Franz Xaver Suessmayr
Franz Xaver Süßmayr (* 1766 in Schwanenstadt , Upper Austria , † September 17, 1803 in Vienna ) was an Austrian composer . He is best known for completing the Requiem KV 626 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart after his death.
Süßmayr probably received his first musical lessons from his father, because in 1779, when he entered the Kremsmünster Abbey High School in Kremsmünster Abbey , he was already listed as Organista et Altista , and later as Tenor et Violinista . Through the lessons he achieved an education that a musician of that time rarely received.
In the later years of his time in Kremsmünster he was increasingly used for the composition of church music and from 1785 also for the music for theater pieces that were performed in Kremsmünster.
His school years ended in 1787, but it was not until 1788 that there was a trace that he lived in Vienna. Probably in the same year he met Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , because in a letter of August 26, 1797 to the abbot of Lambach he mentions that his operetta Der rauschige Hans , which he dated March 6, 1788, was “under the direction of blissful, immortal Mozart ”.
Süßmayr was a student of Antonio Salieri and , according to a statement by Constanze Mozart , also a student of Mozart from 1790/91. Süßmayr is said to have assisted Mozart in the composition of the seccore quotation in La clemenza di Tito . In his last days, Mozart allegedly discussed his Requiem with Süßmayr , so that, based on this oral information and some notes he left behind ("little notes"), he is said to have been able to complete the piece after Mozart's death. Although often criticized, Süßmayr's additions (he composed or orchestrated the last five parts) are now standard in performances.
From 1792 Süssmayr was conductor at the National Theater and from 1794 Kapellmeister adjunct to Joseph Weigl at the Kärntnertortheater . He is considered a successful composer of the Vienna Singspiel and composed around 30 works for the stage. His main works include the operas Moses or The Exodus from Egypt (1792), The Mirror of Arcadia (1794), Idris and Zenaide (1795) and Soliman II (1799). He also composed instrumental music , cantatas and masses .
Franz Xaver Süßmayr died on September 17, 1803 in the 1st district of Vienna, Seilerstätte 17, and was buried in the Sankt Marxer Friedhof .
Alleged paternity of Constanze's son Franz Xaver Wolfgang
To this day rumors persist that Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (* 1791) was the son of Süßmayr, who also had the first name Franz Xaver. Then the child would have been conceived in Baden , Lower Austria , where Constanze regularly went to the cure and was accompanied by Süßmayr - with Mozart's express consent in order to supposedly “take care of Constanze”. The son was born on July 26, 1791. If Mozart himself was the biological father, the son would have been born 17 days too early: "Because nine months earlier, in October 1790, Mozart was traveling and did not return until November 10th." However, it must be pointed out that the Name Franz Xaver only appears in the baptismal register and Mozart's last child was always called Wolfgang (or "Wowi") by his parents from birth.
- Christian Fastl: Suessmayer, Franz Xaver. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3067-8 .
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Süssmayer, Franz Xaver . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 40th part. Kaiserlich-Königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1880, pp. 290–293 ( digitized version ).
- Max Dietz: Süssmayer, Franz Xaver . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 37, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1894, pp. 186-188.
- Walter Wlcek: Franz Xaver Süßmayr as a church composer . Schneider, Tutzing 1978, ISBN 3-7952-0201-9 ( Viennese publications on musicology 11), (also: Vienna, University, dissertation, 1953).
- Henry H. Hausner: Franz Xayer Süßmayr. Bergland-Verlag, Vienna 1964 ( Austria series 254/256, ZDB -ID 184638-3 ).
- Wolfgang Hildesheimer : Mozart . Frankfurt am Main 1977.
- Erich Duda: The musical work of FX Süßmayr. Thematic catalog raisonné (SmWV) with detailed sources and sketches of the watermarks. Bärenreiter, Kassel et al. 2000, ISBN 3-7618-1485-2 ( series of publications by the International Mozarteum Foundation 12), (At the same time: Vienna, University, dissertation, 1998: Dating musical sources of the 18th century using the example of Franz Xaver Süßmayr. ).
- Christoph Wolff : Mozart's Requiem. History, music, documents. With study score. Bärenreiter et al., Kassel et al. 1991, ISBN 3-423-04565-5 (4th corrected edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel et al. 2003, ISBN 3-7618-1242-6 ).
- Michael Lorenz : Süßmayr and the light cleaners: from found and invented sources , Mozart Yearbook 2006, Bärenreiter, Kassel et al. 2008, 425–38.
- Works by and about Franz Xaver Süßmayr in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Franz Xaver Süßmayr in the German Digital Library
- Page from Erich Duda about Süßmayr
- Catalog of works on Klassika
- Opera works and manuscripts by Franz Xaver Süßmayr in the DFG opera project
- Entry on Franz Xaver Süßmayr on Monuments of Music in Austria
- Sheet music and audio files by Franz Xaver Süßmayr in the International Music Score Library Project
- ^ Seilerststätte in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
- ↑ Hildesheimer, p. 348
|SURNAME||Süßmayr, Franz Xaver|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian composer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1766|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Schwanenstadt , Upper Austria|
|DATE OF DEATH||17th September 1803|
|Place of death||Vienna|