Austrian Gallery Belvedere

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AustriaAustria  Austrian Gallery Belvedere
Federal Museum ; see Most visited sights in Viennap1
State level Federal level
legal form Scientific institution under public law
founding 1903
Headquarters Vienna 3rd , Prinz Eugen-Strasse 27
management Scientific Managing Director Stella Rollig (since January 16, 2017); Commercial Director Wolfgang Bergmann (since January 16, 2017)

The Österreichische Galerie Belvedere , called Belvedere for short since 2007 (outdated traditional pronunciation without an ending -e) , is an important art museum in Belvedere Palace in Vienna . In addition to the Lower and Upper Belvedere, Belvedere 21 , the Gustinus Ambrosi Museum and, until 2017, also the city ​​palace of Prince Eugene belong to this institution.

The Belvedere's art collection, which has grown over time, provides an overview of Austrian art development from the Middle Ages through the Baroque to the 21st century. One focus is on Austrian painters of the Fin de Siècle and Art Nouveau . The heart of the “Art around 1900” collection presented in the Upper Belvedere is the world's largest collection of Gustav Klimt paintings. Highlights are his golden pictures " The Kiss " (1908/09) and " Judith " (1901) as well as masterpieces by Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka . Prominent works of French Impressionism and the most important collection of Viennese Biedermeier are also part of the museum's repertoire.

Even in the time of Prince Eugen (1663–1736), an important general, art patron and collector, the two castles of his summer residence in the Belvedere were the storage places for numerous works of art. After the prince's death, parts of his collections and the castles came to the imperial house, which from 1781 had various parts of the imperial art collections set up there. In 1903 the state “Modern Gallery” was set up in the Lower Belvedere. After the end of the monarchy, the Lower and later the Upper Belvedere and the orangery became a museum. The Austrian Gallery Belvedere is now one of the Austrian federal museums and has been a fully legal “scientific institution” since 2000.

View from the Landstraßer Gürtel northwards, to the south side of the Upper Belvederes
View from the Upper Belvedere northwards (towards the city center) over the gardens and the Lower Belvedere

The imperial art collections in the Belvedere (1781–1891)

Vinzenz Fischer: Allegory of the transfer of the imperial gallery to the Belvedere , 1781 - Minerva , the goddess of wisdom, art and wise warfare, refers Joseph II to the Upper Belvedere.

After the imperial gallery in the Stallburg was already suffering from lack of space and many paintings could not be exhibited as a result, the regent Maria Theresa and her son, who later became Emperor Joseph II , decided in 1776 to move them to the Upper Belvedere. For this project and its implementation, the gallery director at the time, Joseph Rosa d. Ä. responsible. He already made a classification according to artistic schools, which was subsequently replaced by Christian von Mechel's reorganization .

In the Lower Belvedere was since the time of the Vienna Congress , the Ambras Collection to the public. Objects from the imperial collections of ancient and Egyptian art were also exhibited here. All of the works of art in the Belvedere palaces were ultimately brought to the newly built Art History Museum , which opened in 1891 .

History of the museum since 1903

Insight into the modern gallery in 1903
Egon Schiele : Portrait of Dr. Franz Martin Haberditzl, 1917

In 1903, the Imperial and Royal Ministry of Culture and Education opened the Modern Gallery in the Lower Belvedere. For years, numerous Austrian artists, above all Carl Moll with the Vienna Secessionists, had urged the establishment of a state museum for contemporary art. At the time of its opening in 1903, the Moderne Galerie already had its own collections; the foundation stone for this had been laid by the Secession with donations in previous years. The management of the modern gallery was initially taken care of by the ministry itself; it was not until 1909 that it received its first director in Friedrich Dörnhöffer, who promoted the acquisition of works of art from all eras. In 1912 the modern gallery was renamed the Imperial and Royal Austrian State Gallery. At this point in time, it already showed a representative cross-section of Austrian art from the Middle Ages to the present day and provided the basic structure of today's museum complex.

From 1915 until his impeachment in 1938, Franz Martin Haberditzl headed the museum and laid the foundation for the collection of major works of classical modernism with his clever acquisition policy. His term of office also included the expansion of the Austrian State Gallery to include both palaces and the reorganization of the former imperial collection by Hans Tietze .

After the end of the First World War and the establishment of the First Republic in November 1918, the museums in Vienna faced major problems. The former Hofärar , state owned directly managed by the imperial court, was found in late 1918 as the property of the Republic, the Habsburg family foundation (Fideikommiss) in Habsburg Law expropriated in 1919 in favor of the state. However, the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain obliged Austria to return collections that had once been in the possession of the former crown lands that did not belong to the new Republic of Austria. Therefore, some of the works of art in the Austrian State Gallery moved to other successor states of the monarchy. Since then, the Belvederes collection has barely contained any works by artists from the former countries of the Austrian half of the Dual Monarchy that became foreign countries in 1918.

The Austrian Gallery, as it was called from 1921, housed a baroque museum in the Lower Belvedere from 1923, the 19th century gallery in the Upper Belvedere from 1924 and a modern gallery in the orangery from 1929. Numerous important works were acquired, including paintings by Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele .

During the National Socialist regime, the Modern Gallery remained closed and the works of art were deposited, leaving the inventory of so-called “ degenerate ” works untouched. In 1943/44 the Baroque Museum and the 19th Century Gallery also closed in order to protect the valuable art collections.

After the Second World War , director Karl Garzarolli-Thurnlackh set up the Belvedere's medieval collection in the orangery at the Lower Belvedere in 1953. The Belvedere received the holdings for this collection from the Kunsthistorisches Museum and in return gave its collection of international art from the 19th and 20th centuries to the KHM.

In 1955, after years of reconstruction and renovation work, the Upper Belvedere was made accessible to the public again as a museum and the works of Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka and other important Austrian artists were shown. Important exhibitions (1958: Van Gogh, 1960: Gauguin, 1961: Cézanne) brought many visitors to the museum even then.

Since 1998, the new acquisitions from 1938 onwards have been checked by the provenance research of Belvederes and the Commission for Provenance Research. The more prominent a work is, however, the more tenacious the measures to return it to its rightful owners. (Klimt's portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I , the so-called golden Adele , which is now in New York, is an example of this .)

Museum operations after the Second World War were characterized by numerous new acquisitions, expansions and modernization measures. During the management of Gerbert Frodl (1991–2006) the Upper Belvedere was completely renovated (1991–1996). In 2000 the Belvedere, like all other federal museums, was given full legal capacity, but it remained the property of the state.

Directorates of the museum

Restructuring of the museum since 2007

2007–2016, Agnes Husslein-Arco, formerly director of the Salzburg Rupertinum and the Museum der Moderne on Mönchsberg , headed the museum. She positioned the Belvedere as a museum of Austrian art in an international context.

After extensive adaptation and renovation work, the main works of the collections of medieval art and the baroque (formerly in the Lower Belvedere) have been on view in the Upper Belvedere since spring 2008. The adapted rooms of the Lower Belvedere and the Orangery now offer space for special exhibitions. Furthermore, a display depot for the medieval holdings was set up in the former stables.

In 2011 Agnes Husslein-Arco presented the newly designed permanent collection in the Upper Belvedere. On November 15, 2011, the 21er Haus was reopened as a museum for the art of the 20th and 21st centuries. From November 2013 to November 2017, the Belvedere had another exhibition space in the center of Vienna, the Winter Palace of Prince Eugene ; this was then returned to the Federal Ministry of Finance .

During the management of Agnes Husslein-Arco, the number of visits to the Belvedere rose to over a million for the first time in 2012 (total number of visits in 2015: 1,266,620); by 2017 they rose to 1.427 million, in 2018 to 1.592 million.

For the purposes of the desire of the public, in managing their holdings, the two-man rule introduced, was established in July 2016 with the founding of the Vienna Museum Quarter active expert Dieter Bogner appointed as interim Chief Financial Officer. At the end of July 2016, the Chancellery Minister responsible for culture, Thomas Drozda , announced that he was planning a new structural, organizational and personnel constellation for the Belvedere .

The new line-up for the scientific-artistic and commercial management ( Stella Rollig , Wolfgang Bergmann ) was announced by Thomas Drozda on October 17, 2016. The assumption of office took place on January 16, 2017. In May 2017, the new management reported about the necessary changes.


middle Ages

The Belvedere's collection of medieval art includes around 220 works from Romanesque to early modern times. Her focus is on sculptures and panel paintings from the 14th to the early 16th century, which give a representative overview of the diversity and development of Gothic art in Austria.

The important early sculptures include the expressive Sonntagberger Madonna or the group of figures by the master von Großlobming from the period of the beautiful style around 1400. The fundamental change to early realism is impressively documented by the Viennese Albrechtsmeister and the Znojmo altar, whose passion reliefs are still the original , show detailed barrel painting. Major works of the following generations come from Conrad Laib , the Viennese Schottenmeister , Rueland Frueauf the Elder and the Younger , Michael Pacher , Marx Reichlich , Hans Klocker , Urban Görtschacher and numerous other masters from various regions, often not known by name. In Andreas Lackner's work, the new Renaissance image of man is already heralded. Since 2007, around 60 main works of the collection of medieval art have been on view in the Upper Belvedere, in the Medieval Treasury Depot in the former stables of the Belvedere, masterpieces of panel painting, sculptures and Gothic winged altars are gathered in a dense presentation. Including one of the earliest Austrian altars of this type: the Obervellacher Altar from around 1400. In addition to works by well-known masters such as Friedrich Pacher or Hans Klocker, there are numerous valuable works by mostly anonymous painters and sculptors. The time span extends from the Romanesque crucifix to the early 16th century, with the focus on late Gothic painting and sculpture.


Franz Anton Maulbertsch : The Holy Kinship , 1755
Paul Troger : The Apostle Andreas , around 1738

The history of the baroque collection is closely related to the collecting activities of the builder of the Belvedere palaces, Prince Eugene of Savoy . Individual paintings of this original equipment, such as pictures by Johann Georg de Hamilton or Franz Werner Tamm , have been preserved in the Belvedere's collection to this day. The baroque collection includes around 800 objects from painting and sculpture, but also from printmaking and medal art; it conveys an impressive picture of baroque art production in the areas of the former Habsburg monarchy. The 18th century in particular is represented by paintings and sculptures in an almost encyclopedic form. Here, in turn, special attention is paid to artists who were associated with the Vienna Academy as students or teachers.

The Belvedere has the world's largest inventory of works by two of these artistic personalities - Franz Anton Maulbertsch and Franz Xaver Messerschmidt . Maulbertsch's early work is characterized by intense colors and dramatic chiaroscuro, the sometimes grotesquely distorted faces in his works (to be found in Die Heilige Kippe , for example ) became his trademark. Due to his well-run workshop, he was able to complete many large orders in the area of ​​the former Danube monarchy. Franz Xaver Messerschmidt achieved great fame above all for his character heads, which, however, only form part of his work, which is characterized by technical brilliance. Apart from the excellent collection of character heads , the Belvedere also features the two monumental statues of Emperor Franz I Stephan and Maria Theresa, which represent further artistic highlights of his work.

In the permanent exhibition, a representative selection from the entire inventory provides an overview of the Baroque era in Austria. Here, the palace and museum can be experienced in wonderfully complementary form, for example in the room in front of the palace chapel, in which the model for the altarpiece by Francesco Solimena is presented, so that the design and execution can be seen side by side. Other works of Baroque sacred art by Paul Troger , Josef Ignaz Mildorfer and above all Martin Johann Schmidt , the so-called Kremser Schmidt, can also be admired here. Distinctive thematic focal points can be identified within the collection. Courtly portraits of the international virtuosos Jacob van Schuppen and Martin van Meytens , which show the social rank, the corresponding pose and the insignia as a sign of power in high absolutism, are juxtaposed with the bourgeois-private portraits of Jan Kupetzky , Christian Seybold or Franz Anton Palko . The works of Johann Georg Platzer or Franz Christoph Janneck demonstrate the festival, music and dance culture of the time. The refined still life painting includes scientifically inspired works by Johann Adalbert Angermayer or Franz Michael Siegmund von Purgau as well as the elaborate kitchen still lifes by Anna Maria Punz. Major works of religious and mythological history painting are the works of Johann Michael Rottmayr , Martino Altomonte , Paul Troger , Franz Anton Maulbertsch and Kremser Schmidt. Landscape painting was determined in the second half of the 18th century by the work of Johann Christian Brand .

Classicism - Romanticism - Biedermeier

Caspar David Friedrich : Rock landscape in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains , 1822–1823

The 19th century collection is by far the most extensive at the Belvedere, with the artistic development of the first half of the century in its path from the Classical period through the Romantic period to the development of Viennese Biedermeier painting can be almost completely documented on the basis of numerous works. The core of the collection goes back to the time of the Imperial Picture Gallery, which was open to the public in the Upper Belvedere from 1781. In the first half of the 19th century, works by Johann Knapp , Jakob and Rudolf von Alt , Heinrich Friedrich Füger , Friedrich Gauermann , Angelika Kauffmann , Anton Petter and the flower painter Franz Xaver Petter could already be seen in the Belvedere. The collection, which is primarily nationally oriented, has been continuously and selectively expanded since Franz Martin Haberditzl's management through the purchase of European works of art, such as works by Caspar David Friedrich or Jakob Philipp Hackert .

With works by Angelika Kauffmann, Heinrich Friedrich Füger and Johann Baptist Lampi, portrait painting spans the spectrum from the baroque-classical conception of portraits with English and French influences to François Gérard to the leading portrait painters of the Viennese Biedermeier period Friedrich von Amerling and Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller . History painting is represented by important works by a wide variety of artists: painters such as Heinrich Friedrich Füger, Anton Petter or Hubert Maurer clung to academicism well into the 19th century, others, such as Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld and Moritz von Schwind , showed in their works a romantic implementation of historical themes. In addition, an examination of contemporary events developed, which can be seen in the Belvedere, for example in the works of Jacques Louis David ( Napoleon on the Great St. Bernhard ) or Johann Peter Krafft . The collection of classicist sculptures consists of a small number of high-quality works, including Perseus and Andromeda by Franz Anton Zauner , Mars and Venus with Amor by Leopold Kissling and The Young Cupid by Johann Nepomuk Schaller .

The romantically oriented Luke Brothers or Nazarenes are represented in the Belvedere primarily through religious works (e.g. Johann Evangelist Scheffer von Leonhardshoff The St. Cäcilie , Joseph von Führich The Walk of Mary ), but also through pictorial implementations of romantic stories (e.g. Moritz von Schwind The beautiful Melusine ). The romantic landscape is represented by one of its main representatives, Joseph Anton Koch ( The great waterfall near Tivoli ), and shows a late aftermath in Biedermeier realism ( Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld The broad pine next to the Brühl near Mödling ). The realistic rendering of nature in painting that began in 1830 can be found in the works of Friedrich Loos , Franz Steinfeld , Friedrich Gauermann and Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller. The vedutas by Rudolf von Alt occupy a special position in landscape painting (e.g. St. Stephen's Cathedral , the port of Naples with Vesuvius ).

Still life reached a heyday in the Biedermeier period: After Flemish and Dutch models, magnificent pieces of flowers were created, which can be seen in the Belvedere in works by Franz Xaver Petter , Josef Lauer and Joseph Nigg . In addition, an increasing interest in botany is documented among some artists of the time (Johann Knapp homage to Jacquin “Jacquin's monument” ).

The Biedermeier era was best presented in genre painting. Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller should also be mentioned here ( Corpus Christi morning , early spring in the Vienna Woods ), who, like Johann Matthias Ranftl and Friedrich Gauermann, devoted himself to the rural genre representation. Josef Danhauser concentrated in his representations on the representatives of the bourgeoisie, while Peter Fendi preferred to document incidents from the lives of simple people ( Die Lauscherin , Die Pfändung ). Fendi's pupils Carl and Albert Schindler and Friedrich Treml are the most important representatives of the so-called soldier genre . Michael Neder's paintings , whose scenes from the life of the population of the Viennese suburbs are of realistic directness, occupy a special position . Works by Franz Eybl , Erasmus Engert and Eduard Ritter round off the collection.


The Belvedere houses the largest and most important collection of historicist paintings in Austria . Portrait busts, equipment pictures and painted portraits bear testimony to the high need for representation of the wealthy upper class of the so-called Ringstrasse era and are extensively presented in the Upper Belvedere.

It was primarily Hans Makart who had a major impact on life in Vienna as an artist for 15 years. His sensual, intoxicating painting impresses with its technical bravura, which he also liked to show publicly at studio parties. Basically all of his works - including the outstanding portraits Magdalena Plach (1870) and Eugenie Scheuffelen (1867) - are to be understood as effective productions. Makart's allegories The Five Senses (1872–1879) or his monumental painting Bacchus and Ariadne (1873/74) also correspond to this opulence . It also belongs to the group of sensational pictures such as the Nile Hunt (1876) or Venice pays homage to Caterina Cornaro (1872/73) . The latter combines historical reality with a fictional magnificence of images and the staging of bourgeois self-portrayal in an exemplary manner.

In addition to Makart, the Viennese painter Hans Canon , who lived in southern Germany for a long time, was able to establish himself independently in Vienna after his return. The Belvedere owns works from all creative periods of his life (e.g. Girl with a Parrot (1876) , The Victory of Light over Darkness (1883/84) ). Another painter who was represented with important works in the Belvedere and was internationally acclaimed in his day is Anselm Feuerbach from Speyer . His subjects are often mythological (e.g. Orpheus and Eurydice (1869) ) and, in contrast to Makart's paintings, contain a strict structure in a restrained color scheme. While Makart and Feuerbach turned away from the narrative history picture, Anton Romako changed it by interpreting crucial situations psychologically ( Tegetthoff in the sea battle of Lissa I (1878–1880) ). In addition, Romako's portraits are not only characterized by a high degree of psychologization, but also by an idiosyncratic application of painterly techniques for the time (e.g. Italian fisherman's child (1870/75) ). The interest in the Orient that began in the middle of the 19th century is impressively manifested in the works of Leopold Carl Müller ( Der Markt in Kairo (1878) ), but also in the works of Alois Schönn and Emanuel Stöckler . Paintings by the history painter Franz Defregger , the landscape painter Anton Hansch , Ludwig Halauska and Carl Hasch as well as works by Franz von Stuck , Karl Spitzweg and Arnold Böcklin round off the historicism collection.

Realism - Impressionism - International Modernism

The important inventory of European modern art in the Belvedere has its roots in the purchase of contemporary art by the Imperial and Royal Ministry for Cultus and Education , which acquired works of art for the modern gallery, which was only founded in 1903, as early as 1851. Works by Jean-François Millet ( The Plain of Chailly with Harrow and Plow (1862) ) and Auguste Renoir ( After Bathing (1876) ) as well as Édouard Manet's Lady in Fur (1880), Claude Monet's The Cook (1882) , Gustave Courbet's Wounded Man (around 1866) or Edgar Degas' bronze bust of a woman, rising out of the bath (1896/1911) .

The collection of works of realism at the Belvedere, whose main Austrian representative was August von Pettenkofen (e.g. The Pumpkin Garden (1862) , Hay Wagon in Szolnok (1867) ), includes outstanding works by Carl Schuch ( clearing near Purkersdorf (1872) ), Wilhelm Trübner ( Caesar am Rubicon ), Emil Jakob Schindler ( The steamship station on the Danube opposite Kaisermühlen (around 1871/1872)), Olga Wisinger-Florian , Tina Blau ( Spring in the Prater (1882)) and Theodor von Hörmann . Even Carl Moll's early works are attributable to that circle. Important works by the Berlin Secessionists Max Liebermann , Max Slevogt and Lovis Corinth can also be seen in the Upper Belvedere.

Vienna around 1900

The department of Viennese art around 1900 is perceived as the best-known part of the Belvedere's collections both in Austria and abroad. Many works from this era go back to the museum's beginnings as a modern gallery . Significant donations from the Secession to the Moderne Galerie , founded in 1903 , such as the Auvers Plain (1890) by Vincent van Gogh , the bust of Henri de Rochefort-Luçay (1897) by Auguste Rodin and The Bad Mothers (1894) by Giovanni Segantini , were at Beginning of the now internationally renowned collection from the early 20th century. The collection and presentation concept of integrating Austrian art into the international context also goes back to the Secession, so that the visitor can find the works of internationally outstanding artists in addition to the highlights of local artists. The collections of the Belvedere today comprehensively present Viennese art from the turn of the 19th to the 20th century and also present the European context to a large extent through significant examples of extraordinary quality.

Reference can only be made to a few examples in this context: Paintings by the Belgian symbolist Fernand Khnopff ( Unmoved Water (1894) ), the Norwegian Edvard Munch ( The painter Paul Hermann and the doctor Paul Contard (1897) ) by the German symbolists Arnold Böcklin ( Meeresidylle (1887) ), Franz von Stuck ( Lost (1891) ) and Max Klinger ( Judgment of Paris (1885–1887) ) found their way into the Belvedere's collection, as did important works by all renowned Austrian artists of the time. With Koloman Moser , Wilhelm Bernatzik , Carl Moll , Josef Engelhart , Karl Mediz and Max Kurzweil , just a few of the most important names should be mentioned.

With a total of 24 works - portraits, landscapes and allegorical representations - the Belvedere has the world's largest collection of oil paintings by the most important Austrian painter Gustav Klimt . As co-founder of the Vienna Secession and organizer of the 1908 Art Show and the International Art Show the following year, Klimt was largely responsible for the breakthrough of the international avant-garde in Vienna. The Belvedere collection shows Klimt's development from his first engagement with historicism through Secession art to his late work, which processed the influences of the Fauves and the younger generation of Austrian artists such as Egon Schiele. In the Upper Belvedere, Klimt's world-famous portraits of women are exhibited, the stylistic development of which ranges from the early portrait of Sonja Knips (1898) to Fritza Riedler (1906), which is a refined example of strict flat art, to the unfinished portrait of Johanna Staude (1917/18) . With the depiction of Judith I (1901) Klimt created one of his most famous portraits of women. Klimt's allegorical-symbolic works, the best known of which is the monumental icon of Viennese Art Nouveau, The Kiss (Lovers) (1908), as well as his outstanding landscape paintings such as Blooming Poppy (1907), Sunflower (1907) and Allee zum Schloss Kammer (1912) can be found in the Permanent collection to be admired. Klimt's world-famous Beethoven frieze (1901), one of the most important works of art of the Viennese Art Nouveau, is on permanent loan from the Belvedere to the Vienna Secession .


After the breakup of the Vienna Secession, the younger generation - above all Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka - ushered in a new era. The extensive and important collection of expressionist art at the Belvedere, the greater part of which represents Austrian art of the time, is completed by a small, concentrated collection of major works of international art. Austria enriched Expressionism with its own, clearly distinguishable variant. If the artists in Germany and France used pure colors as a medium of expression, in Austria they glazed refined color surfaces with areas of light and shadow. While the gaze of German artists kept revolving around city life, the Austrians kept returning to their own state of mind.

Alongside Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele is one of the most important visual artists of Viennese modernism, with 18 works in the Belvedere's collection. Schiele developed his own unmistakable formal language during his time at the Vienna Art Academy. Based on the art of Art Nouveau, he combined an ornamental structure with broken lines and expressive colors, such as the portrait of Eduard Kosmack (1910) vividly illustrated. Schiele's paintings are famous for their passion and their impartial approach to the sexuality of men and women. One of the key works in Schiele's oeuvre is undoubtedly The Embrace from 1917, which can be seen in the Upper Belvedere. Schiele's portraits, figure pictures and landscapes often move in the thematic field of tension between love and loneliness, life and death. The motif of growth and decay as a recurring theme in his work is particularly impressive in the depiction of the sunflowers (1911).

The second main representative of early expressionism in Austria is Oskar Kokoschka. With twelve oil paintings, five of which are portraits, the Belvedere has an excellent collection of his works. In Kokoschka's early portraits, the intention was already evident to turn the inner state of the portrayed outward and not to deal with the usual demands of a portrait ( Der Maler Carl Moll (1913), Fred Goldmann (1909)). Kokoschka's numerous trips and long stays abroad were reflected in his city portraits such as that of the Port of Prague (1936). Particularly noteworthy in the Belvedere collection is the idiosyncratic portrait of a tiger tiger lion (1926), in which the artist succeeded in depicting the force, power and majesty of that animal. Important works from his later creative period are also represented in the collection, such as the monumental Herodotus (1963), which has grown from layer to layer over the years and lets the artist's face flash in Herodotus' facial features.

Richard Gerstl, who died young, can also be seen as a great innovator. He ignored Art Nouveau and independently found a way to gestural expressionism ( Professor Ernst Diez (1907); Self-Portrait, Laughing (1908)). Max Oppenheimer used elements of Cubism at an early stage and later continued them in his work Das Orchester, begun in 1935 .

The outstanding examples of German Expressionism in the Belvedere include works by members of the artists' association Die Brücke such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner ( Die Klosterser Berge ), Max Pechstein and Emil Nolde, as well as portraits of Alexej Jawlensky from Russia, who was close to the Blauer Reiter . Both groups were always looking for new, artistic means of expression. He found the inspiration for his strong color combinations in Russian folk art and among French Fauvists such as Henri Matisse, as the portrait of a lady (1908) shows. The slender bust of the Kneeling (1913) by the sculptor Wilhelm Lehmbruck shows a high degree of expressive internalization and vividly illustrates the artist's proximity to Expressionism. One of the most important sculptors of the 20th century in Austria is undoubtedly Anton Hanak. His work, influenced by Lehmbruck, ranges from small-format figure sketches to monumental facade figures and monuments.

Between the wars and art after 1945

The collapse of the Habsburg monarchy also led to a cultural upheaval. The loss of a large part of the previous territory of Cisleithania and the death of such important artists as Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser and Egon Schiele led to a major turning point in Austrian art production. Vienna had to give up its primacy as a European art metropolis to other major European cities. This development promoted strong decentralization in the new, small Austria, which led to the diversity of individual, often contradicting forms of art of the Austrian interwar period.

Many of the great talents now came from the Alpine countries of Austria, which had hardly emerged in this regard. The Belvedere has a comprehensive and important collection from the interwar period, which is complemented by some major works from the international avant-garde.

The hallmark of the time was the simultaneous existence of different styles which, viewed individually, produced phenomena of considerable importance. The focus was on the renewed engagement with Expressionism, which was accompanied by many artists' reception of Cézanne's ideas. One of the most important representatives of this Expressionism, characterized by a return to elementary color, was Herbert Boeckl , who is represented with a number of central works in the Belvederes collection (e.g. Parisian Self-Portrait , 1923, Johannes Lindner (White Portrait) , 1919). In addition to Boeckl, Anton Faistauer from Salzburg was one of the outstanding artists of his time ( wedding roses I and lady in white blouse , both in 1913).

Among the Austrian artist associations, the Nötsch district in Carinthia, which owned the painters Anton Kolig ( The Artist's Family , 1928), Franz Wiegele ( Isepp family portrait , 1927/28), Sebastian Isepp and Anton Mahringer , gained special importance.

In contrast to the gestural-plastic painting of the Expressionists, the New Objectivity stood with the greatest possible precision and smoothness of representation. The most important Austrian representatives of this direction include Rudolf Wacker , Hans Ploberger, Marie-Louise von Motesiczky and Franz Sedlacek . Franz Lerch ( Girl with Hat , 1929) occupies a position between Expressionism and New Objectivity. The art of Albert Paris Gütersloh and Oskar Laskes ( Das Narrenschiff , 1923) is rooted in Vienna around 1900 , even if the majority of their oeuvres from the interwar period can be credited.

In the first three decades of the 20th century, many Austrian artists left the country because they expected better working conditions and career opportunities abroad, for example in the United States or France.

From 1938 the National Socialist dictatorship forced many artists into exile, including Max Oppenheimer, Joseph Floch, Franz Lerch, Wolfgang Paalen , Hans Boehler, Fritz Wotruba and Georg Ehrlich . The emigrated or refugee artists encountered fresh impulses abroad, and so new networks were formed - many of their works can be seen in the collection of the 20th century in the Belvedere.

In addition to the predominant expressive color painting in Austria, which includes the late work of Herbert Boeckl ( Fliegender Specht , 1950), the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism emerged after the Second World War . This variant of surrealist painting was shaped by Albert Paris Gütersloh, co-founder of the Art Club .

Like hardly any other direction in Austrian art after 1945, the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism has also achieved great international recognition. Important representatives of this trend are Ernst Fuchs , Friedensreich Hundertwasser , Arik Brauer , Rudolf Hausner , Wolfgang Hutter and Anton Lehmden , who are represented in the Belvedere with numerous works from their early creative phases.

In addition to the fantastic realists, the abstracts formed an important group of the artistic avant-garde in Austria. Abstract Expressionism and Art Informel were focal points in the art of Western Europe and the United States.

In Vienna, from the early 1950s, the group around Otto Mauer's Galerie next St. Stephan formed a center for informal painting; the painters Josef Mikl , Wolfgang Hollegha , Arnulf Rainer and Markus Prachensky belonged to it. The painter Maria Lassnig took her own path of figural reduction , who in her early work created figurative representations that are split up into cubistically dismantled areas of color.

Contemporary Arts

The collection for contemporary art of the Belvedere presents trends and developments in Austrian art since 1970. The collection currently comprises a core inventory of approx. 1,100 works by Austrian and international artists, which are supplemented by permanent loans that have been acquired for the house in the long term fill important gaps in the collection. This collection serves as the basis for an intensive scholarly analysis of Austrian art in the international context of the 20th and 21st centuries, and with the opening of the 21er Haus, now Belvedere 21, has received new impulses to further expand collection activities in the field of contemporary art .

Since the mid-1960s there has been a differentiation within art production and its traditional genres. For example, Bruno Gironcoli and Roland Goeschl no longer resorted to bronze or stone as a material, but to plastic as a material and the designation "object" and "process" rather than sculpture. The picture, on the other hand, peeled off the frame. In the artistic movement of the Informel, artists like Markus Prachensky and Hans Staudacher acted spontaneously and by chance.

In actionism, the body itself became the image carrier and Günter Brus and Rudolf Schwarzkogler projected the injuries to the screen onto themselves. Their actions were conceived for the moment and archived through documenting media. By examining their own body as a projection surface, VALIE EXPORT , Birgit Jürgenssen and Maria Lassnig , for example , set their sights on socially critical patriarchal gaze and assessment systems. Franz West has been examining the hegemonic modes of expression and media terms in the art field since the 1970s. With his “fitting pieces” the dialogue with the viewer becomes an integral part of the work.

While Austria's art in the 1970s made important contributions to conceptual and media art, for example with Gottfried Bechtold , Valie Export and Peter Weibel , panel painting was again present in the following decade. Alois Mosbacher , Hubert Schmalix and Otto Zitko quickly produced whitewashed, expressive motifs.

In a critical reflection on the art of the 20th century the artists languages and speech forms that deal with traditional art forms and expressive tendencies as well as with developing concept art , Minimal Art , with activism and performance art , architecture and design. The younger generation of Austrian artists is represented in the collection through works such as B. represented by and gelatin, Brigitte Kowanz , Lois Renner , Rudolf Stingel , Lois Weinberger and Otto Zitko. At the beginning of the 1990s, the institutional prerequisites were increasingly discussed again. For Marcus Geiger, Gerwald Rockenschaub and Heimo Zobernig , the framework conditions for the exhibition presentation (such as the display, catalog, inventory) became the starting point for their artistic exploration. Postcolonial issues, xenophobic and gender-related patterns in the social and art system were addressed by artists such as Carola Dertnig , Ines Doujak , Dorit Margreiter and Lisl Ponger .

The youngest generation is particularly well represented in the contemporary art collection, as collection activity has been intensified at the beginning of the new millennium. Some names should be mentioned with Anna Artaker, Verena Dengler, Manuel Gorkiewicz, Franz Kapfer, Elke Silvia Krystufek , Michael Part, Mathias Poledna , Florian Pumhösl , Constanze Ruhm , Hans Schabus , Markus Schinwald , Fabian Seiz and Esther Stocker .

Since developments in Austrian art always take place in an international context and are also shown in this way at the Belvedere, the Belvedere also acquires relevant works by international artists as part of the artist-in-residence program and in connection with thematic group exhibitions. These include, for example, Monika Baer, Keren Cytter , Roza El Hassan, Julian Göthe, Marcin Maciejowski , David Maljkovic, Jonathan Monk , Monika Schwitte and Amelie von Wulffen .

Thanks to important long-term lenders, the collection also has works by international greats such as Richard Artschwager , Marcel Broodthaers , Dan Graham , Sherrie Levine , Paul McCarthy , Gerhard Richter and Rosemarie Trockel .

Locations and exhibitions

Upper Belvedere

Sala Terrena in the Upper Belvedere

The Upper Belvedere houses the most important collection of Austrian art from the Middle Ages to the 20th century.

  • Ground floor: West wing: Middle Ages, East wing: Classical modernism and the interwar period
  • 1st floor: West wing: Art around 1900 / Vienna 1880–1914, East wing: Baroque and early 19th century
  • 2nd floor: West wing: Realism and Impressionism, East wing: Classicism - Romanticism - Biedermeier

The focus of art around 1900 is the world's largest collection of Gustav Klimt paintings, the presentation of the entire collection in the form of the anniversary exhibition 150 Years of Gustav Klimt (2012/13) was a special highlight. In addition to the collections, regular presentations of the exhibition series “Masterpieces in Focus” and “Interventions” take place.

Since 2007 domestic and foreign artists have been invited to deal with the museum's collection as well as the architecture and history of the house with specially developed, site-specific works. Interventions by Brigitte Kowanz (2007), Karen Kilimnik (2010), Tillman Kaiser (2010), Marko Lulić (2010/11) and most recently Lisa Oppenheim / Agnieszka Polska (2012) have already been implemented. These interventions are intended to open up new, unusual perspectives on the historical.

In July 2016, the installation F Lotus by Ai Wei Wei was opened in the pond using life jackets by refugees. Two of his lion figures are already in the garden, a paper figure is hanging in the room, and an exhibition in what is now Belvedere 21 was opened in July 2016.

Lower Belvedere, orangery and magnificent stables

Garden side of the Lower Belvedere

In the premises of the Lower Belvedere, temporary exhibitions are shown, among the highlights of which are the major exhibitions Gustav Klimt and the 1908 Art Show (2008), Prince Eugen - General, Philosopher and Art Lover (2010) and Gustav Klimt / Josef Hoffmann. Modern pioneers (2011/12) counted. The orangery, which has been adapted to a modern exhibition hall, is also used for various presentations. The “Treasure House Middle Ages” display depot in Prince Eugene's former stables next to the Lower Belvedere presents numerous objects of sacred medieval art. In spring 2014, the museum gained another presentation option for smaller temporary exhibitions with the exhibition space in the “Spitzhof” of the Lower Belvederes in the immediate vicinity of Schwarzenbergplatz .

Belvedere 21, previously 21er Haus

21 house with the "Wild Cube" by Lois Weinberger

The building by Karl Schwanzer , which was built as the Austria pavilion for the 1958 World Exhibition in Brussels, was then rebuilt in the Schweizergarten near the Belvedere and served for decades as the Museum of the 20th Century ( 20er Haus ). After the revitalization and adaptation according to the plans of Adolf Krischanitz , it was reopened in November 2011 by the Belvedere as the 21er Haus - Museum for contemporary art. The house has been called Belvedere 21 since the beginning of 2018 .

The house sees itself as a place of artistic production, reception and reflection. The focus is on Austrian art of the 20th and 21st centuries and their embedding in an international context. On the upper floor, the Belvedere's collection of art from 1945 is shown in changing presentations. In the 21 room mirrored by Nadim Vardag, individual presentations by artists living and working in Austria and Artists in Residence des Belvederes take place every six weeks. The exhibitions on the occasion of the BostonConsulting & BelvedereContemporary Art Awards have also been shown here since 2013.

In the open hall on the ground floor, changing exhibitions are presented, including large solo exhibitions by Hans Schabus, the artist collective Gelatin and Ursula Mayer. The sculpture garden, facing the Schweizergarten, and Wotruba in the 21er Haus with its own exhibition room and the depot of the artist's estate in the basement complement the extensive program of the house.

With the Blickle cinema, the Belvedere 21 houses the only completely preserved 1950s cinema in Vienna. All facets of today's film and video making are presented and put up for discussion in the presence of filmmakers, curators and program designers. The art book salon in the foyer is a 1: 1 model of a bookstore. The location, designed by Bernhard Cella , is the first museum shop in the world to be run as an artistic intervention. Belvedere 21 also houses the Artothek des Bundes, whose works regularly enrich the museum's collection presentations and exhibitions.

In 2001 the Belvederes' Artist in Residence program was initiated and an apartment with a studio was built in Augarten Contemporary. Since then, foreign artists have been invited to Vienna to develop and present work, to get to know the Austrian art scene and to enter into dialogue with it. Artists such as Jakob Kolding, Jonathan Monk, Róza El-Hassan, Ann-Sofi Sidén, Yoshitomo Nara, Hiroshi Sugito, Ugo Rondinone, Silke Otto-Knapp, Julian Göthe and Gülsün Karamustafa were active as part of the program at the Belvedere.

Winter palace of Prince Eugene

Ernst Graner, Winter Palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna, watercolor on cardboard, 63 × 44 cm, 1910

From November 2013 to autumn 2017, the former state rooms of Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Winter Palace (historically usually referred to as the City Palace) were used by the Belvedere as a museum. With the autumn exhibition in his first residence in Vienna, the life of Prince Eugene was to become tangible through selected exhibits. In addition to the architecture of the city palace, the former collections of the Prince and those of the Belvedere were central points of departure. After the 2017 exhibition season, the premises were again taken over by the Ministry of Finance.

Ambrosi Museum and Augarten Contemporary

The building complex in the northeastern part of the Augarten, which houses the Augarten Contemporary and the Gustinus Ambrosi Museum, was conceived as a museum, studio and residence for the artist Gustinus Ambrosi and built by Georg Lippert between 1953 and 1957 .

In the Augarten Contemporary, formerly Atelier Augarten, exhibitions of contemporary art have been held since 2001. The hall with slanting north windows and large volumes in the middle of an English garden hosted exhibitions such as Bert Neumann , BC21 Art Award BostonConsulting & Belvedere Contemporary , Constantin Luser , Ouyang Chun and VALIE EXPORT: Serien .

From 2012 to 2017 the Augarten Contemporary was played by TBA21. The Belvedere has agreed with TBA21 and Francesca Habsburg to use the Augarten Contemporary from 2012, initially for three years, under the name Thyssen-Bornemisza Augarten Contemporary . With the opening of the new museum, the Belvedere has focused its contemporary program on today's Belvedere 21.

The museum dedicated to the sculptor Gustinus Ambrosi (1893–1975) has been open to the public as part of the Belvederes collection since autumn 1978 and houses bronze and stone sculptures. The original installation was based on the artist's concept. The State Atelier in the Prater, which was awarded to Ambrosi in 1913, was destroyed in the Second World War. After Ambrosi's death, the artistic and documentary estate (correspondence, diaries, photographs) was taken over by the Belvedere on behalf of the Republic of Austria. In 2018/2019, the further use of Gustinus Ambrosi's former studio space is open.

Herbert Boeckl's studio

The work of the Austrian artist Herbert Boeckl spans an arc from the time of the First World War to the 1960s. In addition to portraits, landscapes, nudes and still lifes, Boeckl created a variety of original motifs. From 1928 until his stroke in 1964, the artist worked in his Vienna studio at Argentinierstrasse 42 in the fourth district. His workplace is still in its original state, just as the artist left it. Easels, old tubes of paint, brushes, books and other painting utensils such as furnishings can be seen in situ. The furniture and the painting utensils have been carefully restored and give an impressive insight into the working world of this important painter.

The studio has been part of the Belvedere since June 2014 and is open to the public on request.


Research Center

The Belvedere sees one of its main tasks in researching Austrian art history and in enabling research in art history. With the Research Center, which opened in 2009, the Belvedere has a competence and research center for Austrian art. It combines the departments archive and documentation, library, image archive / reproductions, digital archive and the institute for the creation of catalog raisonnés, founded in 2010, and can thus create effective synergies between the vers. Achieve areas and appeal to a wider audience. The Research Center houses extensive collections on the art and art history of Austria. In addition to the core tasks of collecting, preserving and researching, one of its central tasks is to convey results relevant to art history and to make them accessible to the public.

The collections of the archive include, among other things, the house archive of the Belvedere from 1903, extensive documentation on around 20,000 artists as well as numerous estates and partial estates from important, mainly Austrian, artists. In the library, around 120,000 media units (books, magazines and new media) are available as reference holdings for those interested in art. The focus of the collection is on the history of art in Austria from the Middle Ages to the present day, with a special focus on "Art around 1900" and international exhibitions. The library also includes literature on the history of the Belvedere and a large collection of historical and current auction catalogs and periodicals. The picture archive collects and archives around 25,000 picture media on the Belvedere and its art collection as well as on Austrian art and manages the picture rights for the works of art owned by the Belvedere.

Curator in Residence

The curator-in-residence program was aimed at curators worldwide from 2012 to 2017. The aim was to support scientists who worked on the collection and research focus of the Belvedere / 21er Haus. The spectrum of research topics ranged from Austrian art from the Middle Ages to contemporary art production in an international context.

Completed research projects (selection)

International network Hagenbund (1918 to 1938)

Together with the Secession and the Künstlerhaus, the Hagenbund was one of the three major artists' associations that determined the art and cultural life of Vienna until the beginning of the Second World War. The aim of the research project, which will be carried out from April 2013 to April 2015, is a comprehensive presentation of the artistic relationships within the Hagenbund, but also the networking of the Hagenbund artists with other institutions, critics, journalists, exhibition organizers and cultural politicians in Vienna and across Europe. The detailed representation of these connections should enable the clarification of the question, why at certain times individual art movements such as expressionism, new objectivity, magical realism or abstraction come to the fore.

Updated biographies of the individual members as well as the most complete presentation of the exhibition history and the activities of the Hagenbund should shed new light on a significant part of Austrian art history.

Art reception in the “Neue Freie Presse” from 1901 to 1910

The aim of the research project is to make all art-historically relevant content of the Austrian daily newspaper “ Neue Freie Presse ” for the period 1901 to 1910 - one of the most important decades for Austrian art, cultural and intellectual history - available to research and thus to the public more adequately Way to make it accessible. Since print media were the most important information carriers for the reception of visual arts in the project-relevant period, the in-depth exploration of the most influential daily newspaper in the period concerned is an urgent desideratum of Austrian art history research and should significantly improve the research situation of this period. After completion of the project, the research results will be available in a clear and fully searchable form via a dedicated user interface on the Belvedere website. The period for this research project ran from October 1, 2013 to September 31, 2015.

Catalog raisonnés

The Belvedere contributes to research on Austrian artists and their oeuvres through the institute for the creation of catalog raisonnés. In the institute affiliated with the Research Center, intensive work is being carried out on the creation and publication of numerous catalog raisonnés on artists of all art movements, from baroque to contemporary art.


Exhibition catalogs

  • Gustav Klimt and the artist company  ; Belvedere Vienna, June 20 - October 2, 2007. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Alfred Weidinger. - Weitra, 2007. ISBN 978-3-85252-856-4 .
  • Gartenlust: the garden in art  ; Belvedere Vienna, March 22nd - June 24th 2007. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco. - Vienna, 2007. ISBN 978-3-85033-051-0 ISBN 978-3-85033-052-7 .
  • Vienna - Paris: Van Gogh, Cézanne and Austria's Modernism 1880 - 1960  ; Belvedere Vienna, October 3, 2007 - January 13, 2008. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco. - Vienna, 2007. ISBN 978-3-85033-107-4 ISBN 978-3-901508-35-6 .
  • Gustav Klimt and the art show 1908  ; Belvedere Vienna, October 1, 2008 - January 18, 2009. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Alfred Weidinger. - Munich [ua], 2008. ISBN 978-3-7913-4225-2  ; ISBN 978-3-7913-6225-0 .
  • Herbert Boeckl  ; Belvedere Vienna, October 21, 2009 - January 31, 2010. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco. - Weitra, 2009. (Catalog. H. Boeckl pp. 335–396) ISBN 978-3-900000-21-9 ISBN 978-3-901508-73-8 .
  • 150 years of Gustav Klimt  ; Belvedere Vienna, July 13, 2012 - January 6, 2013. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Alfred Weidinger. - Vienna, 2012. ISBN 978-3-901508-92-9 .
  • The Night in the Twilight: Art from Romanticism to Today  ; Belvedere Vienna, October 24, 2012 - February 17, 2013. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco; Brigitte Borchhardt-Birnbaumer u. Harald Krejci. - Munich [ua], 2012. ISBN 978-3-7913-5259-6 , ISBN (Engl.) 978-3-7913-6446-9.
  • Formalization of the landscape: Hölzel, Mediz, Moll and others  ; Belvedere Vienna, May 28th - September 8th 2013. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Alexander Klee. - Munich, 2013. ISBN 978-3-902805-19-5 .
  • Baroque since 1630  ; Belvedere Vienna, February 27 - June 9, 2013. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco; Georg Lechner u. Alexander Klee. - Vienna, 2013. ISBN 978-3-902805-15-7 .
  • Gironcoli. Context: Andre, Bacon, Barney, Beuys, Bourgeois, Brus, Klauke, Nauman, Schwarzkogler, West  ; Belvedere Vienna, July 12th - October 27th 2013. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Bettina M. Busse. Nuremberg, 2013. ISBN 978-3-902805-22-5 ISBN 978-3-86984-437-4 .
  • Hundertwasser, Japan and the avant-garde  ; Belvedere Vienna, March 6 - June 30, 2013. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco; Harald Krejci u. Axel Koehne. - Munich, 2013. ISBN 978-3-7774-2043-1 ISBN 978-3-7774-2044-8.
  • Decadence. Positions of Austrian symbolism  ; Belvedere Vienna, June 20 - October 13, 2013. Published by Agnes Husslein-Arco et al. Alfred Weidinger. - Vienna, 2013. ISBN 978-3-902805-30-0 ISBN 978-3-902805-24-9 .
  • Emil Nolde. In glow and color  ; Belvedere Vienna, October 25, 2013 - February 2, 2014. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Stephan Koja. - Munich, 2013. ISBN 978-3-902805-37-9 ISBN 978-3-7774-2170-4 .
  • Vienna - Berlin: art of two metropolises  ; Belvedere Vienna, February 14 - June 15, 2014. Edited by Agnes Husslein-Arco u. Alexander Klee. - Munich, 2013. ISBN 978-3-7913-6533-6 ISBN 978-3-7913-6533-6 .

Catalog raisonnés

  • Sabine Grabner: The painter Josef Danhauser: Biedermeier period in pictures  ; Monograph and catalog raisonné; … On the occasion of the exhibition "Josef Danhauser. Picture Counts", Belvedere Vienna, June 22nd - September 25th, 2011 / Sabine Grabner. - Vienna ,: Böhlau, 2011. - (Belvedere catalog raisonné; 1) ISBN 978-3-205-78718-1 .
  • Cornelia Cabuk: Carry Hauser: monograph and catalog raisonné . - Weitra, 2012. - (Belvedere catalog raisonné; 2) ISBN 978-3-99028-055-3 .
  • Gerbert Frodl: Hans Makart. Catalog raisonné of the paintings . - Weitra, 2013. - (Belvedere catalog raisonné; 3) ISBN 978-3-99028-194-9 .
  • Maria Pötzl-Malíková: Franz Xaver Messerschmidt: Monograph and catalog raisonné . - Vienna, 2015. - (Belvedere catalog raisonné; 4) ISBN 978-3-902805-73-7 .
  • Agnes Husslein-Arco, Cornelia Cabuk, Harald Krejci (eds.): Marc Adrian - Film / Art / Media  ; Monograph and catalog raisonné. - Klagenfurt; Vienna, 2016. - (Belvedere catalog raisonné; 5) ISBN 978-3-85415-540-9 .

Special publications

  • The Belvedere - More than a Museum , Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna 2016. ISBN 978-3-903114-20-3 .
  • Agnes Husslein-Arco (Ed.), Masterpieces of the Belvedere , Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, 2012. ISBN 978-3-901508-94-3 .
  • Agnes Husslein-Arco, Cosima Rainer, Bettina Steinbrügge (eds.), 21er Haus: Back to the Future - a retrospective look at a museum , Revolver Publishing, Berlin, 2011, ISBN 978-3-86895-201-8 .
  • Agnes Husslein-Arco and Katharina Schoeller (eds.), The Belvedere: Genesis of a Museum . Weitra, 2011, ISBN 978-3-99028-010-2 .
  • Ulrike Seeger: Belvedere: The summer palace of Prince Eugene . Brandstätter, Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-902510-97-6 / ISBN 978-3-85033-016-9 ( English ).
  • Ulrike Seeger: City Palace and Belvedere of Prince Eugen: Origin, Shape, Function and Meaning. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weinmar 2004, ISBN 3-205-77190-7 (also habilitation thesis Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg 2002).
  • Hadwig Kräutler, Gerbert Frodl (Hrsg.): The museum: mirror and engine of cultural-political visions. 1903–2003, 100 years of the Austrian Gallery Belvedere . Facultas WUV Universitätsverlag, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-85114-851-7 .
  • Hans and Gertrude Aurenhammer: The Belvedere in Vienna: building, people, history . Schroll, Vienna [among others] 1971 ISBN 3-7031-0222-5

Web links

Commons : Österreichische Galerie Belvedere  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Stella Rollig takes over Belvedere. In: October 17, 2016, accessed March 26, 2019 .
  2. local Italian or traditional Austrian pronunciation due to French influence - see: BMBF, Austrian Dictionary , Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-209-06884-2 , 42nd edition, p. 106.
  3. ^ Rules of procedure for the management of the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. (PDF; 62.7 kB) (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on February 11, 2014 ; accessed on September 11, 2019 .
  4. ^ Michael Krapf: Science for the Museum - Museum for Science. In: The Museum. Mirror and engine of cultural-political visions. Vienna 2004, p. 133 ff.
  5. Veronika Pirker-Aurenhammer: Medieval art in the Belvedere. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 37 ff.
  6. Belvedere: Husslein not extended. In: July 27, 2016, accessed December 14, 2019 .
  7. Rollig has a lot of work to do at the Belvedere. In: May 10, 2017, accessed May 15, 2020 .
  8. ^ Georg Lechner: Baroque Collection in the Upper Belvedere. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 71 ff.
  9. ^ Georg Lechner: Baroque Collection in the Upper Belvedere. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 72 f.
  10. ^ Georg Lechner: Baroque Collection in the Upper Belvedere. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 73.
  11. Belvedere Gallery Guide, Vienna 2008, p. 18.
  12. Österreichische Galerie Belvedere Wien, Vienna [u. a.] 1995, p. 58.
  13. a b c Austrian Gallery Belvedere Vienna, Vienna [u. a.] 1995, p. 58 ff.
  14. ^ Austrian Gallery Belvedere Vienna. Munich 2001, 2nd edition, p. 58 ff. (Prestel Museum Guide)
  15. ^ Sabine Grabner: Classicism and Romanticism. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 109 f.
  16. Dietrun Otten: historicism. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 175 ff.
  17. Dietrun Otten: Realism - Impressionism. International modernity. In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere. Vienna 2012, p. 187 f.
  18. Heinz Mlnarik: "Vienna lacks this most important basis for its art life". From the establishment of the Modern Gallery to the Austrian Gallery. In: Belvedere. Visual arts magazine. Vol. 2, No. 2, Vienna 1996, p. 47ff.
  19. Austrian Gallery Vienna, Munich 1995, p. 145.
  20. Belvedere Gallery Guide, Vienna 2008. P. 73.
  21. ^ Stephanie Neudorfer: Between the wars and the first years of the Second Republic . In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere , Vienna 2012, p. 279.
  22. ^ Stephanie Neudorfer: Between the wars and the first years of the Second Republic . In: Masterpieces of the Belvedere , Vienna 2012, pp. 279 ff.
  23. Floating memorial in front of the Belvedere. In: ORF, July 9, 2016, accessed on November 27, 2017 .
  24. Public Research. In: Retrieved April 8, 2019 .
  25. ^ Curator in Residence (archive). In: Retrieved April 19, 2018 .
  26. Belvedere catalog raisonné. In: Retrieved February 18, 2018 .