|City and country flag||City and state coats of arms|
|Official language :||German|
|ISO 3166-2 :||AT-9|
|UN / LOCODE :||AT VIE|
|Abbreviation, license plate :||W.|
|Community code :||90001|
|Community code :||90101-92301|
|Postcodes :||1010-1423, 1600,
1601, 1810, 1901
|Telephone code :||01 (international: +43 1)|
|Area :||414.87 km²|
|- of which country:||395.57 km² (95.3%)|
|- of which water:||19.30 km² (4.7%)|
|- Rank :||9th of 9th|
|The highest point||
( Hermannskogel )
( Lobau )
|Coordinates||48 ° 12 ' N , 16 ° 22' E|
|State :||1 statutory city|
|Statutory city :||23 parishes ,
89 cadastral parishes
|Location of Vienna in Austria|
|Residents:||1,911,191 (January 1, 2020)|
|- metropolitan area :||2,838,558 (2018)|
|- Rank :||1st of 9th|
|Population density :||4607 inhabitants per km²|
|Proportion of foreigners :||30.8% (January 1, 2020)|
|Migration background :||45.9% (Ø 2019)|
|Michael Ludwig ( SPÖ )|
|Official parties:||SPÖ and NEOS|
Distribution of seats in the state parliament and municipal council
A total of 100 seats
|Last choice:||October 11, 2020|
|Next choice:||probably 2025|
|Gross domestic product :||96.42 billion euros (2018)|
|GDP per capita:||51,000 euros (2018)|
|Unemployment rate :||13.9% (September 2020)|
Vienna ( [ viːn ] ) is the federal capital of the Republic of Austria and at the same time one of the nine Austrian states . With over 1.9 million inhabitants (around one fifth of the total Austrian population) , Vienna, located on the Danube , is Austria's most populous city and city of primacy . Around 2.8 million people live in the greater Vienna area - this corresponds to around a third of the total Austrian population.
From an architectural point of view, Vienna is still characterized by the buildings around Vienna's Ringstrasse from the Wilhelminian era , but also by Baroque and Art Nouveau . Due to its role as the imperial capital and residence of the Austrian Empire from 1804, Vienna became a cultural and political center of Europe. Around 1910, when Vienna was still the capital of the Habsburg monarchy , the city had over two million inhabitants. The historic center of Vienna and Schönbrunn Palace are now UNESCO World Heritage Sites . With around 7.5 million tourists each year and around 16.5 million overnight stays, Vienna is one of the most visited cities in Europe.
Already at the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15 the city played an important role in international diplomacy, which it has maintained to the present day. So is Vienna today as international congress venue seat of over 30 international organizations, including the oil cartel OPEC , the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA and the OSCE , and is one of the world's cities . The United Nations Office in Vienna (UNOV) houses one of the four official seats of the UN in the Vienna International Center (VIC) , commonly referred to as the UN City .
In addition, Vienna is considered a city with a very high quality of life . In the international Mercer study 2017/2018, in which the quality of life of expatriates was compared on the basis of 39 criteria such as political, economic, social and environmental factors in 231 large cities worldwide, Vienna took first place for the ninth time in a row. A study by the United Nations in 2012 saw Vienna as the wealthiest city in the world. Vienna also took first place several times in the ranking of the Economist Intelligence Unit , which compares the categories of stability, health, culture and environment, education and infrastructure in 140 major cities worldwide.
An OECD study in 2018 came to a different conclusion , which noted a significant decline in prosperity for Vienna since 2008 compared to the year 2000 (84th place) and which now ranked the city 104th out of 329 large cities and metropolitan areas compared. This study also states that Vienna, together with the other federal states, is in the best OECD quarter in terms of income. The position of the city is also judged more critically by those who saw or see a “head of water” in it, i. H. a city “too big” for the role of the capital of the relatively small state of Austria. This criticism is linked by representatives of the "Austrian Province" with the accusation that the Austrian state does not take the principle of federalism that applies in Austria seriously enough by not having any federal institutions outside of the federal capital , unlike those in the neighboring states of Germany and Switzerland have settled.
The name of the city is pronounced in standard German [vi: n] . In the Bavarian-Austrian dialect of Eastern Austria, the city is called Wean [veɐ̯n] ; However, this term is hardly used to any significant extent in the Viennese dialect itself, except in special cases such as dialect culture events.
The name Vienna is derived from the river Vienna (according to the frequent naming of settlements after the tributary flowing there). The name is handed down for the first time in 881 in the Salzburg Annals , where a battle ad Uueniam (read: ad Weniam , "near (the) Wenia") is reported, although it is unclear whether a settlement or the river is meant. The Old High German name Wenia, from which the current one is derived, comes from the Celto-Roman name Vedunia ("Waldbach") for the Vienna River; an intermediate Slavic form is conceivable, but not proven. The name Vindobona, however, referred to a Roman settlement within today's urban area; it is still used for Vienna today (for example on Latin documents), although it has no etymological relationship with the current name of the city .
Name of the city in other languages
Vienna is one of those old cities that have their own names in many languages :
- In English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and other Romance languages, Vienna is known as Vienna or Viena ,
- in French as Vienne ,
- in Greek as Βιέννη (Vienni),
- in Dutch as Wenen ,
- in Russian Вена (Wena).
- The Hungarian Bécs and Beč in Bosnian / Croatian / Serbian are an independent education .
- This is where the form Beç derives from the Ottoman official language (in modern Turkish it is called Viyana ). The form is based on the Hungarian rule in the 9th / 10th centuries. Century and mostly translated as "on the steep slope". The independent name formation is seen as an indication of the low importance of Vienna in this period.
- The Slovenian name for Vienna, Dunaj, refers to the Danube (which is called Donava in today's Slovenian ).
- In Czech the city is called Vídeň ,
- Slovak Viedeň ,
- Polish Wiedeń and
- Ukrainian Відень ( widen ).
These forms are etymologically in no relation to the district name Wieden .
Other uses of the term
The French city Vienne has the same name as the French name Vienna, but its name is much older than that of Vienna. In the United States and Canada there are some settlements that have the German or English name of Vienna in their names. In many cases, this is probably due to emigrants who named their new settlements after their place of origin.
- Vienna is in Missouri and Wisconsin .
- Vienna is located in Alabama, Georgia , Illinois , Indiana, Louisiana, Maine , Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio , Ontario (Canada), South Dakota, Texas, Virginia , West Virginia and Wisconsin .
- There are New Vienna in Iowa and Ohio .
- South Vienna is in Ohio.
In North America, Vienna is used as a female first name in rare cases. A prominent example is the Californian musician Vienna Teng , who uses the first name in her stage name.
Location and landscape
Vienna is located on the eastern edge of the Alps , at the transition to the Alpine foothills in the east , which leads to the Pannonian Plain . The city center extends over the plain on the Danube , the western parts of the city in the Vienna Woods , the easternmost mountain range in the Northern Alps . Only a relatively small proportion of the Vienna city area is built on. Around half of Vienna is grassland , larger parts are also used for agriculture .
Vienna rises from Lobau up to a height of on the Hermannskogel . In the north-west, west and south-west of Vienna, the Vienna Woods with its heights ( Leopoldsberg , Kahlenberg ) and forests extend into the urban area. The Danube enters Vienna through the Wiener Pforte , a narrow area between the Leopoldsberg on the right bank and the Bisamberg on the left bank . Numerous small rivers also flow into the city from the Vienna Woods, the most famous of which is the Vienna River . The mountains in the west are continued in the south by glacial terraces ( Wienerberg and Laaer Berg ). This entire area is used for viticulture ; it forms the Vienna wine-growing region .in the
The east of the city is characterized by the Viennese part of the flat Marchfeld , which is used for agriculture, but is increasingly being built on. In the southeast, the Lobau can be found as Vienna's part of the Donauauen National Park . In view of the prevailing westerly winds (as in many European cities) , the upscale residential areas are more on the western outskirts, where the air is even cleaner, while the old industrial areas are more on the southeastern edge of the city.
Vienna owes its development to one of the most important and largest cities in Central Europe , among other things, to its favorable geographical location between the eastern edge of the Alps and the Pannonian region and the historical European axes, the south-north axis along the edge of the Alps ( Amber Road ) and the west-east axis along the Alpine foothills and the Danube as a waterway. Vienna was created at the intersection of these roads. The historic city was formed exclusively south of the Danube: the river was easy to cross or cross here, as the river in the Vienna Basin fanned out into numerous arms with islands in between. Today the urban area extends far on both sides of the river.
The favorable location also with regard to the historic neighboring countries of Moravia and the Kingdom of Hungary and the routes to Styria , Carniola and the Adriatic coast made a decisive contribution to the fact that Vienna established itself as a monarch's residence in the long term. From around 1840 on, this also led to the establishment of a railway network radiating from Vienna in a star shape .
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain and the Eastern Bloc in 1989, the traffic and economic relations with Austria's northern and eastern neighbors, which have been interrupted or have been difficult to use since 1945, have grown significantly again. For example, Vienna is only 55 km from the Slovakian capital Bratislava (Pressburg); Such a proximity of two capitals is unique in Europe (apart from the special case of Vatican / Rome). The city administration reacted to the situation by participating in the European region Centrope .
Vienna is located on the eastern foothills of the Northern Limestone Alps , which plunge into the depths here on the western edge of the tertiary Vienna basin and on the alluvial plain of the Danube, which formed the landscape in the Vienna area from the Pleistocene until today . To the north of the city, the flysch zone jumps over the Danube and continues into the Carpathian Mountains . The underground of the city is formed by different geological landscapes:
- Gravel and sands of the Ice Age and the present Danube as well as Quaternary loose sediments
- Loose rocks, especially tertiary loose sediments of the Vienna Basin
- Solid rock of the flysch zone and the limestone Alps in the western Wienerwald area
A system of north-south-directed faults and breaks runs through the urban area. Mighty groundwater bodies can be found in the Danube gravel.
With an area of 414.87 square kilometers, Vienna is the smallest federal state in Austria and is completely surrounded by the state of Lower Austria , to which it belonged until 1920 (see Separation Act ). The north-south extension is 22.8 kilometers, the west-east extension 29.4 kilometers. The highest point is the Hermannskogel ( ) on the north-western outskirts, the lowest is the Lobau ( ) on the south-eastern outskirts.
Since the statutory city of Vienna has also been a state since 1920, it appears in the rankings of the federal states: Vienna has the largest share of traffic and construction areas in its total area of the federal states. 11.6% of the total area is built-up land, 11.1% road traffic areas and 2.2% tracks . At the same time, Vienna is also the country with the largest proportion of garden areas, which make up 28.4% or 117.76 square kilometers. Water bodies (4.5%) only make up a larger proportion of the total area in Burgenland.
Vienna is one of four federal states in Austria that cultivate wine . 1.6% of the area is taken up by vineyards. Forest areas cover 17.8%, 14.8% of the urban and state area is used for agriculture.
The Viennese climate forms a transitional climate with oceanic influences from the west and continental influences from the east. This is noticeable in a year-on-year comparison through mostly strongly fluctuating measurement results. Overall, Vienna usually has only lower amounts of precipitation and longer dry periods. The winters are rather mild compared to other parts of Austria. The mean air temperature in the 30-year average in the city center is 11.4 degrees Celsius, in the outskirts (ZAMG weather station Hohe Warte) 10.2 degrees Celsius. The average amount of precipitation is around 600 millimeters, with an average of 741.5 millimeters in the west of the city and only 514.5 millimeters in the east. 60 summer days are compared to around 70 frost days. On August 8, 2013, at the "Innere Stadt" measuring station, the highest temperature ever recorded in Vienna was 39.5 degrees Celsius. The headquarters of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) is located in Vienna .
The following climate diagrams are from different parts of the city and are used to quantify Vienna's urban climate .
Climate table for Vienna Inner City (171 m)
The Vienna Inner City climate station has the warmest climate in Austria. The dense development reduces the night-time cooling and, above all, the temperature minima are significantly higher than in the surrounding area. The mean wind speed is 14 km / h. Wind directions from west, northwest and southeast dominate.
Climate table for Vienna Hohe Warte (202 m)
The Vienna Hohe Warte climate station is located on the premises of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics . Due to the hillside location and the urban effect, the temperature minima in particular are reduced. The mean wind speed is 13 km / h. The prevailing wind direction is west.
Climate table for Vienna Mariabrunn (226 m)
The Mariabrunn climate station is located in the relatively sparsely populated western part of Vienna. Due to the formation of cold air , the daily minimum temperatures in particular are significantly reduced compared to the inner districts of Vienna. The number of frost days is almost twice as high as in the inner city. The amounts of precipitation are much higher than in the east of Vienna. The mean wind speed is 9 km / h. Particularly windy days occur more often in December and January.
Climate table for Vienna Unterlaa (200 m)
The Vienna Unterlaa climate station is located on the south-eastern outskirts of Vienna. Due to the thin development, the temperatures are lower than in the inner districts. With an average of 17 km / h, the wind speed is relatively high. The main wind direction is northwest. Particularly windy days occur more often from December to March.
Effects of global warming
As a result of global warming , the climatic conditions in Vienna in 2050 could be similar to those found in Skopje today, while Stockholm will then have climatic conditions as in Vienna today. Model calculations also show that at the end of the 21st century Vienna will be one of the European metropolises that will be hardest hit by heat waves. In Vienna there will be a climate that is more reminiscent of today's southern Mediterranean.
A border runs through Vienna between two flora regions, both of which belong to the Holarctic flora. Only the westernmost part of the city belonging to the Vienna Woods, like almost all of the rest of Austria, belongs to the Central European Floral Region, while the rest of the city area belongs to the Pannonian Floral Province , which in turn represents the westernmost part of the South Siberian-Pontic-Pannonian Floral Region . Outside Vienna, only Burgenland and Lower Austria have a share in the southern Siberian-Pontic-Pannonian flora region, which extends from southern Siberia via the Ukraine , Transylvania , Vojvodina and the Hungarian lowlands to the eastern edge of the Alps . In addition, there is a sub-Mediterranean influence in Vienna. For this reason, many species grow in Vienna that are unique in Austria and accordingly worthy of protection.
In Vienna there are 1490 full-status vascular plants - species or 1545 elementary vascular plant taxa, native or old-established. Including the new citizens and the inconsistent, there are 2194 taxa. These are high values for a large city: for comparison, Vorarlberg, which is more than six times as large and much less densely built, can boast only 1683 full-status vascular plant species, i.e. 13 percent more.
The protection of nature in Vienna is regulated by various legal norms, such as the Vienna Nature Conservation Act , the Vienna National Park Act and the Vienna Nature Conservation Ordinance. The following levels of protection exist: European protection area ( Natura 2000 ), national park , nature reserve , landscape protection area , protected part of the landscape , ecological development area , natural monument , protected biotope , biosphere reserve and Ramsar area .
The largest and most important protected areas are the Donau-Auen National Park and the Vienna Woods Biosphere Park , which protect the east and west of the city, as well as the Bisamberg and the Alte Schanzen . There are also a large number of smaller protected areas and objects.
Vienna, which as a statutory city also functions as a political district , has been divided into 23 municipal districts since 1954 (1905–1938 21 districts, 1938–1954 Greater Vienna with 26 districts). The Viennese refer to the districts either with their names (for example " Ottakring ") or with their numbers (for example "16. District" or "The Sixteenth", in writing also "Vienna 16"). These numbers are located in front of the street name on every street sign (for example “16., Thaliastraße”) and form the second and third digits of the postcode (1010 for the 1st district to 1230 for the 23rd district).
City structure and extensions
The historic old town, now part of the 1st district , was still congruent with the city area in the revolutionary year of 1848. Under Emperor Franz Joseph there were three major city expansions in 1849/50, 1890 to 1892 and 1904/05.
On March 17, 1849, a provisional municipal code for the monarchy was issued by an imperial patent; According to her, "suburbs [...] always had to form a single local church with the actual city". The Viennese suburbs were thus incorporated ex lege .
In 1850, the suburbs of Vienna that existed in 1849 were therefore divided into districts 2 to 8 within the line wall . In 1861 the original 4th district was divided into two districts. In 1874 the areas of the 4th and 5th district outside of the line wall were combined to form the new 10th district, Favoriten . According to a Lower Austrian provincial law of December 1890, which came into force on January 1, 1892, the present-day outskirts on the right bank of the Danube, then called suburbs, were incorporated, although some of them were already urban districts themselves; Vienna now had 19 districts. In 1900 the northern part of the 2nd district was declared the 20th district. During the third major expansion, decided in 1904 and entered into force in 1905, the large municipality of Floridsdorf on the left bank of the Danube was incorporated into the 21st district; it reached from Strebersdorf in the north to Lobau in the southeast. (The area between the Danube and the Old Danube remained partly in the 2nd district until 1938.) Vienna experienced a quadrupling of its urban area during the Nazi era , when the dictatorship created Greater Vienna on October 15, 1938 with 26 districts. This expansion was largely reversed by a resolution of the National Council, the Vienna Landtag and the Lower Austrian Landtag from 1946, which only came into force in 1954 due to a veto by the occupying powers. Of the 97 towns incorporated in 1938, only 17 remained near Vienna: on the left bank of the Danube, Stammersdorf , Süßenbrunn , Breitenlee and Essling , on the right bank of the Danube (southern and southwestern outskirts) Albern , Unterlaa , Oberlaa and Rothneusiedl , the eight localities of today's 23rd district ( Liesing ) including the Lainzer Tiergarten and Hadersdorf-Weidlingau on the western outskirts. As a result, some district boundaries changed from 1954 to 1956. The city limits have remained unchanged since 1954.
When establishing the district boundaries, attempts were made to draw them prominently along important roads or rivers, although this divided some former communities. Inner districts 1 and 3 to 9 are delimited from the outer districts by the belt . In districts 1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 19 and 20 the Danube Canal forms part of the district borders, in districts 2, 11, 19, 20, 21 and 22 the Danube . Danube Canal and Danube separate districts 2 and 20 from all others; Districts 21 and 22 are the only ones on the left bank of the Danube. The Wien River is also the district boundary almost in its entire course through the city (with the exception of the section from the western city limits to Hütteldorf ).
per square kilometer
|Residents of foreign origin
( in percent; as of 2018 )
|1., Inner City||2.87||16,047||5,591||36.5|
|3rd, country road||7.40||91,680||12,389||41.4|
|7th, new building||1.61||31,961||19,852||38.8|
per square kilometer
|Residents of foreign origin
as of 2018)
Cadastral communities, localities and districts
- Vienna, 1st district: Inner City (Stt)
- Vienna, 2nd district: Leopoldstadt (Stt)
- Augarten (ZH)
- Exhibition grounds (ZH)
- Prater (ZH)
- Freudenau Racecourse (ZH)
- Trotting course Krieau (ZH)
- Vienna, 3rd district: Landstraße (Stt)
- Arsenal (Hgr)
- Erdberg (Stt)
- Vienna, 4th district: Wieden (Stt)
- Vienna, 5th district: Margareten (Stt)
- Vienna, 6th district: Mariahilf (Stt)
- Vienna, 7th district: Neubau (Stt)
- Vienna, 8th district: Josefstadt (Stt)
- Vienna, 9th district: Alsergrund (Stt)
- General Hospital (Hgr)
- Vienna, 10th district: Favoriten (Stt)
- Laaer Berg (Stt)
- Oberlaa (Stt)
- Rothneusiedl (Stt)
- Unterlaa (Stt)
- Vienna, 11th district: Simmering (Stt)
- Silly (Stt)
- Kaiserebersdorf (Stt)
- Neu-Albern (Stt)
- Central Cemetery (ZH)
- Vienna, 12th district: Meidling (Stt)
- Altmannsdorf (Stt)
- Hetzendorf (Stt)
- Vienna, 13th district: Hietzing (Stt)
- Auhof (Stt)
- City of Peace (Sdlg)
- Hacking (Stt)
- Lainz (Stt)
- Lainzer Tiergarten (ZH)
- Ober-Sankt-Veit (Stt)
- ORF Center Vienna (Hgr)
- Speising (Stt)
- Unter-Sankt-Veit (Stt)
- Vienna, 14th district: Penzing (Stt)
- Baumgarten (Stt)
- Breitensee (Stt)
- Eden settlement (Sdlg)
- Hadersdorf (Stt)
- Hinterhainbach (Stt)
- Hütteldorf (Stt)
- Jägerwald settlement (Sdlg)
- Kordonsiedlung (Sdlg)
- Mariabrunn (ZH)
- Augustinerwald settlement (Sdlg)
- Vorderhainbach (Stt)
- Weidlingau (Stt)
- Vienna, 15th district: Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus (Stt)
- Melting (stt)
- Vienna, 16th district: Ottakring (Stt)
- Vienna, 17th district: Hernals (Stt)
- Dornbach (Stt)
- Exelbergsiedlung (Sdlg)
- Neuwaldegg (Stt)
- Vienna, 18th district: Währing (Stt)
- Gersthof (Stt)
- Pötzleinsdorf (Stt)
- Vienna, 19th district: Döbling (Stt)
- In the sky (ZH)
- Döbling (Stt)
- Grinzing (Stt)
- Hameau (Hgr)
- Heiligenstadt (Stt)
- Josefsdorf (Stt)
- Kahlenberg (Hgr)
- Kahlenbergerdorf (Stt)
- Kuchelau (ZH)
- Leopoldsberg (ZH)
- Neustift am Walde (Stt)
- Nussdorf (Stt)
- Salmannsdorf (Stt)
- Sievering (Stt)
- Vienna, 20th district: Brigittenau (Stt)
- Vienna, 21st district: Floridsdorf (Stt)
- Bruckhaufen (Sdlg)
- Donaufeld (Stt)
- Groß-Jedlersdorf (Stt)
- Großfeldsiedlung (Sdlg)
- Jedlesee (Stt)
- Leopoldau (Stt)
- Nordrandsiedlung (Sdlg)
- Schwarzlackenau (Sdlg)
- Stammersdorf (Stt)
- Strebersdorf (Stt)
- Vienna, 22nd district: Donaustadt (Stt)
- Aspern (Stt)
- Bahnhofsiedlung (Sdlg)
- Breitenlee (Stt)
- Danube Tower (ZH)
- Essling (Stt)
- Hirschstetten (Stt)
- Invalidensiedlung (Sdlg)
- Kagran (Stt)
- Kaisermühlen (Stt)
- Kienast settlement (Sdlg)
- Neukagran (Stt)
- Neusüßenbrunn (Sdlg)
- Paxsiedlung (Sdlg)
- Schöpfleithnersiedlung (Sdlg)
- Stadlau (Stt)
- Süßenbrunn (Stt)
- Vienna International Center (Hgr)
- Vienna, 23rd district: Liesing (Stt)
- Alterlaa (Stt)
- Atzgersdorf (Stt)
- Erlaa (Stt)
- Inzersdorf (Stt)
- Kalksburg (Stt)
- Wall (stt)
- Neuerlaa (Stt)
- Rodaun (Stt)
- Seven Shepherds (Stt)
- Stt = district
- Sdlg = settlement
- Hgr = group of houses
- ZH = scattered houses
- Source: Statistics Austria
In most of the outskirts, the historical names have been preserved for previously independent localities, from whose coats of arms the district coats of arms are also composed. However, some villages and settlements from earlier epochs no longer exist today (see list of desertions in Vienna ). Many Grätzln or city districts can be traced back to the incorporated suburbs and suburbs, while others have emerged from housing initiatives in recent decades or are clearly delineated geographically from other areas.
Further administrative subdivisions
- The National Council election regulations provide for the subdivision of the Vienna state electoral district into seven regional constituencies.
- According to federal law, the city consists of twelve judicial districts .
- For the land register (documentation of real estate), the urban area is divided into 89 Viennese cadastral communities , the borderline of which does not necessarily coincide with that of the community districts.
- In official statistics, Vienna is divided into 1364 census districts in 246 census districts.
The city's roots are at least pre-Roman. The beginnings of urban historiography go back to the 13th century with the city chronicle by Jans dem Enikel .
Prehistory, Roman times, the Middle Ages
Archaeological finds show that people already walked the area during the Paleolithic Age and that the Vienna Basin was continuously populated from the Neolithic Age. Several cremation graves in Vienna, but also traces of settlement, bear witness to the Bronze Age urn field culture. The older Iron Age Hallstatt culture is in Vienna a. a. represented by a still clearly visible burial mound and settlement remains . An oppidum on the Leopoldsberg and a Celtic settlement with the name Vedunia ("forest stream") are known from Celtic times .
In the 1st century AD, the Romans built a military camp (castrum) with the civil town of Vindobona (in today's 3rd district) to secure the border of the province of Pannonia on the site of today's Vienna city center near the Danube . Even today you can see the course of the wall and the streets of the camp on the streets of the 1st district (Inner City). In the time of the Romans, Vienna and Vindobona received city rights for the first time. The Romans stayed until the 5th century. The Roman legion camp was located far to the east of the Western Roman Empire and therefore quickly fell victim to the turmoil of the Germanic migrations .
The center of early medieval Vienna was the Berghof , a farm for viticulture. The first documentary mention in the Middle Ages was in the Salzburg Annals in 881 , where apud Weniam fought a battle against the Magyars, although it is unclear whether it is the city or the Vienna River. The rise of Vienna and Austria began with the victory of the East Franconian King Otto I over the Magyars in 955 in the Battle of the Lechfeld .
In 976 the Margraviate of Ostarrichi ( Marcha orientalis ) was established under the Babenbergs , on whose territory, on the border with Hungary , Vienna was also located. Vienna was an important trading center as early as the 11th century, and Heinrich Jasomirgott made Vienna his capital in 1155 . Only one year later Austria was elevated to the status of a duchy with the privilege minus and Vienna became the duke's residence .
After the end of the Third Crusade , the English King Richard the Lionheart was captured on his return to England by Margrave Leopold V the Virtuous in 1192 in Erdberg near Vienna (today in the 3rd district) and held captive in Dürnstein. A mint was set up with the lavish ransom and the first major city expansion was financed. In 1221 Vienna was the second city in the Duchy of Austria after Enns (1212) to be granted city and stacking rights. The latter meant that merchants who wandered through Vienna had to offer their goods for sale in the city. This enabled the Viennese to trade in between, so that Vienna soon had far-reaching trade relations, especially along the Danube and to Venice , and was considered one of the most important cities in the empire.
With the victory of Rudolf I over Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1278 , the rule of the Habsburgs in Austria began. Under the Luxembourgers , Prague became the imperial capital, overshadowing Vienna. The early Habsburgs tried to expand the city to keep up.
Rudolf IV earned great merits as he raised prosperity through clever economic policies. Two decisions have given him the nickname of the founder : the establishment of the University of Vienna in 1365 (model was Prague) and the construction of the Gothic nave of St. Stephen. The following period of inheritance disputes among the Habsburgs brought turmoil and economic decline.
In 1438, after the election of Duke Albrecht V , Vienna became the Roman-German King (Albrecht II), the capital of the Holy Roman Empire; The name Albrecht is also associated with the Viennese Gesera , during which the Viennese Jews were expelled or killed in 1421/22. In 1469 the emerging city became a bishopric and St. Stephen's Cathedral became a cathedral . In the era of the weak Friedrich III. Vienna was always on the side of its opponents, since it could not guarantee peace in the country against wandering mercenary gangs. Finally, in 1558, Vienna (with the exception of the years 1583 to 1620) finally became the seat of the emperor after Hungary and Bohemia had become part of the Habsburg rule.
From 1551 the time of the re-Catholicization of the city began, which had quickly become Protestant through the teaching of Martin Luther . King Ferdinand I brought the Jesuits to Vienna, who then gained great influence among the people. The Jesuits founded a college , the University of Vienna was assigned to them, they exercised the censorship of books , making the city the starting point of the Counter-Reformation in the Holy Roman Empire . Their most important representative was Melchior Khlesl , the Bishop of Vienna around 1600. The religious war led to brutal expropriation and expulsion , so that after 1640 there were hardly any Protestants in Vienna and Austria. Due to its role in the history of the Reformation, Vienna was awarded the honorary title of “ Reformation City of Europe ” in 2015 by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
Turkish sieges by the Ottoman Empire
In 1529 Vienna was besieged by the Turks for the first time without success . The border between the Habsburg and Ottoman parts of Hungary ran only 150 kilometers east of the city for almost two hundred years, which limited its development considerably. After all, Vienna now received modern fortifications .
These fortifications, which made up the main part of the building activity well into the 17th century, were to prove their worth during the Second Turkish Siege in 1683 , because they protected the city for two months until the Turkish army laid siege due to the arrival of the relief army led by the Polish King Jan Sobieski Vienna had to end. This was the beginning of the final driving back of the Ottoman Empire from Central Europe.
The heyday of baroque and classicism
As a result, building activity began and the city flourished. In the course of the reconstruction, Vienna was largely converted to baroque style (Vienna gloriosa) . Numerous aristocratic palaces were built; this is mainly associated with the names of the architects Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt . There was also brisk construction activity outside the city walls. Since 1704 the suburbs had their own, generously laid out fortification system, the line wall , roughly along today's belt road.
After the cuts caused by the great plague epidemics of 1679 and 1713, the population grew steadily. The first manufactories were founded at this time, the first in Leopoldstadt . Sewerage and street cleaning developed, which improved the hygienic conditions.
The imperial city between conservatism and avant-garde
In 1804 Vienna became the capital of a new state - the Austrian Empire . During the coalition wars , Vienna was taken twice by Napoleon's troops - 1805 and 1809 . In 1806 the extinction of the Holy Roman Empire was announced in Vienna . After the victory over Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna took place in 1814/1815 , which reorganized the political situation in Europe.
The following epoch of the pre-March period was marked by rigid political repression, but also by the flourishing Biedermeier culture. Industrialization also set in during this epoch - in 1837 the first (locomotive) railway line in Austria was opened with the first section of the (Kaiser-Ferdinand) Northern Railway from Floridsdorf to Deutsch-Wagram .
The French February Revolution in 1848 also had an impact in Vienna: on March 13th the March Revolution broke out, which soon forced State Chancellor Metternich to resign, and on October 6th the Vienna October Revolution . Ultimately, the imperial military triumphed over the Democrats. The democrat Robert Blum , who came to the aid of the citizens of Frankfurt am Main , was executed in Brigittenau .
The first phase of urban expansion began in 1850, when the “suburbs” were incorporated within the line wall and Leopoldstadt , located on the Danube Islands . From 1858 the city walls were razed around the old town and the ring road lined with monumental buildings was built in their place . Architecturally, Vienna is decisively shaped by the Ringstrasse style ( historicism ). The founding period came to an end with the great stock market crash that took place during the World Exhibition in 1873 .
Since the great flood of 1830, there had been repeated considerations to regulate the Danube , which was implemented between 1868 and 1875. In the process, the many branching branches of the Danube were dug up and a dead straight main stream was created away from the city. The arm that led to the inner city was left in a modified, regulated form; it bears the name Danube Canal .
With the beginning of industrialization in Vienna in the middle of the 19th century, the city experienced an enormous increase in population. The population reached one million around 1870 and two million in 1910. The village-like " old Viennese " buildings outside the ring were replaced by four to six-storey residential and commercial buildings according to an urban development plan. This was accompanied by great social upheavals.
With the emergence of a large working class and poverty in large parts of the population, social democracy grew stronger . The large underclass often shared small apartments with one another and with “ bed-goers ”. Immigrants from all parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, especially Czechs , turned Vienna into a cultural melting pot . The city countered poverty with specially commissioned “ poor councils ”.
The most famous mayor of the imperial era was Karl Lueger , a Christian Socialist who held office from 1897 to 1910. He became known through extensive communal reforms as well as through rabid anti-Semitism , which shaped the political life of that time and was directed against “ Eastern Jews ” from Galicia as well as against the assimilated and economically successful Viennese Jewish bourgeoisie. (For Lueger's position see here .) Adolf Hitler was living in Vienna at the time. In 1925, in his work Mein Kampf, he described Lueger as the “most powerful German mayor of all time”.
When the city was expanded in 1890, the line wall was also demolished and the belt was created in its place as the third ring of roads around the city. The toll limit for the consumption tax, now the city limits, existed until 1922; for this purpose, some new line offices were established in 1891 , most of which are still structurally available.
Around 1900 the city experienced a new cultural high point in Viennese modernism . Last but not least, he is associated with the Secession artists' association, which made Vienna a center of Art Nouveau . The Second Viennese School around Arnold Schönberg emerged in music . In literature, Young Vienna stands for the transition to modernity, with the coffee house being a center of cultural creation. In the midst of this fertile cultural atmosphere, Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis .
First World War
The First World War did not pose a direct threat to Vienna, but as the war went on, it led to a devastating supply crisis, which was manifested, among other things, in food riots. Women in particular were active here and vented their desperation over hunger and sometimes did not shy away from looting. The end of the “great war” was also the end of Austria-Hungary . On October 30, 1918, the new state of German Austria came into being .
First republic and "corporate state"
On November 11, 1918, Emperor Karl I made his waiver and left Schönbrunn Palace and the city of Vienna on the same day . The next day, the provisional national assembly in parliament proclaimed a republic and decided that German-Austria should be part of the German republic . In the spring of 1919, the project turned out to be impracticable .
The Federal Constitutional Act , the core of Austrian constitutional law , which came into force on November 10, 1920 , defines Vienna as a separate country. For this reason, the Vienna City Constitution, which was adopted on the same day and came into force on November 18, 1920, contains a section on Vienna as the state, and the mayor (as governor) and the municipal council (as state parliament) exercise the regional competencies of Vienna. The Separation Act , which contained the last property regulations governing the separation of Lower Austria , came into force on January 1, 1922. This is why this date is often incorrectly mentioned as the founding date of the State of Vienna, although it has existed since November 10, 1920.
Since then, with the exception of the period 1934–1945 ( federal city under Austrofascism , Reichsgau under Nazi rule ), Vienna has been its own state . One of the reasons for the separation from the surrounding area was, in addition to the feared dominance of Lower Austria in the new small state by the less populous federal states, the differences between the predominantly social-democratic urban population and the predominantly Christian-social rural population. The separation was very important for the further development of Vienna, as the city now had tax sovereignty.
The policy of the city government at that time (“ Red Vienna ”) was recognized internationally as a pioneering achievement. A dense network of social facilities and workers in " community buildings " (communal residential buildings) living space on a large scale was created.
Vienna was the stage for the economic and political instability of the First Republic. Here the political decisions of the conservative government were attacked or defended in parliament, in the media, in political organizations and also in many demonstrations. The fire in the Palace of Justice on July 15, 1927, which led to serious clashes between the Federal Security Guard and demonstrators with a total of 94 fatalities, was a sign of incipient radicalization.
The struggle between the two major political camps culminated from February 12 to 15, 1934 in the “February uprising” of the Social Democrats (according to the government version) and in the “ civil war in which the government used the military against the people” (Social Democratic version). This was followed by the clerical, Austro-Fascist dictatorship of the corporate state for four years , which declared Vienna a "federal city" and removed its democratic city administration on February 12, 1934. The July coup by the Austrian National Socialists that followed in the same year failed, but cost dictatorship chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss his life.
Vienna at the time of National Socialism and the Second World War
On March 12, 1938, Adolf Hitler had the German Wehrmacht invade Austria in order to replace the Austro-Fascist dictatorship with Nazi rule with the active assistance of the Austrian National Socialists, who had already started to “take power” on March 11th (see " Connection of Austria "). On March 15, 1938, Hitler gave his famous follow-up speech on the balcony of the Vienna Hofburg in front of hundreds of thousands of enthusiastic cheering people on Heldenplatz .
Hitler's policy aimed at exterminating the Jews fell on fertile ground with anti-Semitism, which was centuries old in Vienna and has been increasing since the beginning of the 20th century. Immediately after the National Socialists came to power, the so-called “wild Aryanization ” began: Those who wanted to rob their Jewish neighbors, threw them out of their shops or apartments, or otherwise let them feel their contempt. This outbreak of hostility towards Jews, which the Nazi bureaucracy had not expected, was soon channeled into orderly channels, which transformed discrimination, disenfranchisement, robbery, etc. into bureaucratic processes that were supposed to have the appearance of law and order.
During the November pogroms beginning on November 9, 1938, 92 synagogues in Vienna were destroyed. Only one was spared, the city temple in the 1st district, as the addresses of all Jews in Vienna were kept in the adjoining community rooms in the archives of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde. From there, Jewish Viennese selected by the Nazi regime had to help organize the emigration or deportation of their co-religionists. In Palais Rothschild (4th, Prinz-Eugen-Straße, today the new Chamber of Labor ) was Adolf Eichmann's central office for Jewish emigration ( during the war, emigration mostly meant robbery, deportation and murder). Of the almost 200,000 Jewish Viennese robbed, around 120,000 were driven into emigration and around 60,000 were murdered. After the end of the war, the Jewish population of Vienna only numbered 5,243 people.
From March 17, 1944, there were over fifty air raids on Vienna , which destroyed around a fifth of the city. Area bombing like in Hamburg or Dresden did not take place. However, around a third of the city center was destroyed, and culturally important buildings such as the State Opera or the Albertina also fell victim to the bombing. St. Stephen's Cathedral, which survived the aerial war without being hit by a bomb, did not catch fire as a result of fighting, but rather as a result of looting. All attempts to declare Vienna an “open city” based on the example of Rome were prevented by Gauleiter Baldur von Schirach . From April 5, 1945 there was an eight-day battle for Vienna , which ended with the defeat of the Wehrmacht and the occupation by the Red Army , which had advanced from Hungary .
Consequences of the Nazi era
The reverberation of Vienna's function as a capital city in the monarchy, which was effective until 1938, came to an end with the beginning of the Nazi era. The intellectual and artistic life of Vienna suffered an enormous bloodletting that could not be compensated for, especially through the persecution of the Jews. The emergence of the Eastern Bloc made Vienna a meeting place for spies from East and West, but severely slowed the economic and scientific reconstruction of Vienna.
More than 20 percent of the housing stock was completely or partially destroyed, and almost 87,000 apartments were uninhabitable. More than 3,000 bomb craters were counted in the urban area, numerous bridges lay in ruins, canals, gas and water pipes had suffered severe damage. Initially it was about solving the most elementary problems, the city first had to be made functional again.
Occupation, Second Republic, Reconstruction
A few days after the end of the fighting of World War II in the Vienna area in mid-April, the Soviet Army set up a new city administration. Political parties were also forming - even before the war had finally ended in Europe on May 8th. It was not until the autumn of 1945 that the Soviets also let military contingents from the other three allies , the United States, Great Britain and France, come to Vienna; it then remained a four-sector town until 1955 . In the 1st district, which was not assigned to any of the four occupying powers, the occupation changed every month. The Red Army had to deal with actual and alleged rape by its soldiers, which had persuaded Police Chief Carl Szokoll to protest to Marshal Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbuchin on April 12, 1945 .
On Schwarzenbergplatz , the southern part of which was called Stalinplatz from 1946 to 1956 , the Red Army erected in 1945 the monument known as the Liberation Monument, Heroes Monument or Red Army Monument. It was unveiled on August 19, 1945 and has been maintained by the city council ever since. Its guarantee of existence is agreed in the State Treaty .
According to the fourth wage-price agreement between the social partners, dissatisfied, communist-dominated workers carried out the October strike in 1950 . He was unsuccessful due to the political and internal union isolation of the strikers, the social democrat-dominated construction workers union led by Franz Olah also sent roll commands against the strikers.
In 1954, after the Soviet Union had given up its veto, the reduction of Greater Vienna to what is now the urban area, decided in 1946, came into force. 80 former local parishes returned to Lower Austria, 17 stayed with Vienna.
On May 15, 1955, the country regained full freedom with the Austrian State Treaty . The treaty came into effect on July 27, 1955, after which the occupation troops had to withdraw within three months.
From the Hungarian uprising to the present
In autumn 1956, Vienna took in many Hungarians who had fled west after the failed uprising against the communist regime. Similarly, many Czechs and Slovaks were taken in 1968 after the violent end of the Prague Spring , the Czechoslovakia had left. Vienna experienced another wave of refugees after the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991. It was not until November 1989 that Vienna became a natural travel destination for the citizens of these countries again.
In 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was the first international organization after 1945 to have its seat in the city. Since 1965 Vienna has also been the seat of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1961 a summit took place in Vienna between the US President John F. Kennedy and the Soviet party leader Nikita Khrushchev . In 1979 the Vienna International Center (the third official seat of the United Nations ), which together with the Austria Center Vienna, which was built later, forms the UNO City , was opened. All of this contributed to the positioning of Vienna as a city of congresses and mediation in conflict situations. Vienna has been part of the Centrope European region since 2003 and, together with neighboring Bratislava, forms a “ twin city ”, which today has a population of around 3 million people.
In 1964 the WIG 64 , the Vienna International Garden Show 1964, took place on the site of a former dung place on the left bank of the Danube - with the Danube Tower as a new landmark. In 1986 the New Danube , dug in place of the old floodplain next to the Danube River, was completed, as was the Danube Island , which developed between the two bodies of water and which has developed into a popular recreational area. At the end of the 20th century, new residential quarters began to be created on both sides of the Danube and, with Danube City, a high-rise district on the left bank of the Danube was established.
Today Vienna is ranked among the cities with the best quality of life in international ratings, most recently (2016) it achieved first place worldwide, followed by Zurich and Auckland in second and third, and Munich and Vancouver in fourth and fifth respectively. This is due to the high proportion of green in the urban area (approx. 50 percent), the comparatively very good ecological quality of the city (with the exception of the air quality and traffic), the high level of social and police security, the first-class health system, the highly developed education system and the density in cultural institutions, efficient public administration, the quality of leisure time in Vienna and the dense network of public transport.
At the beginning of the 1910s, Vienna had around 2.1 million inhabitants and was one of the largest cities in the world . After the First World War , the population fell by about 200,000 people; many civil servants and employees whose mother tongue was not German returned to their countries of origin. However, the years as the capital of a multi-ethnic state have left a lasting mark on Vienna. At that time the city was a “ melting pot ” of people of different origins, cultures and religions. After decades of population stagnation, Vienna has once again been a city of immigrants since the 1990s.
Since the 1950s, several settlement trends have been noticeable in the Vienna metropolitan area : on the one hand, almost the entire region is characterized by large birth deficits , on the other hand, influx from other federal states and from abroad protects Vienna and its surrounding communities from a population decline in most cases. The population fell to 1,484,885 by 1987, the lowest level since 1890. Since then, the population has been growing again and, according to forecasts, could again reach two million by the second half of the 2020s, mainly through immigration. (In 2019 there were already 1.9 million.)
On January 1, 2020, 30.8% of Viennese were not Austrian citizens , 36.7% were not born in Austria. Of the 589,000 inhabitants without Austrian citizenship came:
- 20.0% from the successor states of the former Yugoslavia excluding Slovenia and Croatia
- 8.4% from Germany
- 7.8% from Turkey
- 7.4% from Poland
- 7.1% from the other 20 member states of the EU-27
- 6.2% from Romania
- 4.3% from Hungary
- 3.9% from Croatia
- 3.3% from Bulgaria
- 2.8% from Slovakia
- 1.2% from the EEA or Switzerland and the United Kingdom
The number of immigrants from EU and EEA countries in particular is increasing, while the number of residents from the former Yugoslavia has remained almost constant since 2002.
On average for 2019, 855,000 (45.9%) of the 1.862 million inhabitants had a migration background . 644,000 of these were first-generation immigrants. The largest migrant groups in 2016 were the people of Serbian (99,082, 5.4%), Turkish (76,363, 4.1%), German (55,361, 3%), Polish (51,639, 2.8%) and Bosnian-Herzegovinian (40,387 , 2.2%) origin. Of the people of non-European origin, people from Asia form the largest group (101,512, 5.5%), followed by Africans (27,657, 1.5%) and people from the American continent (14,666, 0.8%); 1,008 inhabitants (0.05%) of Vienna originally come from Australia or Oceania.
With a population growth of 4.65% between 2010 and 2025, Vienna could become the fastest growing European urban region according to a study by the UN Habitat.
The percentage of religious communities in Vienna in 2011:
- 41.3% - Roman Catholic
- 31.6% - without confession
- 11.6% - Islamic
- Orthodox 8.4% -
- Protestant 4.2% -
- 2.9% - other religious communities
The Vienna Statistical Yearbook showed these values for the end of 2018:
- 32.2% - Roman Catholic
- 10.3% - Islamic (2017, estimate)
- Orthodox 3.7% -
- Protestant 2.7% -
- 0.4% - other
- Israelite 0.4% -
- 50.3% - not shown
As of January 1, 2018, the proportion of Catholics in Vienna with 610,269 members was 32.2%, and the proportion of Evangelicals (AB and HB) with 51,196 members was 2.7%.
The Roman Catholic community is the largest religious community in Vienna. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna , its archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn . In 2018, 32.2% of Vienna's residents belonged to the Roman Catholic Church; In 1971 it was 78.6%.
The second largest Christian denomination in Vienna are the Orthodox churches . The Russian Orthodox Cathedral of the Austrian Eparchy is located in the third district . Vienna is also the seat of the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan of Austria . The third largest Christian denomination in the city is the Evangelical. Vienna is the seat of the Lutheran Evangelical Upper Church Council AB in Austria , headed by Bishop Michael Chalupka , and the seat of the Reformed Upper Church Council HB , headed by regional superintendent Thomas Hennefeld . The Old Catholic Church of Austria, which has around 4,000 members, has the seat of the church leadership at Schottenring , the Bishop of Austria is Heinz Lederleitner . There are several Old Catholic parishes in the city of Vienna . The oldest parish has been based in the St. Salvator Church of the Old Vienna City Hall since 1871 . In addition to the Catholic and Protestant Church, only the Old Catholic is mentioned in the dictatorship law on the church contribution.
Baptists have existed in Vienna since 1847. The first congregation was constituted in 1869 after the state had long refused to recognize it. Among others, Johann Gerhard Oncken and Edward Millard were involved . The Baptists are currently represented with eight congregations in Vienna, including two Romanian, one Spanish and one international English-speaking congregation. The seat of the Austrian Baptist Union is also in Vienna. In addition, there are congregations of other Protestant free churches in Vienna, such as the Adventists , Methodists , Mennonites and the Salvation Army as well as congregations of the Federation of Evangelical congregations and the Pentecostal movement . The Christian community is also represented with two congregations. The Syrian Christianity , with more than 5,000 members by the steady immigration of Assyrians from Mesopotamia a continuously growing community. Most of the Assyrians in Vienna belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch .
The second largest religious community, after the Catholic, is the Islamic . Islam has been a recognized religious denomination in Austria since 1912 (see Recognition of Islam in Austria ). In the last few decades the community has grown rapidly due to the large number of Muslim immigrants.
Until 1938, Vienna had one of the largest Jewish communities in Europe, most recently with around 185,000 members. Today the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien has around 7,000 members. Its president is Oskar Deutsch , Schlomo Hofmeister has been the municipal rabbi in Vienna since 2008 and Jaron Engelmayer has been the chief rabbi since 2020 .
Politics and administration
In the kingdoms and countries represented in the Imperial Council , men had had universal, equal and direct suffrage at the state level since 1907. Mayor Lueger and his successors prevented the assumption of this right to vote for the municipal council until 1918. The first elections, in which all adult women and men were eligible, took place in 1919 after the end of the monarchy. The Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) has provided the mayor in all free elections since 1919, and the City Senate (the council of city councils) and the Vienna City Council (the city parliament) have had a majority in the Social Democratic Party since 1919.
On November 10, 1920, the day on which the Federal Constitution came into force, which in Article 114 defined Vienna as a separate federal state and made its separation from Lower Austria possible, the “Municipal Council as Landtag” passed the democratic city constitution in the first Landtag session who signed "the mayor as governor". Since then, the mayor of Vienna is also the governor, the city senate is also the state government, and the municipal council is also the state parliament. With the Vienna Provincial Constitutional Act of December 29, 1921, adopted in the same wording in Lower Austria, the definitive separation was confirmed and the previous state assets were divided up. The short-lived common state constitution was repealed at the end of 1921. However, the Separation Act specifically stated (Art. 4, Paragraph 3): "The Landtag and the Provincial Government of Lower Austria are entitled to take their seat in Vienna." This authorization was used by Lower Austria until 1996, when the Lower Austrian Provincial Government and of her state parliament in the newly elected state capital St. Pölten in 1986 .
From 1934 to 1945, during the times of Austro-Fascism and National Socialism , there were no democratic elections and democratic city politics was interrupted by unconstitutional measures taken by the dictatorship. In 1945 the Vienna City Constitution came into effect again.
State of Vienna
As a state, Vienna has had the state parliament, which is the state legislature, and the state government as the highest administrative body, which is the state legislature, which is the state legislature, with the exception of the chairman . According to the federal constitution, the governor also heads the so-called indirect federal administration; Agendas that are administered by state offices under the supervision of the responsible federal ministry on the basis of federal laws. In this area, the governor (as well as any acting city councilor appointed by him as district councilor) is bound by instructions from the minister or the federal government. The City of Vienna's Magistrate acts as the office of the Vienna provincial government .
The highest administrative body of the municipality is the Vienna City Council, which has been democratically elected since 1919 . He elects the mayor and the city councilors, who have formed the city senate since June 1920 and the Vienna provincial government since November 1920. The latest election of the mayor and new councilors took place on May 24, 2018.
According to the resolutions of the municipal council, the city is administered by the city council of Vienna under the leadership of the mayor, the city councilors in charge and the city councilor, who is also the state office director , heads the entire internal service and reports directly to the mayor.
In addition to the Magistrate Directorate (strategically important areas that are directly subordinate to the Magistrate Director and thus the Mayor), there are various magistrate departments and (magistrate) companies in the magistrate. These are grouped into business groups, each politically subordinate to an incumbent city council. The owner functions in companies owned by the City of Vienna under private law (above all Wiener Stadtwerke Holding AG and Wien Holding GmbH) are also represented by executive city councils. In addition, in the spirit of citizen-oriented administration, there is a municipal district office for each municipal district, which is subordinate to the municipal director; in several cases two neighboring districts share a district office.
Personally only the mayor who reports to City Court (until 2013 Control Board of the City of Vienna), which - as the Court of Auditors in the state as a whole - Einschau- and audit rights has for all city departments and enterprises and to the nature and scope of its audits shall be free.
Along with Graz, Vienna is the only city in Austria with district representatives. The eligible voters of each district elect their district representative at the same time as the district council (the individual member is called the district council); this elects the district head and two deputies. Citizens of other EU member states who live permanently in Vienna are also entitled to vote in the district council elections. Some administrative areas of the municipality (e.g. structural maintenance of compulsory schools and the local road network) and the budgets made available for this have been transferred to the districts. The magistrate is responsible for implementing measures in accordance with the relevant resolutions of the district council.
City council election 2020
In the state and municipal council elections in Vienna 2020, the following distribution of votes and seats in the municipal council resulted (100 seats are to be allocated):
|Political party||Share of voters
|Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ)||41.6||46|
|Austrian People's Party (ÖVP)||20.4||22nd|
|The Greens (GREEN)||14.8||16|
|The New Austria and Liberal Forum (NEOS)||7.5||8th|
|Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ)||7.1||8th|
- IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency ( Nobel Peace Prize 2005; in Vienna since 1957)
- CTBTO PrepCom - Preparatory Commission for the Organization of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
- IPI - International Press Institute
- ICPDR - International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
OPEC - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
- OFID - OPEC Fund for International Development
- OSCE - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
UN - United Nations
- UNIDO - Organization for Industrial Development
- UNODC - Drugs and Crime Office
- UNDCP - International Drug Control Program
- UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
- UNCITRAL - United Nations Commission on International Trade Law
- UNOOSA - United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
- UNSCEAR - United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
- UNPA - United Nations Postal Administration
- German Order - Headquarters of the Order of the Brothers of the German Hospital of Saint Mary in Jerusalem
- INTOSAI - International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
- IOI - International Ombudsman Institute
- FRA - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (formerly: EUMC - European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia)
Coat of arms, flag and anthem
The symbols of Vienna are laid down in the “Law on the Symbols of the Federal Capital Vienna” (Provincial Law Gazette No. 10/1998) and have been the same since 1945 as they were in Red Vienna until 1934 . The Viennese coat of arms shows "a white cross in a red shield". In a further form of representation, the coat of arms can "also be used in the form of a breast shield in the figure of a black, golden-armored eagle ", the use of which is reserved by the authorities of the municipality of Vienna and the State of Vienna. The cross shield probably goes back to the Reichssturmfahne . As a coat of arms with an eagle it is verifiable in 1237 and first seen on a Viennese pfenning in 1278 , on seals it dates at the earliest, as a symbol of Vienna, but uncertainly, 1228.
The Vienna flag “consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width; the upper one is red, the lower one is white. The ratio of the flag's height to its length is two to three. ”The flag was (re) introduced in 1946.
The seal of the federal capital Vienna also uses the coat of arms in the breast shield of an eagle. The inscription “Federal Capital Vienna” or the name of the municipality or the State of Vienna are used.
Vienna is the only federal state that does not have an official national anthem .
|State coat of arms
(primary form of representation)
|State coat of arms as breast shield (secondary form of representation;
reserved for use by the authorities of Vienna)
|seal||Country flag||State service flag||logo|
Vienna maintains cooperation between cities based on defined thematic priorities:
- since 1990 - Budapest (Hungary)
- since 1991 - Moscow (Russia)
- since 1991 - Kiev (Ukraine)
- since 1993 - Bratislava (Slovakia), renovated in 2003 (" Twin City ")
- since 1994 - Zagreb (Croatia)
- since 1998 - Brno (Czech Republic)
- since 2001 - Warsaw (Poland)
- since 2003 - Belgrade (Serbia)
- since 2005 - Tel Aviv-Jaffa (Israel)
- since 2006 - New York City (United States)
- since 2008 - Tunis (Tunisia)
- since 2010 - Istanbul (Turkey)
Individual Viennese districts also maintain partnerships with districts of other cities, see there.
Economy and Infrastructure
Vienna is one of the wealthiest regions in the European Union. In comparison with the gross domestic product of the European Union, expressed in purchasing power standards, Vienna achieved an index of 158 in 2014 (EU-28: 100, Austria: 129). The city enjoys an international reputation for high quality of life and low crime rates and is often referred to as a “stepping stone to the East” from a Western European perspective, as the city and its companies have long had good relationships with the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). Especially in the run-up to the eastward expansion of the EU , numerous large foreign companies consolidated their activities in the Central and Eastern European countries at their location in Vienna, or founded such a new headquarters in order to develop these markets from Vienna. In some cases, this decision was accompanied by the takeover of an Austrian company based in Vienna and operating in the CEEC. This is what the Dutch beverage group Heineken did with the takeover of Brau Union or the major Italian bank Unicredit with the takeover of Bank Austria . Other foreign companies with CEEC headquarters in Vienna include the French building materials group Lafarge and the German groups Henkel , REWE and Beiersdorf . The majority of the large Austrian corporations also have their headquarters in Vienna. These include the mineral oil company OMV , the brick manufacturer Wienerberger , Telekom Austria and almost all Austrian banks .
With the Vienna Stock Exchange also is Austria's only stock exchange in Vienna. Since 2010, Vienna has also been the headquarters of the CEE Stock Exchange Group , to which not only the Vienna Stock Exchange, but also the stock exchanges in Budapest , Ljubljana and Prague belong as subsidiaries .
According to the 2001 census, 821,458 people were employed in 87,691 companies in Vienna. The district with the most jobs is the inner city (1st district).
In 2005, an average of 92,864 Viennese were registered as unemployed. This corresponded to an unemployment rate of 13.3 percent according to the Austrian calculation method, or 8.2% according to the EU calculation method. Compared to the other eight federal states, Vienna had the highest unemployment rate. In August 2018, Vienna had 139,674 unemployed including training participants.
Real estate prices
The prices for real estate as well as rent in Vienna have risen sharply in recent years (until the end of 2014). Nevertheless, the prices for property and rent are comparatively cheap compared to other cities with a similar or lower quality of life.
Towards the end of 2014, an average square meter price of around 4500 euros was determined for the purchase of real estate for actual transactions, as well as an average rental price of 14.16 euros, whereby the prices in the inner city districts are correspondingly higher.
Thanks to numerous magnificent buildings from the Roman-German and Austrian imperial times , diverse cultural offerings and, not least, thanks to the reputation as the music capital that Vienna acquired due to the work of numerous famous classical musicians such as Beethoven , Mozart and Mahler , the city is known worldwide and a popular tourist destination.
In the 1st district you will also find the State Opera , the Hofburg (city residence of the emperors), Kärntner Straße (Austria's busiest pedestrian zone), well-known hotels and pastry shops and the magnificent Ringstrasse that surrounds the old town. Since 1980 Vienna has developed a very lively and diverse scene with local quarters, art galleries, cabarets, jazz bars and events of all kinds.
Many tourists come in December when the city can come up with its Christmas markets, its “ New Year's Eve Path ” through the old town and its “ Kaiserball ”. Most of Vienna's sights can be visited all year round. The most popular sights include St. Stephen's Cathedral, the Schönbrunn Palace and Zoo , the Belvedere , the Art History Museum , the Hofburg , the Albertina , the Ferris wheel and the MuseumsQuartier .
Results since 2019
In 2019, Vienna registered 17.6 million overnight stays (+ 6.8% compared to 2018) with 7.927 million guest arrivals, of which 83% were foreign guests, and a net accommodation turnover of 1.022 billion euros (+ 14.5%). The number of hotel beds rose to 68,200 in 2019; they were used to capacity at 61.9%. The result was the best so far (for the tenth time in a row). The total turnover of tourism in Vienna is estimated at over four billion euros per year.
In 2019, the ten most important source markets together had a share of 66.0% in the result of overnight stays:
|Rank according to overnight stays||Country||proportion of|
|Overnight stays (%)||Accommodation turnover (%)|
|7th||People's Republic of China||3.0%||3.3%|
In 2020, due to the pandemic, there was a very sharp decrease in the number of guests.
The accommodation capacity has increased significantly in recent years due to the construction of new hotels and will continue to increase as several hotels are under construction. In December 2017, more than 65,100 beds were available to guests.
12 percent of the beds were offered in the 5-star category, 48.7 percent in the 4-star category, 26.8 percent with three stars and 12.5% of the beds in establishments with two stars or one. In practice, some companies have long ago given up being officially classified and using stars.
The bed occupancy in 2013 was between 36.3 percent in January and 65.5% in August, depending on the season, the room occupancy between 46.3% (January) and 82.8% (August). For 2009, a total turnover of 276 euros was last calculated per guest and overnight stay.
For 2015, the Vienna Tourism Concept 2015, which was published in October 2009, aimed for a result of eleven million overnight stays (+10 percent compared to 2008) and an increase in overnight turnover by 100 million euros (+20 percent compared to 2008 = over 584 million euros) (2008 turnover: 487 million euros). The overnight target was already achieved in 2011 with 11.4 million overnight stays and was clearly exceeded in 2014 with 13.5 million overnight stays; the turnover in 2012 was 540 million euros.
Many international congresses, company meetings, reward trips and general business trips contribute to Vienna's tourist success. The International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA) ranked Vienna 2nd worldwide for 2018; The Union of International Associations (UIA) ranked Vienna in 5th place worldwide for 2019 with 306 international conferences, behind Singapore , Brussels, Seoul and Paris.
The overall result of the Vienna congress business in 2019 with 5,490 events, 606,666 participants, 1.6 million overnight stays and 955 million euros in added value was described by the Vienna Tourism Association as atypical . While the number of events reached a new high, which is based on a strong increase in national meetings, the number of overnight stays, added value and other key figures fell short of the previous high of 2018.
Vienna is the headquarters of numerous media of all kinds. The largest company of this kind is the public broadcaster ORF , based on Küniglberg in the 13th district of Hietzing and its radio programs Ö1 , Radio Wien , Ö3 and FM4 , based on Argentinierstraße in the 4th district and on the Heiligenstädter Lände. Radio 1476 , better known as Ö1 International , is broadcast internationally via medium wave . The ORF film studios, which are occasionally used for television broadcasts, are located on the Rosenhügel in the 23rd district of Liesing .
Other television companies based in Vienna are the Austria-wide private broadcaster ATV (formerly ATVplus) and the music broadcaster gotv , which has its largest reach in Vienna. PULS 4 (formerly Puls TV) has been receivable since June 2004 , the transmission area of which was limited to Vienna until the beginning of 2008. The television company based in the seventh district produces several Austria-specific programs, including the news program Austria Top News for ProSieben Austria . At the end of 2005, a non-commercial television station for Vienna was launched under the name Okto .
In addition to the local newspapers, the most important Austria-wide print media have their headquarters in Vienna. The News publishing group is the clear market leader in the magazine sector . Her publications include the magazines News , Profil , Trend , woman and TV-Media . The weekly newspaper with the highest circulation is, according to its own statements, the entertainment magazine Die Voll Woche with over 300,000 copies across Austria. The daily newspapers Kronen Zeitung , Kurier , Österreich , Der Standard , Die Presse and Wiener Zeitung , which cover all of Austria, are also based in Vienna. A formerly important Viennese daily newspaper from which many successful journalists emerged was the Arbeiter-Zeitung , founded in 1889 and discontinued in 1991 , which was the first medium in Vienna to also devote itself to socially critical topics. The weekly city newspaper Falter is of great local importance , and its investigative journalistic work often determines media topics throughout Austria. A special feature is the free newspaper Heute , which is mainly available in underground stations and which is particularly noticeable because of its high advertising content and the highest circulation in Vienna. In addition, there are still numerous print media with smaller editions and thematic specialization on topics such as religion or politics. Of these, the furrow is the most important. With Augustin and Uhudla , which appears in a much smaller edition, there are two street newspapers in Vienna that are sold by the homeless .
The Vienna city administration owns numerous media that run under the umbrella brand "wien.at". In addition to the city's web service, there are numerous print products, such as the monthly “wien.at - Your city's information sheet” and seven free target group magazines that can be sent on request. The weekly news program “wien.at TV” is produced on behalf of the city. It is broadcast on the W24 cable channel and can be accessed online. Municipal Department 53 - Press and Information Service is responsible for the media of the City of Vienna .
In addition to traditional media companies, numerous other companies in the media industry also concentrate very heavily on Vienna, such as advertising agencies , web agencies and companies from the film industry .
16 percent of the area of Vienna is used for agriculture by around 900 horticultural and farming businesses. More than 5,000 hectares of this are arable land, 637 hectares are vineyards in 140 vineyards, 870 hectares are used for horticulture - especially for vegetable production. The most important wine-growing regions are Bisamberg , Nussberg , Kahlenberg and Georgenberg . Mainly Grüner Veltliner, Riesling, Chardonnay, Weissburgunder, Zweigelt, Welschriesling, Neuberger, Traminer and Gelber Muskateller are grown. The so-called Viennese mixed sentence consists of three quality wines in a vineyard of 10 to 50% each, which must have been harvested and processed together. Of the around 115,000 tons of plant-based food production every year, around 60,000 tons are accounted for by the around 40 types of vegetables grown in Vienna, especially tomatoes , peppers , cucumbers , lettuce and radishes . Around a third of the amount of vegetables consumed in Vienna is thus produced within the city limits. Cultivation areas are about the Simmeringer Haide . The largest Austrian vegetable distributor, LGV-Frischgemüse , has its headquarters and main warehouse in Simmering.
Hunting is practiced in the outskirts of Vienna (including wild boar , roe deer , brown hare and red deer ). Around half of Vienna's 41,460 hectare urban area is part of hunting grounds , of which around 4,000 hectares are also designated as a hunting rest area.
The Magistrate of the City of Vienna , the Vienna Municipal Office, is responsible for large parts of the city's technical and social infrastructure . The over 60 thematically specialized municipal departments manage together with the 19 municipal district offices, the companies according to § 71 Vienna City Constitution ( hospital association , Wiener Wohnen , Wien Kanal ) and the outsourced or private companies of the city ( Wiener Stadtwerke Holding AG , museums of the city) Wien , Wien Holding GmbH ) important areas of public life in the federal capital (kindergartens, schools, parks, public forest areas, garbage collection etc.).
In order to finance infrastructure projects, in 1998, as was common in larger municipalities in Europe at the time, the Vienna subway and in 2002 the Vienna sewer system in the 21st and 22nd districts were sold by means of a cross-border leasing contract Rented back years. The city of Vienna should benefit from a tax incentive in the United States, but this tax loophole was closed several years ago and any loss of income of the investor must be borne by the city. With the “Grandfathering Clause” of this law, contracts entered into before September 17, 2003 should remain valid, but this violates the regulations of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and is also met with EU opposition, which is why this regulation has to be modified . In the meantime, the Vienna City Government has dissolved the cross-border agreements.
The City of Vienna is responsible for the technical security of the city (construction police, railway law, water law, etc.) ; in the case of the building police with the state government , in railway law with the transport ministry, in water law with the environment ministry as the second instance.
The Vienna Urban Development Plan ( STEP ) is drawn up by MA 18 ( Municipal Department 18), defines the guidelines for urban development over the next few years and thus makes a significant contribution to the urban infrastructure. The urban development plans are revised every ten years. While demographic stagnation prevailed for a long time after 1945, which was also reflected in the urban development plans (privileged construction of vacant lots, etc.), more expansive concepts have returned since the collapse of socialism in Warsaw Pact states . The revision of STEP 84 decided in 1994, for example, already took into account the significant population growth due to immigration. The urban development plan 2005 (STEP 05) deals with a dozen of target areas, for example the waterfront, an area from the Danube Canal over the Praterstern, Nordbahnviertel , Handelskai to the Old Danube, or the Wiental. Urban planning also deals with the regional and international transport connections of Vienna.
The construction of high-rise buildings, particularly in the city center, is particularly controversial in Vienna. In 2001 the city planning department developed a high-rise concept, which was subsequently discussed in detail. It was based on earlier high-rise studies (architect Hugo Potyka 1972 and Coop Himmelb (l) au 1992). After a positive statement by the urban development commission, the “high-rise buildings in Vienna” concept was adopted by the municipal council in April 2002.
Vienna is the 1873. First Vienna Mountain Spring Pipeline with water from the Rax - Schneeberg addition -type region and since 1910 by the II Vienna Mountain Spring Pipeline. From the Hochschwab area supplied. The areas were declared a water protection area in 1965 and are looked after by the forest administration of the City of Vienna . Water from a groundwater works in the Lobau is rarely added to the high spring water in certain districts, for example during maintenance work or particularly high water consumption.
All wastewater is channeled through the Viennese sewer system into the city's main sewage treatment plant in Simmering , with diluted sewer water, so-called mixed water, reaching the Danube Canal or the Danube until 2006 during cleaning work and heavy rain. This problem was solved by the City of Vienna with the construction of the Wientalkanal. It is 3.5 kilometers long and was completed in 2006. Since then, the wastewater has been collected in its entirety and then given to the sewage treatment plants according to the available capacity.
The canal system achieved international fame through the film The Third Man .
Wiener Netze GmbH, a subsidiary of Wiener Stadtwerke , which is wholly owned by the City of Vienna, is responsible for Vienna's electricity, gas and district heating network . The electricity market itself has been liberalized, but competition is only pronounced among large customers. Wien Energie is Vienna's most important electricity supplier.
There is a large district heating network in Vienna, which is operated by Wien Energie. The generation takes place in the three large waste incineration plants Spittelau , Simmeringer Haide and Flötzersteig .
The (accessible) Freudenau power plant dams the Danube river, and two pipe bridges lead from Vienna on the left bank to Lower Austria on the right bank.
Since February 2014 .wien is a new top-level domain for Internet addresses (domains) for companies, organizations and private individuals with a connection to Vienna. This is managed and marketed on behalf of the City of Vienna by punkt.wien GmbH, a wholly owned subsidiary of Compass Gruppe GmbH .
In 2014, 39 percent of all journeys in Vienna were made by public transport . 27 percent were done on foot and a further 27% of the journeys by car. At 7 percent, the Viennese city planners still consider the proportion of trips covered by bicycle to be low. In 2017, the degree of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 371.
Ten bridges across the Danube (roads, railways, subway, pedestrians) connect the urban area to the left and right of the Danube, seven (including two navigable weirs) connect the left bank of the Danube over the New Danube with the Danube Island, 35 bridges (as well as one weir and one Lock) span the Danube Canal .
Like the railway lines, the old highways (later federal highways ) also leave the city in a star shape. Some of them are still named after historically significant destinations ( Linzer Strasse , Prager Strasse B3, Brünner Strasse B7, Budapester Strasse B10, Triester Strasse B17).
The same applies to the motorways: A1 Westautobahn , A2 Südautobahn , A4 Ostautobahn and A22 Donauuferautobahn leave the city radially. The A3 into Burgenland branches off from the A2 south of Vienna. The northern motorway towards Brno , which is to connect to the Czech motorway network, is currently being extended as the A5 . The north-east motorway from the A4 to Bratislava ( Slovakia ) was opened as the A6 in 2007 east of Vienna .
The A23 Vienna Südosttangente (Austria's busiest road) is a ring-shaped connection between A2, A4 and A22 in the southern part of the city; To relieve them, the S1 outer ring expressway was built on the southern city limits and opened on April 28, 2006. This is to be continued east of the Danube in a motorway ring that will lead to the A5; the necessary tunneling under the Donauauen National Park is controversial for ecological reasons. A1, A2 and S1 are connected by the A21, the Outer Ring or Wienerwald motorway, which runs outside Vienna and through which the west-east transit traffic is directed.
In the city, the highways start from the belt that surrounds the inner districts. This six- to eight-lane street is therefore particularly at risk of congestion and its high traffic frequency impairs the quality of living. Furthermore, the main problem areas are the city entrances, especially in the west due to the Vienna Woods. In the south, the main congestion points can be found on the A2 and A23. On the A23 Südosttangente, rush hour traffic slows down almost every day.
Parking problems are no longer limited to the inner districts, which have been set up as short-term parking zones over a large area (residents can park for an unlimited period of time with the chargeable, so-called “parking sticker ”, with the exception of certain streets); parking management was extended to areas outside the belt in 2012. In the meantime, there are only four municipal districts (13th, 21st, 22nd and 23rd) without a parking sticker. There are several parking-and-travel facilities with connections to public transport for commuting road users; The city administration, however, also with its participation in the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR), aims to ensure that commuters change to public transport outside of Vienna. For the residents of neighborhoods with little parking space, “Volksgaragen” are being built with financial help from the city.
In general, it is the aim of the city administration to reduce the share of individual traffic in total traffic for ecological reasons. Until 2012, ten bus lanes in Vienna had been released for single-lane vehicles, depending on the traffic situation. As of August 2019, there are almost only 30 km / h zones in the Mariahilf and Neubau districts .
Local public transport
Vienna has a large network of public transport . It consists of the S-Bahn lines belonging to the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) , the Badner Bahn and the network of Wiener Linien ( underground , tram and bus lines ), the City Airport Train and various private bus lines. Wiener Linien alone transported around 954.2 million passengers in 2016.
The Viennese tram has existed since 1865 and Wiener Linien now operates a 179-kilometer network of tracks. Vienna thus has one of the oldest and longest tram networks in the world. From 1898 the Art Nouveau-style Viennese steam light rail was opened, which in 1925 largely mutated into the Viennese electric light rail and whose infrastructure was taken over from 1976 by the gradually rebuilt subway. In 1978 the first new section of the U1 line was opened. Bus service began in Vienna on March 23, 1907. Today, Vienna has a 24-hour subway on the weekends and the NightLine, as well as a night transport and shared taxi network . In addition, private bus companies operate in collective bargaining with Wiener Linien, especially in the outskirts of the city. Together with the train and bus routes in Lower Austria and Burgenland , the Vienna transport network forms the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR).
The share of bicycle traffic in total traffic in Vienna was 7 percent in 2016. In some areas, however, the value is significantly higher. Bicycle traffic is measured at around ten automatic counting points and increased by 6.4% at these locations compared to 2015. The network of public cycle paths, cycle lanes and cycle routes in the city area in 2017 comprised around 1,298 kilometers; 53.73% of these are cycle routes, traffic-calmed areas, residential streets, pedestrian zones, driveways and open bus lanes, 20.74% are structurally separated from car traffic and 25.53% are marked facilities (such as cycle lanes, multi-purpose lanes and one-way cycling).
The rental bike system " Citybike " has been offered for years, the bikes of which have to be latched into fixed stations to be parked. Using a car trailer, the operator distributes the bikes to undersupplied stations. By 2017, three rental systems were added: Most recently, OBike and Ofo from China, which could be parked freely, found via smartphone app and were also affected by abuse. Donkey Republic from Denmark, on the other hand, works with fixed stations and is looked after by Pedal Power. The City of Vienna is now planning rules for the use of urban space by bike rental companies. After Obike went bankrupt, Ofo also announced its withdrawal from Vienna in July 2018. The reason given was the high regulatory requirements.
For historical reasons - all transport connections were based on the capital and royal seat of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy - several terminal stations were built in Vienna . However, due to their strategic importance, all of Vienna's larger train stations were at least damaged during the Second World War. Most have been rebuilt and redesigned. In 1951 the old Westbahnhof was replaced by a new building. In 1956, the formerly separate Ostbahnhof was integrated into the new building of the (3rd) Südbahnhof . Between 1976 and 1980 the Franz-Josefs-Bahnhof was built over. The Nordbahnhof , a stately ruin that was only removed in 1965, was not restored (its architectural significance was not recognized at the time) because the long-distance traffic of the Northern Railway had lost its importance due to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Iron Curtain . On December 9, 2012, partial operations began at the newly built Vienna Central Station , and the system was fully commissioned on December 13, 2015. It is not a terminus, as is the case with traditional large Viennese train stations , but a through station , the Südbahn and Eastern Railway , but can also integrate trains from the Northern and Western Railway.
Today there are still two large terminal stations in Vienna; they mainly serve regional traffic:
- Vienna Westbahnhof as the historical starting point of the Westbahn
- Vienna Franz-Josefs-Bahnhof as the starting point of the Franz-Josefs-Bahn
- Vienna main station on the southern and eastern lines, as a central station for long-distance traffic and with long-distance traffic connection to the airport train station
- Vienna Meidling (Philadelphiabrücke) on the southern railway and starting point of the Pottendorfer line , as well as with a connection to the Donauländebahn and through the Lainzer tunnel to the western railway with Wienerwaldtunnel and the NBS Tullnerfeld to St. Pölten
- Wien Mitte ( Landstrasse ) on the main route between the main train station and Praterstern, as well as with the City Airport Train (CAT) fast connection to and from the Vienna airport train station
- Vienna Praterstern , starting point of the Northern Railway and the Northwest Railway
- Vienna Floridsdorf ( Northern Railway and Northwest Railway )
- Vienna Hütteldorf on the Westbahn and with suburban line and route to Vienna Meidling
- Vienna Heiligenstadt on the Franz-Josefs-Bahn and with a suburb line
- Vienna Stadlau with the Laaer Ostbahn and Marchegger Ostbahn
The intensive Vienna S-Bahn operation is important for local and regional traffic . It also serves many smaller train stations or stations . Very heavy traffic is also offered on the city's own local railway Vienna – Baden , commonly known as Badner Bahn .
Important for freight traffic are the Lainzer Tunnel , the two connecting lines between the west and south lines and between the south and north lines, the Donauländebahn , which connects several lines, and the Danube shore line (the winter harbor bridge that had been missing between the two since 1945 was rebuilt by 2008) and the central shunting yard Vienna-Kledering on the Ostbahn.
The Vienna International Airport is located in the Lower Austrian Schwechat , a 16 km southeast of Vienna center located township . It is the home base and hub of Austrian Airlines , Eurowings Europe and EasyJet Europe and the largest employer in the eastern region of Austria. In the 2017 financial year, it was connected by 74 airlines with 195 destinations in 70 countries worldwide. A new passenger record was achieved. A total of 24,392,805 million passengers (+4.5%), of which 17,844,391 million were local passengers (+4.5%) and 6,442,112 million transfer passengers (+4.4%), with 224,568 flight movements (-0.8 %) processed.
The Rhine-Main-Danube Canal connects Vienna with both the port of Rotterdam and the German industrial areas by a waterway . There is a connection with the countries of Eastern Europe to the Black Sea via the Danube . The planned Danube-Oder Canal remained unfinished. Passenger shipping on the Danube is almost exclusively of tourist importance today, there is hydrofoil service to Bratislava and Budapest . The Vienna passenger port is located at the Reichsbrücke; there are also moorings for passenger ships at Nussdorf and on the Danube Canal at Schwedenplatz.
Since June 2006 the high-speed catamaran " Twin City Liner " has been connecting the two capitals Vienna and Bratislava across the Danube three times a day. In Vienna, Schwedenplatz , exit Marienbrücke , was chosen as the entry and exit point . In Bratislava, the listed “propeller house” in the center serves as a mooring. In 2006 the ship operated until the end of October, in 2007 the season started in March, a second high-speed catamaran was purchased in 2008 and has since operated five times a day between Vienna and Bratislava.
The security administration and all authorities and organs belonging to it are the competence of the interior minister. The Vienna State Police Directorate is located in 1., Schottenring 7–9 . There are currently 98 police inspections in Vienna , three police dog inspections and two electricity police inspections , in which almost 4,000 police officers are on duty. They have 630 vehicles and eleven motor boats at their disposal.
The special unit WEGA is available for operations with a high degree of danger, and the Cobra task force for operations with a very high degree of danger . During large demonstrations and violent riots, e.g. After football matches, for example, the Vienna emergency unit is also deployed.
The professional fire brigade is the 68th department of the City of Vienna (MA 68). The fire brigade command, the news center for the entire Vienna area and the management of all three branches of the fire service are based in the headquarters (1., Am Hof 7, 9 and 10). Vienna is divided into nine fire protection sections; the individual sections have specific tasks and are equipped with special equipment. The 22 fire stations with a total of around 1700 firefighters are spread over the entire city area in such a way that each location can be reached after an average of five minutes. There are also independent fire stations in the AKH and in the town hall , such as the town hall watch , which are also integrated into the MA 68.
The Vienna Professional Fire Brigade is the oldest professional fire brigade in the world. In addition, the volunteer fire brigades FF Breitenlee and FF Süßenbrunn exist in two former villages just within the city limits . Organizationally, they are integrated into the professional fire brigade and are run as group guards. They have around 70 firefighters. There are also 47 company fire brigades with almost 1450 fire fighters; a total of 3300 fire fighters can thus be mobilized.
Justice and law enforcement
In Vienna there are independent courts of all instances: twelve district courts (and a separate district court for commercial matters ), the Regional Court for Criminal Matters Vienna , the Regional Court for Civil Law Matters , the Labor and Social Court Vienna and the Commercial Court Vienna . There are also the higher regional courts for Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland as well as the highest court for all of Austria . The prosecuting authorities, under the supervision of the Minister of Justice, are the Vienna Public Prosecutor's Office, the Vienna Public Prosecutor's Office and the General Procuratorate.
In addition, there are courts of public law in Vienna: the Constitutional Court , the Administrative Court and the institutions that were established in 2014 as sub-instances of the Federal Administrative Court , Federal Finance Court and Regional Administrative Court of Vienna.
There are four prisons in Vienna :
- Prison Vienna Josefstadt (Austria's largest prison)
- Prison Vienna Simmering (second largest prison in Vienna)
- Prison Vienna Favoriten (central prison for drug withdrawal in Austria)
- Prison Vienna Mittersteig in Margareten (mainly for sane, mentally abnormal lawbreakers)
In Vienna there are 283 primary schools (including 217 public), 120 secondary schools (including 96 public), 46 special schools (including 40 public) and 95 general education colleges (including 67 public). In addition, there are 28 vocational schools in Vienna (including 25 public), for example for electrical engineering, the hospitality industry or office clerks, 22 technical and commercial middle and higher schools (including 11 public), such as for the textile industry or chemical industry, 21 commercial middle and higher schools ( including 8 public), e.g. HBLA for fashion and business professions for fashion or tourism school and 16 commercial middle and high schools (including 6 public).
In no other city in the German-speaking area are there more students than in Vienna. According to official information from the City of Vienna, more than 196,000 students studied at universities and technical colleges in the 2016/2017 winter semester.
The University of Vienna is also the oldest and largest university in today's German-speaking area (the oldest German university was Charles University in Prague , founded in 1348 ). The University of Vienna was founded in 1365 as Alma Mater Rudolphina and was particularly famous for its medical faculty, which has existed as an independent university under the name Medical University of Vienna since 2004 . In 1692 the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna was founded as a private academy of the court chamber painter Peter Strudel . In 1765 Maria Theresia founded the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna . In 1767, the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna emerged from the singing school of Antonio Salieri . In 1815 the Vienna University of Technology was founded as a kk polytechnic institute . In 1867, today's University of Applied Arts was founded as a school of applied arts . In 1872 the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna was founded . In 1898 the kuk Export Academy was founded, today's Vienna University of Economics and Business .
In addition to these state universities, there are five private universities in Vienna ( Webster Vienna Private University , Music and Art Private University of the City of Vienna (MUK), Sigmund Freud Private University Vienna , Module University Vienna and, since 2019, Central European University ) and some universities of applied sciences ( FHWien degree programs of the WKW , University of Applied Sciences of the bfi Vienna , University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien , FH Campus Wien , as well as the Lauder Business School ). There are also some independent institutes such as the Institute for Medical Anthropology and Bioethics in Vienna.
The leading academic libraries in Vienna are the Austrian National Library , the University Library of Vienna and the Vienna Library in the City Hall (formerly the Vienna City and State Library). In addition, there are the libraries of the Vienna University of Economics and Technology , the Technical University , the Medical University and other universities, as well as the specialist libraries of the university institutes, as well as the Social Science Library of the Chamber of Labor and the Parliamentary Library . The Austrian Military Library , the largest official library in Austria, is located in the academy wing of the Stiftskaserne . The 41 municipal lending libraries in Vienna are grouped together as Vienna's libraries , including the main library on Urban-Loritz-Platz.
Vienna is known for social housing . During the time of the Red Vienna from 1918 to 1934, numerous community buildings were built for the first time on a large scale , which were built and operated by the city, were not geared towards profit and primarily provided numerous apartments at affordable rents for the workers. After the Second World War, there was again a lot of building activity on community building projects.
In 2010, the City of Vienna received the UN-HABITAT “Scroll of Honor” award for its policy of “gentle urban renewal” .
The first social institutions in Vienna came into being in the first decade of the 20th century, when the first homeless and men's dormitories were built due to the great poverty in the population, e.g. the one opened in 1905 in Meldemannstrasse , where the young Adolf Hitler also opened from 1910 to 1913 has lived. Today around 200,000 people in Vienna live below the poverty line . Non-profit organizations such as Volkshilfe and Caritas take care of them as best they can . The latter also runs the well-known homeless facility Die Gruft in the Mariahilf district , which has existed since 1986. Street work is offered for young people . The Viennese social services carry out charitable tasks on behalf of the City of Vienna .
Museums and collections were set up in the imperial residence city that have world-class works of art. The imperial heritage of the city with the palaces Hofburg , Schönbrunn Palace and Belvedere Palace is part of the Viennese culture . In the Spanish Riding School , performances of the high school of riding art of the Lipizzaner horses are shown.
The period around 1900 is referred to as Viennese Modernism , which takes into account the cultural, artistic and scientific great power of Vienna. The First World War impaired this position of the city, the terror against Jewish Viennese and the Second World War removed Vienna's international status.
Scientifically, Vienna has distinguished itself above all in medicine. The oldest university in the German-speaking area that still exists today is located here ; her most prominent professor was Sigmund Freud . Also noteworthy are the Vienna Circle of Philosophy and the Austrian School of Economic Theory.
Viennese musical life was and is of international importance. Historically, it is primarily shaped by composers such as Mozart , Beethoven , Johann Strauss , Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schönberg . The Viennese waltz was and is known worldwide. Today, well-known performers such as the Vienna Philharmonic , the Vienna Symphony , the ensemble of the Vienna State Opera and the Concentus Musicus Vienna should be mentioned. Important currents or circles were or are, for example, the Vienna School (pre-classical) , the Vienna Classic and the Vienna School (modern) of music. In the nineties of the 20th century Vienna also became one of the centers of electronic music .
Vienna is considered a theater city with a wide range of offers in the German-speaking area, especially Berlin competes. In the 19th century Grillparzer , Raimund and Nestroy were the most famous Viennese playwrights, in the 20th century Arthur Schnitzler and Thomas Bernhard were . In the 20th century, authors such as Karl Kraus , Robert Musil , Heimito von Doderer , H. C. Artmann and his Viennese group emerged in literature.
The Viennese School of Fantastic Realism in painting should also be mentioned historically in Viennese cultural life .
The current cultural scene, with the MuseumsQuartier as a new focus since 2001 , is very varied with concert halls, galleries, exhibition halls, stages, festivals and much more and is heavily funded by public funds. Gastronomy culture is more traditional: with the Viennese coffee house , Viennese cuisine and Viennese viticulture.
Vienna is the center of the Austrian variety of the German language . The spoken city dialect is an East-Central Bavarian dialect with sometimes very own vocabulary and numerous loan words from the languages of the Habsburg monarchy , especially Czech . A significant part of the city's current residents have a mother tongue other than German; The extent to which the Viennese dialect is mastered varies greatly.
World-class composers have worked in Vienna over the centuries. The best-known representatives are those of the Viennese Classic (approx. 1780–1827) - Joseph Haydn , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Ludwig van Beethoven -, later Franz Schubert , Franz Liszt , Johannes Brahms , Johann Strauss (father) , Johann Strauss (son) , Franz Lehár , Joseph Lanner , Anton Bruckner , Gustav Mahler , and at the beginning of the 20th century the members of the Second Viennese School ( Arnold Schönberg , Anton Webern , Alban Berg ) and Ernst Krenek .
With the Vienna Philharmonic , which is made up of members of the Vienna State Opera Orchestra , the ensemble, which was named the best orchestra in Europe by ten leading journalists in 2006 and 2007, resides in Vienna. The Wiener Symphoniker , the concert orchestra of the City of Vienna, are also an internationally renowned ensemble. The famous Vienna Boys' Choir is also based in this city .
The Wienerlied as a separate musical genre was and still is in interaction with other musical styles.
There are also some well-known performers from Vienna in pop music, such as Georg Danzer , Rainhard Fendrich and Wolfgang Ambros . The internationally best-known Viennese artist of this genre was Falco , who was ranked number 1 on the American Billboard Hot 100 for several weeks in 1986 with the song Rock Me Amadeus . In the 1990s, musicians and music producers from the field of electronic music made for international fame, Vienna was considered the secret capital of the downbeat . Examples are Kruder & Dorfmeister and Tosca .
Theater and opera
In Vienna, art and culture can look back on a very long tradition in the field of theater , opera or the visual arts. In addition to the Burgtheater , which, together with its second stage, the Akademietheater , is one of the most important theaters in the world, the Volkstheater and the Theater in der Josefstadt are also well-known theaters. There are also a number of smaller theaters, which are sometimes in no way inferior to the big ones in terms of quality and are often dedicated to more modern, experimental pieces or cabaret and cabaret. The Nestroy Theater Prize , the most important in the German-speaking area, has been awarded in Vienna since 2000 .
The State Opera maintains the classical opera tradition with performances in the original language, the Volksoper offers a repertoire made up of typical Viennese operettas , classical musicals and operas. Classical music concerts take place in the Wiener Musikverein (with the famous Golden Hall ) and in the Wiener Konzerthaus .
The Theater an der Wien , in which Beethoven's opera Fidelio was premiered, successfully premiered musicals until 2005 (by far the most successful was the musical Elisabeth, which went as far as Japan and was performed in several languages). Since the Mozart year 2006 it has been the third opera house in the city; in contrast to State Opera and Volksoper in Stagionebetrieb .
The Vienna Chamber Opera , which has been part of the Theater an der Wien since 2012, and its young ensemble are staging old and new operas that are far from traditional. In the House of Music Vienna has a since 2000 Sound Museum for children and adults. The Marionette Theater at Schönbrunn Palace cultivates artistic play with precious marionettes in operas and plays for adults and children.
The Vienna's English Theater was founded in 1963 and is the oldest English-language theater in Europe outside the British Isles.
The European and International Deaf Theater Festival, organized by ARBOS - Society for Music and Theater in Vienna, has taken place every year since 2000 . The European Deaf Theater Conference, organized by the Deaf Theater Network Europe Vienna , will be held at the same time as the festival .
State Opera, Volksoper and Burgtheater (with the secondary theater Akademietheater) are federal theaters. The Theater an der Wien , together with the Raimund Theater musical stage and the recently renovated Ronacher establishment , form the company Vereinigte Bühnen Wien, owned by the City of Vienna .
- See also:
Alt-Wiener Volkstheater , Carltheater , Leopoldstädter Theater , Simpl , Theater am Kärntnertor , Wiener Metropol , Wiener Theaterreform , Kabelwerk Wien-Meidling , Schauspielhaus , category "Theater (Vienna)"
The largest museum complex in Vienna and one of the largest in the world consists of the museums in the Hofburg with its annexes, the two former court museums, and is closed off to the west by the MuseumsQuartier , which was built in the former Imperial and Royal Stables in the 1990s and opened in 2001 . In this area are:
- the Kunsthistorisches Museum : picture gallery with a collection of old masters from the 15th to 18th centuries. Masterpieces by, among others, Pieter Bruegel , Peter Paul Rubens , Tizian , Rembrandt van Rijn and Velázquez .
- the Natural History Museum : with the Venus von Willendorf - oldest representation of a fertility goddess; Meteorites and dinosaurs.
- the Albertina : the largest graphic collection in the world. The Albertina has recently expanded its exhibition activities to include paintings and sculptures.
- the Leopold Museum : the world's largest collection of works by Egon Schiele , Viennese Secessionism , Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism (Gustav Klimt, Richard Gerstl, Oskar Kokoschka, Broncia Koller ...)
- the Museum of Modern Art - Ludwig Foundation
- the Weltmuseum Wien : Museum of Ethnology until 2013.
- the Imperial Treasury : Crown insignia and other treasures of the Habsburg Monarchy
- the Ephesus Museum
- the Vienna Architecture Center
- the Sisi Museum: memory of Empress Elisabeth
- the collection of old musical instruments
- the ZOOM children's museum
- the imperial apartments: living and working rooms of Emperor Franz Joseph I.
- the court hunting and armory chamber
- the court silver and table chamber: table utensils of the imperial court
The Austrian Gallery Belvedere presents art from Austria from the Middle Ages through the Baroque to the early 20th century in Belvedere Palace , including The Kiss , Gustav Klimt's best-known work . A new exhibition hall was built in the Lower Belvedere in 2006/2007. The baroque museum with Franz Xaver Messerschmidt's famous characters is also located here . In 2011, in the immediate vicinity of the Belvedere, the 21er Haus (formerly 20er Haus) was reopened as a branch for contemporary art.
The Wien Museum (formerly the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna) documents the history of Vienna with temporary exhibitions and a permanent presentation and looks after the memorials of Ludwig van Beethoven , Joseph Haydn , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Franz Schubert and Johann Strauss . Other branches of the house include the Hermes Villa , the Clock Museum of the City of Vienna , the Roman Museum and the Pratermuseum .
For Wien Holding include the Jewish Museum Vienna , which is dedicated to the tragic history of the Jews in Vienna, the House of Music , the Kunsthaus Wien with works of Friedensreich Hundertwasser and photographic exhibitions and the Mozart House Vienna , housed in a former home of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, as Figarohaus known because he there at the opera nozze di Figaro Le worked.
The Army History Museum in the Arsenal is the leading museum of the Austrian Armed Forces and uses exhibits to document the history of the Austrian military , including weapons , armor , tanks , aircraft , uniforms , flags , paintings , medals and decorations , photographs , battleship models and documents.
Other museums in Vienna (selection):
- MAK : Large collection of applied arts, exhibitions in recent years also in the field of art.
- Imperial Furniture Collection : Furniture Museum.
- Sigmund Freud Museum : In Freud's former apartment on Berggasse.
- Technical Museum Vienna
- Narrenturm : Pathological-anatomical collection.
- Josephinum : Museum of Medical History.
- Theater Museum Vienna
- Forgery Museum Vienna
- Funeral Museum Vienna
- Vienna Crime Museum with the Museum of the Vienna Police Department.
- Museum of Medieval Legal History : also known as the Museum of Torture.
- Money Museum of the Austrian National Bank
- Transport Museum Remise : Museum of public city transport.
- District museums (on the history of the respective district)
In addition, especially in the field of contemporary art, there are several exhibition houses such as the Kunsthalle Wien , the Secession , the Bank Austria Kunstforum , WestLicht , and the Künstlerhaus Wien .
Particularly noteworthy among the authors who have spent at least part of their lives in Vienna are Ilse Aichinger , Peter Altenberg , H. C. Artmann , Ingeborg Bachmann , Thomas Bernhard , Hugo Bettauer , Elias Canetti (Nobel Prize for Literature), Heimito von Doderer , Albert Drach , Franzobel , Barbara Frischmuth , Arno Geiger , Daniel Glattauer , Friedrich Glauser , Franz Grillparzer , Wolf Haas , Peter Henisch , Theodor Herzl , Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Ernst Jandl , Elfriede Jelinek (Nobel Prize for Literature), Daniel Kehlmann , Egon Erwin Kisch , Klara Köttner-Benigni , Karl Kraus , Alexander Lernet-Holenia , Friederike Mayröcker , Eva Menasse , Carl Merz , Jörg Mauthe , Adelbert Muhr , Robert Musil , Johann Nestroy , Leo Perutz , Alfred Polgar , Helmut Qualtinger , Ferdinand Raimund , Christoph Ransmayr , Joseph Roth , Felix Salten , Arthur Schnitzler , Hilde Spiel , Bertha von Suttner (Nobel Peace Prize Laureate), Friedrich Torberg , Georg Trakl , Walther von der Voge lweide , Josef Weinheber , Franz Werfel , Wolf Wondratschek and Stefan Zweig .
The first short films were produced in Vienna from 1906 onwards, although the numerous French filmmakers at that time still outnumbered the active people in Vienna. Austrian silent film production began in 1910 with the establishment of the Viennese art film industry . This was followed by the Sascha-Filmfabrik Wien of the Bohemian Count Alexander Kolowrat-Krakowsky , founded in Liesing in 1913 (then own municipality, now 23rd district), set up in 1914 in the 20th district of Brigittenau . In addition to numerous propaganda productions , the first (war) newsreels were also produced during the First World War . In 1920 film production reached its peak with 142 films. In 1923 Vita-Film opened the " Rosenhügel-Filmstudios ", which were much larger and more modern than the Sascha Film Studios in Sievering . Over a dozen other film production companies produced films on a regular basis at the time.
With the gradual expropriation of Sascha-Film from 1935 onwards, Wien-Film emerged from this in 1938 , which was subordinate to the Reichsfilmkammer through the Cautio Treuhandgesellschaft and made Vienna the main production site for propaganda films alongside Berlin and Munich . As in all areas, an unrestrained " Aryanization " took place in the film and cinema industry .
During the " denazification " by the Allies in occupied post-war Vienna, numerous cinemas were unjustifiably transferred to the city's own cinema company (Kiba). At the same time, with the founding of new film companies, such as the Belvedere-Film in 1947, the production of homeland and music films began again, reaching its absolute peak in the 1950s and 1960s. In the midst of it all, there are again many Viennese actors, such as Hans Moser , Peter Alexander , Waltraut Haas , Romy Schneider , Hans Holt and Nadja Tiller - to name just a few. One of the most important directors at the time was Franz Antel - also from Vienna. In 1948, The Third Man, a film with international star actors, gave Vienna a boost in popularity and, as a side effect, helped the Sieveringen zither player Anton Karas to an unexpected fame.
But the 1960s were also marked by the onset of cinema deaths. In 1953 there were still over 200 cinemas in the city, in 1983 only 69 cinemas with 96 halls remained. With the increasing spread of multiplex cinemas from the 1980s onwards, the trend towards the falling number of cinemas could not be stopped, but in the 1990s the number of theaters rose again to 191 in 2001. Due to the current surplus and lower capacity utilization, the number fell to 166 in 2002 at the expense of additional cinemas.
The Erika cinema in Kaiserstraße, founded in 1900, was considered the oldest cinema in the world still in operation when it closed in 1999. Today it is a theater space. Since then, Breitenseer Lichtspiele, founded in 1905 and located in Vienna's 14th district, has been considered the oldest cinema in Vienna that is still in use.
At the present time there is a very creative film scene in Vienna, not least because of production orders from the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation and state film funding. The Viennale Film Festival , the Austrian Film Archive , the Austrian Film Museum and the Vienna Film Commission , founded in 2009 by the City of Vienna, contribute to this.
In the visual arts, Vienna can boast internationally renowned artists in the past and present, including Gustav Klimt , Koloman Moser , Richard Gerstl , Oskar Kokoschka , Egon Schiele , Fritz Wotruba , Maria Lassnig , Arnulf Rainer , Bruno Gironcoli , Franz West , Erwin Wurm and Heimo Zobernig .
In Vienna there are buildings from all architectural styles, from the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche to the Gothic St. Stephen's Cathedral , the Baroque Karlskirche , the High Baroque Jesuit Church and buildings from classicism to modern times .
Particularly noteworthy, however, is the architecture of the Wilhelminian era , which makes the former imperial city of Vienna seem like a single piece. It is precisely this that in former cities of the Danube Monarchy, such as Budapest or Prague or Lemberg in former Galicia, architecturally represents their affiliation to Austria-Hungary .
The art nouveau has also left its mark in Vienna: The Secession , the city railway station Karlsplatz and the Kirche am Steinhof by Otto Wagner rank among the world's most famous buildings of this era. In 1910, with the Kai-Palast , Austria's first high-rise office building in reinforced concrete was built.
Vienna has a long and great tradition as a venue and place of training for international architecture. The following architects come from here or studied here: Adolf Loos , Josef Hoffmann , Otto Wagner , Joseph Maria Olbrich , Josef Plecnik , Richard Neutra , Rudolph Michael Schindler , Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky , Friedrich Kiesler , Josef Frank , Coop Himmelb (l) au , Gustav Peichl , Günther Domenig , Hans Hollein and Luigi Blau .
One of the most popular tourist attractions is the Hundertwasser House by Friedensreich Hundertwasser , which is intended as a counter-model to the sober modern architecture. The Spittelau waste incineration plant was also artistically designed by Hundertwasser . Another example of extraordinary architecture is the Wotrubakirche (Church of the Most Holy Trinity ) by the sculptor Fritz Wotruba . The Viennese flak towers and the Viennese high spring water pipeline are also striking in the cityscape .
A number of districts have been redeveloped since the 1990s. Extensive construction projects were implemented around Donau City (north of the Danube) and on Wienerberg (in the south of Vienna). The 202 m high Millennium Tower on Handelskai was the tallest skyscraper ever built in Vienna between 1999 and 2014 and a sign of an architectural change in Vienna towards more self-confidence, but also conformity. In 2014 it was replaced by the 250 meter high DC Tower 1 .
In recent years, more and more old buildings have been combined with modern architecture, such as the revitalization of the gasometer in 2001, which attracted worldwide media interest. The Diva Award , created in 2002, honors courageous real estate projects that demonstrate the city's new self-confidence.
Compared to other metropolises, Vienna has a statistically low number of high-rise buildings . In 2006 there were around 100 structures over 40 meters high. The city administration is now focusing on quality over quantity, with the aim of preserving Vienna's natural spaces and the historical urban planning elements recognized as a world cultural heritage . Heated discussions arose repeatedly about planned high-rise projects that were to be implemented in the 1950s - for example, during the construction of the horticultural high-rise, the planning of which began in 1950 but could not be completed until 1963.
That is why Vienna has very strict guidelines for the planning, approval and construction of high-rise buildings. According to city planning, large parts of Vienna, especially in the inner districts, are exclusion zones in which no high-rise buildings may be built.
Only around 26% of the total area of Vienna can therefore be considered for high-rise planning. There, too, the structures must correspond to the urban development model, meet a number of requirements and must not impair any significant lines of sight . That is why new high-rise buildings are primarily being built in the outer districts, where there is still more design freedom and less urban planning features have to be taken into account.
- See also:
- Biology: Max Birnstiel , Kim Nasmyth , Renée Schroeder
- Computer science : Heinz Zemanek
- Engineering: Viktor Kaplan , Robert Adler
- Mathematics: Kurt Gödel
- Medicine: Ferdinand von Hebra , Karl Landsteiner , Carl von Rokitansky , Josef von Škoda , Julius Wagner-Jauregg , Robert Bárány , Ignaz Semmelweis , Theodor Billroth , Carl Koller
- Economics: Eugen Böhm von Bawerk , Ludwig von Mises , Friedrich August von Hayek , Austrian School , Rudolf Hilferding
- Social sciences: Otto Bauer , Max Adler , School of Austromarxism
- Philosophy: Laurenz Müllner , Karl Popper , Ludwig Wittgenstein , Paul Feyerabend , Moritz Schlick
- Psychology: Achievements in the medical fields and the various forms of psychotherapy are internationally recognized, e.g. B. Sigmund Freud , Alfred Adler , Erwin Ringel , Viktor Frankl , Harald Leupold-Löwenthal .
- Physics: Lise Meitner , Erwin Schrödinger , Wolfgang Pauli , Ludwig Boltzmann , Ernst Mach , Christian Doppler , Josef Stefan , Anton Zeilinger
- Law: Hans Kelsen , Karl Renner
- Sports Science: The Vienna Coordination Course (WKP) was created by Siegbert A. Warwitz in Vienna , a standard test in movement science and sports aptitude tests at numerous universities.
- Theology: Johannes Messner , founder of the “Vienna School” of natural law .
Vienna was an important center of medical research between the second quarter of the 18th and the second quarter of the 20th century. The first and second Viennese Medical School are the most important periods of medical teaching and research in Vienna. The beginning of the first medical school falls in the time of Maria Theresa and began under her personal physician Gerard van Swieten , who freed the universities from the influence of the Jesuits. Under him the first modern hospital in Vienna was founded in 1754 and subsequently in 1784 by Emperor Joseph II the first general hospital in the city of Vienna , which today serves as the University of Vienna's old general hospital as the humanities campus. The second medical school begins in the second half of the 19th century and is brought to a new bloom primarily through the teaching and research of the German surgeon Theodor Billroth , who comes to Vienna in 1867. After the First World War, medical research fell into a crisis and with the expulsion of 3,200 of the 4,900 doctors in Vienna in March 1938, the second medical school with the annexation of Austria to the National Socialist German Reich was finally over.
Since the 1990s, Vienna has successfully established itself as a location for the life sciences and biotechnology . Boehringer Ingelheim , for example, operates a large research center in the field of oncology and the Research Institute for Molecular Pathology (IMP) . In the 3rd district of Vienna , the Vienna BioCenter was built around the IMP , a spatial amalgamation of various research institutions and companies from the field of life sciences .
In the pharmaceutical sector, Vienna has successfully established itself as a location for pharmaceutical companies. Baxter International, for example, runs a large laboratory here.
Eating and drinking culture
Traditional Viennese cuisine is shaped by the earlier influences of immigrants from the regions and countries of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Due to the city's location near the border with Hungary and the former Bohemia, dishes from these countries are mainly on the menus. The goulash with its Viennese variants - the Viennese, Fiaker and Gypsy goulash - comes from Hungary. From Bohemia mainly came pastries how different strudel , Golatschen and pancakes and various dumplings variants . The Wiener Schnitzel and Tafelspitz are particularly popular .
The largest and most diverse market with permanent stalls is the Naschmarkt , where you can buy fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat and much more from all over the world. The Naschmarkt is considered to be Vienna's specialty market. The longest street market in Europe, however, is the Brunnenmarkt in Vienna's 16th district.
The cityscape of Vienna includes the sausage stands in lively areas , where various hot sausages and hot meat loaf can be found. As an alternative to the hot dog , the Bosner is often offered there. Meanwhile, kebabs are just as common .
Viennese coffee house
Another specialty of Viennese culture is the Viennese coffee house, in which small dishes are served in addition to a variety of coffee specialties . Many visitors take the opportunity to read the mostly abundant newspapers for hours during their visit . In addition to many newer, chrome-glittering, Italian-style espresso coffee bars, there are also many “real” Viennese coffee houses that have retained the original charm of this institution in terms of range, furnishings and style. The first coffee house in Vienna was opened in 1685 by a Greek named Johannes Theodat in his house on Haarmarkt, today Rotenturmstrasse 14.
Vienna is one of the few metropolises in the world with its own wine-growing region. This wine is served in Vienna in small pubs, so-called Heurigen , which are mainly concentrated in the wine-growing areas of Döbling ( Grinzing , Neustift am Walde , Nussdorf , Salmannsdorf , Sievering ), Floridsdorfs ( Jedlersdorf , Stammersdorf , Strebersdorf ) as well as Mauer and Oberlaa . The wine is often drunk as a spritz , a mixed drink made from white wine and soda or mineral water , whereby the mixing ratio can vary according to the season (summer or winter spritz).
Sub and youth culture
There is also an independent youth culture away from the mainstream in Vienna, although it has never got beyond a certain niche existence.
One of the oldest centers for youth and subculture is the Werkstätten- und Kulturhaus (WUK) on the site of the former Technological Trade Museum (TGM), which became a free culture and workshop house in the early 1980s. A large number of artistic events of all kinds still take place here today.
A well-known venue in the city for subcultural activities is the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus (EKH) , which was formerly owned by the KPÖ and occupied by autonomous people . In addition to various workshops , working groups, information and advice activities, concerts and parties with rock , punk or Tekno were also held there on a regular basis . The Volxtheaterkarawane also finds its home in the EKH. This meeting point is now owned by the City of Vienna.
Another center of youth and subculture is the Flex on the Danube Canal , which hosts international, cross-genre concerts and DJ events that are somewhere between pop and alternative music and can therefore refer to a largely young audience. Although it is located directly on the canal and therefore has no residents, there were violent protests from district politicians when it was established at the current location.
The arena is located on the site of the old slaughterhouse in Baumgasse , a formerly occupied area that is now an independent cultural center. Consisting of a large hall, a small hall, a three-room and a Beisl, concerts and parties take place here on a regular basis. In summer there are also a number of concerts and cinema screenings on the large open-air stage in the center of the arena .
The Viennese freetekno scene is largely unnoticed by the public because it is active underground . Only occasionally do sound systems organize publicly announced Tekno parties in well-known clubs. Most of the events take place in halls on the outskirts or just outside the city limits, in Lower Austria. The parties are announced to friends and close acquaintances by word of mouth or infolines .
(Selection of annual events, arranged chronologically in the course of the year)
- New Year's Concert by the Vienna Philharmonic , broadcast to 50 million listeners in 90 countries. Since 1939. (January 1st)
- Vienna Opera Ball , which is considered the social highlight of the Vienna ball season (November to February / March). Since 1935 (February)
- Summer night concert by the Vienna Philharmonic , with 100,000 people in attendance and broadcast in 80 countries. Since 2004. (May)
- Wiener Festwochen , international theater, music and performance festival . Founded in 1927/1951. (May June)
- Life Ball , the largest AIDS benefit event in Europe. Founded in 1992 until 2019 (May / June)
- Danube Island Festival , Europe's largest open-air music festival with three million visitors. Founded in 1984. (May June)
- Jazz Festival Vienna , international jazz festival. Founded in 1991. (June July)
- Film festival on Vienna's Rathausplatz , music film and gastronomy festival . Since 1991 (July / August)
- ImPulsTanz , international dance and performance festival. Founded in 1984. (July August)
- viennacontemporary , international art fair and curated_by, Viennese gallery festival. Founded in 2015 and 2009. (September)
- Viennale , international film festival. Founded in 1960. (October)
- Wien Modern , festival for new music . Established in 1988. (November)
- Vienna Christmas Dream (Christkindlmarkt on Rathausplatz) and other Christmas markets. Since 1764 (November / December)
- Hofburg New Year's Eve Ball and Vienna New Year's Eve Path through the old town. (December 31)
Viennese parks, forests and floodplain landscapes
Vienna has many different parks and is one of the cities in the world with the highest proportion of green space, which makes up half of the urban area. In the city center there are several parks whose history goes back to the 16th century and which are richly equipped with monuments and park buildings. These include the city park , the Burggarten adjoining the Hofburg , the Augarten and the Volksgarten . Of the baroque gardens of the suburban palaces, the palace gardens of Belvedere Palace with the botanical garden have been preserved almost in their original size. In addition to the large parks, there are numerous smaller parks, especially in the inner districts. These are colloquially called Beserlparks . Even cemeteries were converted into parks after the First World War (for example the Währinger Schubertpark ).
The largest park in Vienna is the Vienna Prater in Leopoldstadt . At 600 hectares, it is almost twice as large as Central Park in New York and three times as large as Berlin's Tiergarten . The former imperial hunting area, which still today consists largely of meadow landscapes, was given to the people by Joseph II in 1766. Around the green Prater, the exhibition grounds, where the 1873 World Exhibition took place, the Wurstelprater amusement park with its landmark, the Ferris wheel and the Ernst-Happel-Stadion (formerly Praterstadion), the largest football stadium in Austria, were built around the green Prater .
The 21.1 kilometer long and 200 meter wide Danube Island , which was built between 1972 and 1988 as flood protection, is also a popular local recreation area for the Viennese population. The Danube Island Festival takes place here once a year . Among other things, there is a large nudist swimming area here. A diverse local scene has also developed in the Reichsbrücke area .
In the west of the city, the foothills of the Vienna Woods sometimes extend far into the built-up areas of the outer districts. Here you can find the Lainzer Tiergarten , an extensive forest area (2500 hectares) with a rich game population. In the former imperial hunting area, in addition to the Hermesvilla hunting lodge, you can still find game today, with the wild boar in the Lainzer zoo in particular being very popular. The forests in the west are continued by the Viennese green belt in the south ( Wienerberg and Laaer Berg ), which was partially reforested. North of the Danube, in addition to the Donaupark , the Lobau in particular serves as a local recreation area. The floodplain area of the Danube is part of the Donau-Auen National Park .
Both sights and green oases are the Viennese cemeteries, which are considered places of relaxation and invite you to stroll. The central cemetery is not only famous for its honorary graves. There is also a Protestant cemetery, the new and old Jewish cemetery, an Islamic section, a Muslim-Egyptian section, as well as numerous orthodox sections and graves of anatomy. In spring 2019, two running routes were marked in the central cemetery. The Sankt Marxer Friedhof is also a popular area for walks. It was closed at the end of the 19th century and is now a park. Mozart and Josef Madersperger , one of the inventors of the sewing machine, were once buried in shaft graves here, which means that the exact location of their graves is not known today.
Vienna plays a central role in Austrian sports . Many new sports spread from here to all of Austria. Swimming is one of the favorite sports of the Viennese . Numerous swimming pools and natural waters are available for this, for example the Gänsehäufel , a sand island in the Old Danube.
The largest football stadium in Vienna, the Ernst Happel Stadium , with its 49,825 seats is used by the Austrian national team, among others. It is one of the most important football stadiums in Europe and has recently hosted the final of the European Cup (1987, 1990) and the Champions League (1995) three times . In 2008 the final and some other European championship games took place here.
In addition to team sports, there is a wide range of individual sports in Vienna. The paths in the Vienna Prater or on the Danube Island are popular as running routes . You can also train in the Ferry-Dusika-Hallenstadion . The Vienna City Marathon also takes place once a year . In addition to over 1,000 kilometers of cycling, there are numerous mountain bike trails in the Vienna mountains available to cyclists . Golf courses are available on the Wienerberg, for example.
There are also diverse offers for winter sports, which are very important in Austria. The City of Vienna operates two ski slopes on the former FIS Hohen-Wand-Wiese route and on the Dollwiese . From a snow depth of 20 cm, the city's sports office draws cross-country trails through the Prater, on the Danube Island, on Wienerberg , on the Steinhof grounds , in Schwarzenbergpark , on Cobenzl and in Maurer Wald . The route lengths range from 2.5 kilometers (on Wienerberg) to 12 kilometers (Danube Island). Because of the low snowfall and climate change, cross-country skiing was last possible in the city over a longer period in 2013. It was only in 2017 and 2018 that it was possible to use groomed trails for a few days.
By far the largest associations in Vienna are the Alpenverein Austria and Alpenverein Edelweiss , the Austrian Alpine Association , as well as the Austrian Mountain Association and the Austrian Tourist Club , which also have their headquarters in Vienna.
Football is very popular in Vienna. With the record champions SK Rapid Wien and the record cup winner Austria Wien there are two strongly rival clubs in the city. The SK Rapid has so far been in a European Cup final twice and was even able to become champions and cup winners. Austria also reached the European Cup final once and won the Mitropa Cup twice . The First Vienna , Austria's oldest football club, as well as the Wiener Sport-Club , which also celebrated great successes in the European Cup, are also of sport- historical value . Two of the predecessor clubs of VfB Admira Wacker Mödling (Wacker Wien and Admira Wien), who played in the south of the city , were also Viennese clubs. The dominance of the Viennese clubs is shown solely by the fact that with the LASK a team from the federal states could not become champions until 1965.
In addition to football clubs, there are numerous successful Viennese clubs in other sports. In ice hockey , the Vienna Capitals were Austrian champions in 2005 and 2017, as were the women’s EHV Sabers , who are Austrian record champions with thirteen championship titles. The footballers from Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna won the Eurobowl five times, most recently in 2013 . The Vienna Wanderers are five times Austrian national champions, most recently in 2015. The volleyball players of the aon hotVolleys are 18 times Austrian champions. The handball players of SG Handball West Vienna won the Austrian championship five times, those of Margareten Fivers won the championship twice.
On the Old Danube and the Danube there are a total of eleven different rowing clubs for fans of rowing . In Vienna there are three ordinary and four extraordinary member clubs of the Austrian Golf Association . As a fencing club especially is Wiener Sport-Club known.
Public bathing facilities
Probably the most famous public bathing facility in Vienna is the Gänsehäufel - an island on the Old Danube , which is entirely dedicated to bathing pleasure. Right next to it is the "Kleine Gänsehäufel", a peninsula on which there are several workers' baths that were opened during the time of the " Red Vienna ". Other public pools also come from “Red Vienna”, such as the children's outdoor pools or the Amalienbad in the 10th district. The Jörgerbad was opened in 1914 under a Christian Social Mayor . The Dianabad , which was closed in 2020, was even older and was initially only completed for the upper class in 1806. The 21 km long Vienna Danube Island , located between the New Danube and the Danube , and the bathing areas in the 21st and 22nd district on the northeast bank of the New Danube are also used for swimming .
For a long time Vienna's night life was determined by the night coffee houses, which are still popular today. In the 1980s, a lively Beisl scene developed in the Grätzl around Schwedenplatz and Ruprechtskirche , which is jokingly called the Bermuda Triangle , because many people are said to have disappeared there after a long night. In the 1990s, in the course of the renovation of the belt, numerous trendy bars were built in the former city railway arches , which are now an integral part of Viennese music and nightlife. Due to their central street location, the placement of these bars in the belt arches has the advantage of not causing additional noise pollution for the residents. In the 2010s, more and more cocktail bars emerged, especially in the first district and the surrounding streets. During the summer months, a good part of the nightlife shifts to pub gardens , for example in the Museum Quarter and the Old General Hospital , as well as in open-air restaurants, for example on the Danube Canal and on Danube Island.
- Jean-Paul Bled: Vienna. Residence, metropolis, capital. Böhlau, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-205-99077-3 .
- Christian Brandstätter u. a .: City Chronicle Vienna. 2000 years in data, documents and images. Brandstätter, Vienna and Munich 1986, ISBN 3-85447-229-3 .
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- Entry on the UNESCO World Heritage Center website ( English and French ).
- Official website of the City of Vienna
- Entry on Vienna in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Vienna gigapixel panorama (12,000 megapixels)
- Vienna Digital Library
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