werner: The purpose of life is life itself. Heinrich Heine. A biography . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1997, p. 14.
  223. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche: Ecce homo. around 1888. (9th edition. (= Insel Taschenbuch. 290). Frankfurt am Main 1997, chapter Why I am so clever. Section 4, p. 62).
  224. ^ Adolf Bartels: History of German Literature . Second volume: The newer literature , 5. u. 6th edition, Eduard Avenarius Verlag, Leipzig 1909.
  225. From: Heine and the consequences. Verlag Albert Langen , Munich 1910; Text online
  226. a b quotation from Christian Liedtke: Heinrich Heine. Rowohlt Monograph, Reinbek 2006, p. 191.
  227. In: Die Weltbühne , No. 28, July 9, 1929, p. 58.
  228. Talk about Heine. New York 1950. ip-klaeden.selfhost.eu (PDF)
  229. Quoted from Otto Schönfeldt (Ed.): And everyone loves Heinrich Heine. Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1972, p. 46.
  230. From: The Heine case. dtv, Munich 2000, p. 13.
  231. From: The Heine case. dtv, Munich 2000, p. 48.
  232. ^ Contemporary Heine. Finally he is "our" - but what else does he tell us. Acceptance speech. In: Heine Yearbook 2013. Stuttgart – Weimar, pp. 187–200, here: pp. 190 f.
  233. ^ Gerhard Höhn: Heine manual. Time, person, work. P. 309.
  234. ^ Hans Hielscher: Poetry and Jazz: The Groove by Heinrich Heine. In: Spiegel Online . September 13, 2006, with three excerpts from
    Heinrich Heine. Poetry and Jazz , Nordfriesland Online Magazine, 2006.
  235. ^ Homepage of the band Leichenwetter
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on June 20, 2007 in this version .