Antonio Salieri , in Austria during his lifetime and Anton Salieri (* 18th August 1750 in Legnago , Republic of Venice ; † 7. May 1825 in Vienna , Empire of Austria ) was an Italian-Austrian composer of classical music , conductor and music educator .
Antonio Salieri was born into a wealthy merchant family. He was the eighth child from the marriage of Antonio Salieri Sr. (1702–1764) with Anna Maria Scacchi (1722 / 23–1763). He learned violin, harpsichord and singing at an early age from his brother Francesco, who was tutored by Giuseppe Tartini , and from the cathedral organist of Legnago, Giuseppe Simoni, who had been a student of Padre Giovanni Battista Martini . After the early death of his parents Salieri went to Padua , then to Venice , where he at Giovanni Pescetti in basso and the tenor was taught Ferdinando Pacini in singing.
In 1766 Salieri met Florian Leopold Gassmann there , who invited him to come with him to the imperial court in Vienna and - based on the textbook Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux and the Le istitutioni harmoniche by Gioseffo Zarlino - taught him composition . Introduced to the chamber music of Emperor Joseph II , he met the poet Pietro Metastasio in 1767 , who trained him in declamation, and in 1769 Christoph Willibald Gluck , who was a patron and friend of his life. Salieri stayed in Vienna for the rest of his life; on October 10, 1775 he married Theresia Helferstorfer (a cousin of the pianist Josepha Barbara Auernhammer ), who bore him eight children between 1777 and 1790.
After Gassmann's death in 1774, Salieri became imperial chamber composer and conductor of the Italian opera. After this was closed in 1776 in favor of the German National Singing Game, which was sponsored by the Emperor , Salieri took the opportunity to travel to Italy for a long time and set off with great success in Milan (see L'Europa riconosciuta ), Venice (see La scuola de 'gelosi ), Rome and Naples known. In 1780 he finally returned to Vienna, where he made his own contribution to the German Singspiel in 1781 with the chimney sweep . Another journey took Salieri to Munich in early 1782, where he staged the opera Semiramide with great success on behalf of Elector Karl Theodor . With the reopening of the Italian Opera in Vienna in 1783, Salieri resumed his work as Kapellmeister there. This work was only interrupted by the two triumphant trips to Paris in 1784 (see Les Danaïdes ) and 1786/87 (see Tarare ). After his return and the extraordinary success of Axur, re d'Ormus , Salieri was appointed Kapellmeister of the imperial court orchestra in 1788 as successor to Giuseppe Bonno . He held this office until 1824. In 1789 he began composing Da Pontes' libretto for Così fan tutte , but put the libretto aside, whereupon it was set to music by Mozart. Due to the many obligations and the great responsibility that his position as Kapellmeister brought with it, Salieri's opera production declined noticeably. He was once again able to record great successes with Palmira, regina di Persia (1795) and Falstaff ossia Le tre burle (1799). Salieri bid farewell to the stage in 1804 with the German opera Die Neger , which was received rather coldly, after which he devoted himself almost exclusively to church music. In addition to his exhausting activity as court conductor, Salieri committed himself to numerous other offices: from 1788 to 1795 he was president, then vice-president of the Tonkünstler-Societät , whose concerts he directed until 1818. From 1817 he was head director of the Vienna Singing School and in 1823 he sat on the founding committee of the Conservatory of the Society of Friends of Music. As a result, he made lasting contributions to music in Vienna.
After Salieri was in excellent health up to the age of 70 - with a few exceptions - a continuous decline in his physical and mental strength began from around 1821. In October 1823 his legs were paralyzed, which is why Salieri had to be admitted to the Vienna General Hospital. After a long period of suffering back at home in Seilergasse N ° 1088, he received the sacraments on May 7, 1825 and passed away at 8 p.m. on the fire of the elderly , as recorded in the examination protocol of the Viennese magistrate and as the list of those on 7 May deceased in the Wiener Zeitung on May 14, 1825; In the language of the time, “fire” was the name for a gangrene or arterial occlusive disease .
Antonio Salieri was buried in the Matzleinsdorf Catholic cemetery - today's Waldmüllerpark -, exhumed in 1874 and buried at the Vienna Central Cemetery (Group 0, Row 1, Number 54). At his funeral, the Requiem he had composed for himself in C minor in 1804 was performed for the first time. Salieri's grave of honor is adorned with an inscription composed by his student Joseph Weigl:
- Rest gently! Stripped of dust
- Eternity will blossom for you.
- Rest gently! In eternal harmonies
- Your mind is now released.
- He spoke in enchanting tones,
- Now he is floating towards everlasting beauty.
Salieri often worked with other celebrated composers such as Joseph Haydn (played the continuo part at the premiere of Haydn's Creation ) or Louis Spohr (created his oratorio The Last Judgment in 1813 ) and later taught such famous composers as Ludwig van Beethoven , Carl Czerny , Johann Nepomuk Hummel , Franz Liszt , Giacomo Meyerbeer , Ignaz Moscheles , Franz Schubert , Simon Sechter , Franz Xaver Süßmayr , Joseph Weigl , Peter von Winter and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's youngest son Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (see the list below selected student).
Salieri was an excellent singing teacher. From his school u. a. celebrated singers such as Catarina Cavalieri (the first Constanze in the Abduction from the Seraglio ), Therese Gassmann (later married Rosenbaum) and Anna Milder-Hauptmann (the first Leonore in Fidelio ), the tenor Anton Haizinger or the bassist Joseph Seipelt emerged.
For a publication of a history of music in monuments planned by Joseph Sonnleithner around 1800 , Salieri was to write the essays on vocal music. Johann Georg Albrechtsberger and Joseph Haydn also worked as employees . The ambitious project was to be published in 50 volumes of 60 pages each and in four languages, namely in German, French, English and Italian. After the first volume was engraved at the Vienna Art and Industry Comptoir , the existing 270 printing plates were confiscated by the French troops in occupied Vienna in 1805 and melted into ammunition. The proofs that have been preserved have been lost since the Second World War. Only one manuscript has survived with the title Histoire de la musique depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours, rédigée d'après les monuments anciens et modern, par Joseph Sonnleithner, sous la diréction de Messieurs Georges Albrechtsberger, Joseph Haydn et Antoine Salieri .
In 1816 Salieri wrote his own singing school, his Scuola di canto in versi ei versi in musica a 4 voci . From 1817 he was head director of the Vienna Singing School and in 1823 he played a key role in founding the Conservatory of the Society of Friends of Music in Vienna.
Musical historical significance
The most successful of his more than 40 musical theater works were Armida (1771), La fiera di Venezia (1772), La scuola de 'gelosi (1778), Der Rauchfangkehrer (1781), Les Danaïdes (1784), which his patron Christoph Willibald Gluck up to First performed in Paris as a separate work, La grotta di Trofonio (1785), Prima la musica e poi le parole (1786), Tarare (1787) based on a text by Beaumarchais , Axur, re d'Ormus (1788), Palmira, regina di Persia (1795), Falstaff ossia Le tre burle (1799) and Cesare in Farmacusa (1800). Salieri's operatic output is shaped on the one hand by the tradition of the Italian opera seria and on the other by Gluck's reformist operatic efforts, as his Parisian works in particular show. Later Salieri turned again more to the Italian melos, which he interspersed with declamatory elements and newer currents of the opera buffa in order to obtain an extremely rich tonal language. His role as a pioneer of dramma eroicomico is also significant, especially in the congenial collaboration with Giambattista Casti .
In the first 30 years of his composing career Salieri wrote only a few church music works, including the oratorio La passione di nostro signore Gesù Cristo (1776) and the Mass in D major (1788) as well as the Te Deum laudamus de Incoronazione for the coronation of Emperor Leopold II. (1790). It was only after his retirement from music theater in 1804 that Salieri created his major sacred work; in addition to countless offers, graduals, litanies, hymns, etc. Ä., All of which were intended to be performed in the imperial court orchestra, there are several important masses and his Requiem in C minor, intended for his own funeral celebration. In sacred music, Salieri introduced that typical Biedermeier tone of the early 19th century, which was to exert a particularly strong influence on the church works of his pupil Franz Schubert. This is particularly evident in the Mass in B flat major from 1809.
Songs, canons and other social music
After 1800 Salieri also devoted himself to song-making, alongside which he created an almost unmanageable amount of canons and sociable polyphonic chants with or without accompaniment. Salieri's great interest in the language is particularly evident in the diverse selection of Italian, French, Latin and German texts (especially works by Schiller , Matthisson , Castelli and Bürger ), which Salieri used for setting. It cannot be denied that this extremely fruitful branch in Salieri's work has had a stimulating effect on composers of the younger generation such as Franz Schubert, Hüttenbrenner or Reissiger . Several collections of songs, canons and ensembles appeared in print during Salieri's lifetime, including 28 divertimenti vocali for 1–3 voices with piano accompaniment (around 1803) as well as the canon collection Scherzi armonici vocali (around 1810) and its follow-up work Continuazione de 'scherzi armonici vocali ( around 1819). Individual songs are also in print, such as Salieri's setting of Matthisson's famous poem Andenken .
Salieri wrote comparatively little instrumental music , u. a. two piano concertos and an organ concert (1773), a much-played concert for flute, oboe and orchestra (1774), several serenades for wind instruments, and 26 variations on La Follia di Spagna for large orchestra (1815). This last orchestral work by Salieri is very probably the first pure orchestral series of variations before Johannes Brahms ' famous Haydn Variations op. 56a (1873). The work is almost laid out in the spirit of an orchestration study; Salieri may have conceived this project from an educational point of view in the sense of a "sounding instrumentation theory". The 26 short variations adhere relatively closely to the theme, the instrumental aspect is always in the foreground. Noteworthy are the use of the harp and the solo violin, to which extremely virtuoso passages “à la Paganini ” are entrusted. Individual variations are designed in the sense of short, characteristic dance movements (including Seguidilla , Siciliano or Saltarello ), others in turn deal with imitative forms such as B. the canon . What is striking about all variations is a dialogue-based principle that is consistently maintained.
Salieri and Mozart
In general memory today, Salieri is considered a great opponent and envious of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart .
Around 1790 Mozart actually mentions alleged “Cabalen” Salieris against himself several times in letters. These can probably be seen in connection with the creation of the opera Così fan tutte , whose libretto by Da Ponte was originally intended for Salieri. Salieri, however, left the composition at an early stage and never picked it up again. A little later, Mozart is said to have suggested to his wife Constanze that he had been poisoned. In sources from this period, however, there is no real evidence of a real rivalry between the two composers. All other frequently cited sources date long after Mozart's death and are therefore extremely questionable in terms of their credibility.
The "bad" Italian
When Mozart's music became more and more popular in the decades after his death in the wake of a cult of genius and Salieri's compositions were played less and less with the beginning of the Romantic era, the unfounded claims of credibility gained and tarnished Salieri's excellent reputation. The emerging national consciousness at the beginning of the 19th century also contributed to this; Salieri, who was born in Italy, was to be played off against the “German genius” Mozart - although stylistically, at least in his operas, Mozart was more Italian than Salieri, who was rightly considered to be Gluck's legitimate successor. This tendency can be demonstrated as early as 1832 in Albert Lortzing's Singspiel Scenes from Mozart's Life LoWV28.
In all of this, it was forgotten that Salieri had lived in Vienna since he was sixteen and was definitely considered a German composer, as Maria Theresa's statement in November 1772 already proves. It is very likely that Salieri saw himself in this light: his many cantatas, songs and chants loyal to the emperor in German (including texts by Schiller , Bürger , Matthisson , Castelli and Kotzebue ) seem to indicate this. Salieri said goodbye to the stage in 1804 with the German-language opera Die Neger, based on a text by Georg Friedrich Treitschke , who also wrote the libretto for Beethoven's Fidelio .
The music writer Alexander Wheelock Thayer (1817–1897; see literature ) suspects that Mozart's suspicions were triggered in 1781 when he applied for the position of music teacher for the Princess of Württemberg, but Salieri was selected because of his greater experience as a singing teacher.
Later, when Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro received no real recognition from the emperor or the public, he apparently blamed Salieri for the failure. His father Leopold wrote to his daughter Maria Anna on April 28, 1786: "Salieri and all his followers will do their best to get heaven and earth moving again." At the time of Figaro's premiere, however, Salieri was preparing for his new tragedy lyrique Les Horaces employed. Thayer suspects that the intrigues surrounding the failure of Figaro were instigated by Giambattista Casti - Pietro Metastasio's successor as court poet - and the chief director of the court theater, Count Orsini-Rosenberg , and actually directed against the theater poet Da Ponte , who wrote the libretto for Figaro had written. Back then, as it is still today, when working at the theater there must have been quite normal differences of opinion, which Mozart overemphasized, especially with regard to his father Leopold.
Rapprochement and cooperation
Later, when Da Ponte was in Prague to help prepare the world premiere of Mozart's Don Giovanni , he was called back to Vienna for a royal wedding at which Salieri's opera Axur, re d'Ormus was to be premiered; Mozart certainly did not agree with this project. Salieri, on the other hand, evidently had no intention of stopping Mozart's career: after Salieri had become court conductor, he even staged Figaro again instead of his own opera in 1789 , and when he traveled to the coronation celebrations for Leopold II in 1790 , he had no less than three masses of Mozart in the luggage.
Again and again the two composers met each other more collegially than hostile; one knows z. For example, that there was a joint work by the two of them: the cantata Per la ricuperata salute di Ofelia KV 477a (1785) based on a text by Da Ponte, which Salieri, Mozart and a certain Cornetti composed for the convalescence of the singer Nancy Storace . The piece, which was published by Artaria in print, was previously only known from two contemporary newspaper advertisements and was considered lost until it was rediscovered in December 2015 by the German composer and musicologist Timo Jouko Herrmann . At Salieri's suggestion, a. the cantata Davidde penitente KV 469 (1785), the piano concerto in E flat major KV 482 (1785), the clarinet quintet KV 581 (1789) or the famous symphony in G minor KV 550 (1791) premiered, the latter even under Salieri's direction.
In his last surviving letter to his wife Constanze dated October 14, 1791, Mozart wrote of a joint visit to the Magic Flute KV 620, during which Salieri expressed himself enthusiastically about the work: “He listened and saw with all his attention and from the symphony to the last choir, was not a piece that did not elicit a bravo or bello [...]. "
The fact that Salieri kept his six-year-old colleague in honorable memory after his death is proven by many performances of Mozart's works, which took place in Vienna under Salieri's baton. In addition, he taught his youngest son Franz Xaver in composition and gave him an excellent report in March 1807 by giving the young musician a. a. certifies a “talento raro per la Musica […]” and predicts a “riuscita non inferiore a quella del suo celebre Padre”. Even Constanze Mozart is expressed in a letter dated 30 January 1807 very positive about Salieri. She writes to her older son Carl Thomas : “Your brother is going to Salieri and Hummel . Both have a lot of love and friendship for him, [...] now he has the 3 great masters Salieri, Albresberger and Hummel, could I only give you one of these men, how happy I would be ... “In 1819 the elderly Salieri spoke publicly for them Installation of a Mozart monument in the Karlskirche in Vienna.
When Salieri's health deteriorated in old age and he had to be taken to hospital, the absurd rumor arose that the confused old man had confessed to the murder of Mozart. For example, the Beethoven biographer Anton Felix Schindler wrote in a conversation notebook in 1824: “Salieri is doing very badly again. He's all shattered. He fantasizes strongly that he is to blame for Mozart's death and that he forgave him with poison. This is truth - because he wants to confess it as such. ”The two nurses Salieris, Gottlieb Parsko and Georg Rosenberg, as well as his attending physician Dr. Joseph Röhrig testified in writing, however, that he had said nothing of the kind and that at least one of them was always close to him during this time. Salieri's former pupil Ignaz Moscheles , who visited the dying man shortly before his death, even reports in his autobiography that the wrongly accused rejected this accusation: “You know - Mozart, I was supposed to have poisoned him. But no, malice, nothing but malice, tell the world, dear Moscheles; old Salieri, who is about to die, told you. "
Posthumous character assassination
After Salieri's death in 1825, a tradition of poetic freedom began with Alexander Pushkin's drama Mozart i Saljeri (1831) and later with Nikolai Rimski-Korsakov's setting of this material ( Mozart i Saljeri , 1898), which - based on Mozart's assertions - brought Salieri into suspicion of him to have murdered. Also in Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus and its film adaptation Amadeus by Miloš Forman , Salieri is portrayed as an unscrupulous ambitious person.
In this film, Salieri looks back at the time with Mozart at the end of his life. Salieri is wrongly portrayed here as a mediocre composer, intriguer and blasphemer, which does not do justice to his work and activity. He was six years older than Mozart and outlived him by 34 years. In fact, his oeuvre makes his outstanding talent evident, numerous contemporary witnesses attest to Salieri's extremely amiable manner. His deeply felt religiosity is not doubted by his biographers.
As a result of his bad repute, Salieri's music has often been dismissed as uninspired and hardly scrutinized. However, this has changed conspicuously in recent years: In 2003, a collection of selected arias from Salieri, sung by the Italian mezzo-soprano Cecilia Bartoli , even returned to the pop charts due to the gigantic sales success and in 2004 received the ECHO Klassik as a bestseller of the Year as well as the annual award of the German record review . The German soprano Diana Damrau brought out the album Arie di bravura in 2007 , on which, in addition to some numbers by Mozart and Righini, mainly arias by Salieri can be heard. In 2008 and 2010 two albums with overtures, ballet and stage music were released as part of a Salieri edition, played by the Mannheim Mozart Orchestra under the direction of Thomas Fey ; the second album was nominated for a Grammy Award in December 2010 . In June 2010 the soprano Mojca Erdmann recorded two arias from Salieri's Les Danaïdes for her album Mostly Mozart . Salieri's hometown Legnago has hosted the Salieri Opera Festival at irregular intervals since 2000 , which in addition to opera performances also organizes church concerts, readings and symposia on the subject. The Walldorfer Musiktage festival in 2010 was entirely dedicated to the composer and brought a large number of Salieri's works as German premieres.
Salieri's operas have also experienced a renaissance on stage since Friedrich Wanek and Josef Heinzelmann released Prima la musica e poi le parole in Dubrovnik in 1973 (afterwards hundreds of performances around the world). It followed in 1975 Falstaff ossia Le tre burle in Verona (1995 also at the Schwetzingen Festival ), 1982 L'Angiolina in the Neuburg Chamber Opera ( Neuburg an der Donau ), 1988 Tarare at the Schwetzingen Festival and in Karlsruhe (1991 also in Strasbourg ), 1989 Axur, re d'Ormus in Siena , 1990 Les Danaïdes in Ravenna , 1994 Catilina in Darmstadt , 1997 L'amore innocente in Meran (2000 also in Legnago and 2002 in Landsberg am Lech ), 1998 Cublai, gran kan de 'Tartari at Würzburg Mozart Festival , 2004 Il ricco d'un giorno in Legnago and L'Europa riconosciuta at La Scala in Milan and in Vienna, 2005 La grotta di Trofonio in Lausanne and Vienna, 2006 La Cifra in Cologne , 2009 Il mondo alla rovescia in Legnago, Verona and Neuburg a. d. Donau, 2011 Der Rauchfangkehrer in Graz and 2014 in Sydney (only staged premieres).
Individual works by Salieri found their way into modern film music. The overture to La fiera di Venezia serves as the title theme for some skits by the British group Monty Python . In addition, excerpts from Salieri's instrumental concerts were used in “ Iron Man ” and “ The Last Fortress ”.
Salieri was a member of the Swedish Musical Academy (1799), foreign member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts (1805), Knight of the French Legion of Honor (1815), member of the French National Institute and the Music Conservatory in Paris (1816), honorary member of the Styrian Music Association and of the Milan Conservatory (1816) and holder of the Great Golden Civil Medal of Honor on a Chain (1816); Salieri was also a member of the literary society Die Ludlamshöhle . Many of his colleagues and students have dedicated their own works to Salieri, including Ludwig van Beethoven , Simon Sechter , Franz Krommer , Ignaz Moscheles and Franz Schubert, proof of the high esteem Salieri enjoyed throughout his life. Anselm Hüttenbrenner posthumously honored his teacher with a Requiem in C minor, which was premiered in 1825 by the Styrian Music Association.
- Ignaz Assmayer
- Marianne Auenbrugger
- Ludwig van Beethoven
- Carl Blum
- Antonio Casimir Cartellieri
- Catarina Cavalieri
- Luigi Cherubini
- Elise Czabon
- Carl Czerny
- Karl von Doblhoff-Dier
- Joseph Leopold Edler von Eybler
- Johann Gänsbacher
- Amalie Haehnel
- Anton Haizinger
- Ferdinand Louis Joseph Hérold
- Johann Nepomuk Hummel
- Anselm Hüttenbrenner
- Jan Antonín Koželuh
- Franz Liszt
- Giacomo Meyerbeer
- Anna Pauline Milder-Hauptmann
- Ignaz Moscheles
- Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart
- Auguste Mathieu Panseron
- Maria Theresia Paradis
- Benedict Randhartinger
- Anton Reicha
- Carl Gottlieb Reissiger
- Girolamo Salieri
- Leopold Schefer
- Louis locks
- Franz Schubert
- Simon Sixth
- Joseph Seipelt
- Joseph Hartmann stuntz
- Franz Xaver Suessmayr
- Franz Exchange
- Ignaz Umlauf
- Caroline Unger
- Betty Vio
- Johann Michael Vogl
- Joseph Weigl
- Franz Wild
- Peter from Winter
- Christian Fastl: Salieri, Anton. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 4, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3046-5 .
- R. Angermüller: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 9, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-7001-1483-4 , p. 387. In:
- Rudolph Angermüller : Antonio Salieri. His life and world with special reference to his great operas . Katzbichler, Munich 1971–1974
Rudolph Angermüller : Antonio Salieri. Documents of his life . Bock, Bad Honnef 2000, ISBN 3-87066-495-9
- 1. 1670-1786
- 2. 1787-1807
- 3. 1808-2000
- Elena Biggi Parodi: Catalogo tematico delle composizioni teatrali di Antonio Salieri . LIM, Lucca 2005, ISBN 88-7096-307-1
- Antonio Braga: Antonio Salieri tra mito e storia . Tamari, Bologna 1963
- Volkmar Braunbehrens : Salieri, a musician in the shadow of Mozart? A biography . Piper, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-492-18322-0
- Arthur F. Bussenius: Anton Salieri. A biography [The composers of modern times; Vol. 17]. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1855 (i. E. The content greatly abridged and edited version IF v. Mosels "About the life and works of Anton Salieri")
- Andrea Della Corte: Un italiano all'estero. Antonio Salieri . Paravia, Turin 1936
- Vittorio Della Croce and Francesco Blanchetti: Il caso Salieri . Eda, Turin 1994
- Max Dietz: Salieri, Antonio . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 30, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890, pp. 226-231.
- Georg August Griesinger: “I've just come from Haydn…” Georg August Griesinger's correspondence with Joseph Haydn's publisher Breitkopf & Härtel 1799–1819 . Edited and commented by Otto Biba . Atlantis, 1987, ISBN 3-254-00130-3
- Josef Heinzelmann: Beaumarchais' and Salieris Tarare. A key work in opera and world history . In: Program brochure of the Schwetzingen Festival 1988, and in: Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe, season 1987/88, music theater, issue 12
- Josef Heinzelmann: Between Coronation and Revolution. In: Antonio Salieri, Catilina . Program booklet d. Staatstheater Darmstadt for the premiere 1994 April 16, issue 1993/94, 15, pp. 19-26. (ibid. also various translations by Stendhal, Giambattista Casti, Antonio Salieri) and German libretto, pp. 73–113
- Josef Heinzelmann: A theater evening in the orangery . In: Oper Frankfurt 1998/99 ( Mozart, Schauspieldirektor / Salieri, Prima la musica, poi le parole ), pp. 18–26
- Josef Heinzelmann: Salieri and Giambattista Casti . In: Salieri sulle tracce di Mozart . Edited by Herbert Lachmayer, Theresia Haigermoser and Reinhard Eisendle, catalog books (Italian and German) for the exhibition in the Palazzo Reale Milano 2004/05 (and Vienna 2006), Bärenreiter, Kassel 2004
- Josef Heinzelmann: The Viennese House 1088 . In: Archives for family history research . 2006, pp. 205–215 (on Salieri's house)
- Albert von Hermann: Antonio Salieri. A study on the history of his artistic work . Robitschek, Vienna 1897 (also dissertation Vienna)
- Timo Jouko Herrmann : Antonio Salieri and his German-language works for music theater . Friedrich Hofmeister Musikverlag, Leipzig 2015, ISBN 978-3-87350-053-2
- Timo Jouko Herrmann : A sounding instrumentation lesson - Antonio Salieri's “26 Variations on La Follia di Spagna” . University of Music and Performing Arts, Mannheim 2003/04 (diploma thesis)
- Timo Jouko Herrmann : Mozart and Salieri in Vienna - protocol of an unusual artistic relationship . In: Program for the Mozart Gala of the Mannheim Mozart Orchestra 2007. Magnolia, Mannheim 2007
- Timo Jouko Herrmann : Antonio Salieri: a biography , Halle: Morio, 2019, ISBN 978-3-945424-70-4
- Andreas Hoebler: Antonio Salieri's Opéra Tarare and the reworking into the Opera tragicomica Axur, Rè d'Ormus. Parallelism and divergence of two stage works . Der Andere Verlag, Tönning 2006 (plus dissertation Frankfurt am Main), ISBN 3-89959-496-7
- Michael Jahn : Antonio Salieri's interpreters at the Viennese court theaters from 1794 to 1809 , in: Ders .: Di tanti palpiti… Italians in Vienna. Writings on Viennese opera history 3 . (= Publications by RISM Austria B / 4). Vienna 2006, pp. 9–60.
- Michael Jahn: The Vienna Court Opera from 1794 to 1810. Music and dance in the Burg- and Kärnthnerthortheater . (= Publications by RISM Austria B / 11). Vienna 2011.
- Herbert Lachmayer , Reinhard Eisendle and Theresa Haigermoser (eds.): Salieri sulle tracce di Mozart . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2004, ISBN 3-7618-1834-3
- Michael Lorenz : Antonio Salieri's Early Years in Vienna , Vienna 2013.
- Ignaz Franz von Mosel : About the life and works of Anton Salieri . Bock, Bad Honnef 1999, ISBN 3-87066-494-0 (Rep. D. Edition Vienna 1827, commented by Rudolph Angermüller)
- Peter Niedermüller: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 22, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-428-11203-2 , p. 370 f. ( ). In:
- John A. Rice: Antonio Salieri and Viennese Opera . University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1998, ISBN 0-226-71126-9
- Rita Steblin : Who Commissioned Schubert's Oratorio “Lazarus”? A solution to the mystery. Salieri and the Tonkünstler-Societät . In: Schubert: Perspectives. 9, 2010, pp. 145-181.
- Alexander W. Thayer: Salieri. Rival of Mozart . Theodore Albrecht (Ed.), New, updated and enl. ed., Kansas City 1989, ISBN 0-932845-37-1
- F (ranz) C (arl) Weidmann : Nekrolog. Anton Salieri, Imperial and Royal Court Capellmeister. In: Wiener Zeitschrift für Kunst, Literatur, Theater und Mode , No. 102/1825, August 25, 1825, pp. 849 ff. (Online at ANNO ). . Obituary. ( End ) .. In: No. 103/1825 , August 27, 1825, pp. 858 f. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Salieri, Anton . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 28th part. Kaiserlich-Königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1874, pp. 97–105 ( digitized version ).
- Works by and about Antonio Salieri in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Antonio Salieri in the German Digital Library
- Sheet music and audio files by Salieri in the International Music Score Library Project
- Opera works and manuscripts by Antonio Salieri in the DFG opera project
- Catalog of works on Klassika
- Teatro Salieri (Italian)
- Michael Lorenz : Antonio Salieri's Early Years in Vienna , on Michael Lorenz's website, March 17, 2013
- Michael Lorenz: New and Old Documents Concerning Mozart's Pupils Barbara Ployer and Josepha Auernhammer . Eighteenth-Century Music 3/2, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- List of who died in Vienna on May 7, 1825 with the entry for Salieri at the bottom of the page. Salieri's appreciation can be found on the title page of the same issue at the bottom left.
- knerger.de: The grave of Antonio Salieri
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Italian-Austrian composer, conductor and music teacher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 18, 1750|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Legnago , Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 7, 1825|
|Place of death||Vienna|