Emil Nolde (* 7. August 1867 as Hans Emil Hansen in Nolde, circle Tondern the province of Schleswig-Holstein ; † 13. April 1956 in Seebüll ) was a leading painter of Expressionism . He is one of the great watercolorists in 20th century art. Nolde is known for his expressive choice of colors. Although he was ostracized as a " degenerate artist ", he was a racist , anti-Semite and a staunch supporter of National Socialism .
Adolescent years and training
Emil Nolde was born the fourth of five children to a farming family. He had three older brothers and a younger sister. His place of birth in the northern part of the Duchy of Schleswig belonged to Prussia from 1867 to 1920 and thus to the German Empire . His father was a North Frisian and came from the area around Niebüll ; he spoke North Frisian , his mother spoke South Jutian . Emil Nolde attended the German school in Buhrkall . His youth on his parents' farm in Nolde were characterized by hard work and a relatively meager life.
From 1884 to 1888, at the insistence of his father, he trained as a carver and draftsman at the School of Applied Arts in Flensburg (today Museumsberg Flensburg ). There he was involved in the restoration of the Brüggemann altar . He did not obtain an apprenticeship qualification. He then worked for various furniture factories, including in Munich , Karlsruhe and Berlin . In 1892 he took up a position as a teacher for industrial and ornamental drafting at the trade museum in St. Gallen , which he was dismissed in 1898. During this time he met Hans Fehr , with whom he remained connected for a long time. He then worked on a series of landscape watercolors and drawings by the mountain farmers. Nolde finally became known for small colored drawings of the Swiss mountains. He had postcards of these works printed, which allowed him to live as a free artist.
He went to Munich, but was rejected by the academy and began studying at Adolf Hölzel's private painting school in Dachau , before traveling to Paris with the painter Emmi Walther via Amsterdam in autumn 1899 and enrolling at the Académie Julian . In 1900 he rented a studio in Copenhagen. In 1902 he married the 23-year-old Danish actress Ada Vilstrup (1879–1946) there. With her he moved to the island of Alsen . There they lived between 1903 and 1916 in a fisherman's house in Sjellerupskov near Guderup . A shack directly on the beach served as a studio.
From 1902 Nolde named himself after his home village in North Schleswig. Around 1903 he was still painting “lyrical” landscapes. He became a member of the Schleswig-Holstein Art Cooperative and took part in five exhibitions between 1903 and 1912. In 1904 he was represented at the annual exhibition in the Flensburg Museum with the paintings “In the robber's room” and “Summer night”. In 1905 Ada and Emil Nolde traveled to Sicily and Ischia, but the painter could not cope with the glaring light of the south. His increasingly implemented at the color of flowers and gardens of Alsen made the group of artists Bridge attention to him. Nolde accepted the invitation to join her in 1906 after initial hesitation. This brought him into contact with much younger artists such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Fritz Bleyl , Erich Heckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff . In Berlin he also met Edvard Munch . Nolde ended his active membership in the bridge in 1907, a dispute with Schmidt-Rottluff was decisive. Despite this short time, Nolde brought etching into the community as a further representation technique, arranged contacts with the Hamburg collector and art patron Gustav Schiefler and ensured awareness and economic benefits by introducing chargeable "passive memberships" with the dispatch of original graphics as "annual gifts" Group success. Nolde himself took part in eight exhibitions of the group in 25 locations during his only 21-month membership.
In 1909 Nolde became a member of the Berlin Secession . When their jury, with the participation of Max Liebermann, rejected works by Georg Tappert and many mostly Expressionist artists the following year, the Berlin Secession broke off. On the initiative of Tappert, followed by Max Pechstein and other artists, including Nolde, the New Secession was formed . On May 15, she opened her first exhibition under the title “Rejected by the Secession Berlin 1910”.
Now Nolde's first religious images were created: Last Supper, Pentecost and mockery . Between 1910 and 1912 he had initial success with his own exhibitions in Hamburg , Essen and Hagen . Pictures of the nightlife in Berlin, where he and his wife Ada regularly spent the winter months, theater drawings, mask still lifes, 20 autumn seas , the nine-part The Life of Christ . He also repeatedly visited the Berlin Museum of Ethnology, where he made numerous sketches of objects from overseas between 1910 and 1912. From autumn 1913 to the end of August 1914 he took part as a draftsman in the medical-demographic German New Guinea expedition of the Reich Colonial Office with his wife. At that time Nolde showed himself to be an avowed cosmopolitan artist, fascinated by the exotic strengths of Africa, Central America and Southeast Asia. In 1916 he moved to the small farmhouse Utenwarf ( ) on the west coast near Tondern and the Vidå (German Wiedau ). He hated the fierce controversy over the German-Danish border demarcation after the First World War, and although he felt himself to be German, Nolde made use of his right to take on Danish citizenship when his place of birth fell to Denmark after the referendum in Schleswig in 1920. Like his wife, he retained his Danish citizenship until the end of his life, but saw himself as a member of the German-speaking minority in North Schleswig throughout his life .
In 1889 Nolde came to the capital for the first time and stayed for two years, during which he worked as a draftsman and modeler in various companies. From the winter of 1904/05 he lived with his wife Ada in winter mostly in Berlin, initially for almost two decades as a tenant in a residential studio at Tauentzienstrasse 8, “101 steps up”. Ada maintained contacts in Berlin and made sure that Nolde was very well connected there. In the winter of 1910/11, a series of 17 paintings from Berlin's nightlife was created in Tauentzienstrasse, and over the years the Berlin work has grown to over 300 watercolors, ink brush drawings and etchings. But Nolde wanted a building in Berlin similar to the one that was being built for him at Neukirchen on the Danish border . For this purpose, he acquired a piece of land in Berlin-Dahlem and in autumn 1928 commissioned Ludwig Mies van der Rohe to design a studio house for this location. After this was supposed to cost 80,000 Reichsmarks and a building permit was not granted, Nolde abandoned the plan in July 1929. In autumn 1929 he and Ada moved to rent to Bayernallee 10-11 in Berlin-Westend . Nolde kept this apartment when he turned his back on Berlin in 1941 due to the ban on the profession. The house was largely destroyed by fire bombs in 1944, and with it Nolde's large collection of graphics.
Only when the land around Utenwarf was increasingly being developed and drained did he and his wife move to the German side of the border, as the landscape there reminded him of his home near Nolde . In 1926, the couple acquired an empty yard near Neukirchen in the Wiedingharde district of the then Südtondern district , which they called Seebüll and on which the painter's home and studio of the same name was built until 1930. At first they lived in the neighboring farmhouse "Seebüllhof", which they had acquired together with the terp and the surrounding pastures. The move to the newly built "Seebüll" house took place in 1930. The residential building is a two-storey cube with a flat roof to which single-storey extensions are attached with a triangular floor plan. In 1937 a studio house with a picture room was added to the house. The building was built from brick according to Emil Nolde's designs with the assistance of his friend, architect Georg Rieve . The colors in the interior of the house correspond to the strong colors of the garden plants.
Ada and Emil Nolde laid out a garden next to the house, with paths in the form of the initials E and A. The garden has two buildings: a thatched garden house built in 1935/1936, the so-called “Seebüllchen”, and the burial place of Ada and Emil Nolde. This is located in a former earth shelter, which was converted into a crypt in 1946 when Ada died. On the front wall, Nolde created the mosaic Madonna and Child . Nolde's garden is an individual garden artwork that takes up the contemporary reform movement, which is directed against industrial and standardized art forms. In this way, in the wide marshland in terms of planting and furnishings, a fairly closed, home-related cottage garden was created, even if this does not have a central axis related to the house, which is typical for these gardens, and house and garden form separate units.
On the occasion of his 60th birthday, an anniversary exhibition was dedicated to him in Dresden in 1927 .
In National Socialism
National Socialist Engagement
Nolde was convinced early on that “Germanic art” was far superior to all others. In August 1934 he testified with his signature under the call of the cultural workers that he belonged to the Führer’s allegiance. In 1934 he became a member of one of the various National Socialist parties in North Schleswig, the National Socialist Working Group North Schleswig (NSAN). The competing National Socialist parties were amalgamated in 1935 due to the efforts of Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse in Schleswig-Holstein to form the NSDAP-Nordschleswig (NSDAP-N).
During his participation in the German New Guinea Expedition of 1913/1914, he made it clear that he considered the local cultures of the “savages” to be inferior. At the same time he spoke out against offering modern French painting of the styles Impressionism , Cubism , Surrealism , Fauvism and Primitivism in the German art trade.
Nolde was also anti-Semitic , as can be seen from many documents - for example from the first two volumes of his autobiography, "My Life" (1930) and "Years of Struggles" (1934), which cover the years from 1867 to 1914. Many nationalist, racist and anti-Semitic remarks by Nolde can be found in the original editions of the two volumes. He polemicized against Jewish art dealers like Paul Cassirer and painters like Max Liebermann. In May 1933, Nolde denounced his competitor Max Pechstein to an official of the Propaganda Ministry as an alleged "Jew" because of his name alone. Although von Pechstein pointed out that this claim was incorrect, but could be very dangerous to him (= Pechstein) and his family, Nolde refused to make a correction to the ministry. In the summer of 1933, Nolde worked out a “de-Judaism plan”, a territorial “solution” with the aim of evacuating the Jews. He also wanted to present this plan to Hitler. As early as 1911 he had written to a sponsor that "painter Jews" had spread over the whole country, "just like the sponge growth here under the red-painted floor of our little cozy room." He was also of the opinion that the " power of the Jews " was "underestimated" by Germany.
Another comment was made by Rosa Schapire , an art historian who had supported the still unknown artist through lectures and exhibition reports :
“'A local young lady is very interested in your art,' said Ms. Rauert. It was Miss Dr. Schapiere [sic], and when we got to Alsen, their freshly written articles were sent to us. Letters also came flying. - The friendship between her and us, which flared up quickly, soon collapsed again. Only ashes remained. Gone with the wind. In art it was my first conscious encounter with a person of a different kind than I was. At the age of 18 I saw the first Jew in Flensburg [...] Jews have a lot of intelligence and spirituality, but little soul and little creativity. A young, determined Jew, when I came to Berlin, said to me that: 'Every young girl I am alone with for the third time has to fall.' - […] I was sore all tender, noble intimacies. Jews are different people than we are. [...] "
Prohibition and continuation of the career under National Socialism
At the beginning of the National Socialist era , some high-ranking functionaries of the Nazi regime valued his art and his attitude towards art politics. For example, Joseph Goebbels and Albert Speer were initially supporters of Nolde, and in 1933 the Nazi student union organized an exhibition of his works. The greater part of the Nazi leadership, on the other hand, tried early on to discriminate Nolde artistically and economically - this included Alfred Rosenberg and Adolf Hitler himself. His paintings The Life of Christ were shown in the 1937 exhibition "Degenerate Art" . Further paintings were confiscated and forcibly sold in the following actions. Nolde apparently did not want to admit this at first and seemed surprised when his works were defamed as " degenerate art ". He felt misunderstood and believed in the mistakes of subordinate persons and departments. He did not distance himself from the National Socialist cultural policy, but tried to convince the National Socialists that he had always thought, lived and expressed himself in accordance with the theses of the movement. For example, on July 2, 1938, Nolde wrote in a letter to Goebbels that he saw himself “as almost the only German artist in the open fight against foreign infiltration by German art” and pointed out that he would become a member immediately after the NSDAP North Schleswig was founded has become.
However, persecution as part of the National Socialist art policy did not mean the end of Nolde's career. The two volumes of his biography remained available and, apart from a slump in 1938, continued to sell well. He got back confiscated loans after objection, citing his wife's Danish citizenship as an argument. His works were even removed from the touring exhibition "Degenerate Art". Financially, too, 1937 did not mean a turning point for Nolde. In the spring of 1937, the Ferdinand Möller gallery in Berlin organized an exhibition of his watercolors, in which works were sold for 20,000 Reichsmarks. Nolde's financial situation at that time was so good that the former director of the Folkwang Museum in Essen, Ernst Gosebruch , noted that the artist kept his main works in his own possession, as he was not forced to sell them. Even after it was ostracized in the Munich exhibition in 1937, the demand situation did not change. Even after 1937 his works were still commissioned in many German galleries for modern art . Financially, Nolde was one of the most successful German artists of the 1930s and 1940s. In 1937 and 1939 and 1941 he had his highest annual income. The tax files show even higher income than he stated in the context of the denazification process . After the war he reported income of over 50,000 Reichsmarks for 1941. According to data from the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts , only 0.7% of the artists in the German Reich earned more than 1,000 Reichsmarks a month in 1939. His good economic situation brought Nolde Neider from the artist community and also made it clear to the cultural officials that they had not been able to enforce their policies on the art market .
With this in mind, on October 1, 1940 , the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts issued the "Order on the distribution of inferior art products". This should primarily be directed against cheap and mass produced art reproductions and so-called “kitsch” in order to protect the market for true artists. Based on these omens, the Noldes initially assumed that the regulation would not affect them. Nevertheless, the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts asked for information on sales and exhibitions and requested images of works from 1938 to 1940. In this situation, the Noldes made use of their contacts to high-ranking National Socialists. So they asked Heinrich Hansen , one of the highest-ranking officials in the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda , for support. In February 1941 the Reich Chamber asked again about illustrations. In the same month Hans Herbert Schweitzer had a painting and watercolors by Nolde confiscated from Alex Vömel's gallery in Düsseldorf, which were sent to Berlin for appraisal. The security service of the Reichsführer SS also exerted increased pressure on the Reich Chamber because of the continued availability of "degenerate" works of art. On August 23, 1941, Nolde received Adolf Ziegler's letter in which he was excluded from the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts due to “lack of reliability”.
However, this exclusion did not mean a “ban on painting”, as was rumored especially after the end of the Second World War, but merely a ban on the purchase of all art supplies such as oil paints, canvas, brushes and sales, exhibitions and reproductions of his works. Nolde was able to continue painting privately, and lawyers he consulted also said that gifts to friends would probably not have circumvented the ban. In order to be able to distribute his works to the public again, he would have had to submit them to the “Committee for the Appraisal of Inferior Art Products”. The term “painting ban” can only be found in a single letter from Ada Nolde for the time of National Socialism. It was only after the war that the ban on painting was revised so that Nolde could emphasize his own victim role. As part of the rehabilitation of Expressionism, this narrative was taken up and carried on by many authors. It was in this context that the concept of so-called unpainted pictures and their history of reception emerged. The victim story of Nolde was received in the figure of the painter Max Ludwig Nansen in the novel Deutschstunde by Siegfried Lenz . The Noldes copied Ziegler's letter with the exclusion and circulated it among supporters. They responded by subsequently helping him to procure materials. For example, Otto Andreas Schreiber regularly sent him paints. Despite all the persecution experiences, Nolde's trust in National Socialism was never completely destroyed. In 1942 a meeting with Baldur von Schirach in Vienna did not take place, but he took some of his works with him and promised to stand up for the artist. And in 1943 he was still thinking about painting an SA man. In autumn 1944 Nolde's apartment in Berlin-Dahlem was destroyed in an air raid.
Transfiguration as a victim
Nolde made sure that the blatantly anti-Semitic passages of his autobiography were deleted from the editions after 1945, all four volumes of the memoirs appeared in this modified form up to and including 2008. He also gave significantly lower income during the denazification of a maximum of about 52,000 RM during 1946 of the Third Reich, as he himself declared in his tax return (80,000 RM). Accordingly, Nolde was classified as not contaminated. Nolde's professional ban was revised to include a ban on painting. Because documents such as the original version of Nolde's autobiographical texts, which provided information about what actually happened in the Third Reich, were initially not available, the narrative of Nolde's role as a victim was taken up and carried on in good faith by many authors as part of the rehabilitation of Expressionism. Shortly before his death, Nolde submitted a - rejected - application for compensation , referring to the confiscation and forced sale of his works .
The late years
On November 2, 1946, Nolde's first wife died; two years later he married Jolanthe Erdmann (born October 9, 1921 in Berlin; † June 13, 2010 in Heidelberg), daughter of the composer and pianist Eduard Erdmann . By 1951 Nolde still painted over 100 paintings and - increasingly restricted by his Parkinson's disease - many watercolors by 1956. Emil Nolde died on April 13, 1956 in Seebüll, where he found his final resting place next to his first wife Ada in the crypt in the garden.
Emil Nolde was a board member of the German Association of Artists .
- 1927: Honorary doctorate from the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel
- 1949: Stefan Lochner Medal from the City of Cologne
- 1950: Biennale Prize for graphic work
- 1952: Pour le mérite for science and the arts
- 1952: Culture Prize of the City of Kiel
- 1955: documenta 1 posthumously
- 1959: documenta II
- 1964: documenta III
- 2001: a rose variety was named after Emil Nolde
The property and artistic estate became the starting assets of the Seebüll Ada and Emil Nolde Foundation , which built the Nolde Museum in the painter's former home and studio. The foundation presents around 160 works by Nolde in annually changing exhibitions. His most important religious work - the nine-part altarpiece The Life of Christ from 1911/12 - has found a permanent place in the painter's former studio . To mark the 50th year of Nolde's death, the 2006 exhibition was dedicated to old age work. The exhibitions here and in the documentation and event building erected next to it attract around 80,000 visitors every year.
From 2007 to March 2014 the foundation had a branch at Jägerstraße 54/55 on Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin. There, in addition to works by Nolde, exhibits by other artists were presented as part of changing exhibitions.
Nolde in literature and in film
Life Emil Nolde in the time of "Malverbots" from 1941 is reflected in the novel The German Lesson by Siegfried Lenz resist (1968). The novel was filmed for television in 1971 and for cinema in 2019 . The film portrait Dreams by the Sea - The Painter Emil Nolde , directed by Wilfried Hauke , was shot in 2006. In the book Nolde and me. A Südseetraum told Hans Christoph Buch 2013 Nolde's trip to the South Seas.
Judgment of the BGH on a forgery of Nolde's watercolors
A ruling by the BGH in 1989 plays a role in comments on post-mortem personal rights . A collector submitted two watercolors with the alleged signature of Nolde to the Emil Nolde Estate Foundation for assessment. This recognized forgeries and refused to hand over the watercolors to the collector, who then sued. The foundation wanted to destroy the pictures or remove what it believed to be a forged signature or add a label forgery. This was ultimately rejected by the BGH. In particular, according to the judgment of the Federal Court of Justice, post-mortem protection of personality or the right to a name are out of the question for the defendant's claim. In its justification, the court granted privacy protection with regard to his work, which also existed 33 years after the painter's death, and a right to possibly remove the signature if it was a forgery, which was not the subject of the defendant's claims (No requirement for the plaintiff's consent to remove the signature). The commentator Haimo Schack particularly emphasized the long after-effects of the personal rights established in the judgment for this special case, which in the case of Emil Nolde as a well-known representative of German Expressionism was granted. According to the judgment , the imputed forgery was fundamentally capable of permanently distorting the overall artistic image .
The Hamburg judge and art collector Gustav Schiefler created the first two-volume catalog of Nolde's graphic works.
- around 1903: Watermills, Ruttebüllkoog. Privately owned
- 1904: Norburg. Oil on canvas, 73 × 88 cm, Galerie Kornfeld , Bern 2011
- 1905: Piazza San Domenico II. Düsseldorf, Art Museum
- 1908: flower garden. Düsseldorf, art museum
- 1908: Big Poppy. Leopold Hoesch Museum & Paper Museum Düren
- 1909: Pentecost. Berlin, New National Gallery
- 1909: Mocking Christ. Berlin, Brücke Museum
- 1910: Joseph tells his dreams. Vienna, Belvedere
- 1910: Dance around the Golden Calf. Munich, Pinakothek der Moderne
- 1910: farm. Flensburg, Museumsberg Flensburg
- 1910: Herbstmeer I. Dortmund, Museum am Ostwall
- 1910: Autumn Sea XI. Zurich, Kunsthaus
- 1910/1914: Foreign birds-tropical birds. Watercolor, full-page illustration No. 13 in: Emil Nolde: Years of Fighting, 1934
- 1911: In the café. Essen, Folkwang Museum
- 1912: Holy Mary of Egypt. Essen, Folkwang Museum
- 1912: Maria Ägyptiaca. (Triptych). Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle (before Heinrich Kirchhoff Collection )
- 1913: soldiers. Nolde Foundation Seebüll.
- 1915: figure and flowers. Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum , Gm 1859 (loan from private collection)
- 1915: The interest coin. Kiel, Kunsthalle Kiel
- 1915: Portrait of a gentleman I. (Rauert Collection)
- 1915: clear seas. Halle on the Saale, Moritzburg
- 1915: Mary and Simeon in the temple. Halle on the Saale, Moritzburg
- 1918: Wet day. Seebüll, Nolde Foundation
- 1919: The enthusiast. Hanover, Sprengel Museum
- 1919: The red-blonde girl. Oil on wood, 46 × 49.5 cm, (auctioned on June 20, 2006 for 2.7 million euros)
- 1919: Nadja . Oil on canvas, 40 × 25 cm, (Erben Rathenau; auctioned on June 12, 2007 for 2.15 million euros)
- 1919: flower garden (marigolds). Seebüll, Nolde Foundation
- around 1920: boy's head. Watercolor u. Indian ink, 29.4 × 22.6 cm (one of the few portraits of children in Nolde's oeuvre)
- 1922: Landscape with a farmhouse. Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gm 1690 (loan from private collection)
- 1925: Landscape with resting cows. Oil on canvas, 73 × 88 cm, (private collection, Germany)
- 1930: Red rose hips with green and yellow leaves and brown-yellow grass. Watercolor on Japan
- around 1930: deep blue sea under yellow-violet sky. Watercolor. Signed lower right. On Japan, 32.5 × 46 cm.
- 1930: Evening peace. Halle on the Saale, Moritzburg
- 1930: Punt in the reeds. Halle on the Saale, Moritzburg
- 1930: Sultry evening. Seebüll, Nolde Foundation
- 1932: Hüllenoft Hof. Since 1934 as a gift from the margarine manufacturer and Consul General Alfred Voss in the Kunsthalle Hamburg (until confiscation in 1937 as " Degenerate Art "), then private property, after an auction in 2002 as a gift from the Alfred Voss heirs again in the Kunsthalle Hamburg.
- 1930/35: Blue Iris (Fire Lilies, Rudbekia). Watercolor on Japanese paper, signed, 33.5 × 45.4 cm
- 1933: flowers and clouds. Oil on canvas, 73 × 88 cm, Hanover, Sprengel-Museum
- 1935/40: Evening on the march. Watercolor, 34.2 × 47.3 cm
- 1936: High seas. Oil on canvas, 73.5 × 99.5 cm
- 1937: Yellow and light red dahlias. Flensburg, Museumsberg Flensburg
- 1940: Big waves. Flensburg, Museumsberg Flensburg
- 1940: the great gardener. Hanover, Sprengel Museum
- 1942: Large poppies, red, red, red. Neukirchen, Nolde Museum
- 1945/48: Sea with steamers. Watercolor and pen and ink on Japanese paper, 23.8 × 21.3 cm
- 1946: Evening sea and black steamer. Watercolor, 22.4 × 26.8 cm
- 1947: Distant girls. Mannheim, Kunsthalle Mannheim
- 1947: Sea and boat with brown sails. Watercolor on Japan
- 1948: The sea in motion. Kiel, Kunsthalle Kiel
- Letters from the years 1894–1926. Edited by Max Sauerlandt . Furche, Berlin 1927.
- Your own life. Julius Bard, Berlin 1931; second, expanded edition, under the title: Your own life. The time of youth 1867–1902 , Christian Wolff publishing house, Flensburg and Hamburg 1949.
- Years of fighting. Rembrandt, Berlin 1934; second, expanded edition, "reworked" by Nolde, DuMont, Cologne 1967.
- World and home. The South Sea Journey 1913–1918, written in 1936. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1965.
- Travel, ostracism, liberation 1919–1946. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1967.
- Emil Nolde: memories. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8321-7171-1 (a cassette containing the following four parts: one's own life; years of struggle; world and home; travel, ostracism, liberation ).
- My life. DuMont, Cologne 1976, ISBN 3-7701-0913-9 (8th edition. 2008, ISBN 978-3-7701-0913-5 ).
- Emil Nolde: Encounter with the Nordic. Exhibition catalog Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Edited by Jutta Hülsewig-Johnen. Kerber, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-86678-129-0 .
- December 13, 2001 - March 3, 2002: Emil Nolde and the South Seas . Vienna.
- March 23 - May 26, 2002: Emil Nolde and the South Seas . Art hall of the Hypo-Kulturstiftung Munich .
- February 3 - May 12, 2008: Emil Nolde. Encounter with the Nordic. Bielefeld art gallery .
- April 20 - July 28, 2013: Emil Nolde. Colors hot and holy. Art museum of the state of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle (Saale).
- June 15 - October 13, 2013: Emil Nolde. The splendor of the colors. Museum Frieder Burda in Baden-Baden.
- October 25, 2013 - February 2, 2014: Emil Nolde - In glow and color. Belvedere , Vienna.
- March 5 - June 15, 2014: Emil Nolde. Retrospective. Städel Museum in Frankfurt am Main. Critique of the exhibition by Julia Voss in the FAZ on March 5, 2014. In the exhibition, Nolde's role as the Nazi persecuted person is strongly questioned.
- 2015: Nolde - The untamed stream of color. City Museum Lindau.
- September 18, 2015 - February 10, 2016: Nolde in Hamburg (under the patronage of Helmut Schmidt , who wrote the foreword in the exhibition catalog). Hamburger Kunsthalle .
- June 5 - October 9, 2016: A piece of northern German sky, Emil Nolde and the artists of the Brücke in the Landesmuseum Mainz (a cooperation with the Museumsberg Flensburg ).
- April 30 - July 9, 2017: Emil Nolde. The grotesques. Museum Wiesbaden , Wiesbaden; then Buchheim Museum of Fantasy, Bernried am Starnberger See . Catalog.
- May 7, 2017 - January 7, 2018: Emil Nolde on his 150th birthday. Mülheim Art Museum , studio exhibition in the Ziegler Collection.
- March 17 - June 17, 2018: Emil Nolde. Color magic. A retrospective on paper. Vogelmann art gallery , Heilbronn.
- November 17 - March 3, 2019: Emil Nolde. Paul Klee Center , Bern.
- February 10 - May 12, 2019: Marc Macke Nolde. The silence in the noise of time. Masterpieces from the Ziegler Collection. Moritzburg Art Museum , Halle (Saale).
- April 12 - September 15, 2019: Emil Nolde - a German legend. The artist under National Socialism. Hamburger Bahnhof - Museum of the Present - Berlin.
- Discussion about Nazi entanglement Nolde, the Nazis and the Chancellery. Felix Krämer in conversation with Maja Ellmenreich, Deutschlandfunk March 29, 2019 ( audio version 1/2 year online )
- Ingried Brugger et al. (Ed.): Emil Nolde and the South Seas. With contributions by Ingried Brugger, Andreas Fluck, Christiane Lange u. a. Hirmer, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-7774-9220-5 (catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Kunstforum Bank Austria, Vienna, Dec. 13, 2001– March 3, 2002, and in the Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Munich, March 23 -26 May 2002).
- Annemarie Bucher: Emil Nolde. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . September 9, 2010 , accessed April 1, 2020 .
- Uwe Danker : “Champion of Germanism” or “Degenerate Artist” - thinking about Emil Nolde in the Nazi era. In: Democratic History. Yearbook for Schleswig-Holstein. Ed. Advisory Board for the History of the Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein e. V. Volume 14, 2001, , pp. 149-188 ( beirat-fuer-geschichte.de [PDF; 1.7 MB]).
- Bernhard Fulda: "Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy". Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. The "German Art". Art politics and the Berlin Art School. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , pp. 261–286.
- Florian Illies : Glossary. In: The time . No. 32/2008 (about Nolde's cover-ups and that of the editor of the long-time director of the Nolde Foundation in Seebüll, Martin Urban).
- Kirsten Jüngling : Emil Nolde. The colors are my grades. Propylaea, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-549-07404-6 .
- Wolfdietrich von Kloeden : Nolde, Emil. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 6, Bautz, Herzberg 1993, ISBN 3-88309-044-1 , Sp. 993-1000. (Last change: September 27, 2010).
- Günter Kunert : North Frisia in the light. In Emil Nolde's footsteps. With an essay by Günter Kunert. Ellert & Richter Verlag, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8319-0345-0 .
- Ursula Merkel (Ed.): Nolde im Dialog 1905–1913. Sources and Contributions. Hirmer, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7774-9550-6 .
- Emil Nolde - The South Seas trip. DuMont 2008, ISBN 978-3-8321-9083-5 (exhibition catalog).
- Manfred Reuther (Ed.): Emil Nolde. “Unpainted Pictures” / Emil Nolde. "Unpainted Pictures". DuMont, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-8321-9234-1 .
- Christian Ring (Ed.): Emil Nolde. The South Seas. The South Seas. DuMont, Cologne 2017, ISBN 978-3-8321-9920-3 (With photos and paintings from the South Seas trip 1913–1914).
- Christian Saehrendt : “The bridge” between statecraft and ostracism. Expressionist art as a political issue in the Weimar Republic, the “Third Reich” and the Cold War. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-515-08614-5 .
- Max Sauerlandt: Emil Nolde. With 100 panels attached. Kurt Wolff Publishing House, Munich 1921.
- Katja Schneider (Ed.): Emil Nolde. Colors hot and holy. Publication on the occasion of the exhibition of the same name in the Art Museum of the State of Saxony-Anhalt from April 20 to July 28, 2013. Moritzburg Foundation, Halle 2013, ISBN 978-3-86105-070-4 .
- Aya Soika, Bernhard Fulda: Emil Nolde. A German legend - the artist under National Socialism. Chronicle and documents. With Christian Rinck. Nationalgalerie Berlin, Nolde Foundation Seebüll, Prestel, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-7913-5895-6 .
- Martin Urban : E. Nolde. Landscapes. Watercolors and drawings. DuMont, Cologne 1969 (3rd, modified and expanded edition. Ibid 2005, ISBN 3-8321-3298-8 ).
- Martin Urban: Emil Nolde. Catalog raisonné of the paintings. 2 volumes. Beck, Munich 1987 and 1990, ISBN 3-406-32538-6 .
- Nolde Foundation Seebüll
- Literature by and about Emil Nolde in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Emil Nolde in the German Digital Library
- Search for Emil Nolde in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Spotlights on Emil Nolde's life in the virtual museum vimu.info
- Emil Nolde uncensored: Excerpts from the original edition of his autobiography ( Adobe Flash Player 9 or a comparable program is required for display )
- Biography and works in tabular form. In: ludorff.com
- Materials by and about Emil Nolde in the documenta archive
- Noldegarten Seebüll. Garden board of the State Office for Monument Preservation Schleswig-Holstein (PDF file; 96 kB)
- Website of the association “Friends of the Nolde Foundation Seebüll e. V. "
- Works by Emil Nolde in the Brooklyn Museum, New York
- Time travel: Emil Nolde - a Nazi? In: ndr.de. October 29, 2017, archived from the original on June 20, 2018 .
- Audio guide “Emil Nolde and the Sea” on museum.de
- Video excerpt from the lithograph by Emil Nolde (gift to Nolde's housemaid from the winter of 1931/1932) from the NDR's Lieb & Teuer program on March 15, 2020
- Bernhard Fulda: Emil Nolde. A German Legende / The Artist in National Socialism , in: Visual History, April 9, 2019
- So Maja Elmenreich and Felix Krämer in discussion about the Nazi entanglement Nolde, the Nazis and the Chancellery ... Felix Krämer in conversation with Maja Ellmenreich. Deutschlandfunk March 29, 2019 ( mp3 audio version 1/2 year online ).
- Emil Nolde's questionnaire from July 3, 1946 on denazification, Schleswig-Holstein State Archives, Dept. 460.10 No. 741, facsimile by the Institute for Schleswig-Holstein Contemporary and Regional History (IZRG) ( vimu.info [PDF; 9.3 MB]).
- Emil Nolde - Infothek - artist biographies. Galerie Widmer, archived from the original on October 29, 2013 ; Retrieved May 18, 2010 .
- Quoted from My own life - Emil Nolde tells of Emil Hansen . In: Der Spiegel . No. 8 , 1949 ( online ).
- Emil Nolde biography. In: art DIRECTORY. Retrieved May 18, 2010 .
- Kirsten Jüngling: Emil Nolde. The colors are my grades. Berlin 2013.
- Ulrich Schulte-Wülwer : Longing for Arcadia. Schleswig-Holstein artists in Italy. Boyens, Heide 2009, ISBN 978-3-8042-1284-8 , pp. 372-378.
- Katja Schneider (Ed.): Emil Nolde. Colors hot and holy. Publication on the occasion of the exhibition of the same name in the Art Museum of the State of Saxony-Anhalt from April 20 to July 28, 2013. Moritzburg Foundation, Halle 2013, ISBN 978-3-86105-070-4 .
- Annette Meier: From Impressionism to Cubism ( Memento of August 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). Museumsportal Berlin, accessed on July 12, 2011.
- Rainer Berthold Schossig: Puppets, masks and idols. The Ernst-Barlach-Haus in Hamburg shows Emil Nolde as a collector of exotic objects. In: Deutschlandfunk . January 26, 2012, accessed September 5, 2018.
- Martina Kaden: An Expressionist in Berlin: When night fell in Berlin, Emil Nolde was out and about. In: BZ Berlin News. August 7, 2017, accessed September 4, 2018 (updated July 10, 2019).
- Manfred Reuther: From the fisherman's cottage to Mies van der Rohe. Emil Nolde's life and housing situation and his art. In: Kulturprojekte Berlin GmbH (ed.): MuseumsJournal. 2/2012, pp. 74–75 ( PDF; 3.8 MB ; on the exhibition from April 27 to October 7, 2012 in the Nolde Museum Berlin).
- Leaflet for the Max Liebermann and Emil Nolde exhibition . Garden pictures (April 22 to August 20, 2012). Edited by the Max Liebermann Society Berlin e. V.
- State Office for Monument Preservation Schleswig-Holstein : Noldegarten Seebüll. Garden table (PDF; 96 kB). In: historegaerten.de. accessed on July 27, 2019.
- Michael Breckwoldt: Seebüll. In: Adrian von Buttlar , Margita Marion Meyer (Hrsg.): Historical gardens in Schleswig-Holstein. 2nd Edition. Boyens & Co., Heide 1998, ISBN 3-8042-0790-1 , p. 569.
- Michael Breckwoldt: Seebüll. In: Adrian von Buttlar, Margita Marion Meyer (Hrsg.): Historical gardens in Schleswig-Holstein. 2nd Edition. Boyens & Co., Heide 1998, ISBN 3-8042-0790-1 , p. 570.
- Michael Breckwoldt: Seebüll. In: Adrian von Buttlar, Margita Marion Meyer (Hrsg.): Historical gardens in Schleswig-Holstein. 2nd Edition. Boyens & Co., Heide 1998, ISBN 3-8042-0790-1 , p. 571.
- Emil Nolde uncensored: Excerpts from the original edition of his autobiography. Online publication of the Kiel University of Applied Sciences , Institute of History and Civilization in DK-5230 Odense, Institute for Schleswig-Holstein Contemporary and Regional History (IZRG) in Schleswig and Institut for Fagsprog, Kommunikation og Informationsvidenskab in DK-6000 Kolding ( Adobe Flash Player 9 or a comparable program required).
- See Years of Battles. Rembrandt, Berlin 1934, p. 101, and also in the gloss. In: The time. July 31, 2008.
- Stefan Koldehoff : The painter's Nazi past: Nolde's confession. In the time. 42/2013, October 21, 2013, accessed June 19, 2018.
- Armin Fuhrer : Exhibition in Berlin: Despised by Hitler, banished by Merkel: The debate about the Nazi painter Nolde. In: focus.de , April 12, 2019.
- According to Uwe Danker : “Pre-fighter des Deutschtums” or “Degenerate Artist” - Reflections on Emil Nolde during the Nazi era (= Yearbook Democratic History. Volume 22). Volume 14., 2001, p. 151 (the anti-Semitic sentences after the fifth sentence are omitted in the editions of the memoirs published after 1945).
- Kirsten Jüngling: His curriculum vitae is full of breaks. In: Deutschlandfunk Kultur . October 25, 2013, accessed June 19, 2018.
- Ralf Georg Reuth : Goebbels. 2nd Edition. Piper, Munich / Zurich 1991, p. 368.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 263.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261-286, 265 f.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 267 f.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 268 f.
- Yvo Theunissen: "Degenerate Art" and private exhibition. The Alex Vömel gallery in Düsseldorf. In: Anselm Faust (Ed.): Persecution and resistance in the Rhineland and in Westphalia 1933–1945. Cologne 1992, pp. 234-244.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 270.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 271–273.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 273–275.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 273.
- Bernhard Fulda: “Behind every bush lies misunderstanding and envy.” Emil Nolde's reaction to the victory of the traditionalists. In: Wolfgang Ruppert (ed.): Artists in National Socialism. "German art", art politics and the Berlin art college. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22429-5 , 261–286, 278.
- Rita Bake : Emil Nolde. In: hamburg.de (created after May 9, 2014), accessed on April 13, 2019.
- In Memoriam: The late love of the great artist. In: BZ June 22, 2010, p. 10.
- Christian Ring (ed.): Emil Noldes late love: The legacy to his wife Jolanthe. Dumont, 2014, ISBN 978-3-8321-9486-4 .
- Full members of the German Association of Artists since it was founded in 1903 / Nolde, Emil. In: kuenstlerbund.de. Retrieved June 19, 2018 (click "Members since 1903").
- Website of the Nolde Museum, Seebüll Ada and Emil Nolde Foundation.
- report at wirtschaftsland-sh.de ( Memento of 3 February 2012 at the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 28, 2013.
- Haimo Schack, BGH, June 8, 1989 - I ZR 135/87. On the post-mortem personal rights of a well-known painter, JuristenZeitung, Volume 45, No. 1, 1990, p. 37.
- A wing "Death of Maria" is accessible in: Richard Franz (text), Norbert Berghof (red.): Examples. Art in pursuit: "Degenerate Art" - Exhibition 1937 in Munich (= masterpieces of art. Special folder). Edited by the State Institute for Education and Teaching . Neckar-Verlag, Villingen 1987, .
- Ulrich Luckhardt: Emil Nolde: Hüllenoft Hof. The story of an image. Hamburg 2002.
- Sprengel Museum - Solo artist - Emil Nolde. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 31, 2009 ; Retrieved May 18, 2010 .
- Julia Voss: Emil Nolde in the Frankfurt Städel. More sympathizer than resistance. In: faz.net , March 5, 2014, accessed on September 25, 2017 (“The artist Emil Nolde sympathized with the National Socialists and stylized himself as a resistanceist after the war. This is shown in an exhibition in Frankfurt. What remains of his work now? ").
- Nolde exhibition ( Memento from January 29, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) in the Hamburger Kunsthalle. In: hamburger-kunsthalle.de, accessed on April 10, 2018.
- Emil Nolde. In: zpk.org, accessed November 20, 2018.
- The silence in the noise of time. Marc, Macke, Nolde. The Ziegler Collection visits the Moritzburg Art Museum in Halle (Saale). (No longer available online.) In: stiftung-moritzburg.de. February 15, 2019, archived from the original on February 15, 2019 ; accessed on April 10, 2019 .
- Emil Nolde - A German Legend. The artist under National Socialism. Exhibition website, accessed October 4, 2019.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hansen, Hans Emil (maiden name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German-Danish painter of expressionism|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 7, 1867|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Nolde near Buhrkall , Schleswig-Holstein province|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 13, 1956|
|Place of death||Seebüll|