Hector Berlioz

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Hector Berlioz, photography at the beginning of the 1860s
Signature of Hector Berlioz '

Louis Hector Berlioz (born December 11, 1803 in La Côte-Saint-André , Département Isère , † March 8, 1869 in Paris ) was a French composer and music critic of the Romantic period .

Life and work

Childhood and youth

Hector Berlioz was born on December 11, 1803 in La Côte-Saint-André as the son of Marie-Antoinette-Joséphine Berlioz, b. Marmion, and the doctor Louis-Joseph Berlioz . In his memoirs, the Mémoires , Berlioz later described his father as well-educated, with a critical mind and, despite all rigor, generous and tolerant, while his mother, a devout Christian, was bigoted. Berlioz had two sisters, Marguerite-Anne-Louise Berlioz (1806-1850) and Adèle Berlioz (1814-1860); three other siblings died in early childhood. Berlioz received his first lessons in languages, literature, history and geography from his father when he was a child. His father's library, whose books the young Berlioz read with great interest, shaped the composer's lifelong passion for reading books.

In Meylan near Grenoble , his grandfather's home village, the twelve-year-old Berlioz experienced his first - unrequited - romance with his mother and sisters during the annual late summer vacation when he met 18-year-old Estelle Dumont.

When Berlioz showed his first musical interest at the age of ten, his father taught him to read music and to learn how to use the flute; a violinist from the municipal theater in Lyon gave him lessons in singing and flute. Berlioz made his first attempts at composition in 1816 a. a. in the form of two quintets after the autodidactic study of a harmony textbook. Berlioz's father did not intend to prepare his son for a possible music career. In order not to encourage his son's enthusiasm for music too much, Berlioz's father refused him piano lessons. In his Mémoires , however, Berlioz described this as an advantage, as it encouraged his imagination and enabled him to compose for the orchestra without going through the piano.


For his father's sake, Berlioz first studied medicine in Paris. In Paris, Berlioz came into contact with operas by Antonio Salieri and Christoph Willibald Gluck and had more and more doubts about his medical studies. For a short time he tried to study law, but finally turned to music in 1823 when he became an unofficial student of Jean-François Lesueur , who taught at the Conservatoire de Paris . Louis Berlioz was increasingly critical of his son's career as a musician due to the uncertain career prospects. The decision to study music met with resistance from Berlioz's parents, who would shape his relationship with them over the next few years.

Shakespearean actress Harriet Smithson, Berlioz's first wife

At the Conservatoire, which he attended from 1826, Luigi Cherubini and Anton Reicha became his teachers, who in Berlioz 'view were too academic (Cherubini) and too much attached to tradition (Reicha). Berlioz made up for the lack of instruction in instrumentation by studying scores while attending opera performances. Of his compositional projects at the time, the performance of the Mass solennelle , composed and reworked in 1824 , was a first success in July 1825.

During his studies at the Conservatoire, Berlioz was influenced by the music of Gluck, Lesueur, Gaspare Spontini , Ludwig van Beethoven and Carl Maria von Weber , and Berlioz was impressed by Weber's Freischütz . However, he developed an aversion to a. against François-Adrien Boieldieu and Gioachino Rossini because of their over-pleasing catchiness. The encounter with Beethoven's music in the concert hall, such as the third , fifth and sixth symphonies, the violin concerto , some overtures, the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives and the opera Fidelio was a formative experience for Berlioz . When Berlioz took over Beethoven's first influences in his attempts at composition, he finished his lessons with Lesueur.

The composer, who mastered the instruments flageolet , flute and guitar, earned his living with music lessons in singing, flute and guitar in addition to irregular support from his father. In order to become financially independent, he repeatedly competed for the Prix ​​de Rome . After unsuccessful attempts in 1826, 1827 and 1829, Berlioz won second prize in 1828 with the dramatic cantata Herminie, the setting of an episode from Torquato Tasso's La Gerusalemme liberata , and in 1830 first prize with his cantata La mort de Sardanapale . Winning the Prix de Rome was linked to a five-year scholarship with a two-year stay in Rome and one year in Germany.

In a last concert before leaving for Rome, Berlioz performed the Symphonie fantastique on December 5, 1830 . In a Hamlet performance, Berlioz fell passionately in love with the leading actress Harriet Smithson . Under this impression he composed the Symphonie fantastique, which immediately became a great success. Spontini, Giacomo Meyerbeer and Franz Liszt were impressed by the work.

Rome stay

Portrait of the young Berlioz by Émile Signol , 1832, a few years after working on the Symphonie fantastique

In February 1831, Berlioz, who had recently become engaged to Marie Moke , reluctantly set out on his trip to Rome and arrived in the Italian capital in March. After waiting a long time for a letter from Marie, Berlioz learned from her mother that Marie Moke had meanwhile become engaged to Joseph Étienne Camille Pleyel, the son of Ignaz Josef Pleyel , and wanted to return to Paris disguised and armed with double pistols, but gave up his plans on the way up. To his relief, he was re-admitted to the Academy in Rome.

In Rome, Berlioz made the acquaintance of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy . Berlioz's admiration for Mendelssohn was not reciprocated by him. Berlioz undertook numerous hikes in the vicinity of Rome - some with Mendelssohn and some alone - which he was very impressed with.

Musically, however, he found his stay in Italy not very productive; As proof of performance, he sent the Resurrexit, which he had composed six years earlier, from his Messe solennelle to Paris. It did not escape him that "the gentlemen made a very considerable advance, a tangible proof of the influence of my stay in Rome on my ideas and the complete abandonment of my strange musical tendencies".

In Italy Berlioz composed a. a. Le roi Lear and revised the Symphonie fantastique. After a 14-month stay in Italy, Berlioz began his return journey in May 1832 and, during a stay of several months in La Côte Lélio, prepared the continuation of the Symphonie fantastique for a performance.

The first concert after his return, which was also attended by Harriet Smithson, took place on December 9, 1832 in Paris with the Symphonie fantastique and Lélio . A day later, Berlioz proposed to the surprised Smithson; in October 1833 the wedding between the composer and the now bankrupt actress took place in the British embassy. In 1834 son Louis was born.

First successes

Berlioz and Paganini, contemporary copper engraving

After a performance of the Symphonie fantastique in December 1833, Berlioz met Niccolò Paganini , who commissioned him to compose Harold en Italie . After Paganini could not hear the work until 1838, Berlioz received 20,000 francs and a letter of approval from the Italian violinist.

Now it was possible for Berlioz to devote himself to composing independently of a job. He worked intensively for seven months on his symphony Roméo et Juliette, the performance of which in November 1839 was a great success. The French government commissioned Berlioz to compose the Grande messe des morts in 1837 (on the anniversary of Marshal Édouard Mortier's death ) and in 1840 to compose the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (on the occasion of the celebrations for the tenth anniversary of the July Revolution of 1830 ).

At the end of the 1830s, Berlioz's fame also grew outside France, for example in Germany, where Robert Schumann repeatedly campaigned for him in his Neue Zeitschrift für Musik .


Berlioz had no luck with his request to perform an opera at the Paris Opéra. His overture to Les francs-juges was rejected and a planned opera Hamlet did not materialize. In a roundabout way, Berlioz was able to perform Benvenuto Cellini on September 10, 1838 . The reactions were mixed; the opera was canceled after seven performances.

Berlioz lived without a permanent job. He earned his living as a writer of music reviews (including from 1835 on the Journal des Débats ) and complained that this left him no time for more financially productive composing. In 1836 and 1837 positions in the state supervisory bodies for music education and at the Conservatoire as a professor of harmony failed. It was not until 1839 that he got the poorly paid position of librarian at the Conservatoire.

At the same time, a marriage crisis developed. His wife Harriet despaired of the end of her career as an actress; Berlioz turned to other women and began an affair with Marie Recio. In 1844 the final separation from his wife took place.

Concert tours

In the following decades Berlioz undertook numerous concert tours to Germany, Austria, Russia, London, Prague and Budapest. In Germany he intensified his friendship with Mendelssohn Bartholdy and met Robert Schumann , Richard Wagner and Giacomo Meyerbeer .

In the winter of 1845/46 Berlioz began with La damnation de Faust during a trip through Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Silesia . From 1853 he conducted several summer festivals in Baden-Baden . Here he received the commission for the opera Béatrice et Bénédict , with which the new theater was opened in 1862 ; In 1856 in Weimar he developed the idea for a great Virgil opera, his opera Les Troyens .

After his two concert tours to Germany in 1842 and 1843, Berlioz expressed his disappointment in the morose mood in Paris compared to Germany. In addition, his music was not always understood by the Parisian audience due to its progressive nature.

Last years

Last photograph by Berlioz, 1868

Impressed by the death of his father in 1848, Berlioz visited Meylan. A period of human isolation followed with the deaths of his sister Marguéritte-Anne-Louise in 1850, of Harriet Smithson in 1854 and his sister Adèle in 1860, and of friends and colleagues such as Frédéric Chopin in 1849, Honoré de Balzac in 1850 and Spontini in 1851.

In 1854 the Mémoires , which were printed from 1864, were finished. Berlioz determined that the Mémoires should be published after his death (this happened in 1870), but already distributed advance copies to close friends.

After the death of his wife Harriet, Berlioz married Marie Recio in October 1854.

After Marie Recio's death in 1862, Berlioz began to marry in 1864, after his childhood sweetheart Estelle Dumont. Fournier to do research and affirmed in numerous letters that he had loved her all his life. Of the following correspondence between 1864 and 1868, 40 letters from Berlioz and three letters from Estelle Fournier have survived; Berlioz burned the remaining letters from Estelle at her request.

In 1867, his son Louis died in Havana at the age of 33 as the captain of a ship in Napoleon III's convoy . of yellow fever .

Diseases and death

In the last years of his life, Berlioz was marked by attacks of illness and unbearable pain, some of which made him unable to write even ten lines a day. “I'm in a hurry,” he wrote to Ferrand in 1862, “to cut all the threads so that I can say to death at any time: When you want.” Berlioz is described as sensitive, unstable and neurotic throughout his life .

The trip to the Russian winter in 1868 was bad for his health, so he was forced to return to Paris. From there he traveled to Nice to relax on the Mediterranean . On this trip he suffered two strokes . After a long break he returned to Paris, where he died on March 8, 1869.

As a member of the Institut de France , he was buried in the Montmartre cemetery - next to his two wives. The original tomb has been replaced by a monumental tombstone.

In his honor, the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee named Berlioz Point , a headland in the south of the Antarctic Alexander I Island, in 1961 . A Berlioz Museum was set up in the house where he was born in 1935.


Composer and conductor

Berlioz is considered to be an important representative of the music of the Romantic period in France , although he himself did not like the term "Romanticism": he saw himself as a classical composer. He is considered the founder of symphonic program music and modern orchestral instrumentation . His compositions, which were revolutionary for the time, were hardly understood and earned him more criticism than praise. Therefore, he also had to make a living as a music critic . Although his works were all premiered in Paris, apart from Béatrice et Bénédict (1862 in Baden-Baden), he only received recognition in France long after his death.

However, Berlioz was a great role model for many of the young romantics. His influence on Franz Liszt , Richard Strauss and many Russian composers such as Nikolai Rimski-Korsakow was decisive . In 1868 he traveled to Rostov specifically to experience the various melodies of the great bells, for which the Rostov bell ringer were world famous, with his own ears. Berlioz was thrilled to be able to make music with the "first-class" orchestra of the St. Petersburg Conservatory .

According to his own reports, Berlioz was one of the first conductors to insist on the use of a metronome as an aid during rehearsals in order to be able to keep the correct tempo of his compositions. Performing Berlioz's works often caused problems for the composer himself, as he required up to a thousand instrumentalists and singers for some.

Berlioz made several trips to Germany. In Berlin - he visited the city several times, including 1843 and 1847 - Berlioz was impressed by the rich musical landscape. Many German contemporary music theorists had difficulty explaining the “French phenomenon” Berlioz. Franz Brendel , a German music historian and music journalist of the 19th century, could only interpret Berlioz's music by making the French into a German: "He has to look for his true spiritual home with us".

The relationship with Richard Wagner was very tense. On the one hand they seemed to respect each other, on the other hand they criticized each other publicly and in letters to other composers such as Franz Liszt and Robert Schumann . While Liszt behaved diplomatically, Schumann published a text in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in which Wagner Berlioz calls "limitlessly boring". Wagner also commented negatively on the Symphonie fantastique , one of Berlioz's main works: "Beauty of form is nowhere to be found."

His contemporary Charles Hallé said of him that he was the most perfect conductor and had absolute command over his people. The composer Ferdinand Hiller said of him that he was neither a large nor a small planet in the musical solar system - it was rather a bit scary to look at, an unforgettable, far-flung comet.

Berlioz's instrumentation

Berlioz is the author of the Grand Traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modern from 1844, the first extensive instrumentation study. The work was published in German in 1845 under the title Die Moderne Instrumentation und Orchestration . In 1904 it was revised and supplemented by Richard Strauss under the title Instrumentationlehre , and parts of it are still valid today. Richard Strauss, who greatly admired Berlioz, originally saw no need to edit this comprehensive work. However, when the publisher approached him and he began to grapple with it, he found that his job was to update the work so that it would continue to exist. Using quotations from orchestral scores by Gluck , Mozart , Beethoven and his own works, Berlioz explains all of the instruments commonly used in modern orchestras, including the guitar. To date, there are only a few publications that can match his work in terms of scope and accuracy, such as Samuel Adler's The Study of Orchestration (1982, English) and Yehudi Menuhin's instruments of the orchestra (CD).

The version revised by Strauss contains other more modern instruments, as well as other score examples by Richard Wagner and his own compositions.

Works (selection)

French banknote (10 francs, 1972) with a portrait of Hector Berlioz
Portrait bust of Bernhard Horn at the Festspielhaus Baden-Baden

Opus index

  • [Opus 1]: Huit scènes de Faust (later withdrawn) (1828/29)
  • Opus 1: Waverley Overture (1828)
  • Opus 2: Le Ballet des ombres (1829).
  • Opus 2b: Irlande: mélodies irlandaises (9 melodies; 1829)
  • Opus 3: Les francs-juges (1826/1833)
  • Opus 4: Le roi Lear (1831).
  • Opus 5: Grande messe des morts . (Requiem; 1837)
  • Opus 6: Le cinq mai (1831/35)
  • Opus 7: Les nuits d'été (1840–1841)
  • Opus 8: Rêverie et Caprice (1841).
  • Opus 9: Le carnaval romain (1843–1844)
  • Opus 10: Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modern ( The modern instrumentation and orchestration ; 1843–1844)
  • Opus 11: Sara la baigneuse (1834).
  • Opus 12: La captive (1832).
  • Opus 13: Fleurs des landes (1850).
    • 3: Letons (1835).
  • Opus 14: Symphonie fantastique , episode de la vie d'un artiste (1830)
  • Opus 14b: Lélio ou Le retour à la vie (1831).
  • Opus 15: Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (1840).
  • Opus 16: Harold en Italie (1834).
  • Opus 17: Roméo et Juliette (1839).
  • Opus 18: Tristia (1849).
    • 1: Méditation religieuse (1831).
    • 2: La mort d'Ophélie (1842).
  • Opus 19: Feuillets d'album (1850).
    • 1: Zaïde (1845).
    • 2: Les champs (1834).
    • 3: Chant des chemins de fer (1846).
    • 4: Prière du matin (1846).
    • 5: La belle Isabeau (1843).
    • 6: Le chasseur danois (1844).
  • Opus 20: Vox populi (1849).
    • 1: La menace des Francs (1848).
    • 2: Hymn à la France (1844).
  • Opus 21: Le corsaire (1844).
  • Opus 22: Te Deum . (1848)
  • Opus 23: Benvenuto Cellini . (1834/1838)
  • Opus 24: La damnation de Faust . (1845/46)
  • Opus 25: L'enfance du Christ . Trilogy sacrée (1850-1854)
    • Le songe d'Hérode (1854).
    • La fuite en Egypt (1850-1853)
    • L'arrivée à Sais (1853-1854)
  • Opus 26: L'impériale (1854).
  • Opus 27: Béatrice et Bénédict (1860–1862)
  • Opus 28: Le temple universel (1861)
  • Opus 29: Les Troyens (1856-1858)
    • 29a La prize de Troie
    • 29b Les Troyens à Carthage

Operas and Dramatic Legends

  • 1823: Estelle et Némorin (Opera; has lost)
  • 1826/1833: Les francs-juges , op. 3 (opera in three acts; mostly lost)
  • 1834/1838: Benvenuto Cellini . op.23 (opera in three acts)
  • 1841/1847: La nunne sanglante (opera; unfinished)
  • 1846: La damnation de Faust . op. 24 (dramatic legend in four acts)
  • 1856-1858: Les Troyens . op.29 (opera in five acts)
  • 1860–1862: Béatrice et Bénédict . op.27 (comic opera in two acts)

Other vocal works

  • 1829: Cléopâtre , scène lyrique, based on a poem by Pierre-Ange Vieillard
  • 1831: Lélio ou Le retour à la vie , op.14b (Melolog in 6 parts; continuation of the Symphonie fantastique and attacca to be played after this.)

Orchestral music

Overtures for orchestra:

  • 1826/1828: Waverley (great overture)
  • 1831: Intrada di Rob-Roy MacGregor
  • 1831: Le roi Lear , op.4 (great overture after the tragedy by Shakespeare)
  • 1843–1844: Le carnaval romain , op. 9 (characteristic overture)
  • 1844: Le corsaire , op.21


Work for symphonic wind orchestra:

  • 1840: Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale , op.15 : Marche Funèbre - Oraison Funèbre - Apothéose

Concert works:

  • 1841: Rêverie et caprice , op.8 (Romance for violin and orchestra)

Chamber, piano, harmonium and organ music

Chamber music:

  • 1841: Rêverie et caprice , op.8 (Romance for violin and piano)

Piano music:

  • 1844: Albumleaf (16 bars)

Harmonium and organ music:

  • 1844: Hymn pour l'élévation en ré majeur, pour orgue
  • 1844: Sérénade agreste à la Madone sur le thème des pifferari romains en mi bémol majeur, pour orgue
  • 1844: Toccata en do majeur, pour orgue
    • 1845: together as Trois pièces pour orgue ou harmonium published

Religious music


  • Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modern. Oeuvre 10me. Schonenberger, Paris [1843–1844] (“Dédié à Sa Majesté Frédéric Guillaume IV, Roi de Prusse”). Digitized
    • The modern instrumentation and orchestration . Translated from the French by J [ohann] C [hristoph] Grünbaum, AM Schlesinger, Berlin [1843 or 1844] (bilingual edition in French and German; “ Dedicated in deep reverence to His Majesty the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV ”).
    • Instrumentation. Completed and revised by Richard Strauss . Two volumes. Edition Peters, Leipzig 1904–1905, again ibid. 1955 and Frankfurt am Main 1986.
  • Voyage musical en Allemagne et Italie. Etudes sur Beethoven, Gluck et Weber. Mélanges et nouvelles. Jules Labitte, Paris 1844.
  • Les soirées de l'orchestre. Michel Lévy frères, Paris 1852 (German translation: Evening entertainments in the orchestra . Translated from the French by Elly Ellès, Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig 1909).
  • Les grotesques de la musique. Librairie nouvelle, Paris 1859 (German translation: Grotesque Musikantengeschichten . From the French by Elly Ellès, Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig 1906). Digitized
  • À travers chants. Études musicales, adorations, boutades et critiques . Michel Lévy frères, Paris 1862 (German translation: Musical forays. Studies, deification, failures and reviews. From the French by Elly Ellès, Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig 1912).
  • Mémoires […] from 1803 to 1865 et ses voyages en Italie, Allemagne, Russie et Angleterre écrits par lui-même . Vallée, Paris 1865; later as: Mémoires de Hector Berlioz, […] comprenant ses voyages en Italie, en Allemagne, en Russie et en Angleterre. 1803-1865. Michel Lévy frères, Paris 1870.
    • German translations:
      • Memoirs describing his travels in Italy, Germany, Russia and England. 1803-1865 . Translated from the French by Elly Ellès. Two volumes. Breitkopf and Härtel, Leipzig 1903–1905 (again: Reclam, Leipzig 1967; Heinrichshofen, Wilhelmshaven 1979; Athenäum, Königstein im Taunus 1985).
      • Memoirs . Newly translated by Dagmar Kreher, ed. and commented by Frank Heidlberger. Bärenreiter, Kassel 2007, ISBN 978-3-7618-1825-1 .
      • Memoirs . Translated by Hans Scholz, ed. and commented by Gunther Braam. Hainholz, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-932622-90-8 .
  • Treatise on Instrumentation  - Internet Archive (English)


  • Wolfgang Dömling : Berlioz. 4th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993.
  • Klaus Heinrich Kohrs: Hector Berlioz. Autobiography as an art draft . Stroemfeld / Roter Stern, Frankfurt am Main / Basel 2003, ISBN 3-87877-872-4 .
  • Klaus Heinrich Kohrs: Hector Berlioz '"Les Troyens". A dialogue with Virgil . Stroemfeld / Roter Stern, Frankfurt am Main / Basel 2011, ISBN 978-3-86600-083-4 .
  • Klaus Heinrich Kohrs: And everything is changing into the opposite. Hector Berlioz's counterfactual scenes . Stroemfeld Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2014, ISBN 978-3-86600-193-0 .
  • La Mara : Letters from Hector Berlioz to the princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein (1903) . Kessinger Pub, 2010, ISBN 978-1-160-04972-6 .
  • Stephen Rodgers: Form, Program, and Metaphor in the Music of Berlioz . Cambridge University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-521-88404-4 .
  • Gunther Braam, Arnold Jacobshagen (Ed.): Hector Berlioz in Germany. Texts and documents on the German reception of Berlioz (1829–1843) . Hainholz, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-932622-42-1 .
  • Frank Heidlberger (commentator, editor, publisher), Dagmar Kreher (translator): Hector Berlioz Writings: Confessions of an Enthusiast . Metzler-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-476-01932-2 .
  • Jean Poueigh: On the 100th anniversary of the creation of “Faust's Damnation”. In: Lancelot. The messenger from France. Booklet 8, Georg Lingenbrink, Rastatt 1947, p. 105f.
  • Wulf Konold , Alfred Beaujean (Hrsg.): Lexicon orchestral music romanticism. Mainz, Schott, 1989
  • Ulrich Michels: dtv-Atlas Music . Volume 2. Dt. Taschenbuch-Verlag [u. a.], Munich [u. a.] 2003, p. 497.
  • Dieter Götze: Famous foreigners in Berlin: Hector Berlioz . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 4, 2001, ISSN  0944-5560 , p. 92 f . ( luise-berlin.de ).
  • Ferdinand Hiller : artist life . DuMont-Schauberg, Cologne 1880, pp. [63] –143 Textarchiv - Internet Archive
  • Christian Berger, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller: Was Hector Berlioz suffering from epilepsy? An interim report . In: Sieghart Döhring, Arnold Jacobshagen, Gunther Braam (eds.): Berlioz, Wagner and the Germans . Verlag Christoph Dohr, Cologne 2003, pp. 53–58.

Web links

Commons : Hector Berlioz  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Hector Berlioz: Mémoires . Edited by P. Citron, 2 volumes. Paris 1969, p. 56.
  2. ^ Hector Berlioz: Mémoires . Edited by P. Citron, 2 volumes. Paris 1969, p. 146.
  3. ^ Hector Berlioz: Mémoires . Edited by P. Citron, 2 volumes. Paris 1969, p. 98.
  4. Wolf Moser : The guitar in the life of a romantic composer. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 4, 1980, pp. 26 and 28.
  5. ^ Matthias Henke , Michael Stegmann: Hector Berlioz - early manuscripts with guitar music. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 6, 1980, p. 46.
  6. ^ Hector Berlioz: Mémoires . Edited by P. Citron, 2 volumes. Paris 1969, p. 250.
  7. ^ Hector Berlioz: Correspondance générale. Edited by P. Citron, Paris 1972 f., P. 244.
  8. ^ Hector Berlioz: Mémoires . Edited by P. Citron, 2 volumes. Paris 1969, p. 184.
  9. ^ Hector Berlioz: Mémoires . Edited by P. Citron, 2 volumes. Paris 1969, p. 51.
  10. ^ Hector Berlioz: Lettres intimes. Paris 1882, p. 238.
  11. ^ Wilhelm-Lange Eichbaum, Wolfram Kurth: Genius, madness and fame . 2nd Edition. Ernst Reinhardt Verlag, Munich / Basel 1979, p. 331 .
  12. ^ Wolfgang Dömling: Berlioz. 4th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1993, pp. 133-137.
  13. ^ Franz Brendel: History of Music in Italy, Germany and France. 6th edition. Leipzig 1878, p. 503.
  14. J. Kapp: The triumvirate. Berlin 1919, p. 62f, quoted from Wolfgang Dömling: Berlioz. 4th edition. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Hamburg 1993, pp. 120–125.
  15. ^ Ferdinand Hiller: artist life . DuMont-Schauberg, Cologne 1880, p. 143.
  16. Wolf Moser : The guitar in the life of a romantic composer. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 4, 1980.