Germanic National Museum

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Germanic National Museum

Gnm nuernberg main entrance may2011.jpg
Main entrance to the museum (2011)
place Nürnberg
Kartäusergasse 1 Coordinates: 49 ° 26 '53.7 "  N , 11 ° 4' 31.8"  EWorld icon
Cultural history museum
opening 1853
Number of visitors (annually) 435,581 (2017)
ISIL DE-MUS-105615

The Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Leibniz Research Museum for Cultural History ( GNM ) in Nuremberg is the largest museum of cultural history in the German-speaking area . It houses around 1.3 million objects (25,000 of which are on display) from the early days to the immediate present .

The museum is a foundation under public law and is partly funded by the Federal Republic of Germany , the Free State of Bavaria and the City of Nuremberg . As a research institution , it is a member of the Leibniz Association .

Name, founding idea and mission statement

The words "property of the German nation" above the main entrance is from the founding days of the museum after 1852 and was designed by Hans von und zu Aufseß commissioned

The name Germanisches Nationalmuseum is to be understood from the historical context of the establishment in 1852. In 1846 a congress of German linguists and historians took place in Frankfurt am Main . a. the Brothers Grimm , Leopold Ranke and Jacob Burckhardt took part. There they named their subject German studies and established the first sound shift as the starting point for their field of research. The name of the museum represents the idea of ​​a linguistically and culturally defined space whose close cultural relationships should be documented against the background of the complex political history and the failed political unification of the German states in 1848.

The museum sees itself as an important research and educational institution that presents cultural history in an interdisciplinary manner through exhibitions and publications. In addition, as a third point in its guiding principle, it emphasizes respect for all cultures and wants to make the connections with them tangible and tangible for all people regardless of age, origin, education and religion.

Structural structure of the museum

Large cloister of the former Carthusian monastery, which is now part of the museum

An archive , the German Art Archive , a library , a restoration department ( Institute for Art Technology and Conservation ) and a pedagogical center are attached to the actual museum . As branches, the museum looks after the toy collection in the former children's custody of the parish of St. Lorenz (Kartäusergasse 20), the Kaiserburg Museum at Nuremberg Castle and Neunhof Castle , an excellently preserved mansion north of Nuremberg, which houses the hunting collection . The museum is a foundation under public law, first named as a "public law foundation" in the new version of the statutes in 1921. Since July 2, 1954, companies and individuals have supported the work of the museum as a sponsorship group ; this circle with approx. 300 members has been a registered association since 1984.

As a research institution, the GNM is also charged with researching the objects in the collection and their historical context and showing them in publications and exhibitions. In addition, various scientific projects are located at the museum (literature on German art, Hessian Renaissance castles - online catalog).

History of the museum

Building history

Inner courtyard of the Carthusian monastery in Nuremberg when the museum was founded in 1852

The museum with its buildings from different epochs is a monument. The late medieval Carthusian monastery forms the core . The monastery, which was used profanely in the meantime, could be included in the museum planning from 1857. Conversions and extensions from the time the museum was built, the second half of the 19th century, are hardly left. The next preserved layer of time is formed by the special museum buildings added in the first quarter of the 20th century (old entrance, lapidarium and gallery building). After the Second World War, Sep Ruf created additional buildings; in the process, historical substance was largely reshaped or even destroyed and only a few buildings were rebuilt for restorations.

The generous extension to a design by Jan Störmer with "me di um architects" dates from 1983 and 1988 to 1996. This so-called Carthusian building with the museum forum cost 140 million DM.

The house of the former children's custody of the parish of St. Lorenz, built in 1910, was acquired in 1999 and restored by 2002 to accommodate the toy collection. The building is located to the west of the southwest building and is still structurally independent.

From the foundation to 1945

Portrait bust of Hans von und zu Aufseß
Prospectus of the Germanic National Museum in 1884

After many years of preparatory work, Baron Hans von und zu Aufseß founded the museum as a "General Repertory" in 1852, after the "Germanic Museum" in Nuremberg was founded on August 16-19, 1852 at the "Assembly of German History and Antiquity Researchers" in Dresden was decided. This term expresses the fact that Aufseß primarily wanted to create a comprehensive directory of relevant objects that went beyond its own inventory; consequently, he considered the collection of originals to be of secondary importance. The Bavarian king approved this establishment only a little later as a foundation. From 1852 the museum used the Tiergärtnertorturm as a depot for its first exhibits.

The literary and artistic establishment of the Germanic Museum was established as early as 1853 ; this is the forerunner of the in-house publishing house.

Former entrance area, which is now dedicated to Aufseß; in the middle of the picture you can see the Germania from the Paulskirche

On April 20, 1857, the Kingdom of Bavaria and the city of Nuremberg left the former Carthusian monastery as their location. With a donation of 5000 guilders, the Bavarian king took on a third of the costs that were to be paid to Bavaria; the urban parts were transferred free of charge. Bavaria released the remaining debt in 1861. In 1862 Aufseß voluntarily resigned from the management of the museum. Andreas Ludwig Jacob Michelsen took over the management , who put the collection of written sources in the foreground. In 1866, the building historian and architect August Essenwein became museum director, who placed particular emphasis on the acquisition of new objects and on reorganizing and documenting the collection. That was the step towards a cultural and historical museum. Essenwein gave up management in 1891 and was succeeded by Gustav von Bezold (1894–1920); During this time, the museum was expanded significantly, initially up to the 50th anniversary in 1902 and then from 1908/1913 to 1920 by the so-called gallery building by German Bestelmeyer .

Ernst Heinrich Zimmermann (1920–1936) systematically expanded the painting collection ( baroque gallery ) and the sculpture department, often financing new acquisitions through sales from his own holdings.

Heinrich Kohlhaußen (1937–1945) pushed for the transformation from a genre and material-specific order principle into a mixed order that offered cross-sectional cultural and historical connections.

In the time of National Socialism , the line could not be made a point of identification for ideology, for example there was no visit from Adolf Hitler . However, the demands or wishes of the NSDAP were at least partially complied with: The publisher's books were adapted in content and form to the ideas of the National Socialists, and greetings to the new rulers are recorded. After the attack on Poland in 1939, the system was supported by the exhibition Deutschtum am Weichselbogen . Since 1941, the entire inventory has been moved to 18 locations outside the site. The museum was restricted more and more and only a fraction of the visitors came. The buildings were badly damaged in the air raids in 1943–1945. The plaster casts and the built-in rooms from the different epochs were largely destroyed.

From 1945 until today

As the first chairman of the board of directors, Federal President Theodor Heuss actively promoted the reconstruction of the museum from 1948 to 1963
Collection room of the Cologne School , 1954
Museum entrance, 1959
The east building was completed in 1970
Exterior facade of the museum

A few days after the end of the war, the American military government guarded the museum grounds to prevent looting. Initially, work began again at the municipal level: On August 15, 1945, the previous employee of the museum, Ernst Günter Troche , was appointed provisional director by the city's new mayor. He began securing the buildings with modest means. On October 4, 1945, the Bavarian State Government promised the museum that it would meanwhile take over the main part of the financing from the former German Reich and thus enabled the quick recovery of the collection objects, which could be almost completely returned in the following years with a war loss of only three percent. The museum's administrative board met again from 1946 onwards. During this time, the museum organized small exhibitions, lectures and concert series. From 1947 the states of Württemberg-Baden and Hesse participated with 2/9 each and part of the art collection could be reopened in some renovated rooms. Since the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany , all countries have again participated in the sponsorship of the museum according to the so-called Königstein key . After the former Minister of State a. D. Theodor Heuss had opened the exhibition The German Freedom Movement of 1848 , he was elected chairman of the board of directors on September 10 at Troche's suggestion. Heuss was the only one who held on to this honorary position during his tenure as Federal President and thereafter until his death and was committed to promoting the museum. In 1950 a planned exhibition of the museum's works of art ( German Culture ) could start in the German cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Dortmund. The exhibition of the Museum of Art and Cultural History of the City of Dortmund took place in the nearby Cappenberg Castle near Lünen from July to October 1951.

After the influence of Theodor Heuss, Ludwig Grote was won as first director in 1951 . By absorbing the spirit and the works of the Bauhaus, he made the connection to the internationally important art and culture; but he also set up so-called homeland memorials for the displaced persons of the Second World War . The building was rebuilt according to plans by the architect Sep Ruf . Erich Steingräber took over the management in 1962; In 1964 the collection limit was shifted from the Board of Directors to Expressionism . More recent contemporary works have been used to furnish reception, meeting and office spaces. In the 1950s and 1960s, most of the casts, if they had survived the war at all, were removed from the collection.

In December 1980, Gerhard Bott took up the post of General Director (until 1993). The commitment to internationality stands for the endeavor to create a universal context. So was Dani Karavan for example, as the outdoor sculpture commissioned Way of Human Rights to implement (Way of Human Rights); this work can be assigned to the complex art in architecture .

From 1994 to 2019 Georg Ulrich Großmann was General Director of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. During this time, building renovations and the establishment of the exhibition collections, research activities such as the three-volume cataloging of Albrecht Dürer's graphic work and public-impact activities such as exhibitions and the establishment of new series of publications were carried out. In 1999 the house of the former children's custody of the parish of St. Lorenz was acquired (the building is opposite the south-west building); the toy collection has been exhibited there since May 17, 2002. The work of Albrecht Dürer , Part 1: The early work (The largest Dürer exhibition in Germany for over 40 years) dedicated to the early work of Dürer. The Germanisches Nationalmuseum showed over 150 exhibits by the artist from May 24th to September 2nd, 2012.

New locations were also relocated and, in particular, architecture was discovered as a collection and exhibition object. In addition, the internet presence was revised in 2005 in cooperation with graduates of the multimedia didactics course at the educational science faculty of the University of Nuremberg-Erlangen. A whole series of elements from this project were ultimately incorporated into the relaunch of the site at the end of 2006.

Daniel Hess has been General Director of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum since July 1, 2019 .



Painting until 1800 and stained glass

At the end of the 1870s the collection of paintings became an important department of the museum. One focus is the late medieval works of the city of Nuremberg. Among others are represented:

  • Master of the Imhoff Altar : Imhoff Altar , around 1418/420
  • Hans Pleydenwurff : high altar for St. Elisabeth in Breslau, 1462; Portrait of the Bamberg canon Georg Graf Löwenstein; Calvary
  • Master of the Pollinger Tablets : Offering in the Temple , around 1444
  • Master of the Elderly Holy Tribe : Ascension of Christ and Assumption of Mary into Heaven , around 1480 (Gm 31)
  • Master of the Augustinian Altar : The Vision of St. Bernard, 1487 (Gm 145); St. Luke paints the Madonna , 1487 (Gm 144); Saint Vitus heals the son of Emperor Diocletian (Gm 146); Martyrdom of St. Sebastian
  • Konrad Witz : Annunciation to Maria , around 1445 (Gm 878)
  • Hans Holbein the Elder : Maria with the Child , 1499 (Gm 273)
  • Master of the House Book : The Adoration of the Shepherds , around 1500 (Gm 1823)
  • Bernhard Strigel : Mindelheim family altar , around 1505/6 (Gm 254-259, 888-891)
  • Michael Wolgemut : Portrait of the Nuremberg pharmacist Hans Perckmeister. 1496; St. Anna Selbdritt, memorial picture for Anna Groß. before 1510
  • Albrecht Dürer : Portrait of Barbara Dürer , around 1490; Lamentation of Christ , around 1498/1500; Heracles fighting the Stymphalian birds , 1500; Emperor Charlemagne and Emperor Sigismund , 1512/13; Portrait of the painter Michael Wolgemut. 1516; Draft for the portrait of Emperor Maximilian I in 1518/19
  • Hans Süss von Kulmbach : Saint Cosmas , around 1507/08; Saint Damian , around 1507/08; Annunciation to Mary , around 1513; Portrait of a young man. around 1520/22
  • Georg Pencz : The Nuremberg field captain Sebald Schirmer. 1545;
  • Hans Burgkmair the Elder : Sigismund-Sebastian-Altar. 1505; The 21-year-old scammer Anna Laminit. 1502/3; Mother of God in the landscape / Mary with the child. 1509; The Madonna with the Grape / Mary with the Child. 1510;
  • Jörg Breu the Elder : Crucifixion of Christ , 1501; Flight into Egypt , 1501; The Lamentation of Christ , around 1510/15; Crucifixion of Christ. around 1520;
  • Hans Baldung Grien : Sebastian Altar, around 1507; The rest on the flight into Egypt , around 1515; Our Lady in the Chamber , around 1516; Judith with the head of Holofernes , around 1525; Portrait of a 29-year-old man , around 1526; Mary with Child and Precious Stones , around 1530; The Madonna with the Parrots , around 1533
  • Albrecht Altdorfer : panels of a legend of Florian: demonstration. around 1520; Tablets from a legend of Florian: Capture. around 1520; Tablets from a legend of Florian: Rescue of the corpse. around 1520; Victory of Emperor Charlemagne before Regensburg. around 1518; Calvary , around 1526
  • Wolf Traut : wings of an altar predella with St. Barbara and Johannes Evangelist. around 1510; Baptism of christ. 1517;
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder : Portrait of a lawyer, Johann Stephan Reuss, Rector of the University of Vienna. around 1503; Portrait of the Elector Friedrich III. of the sage of Saxony. 1507/1508; Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach , 1522; Allegory of Law and Grace, after 1529; Portrait of a lady, formerly Salome with the head of John the Baptist. around 1530; The Unequal Couple , around 1530; Chancellor Dr. Gregor Brück , 1533; Portrait of Martin Luther at the age of 50 , around 1533; The Fable of the Mouth of Truth , 1534; Venus with Cupid as a honey thief , around 1537; Venus with Cupid as a honey thief in front of a black background , around 1537; Posthumous portrait of Martin Luther as an Augustinian monk. 1546
  • Lucas Cranach the Younger : The Conversion of Saul , around 1549; Heart-shaped winged altar (Colditzer Altar) - Fall of Man - Annunciation to Mary , around 1584
  • Meister von Meßkirch : Christ carrying the cross and hand washing of Pilate , around 1536/1540
  • Pieter Brueghel the Younger or Jan Brueghel the Elder : Peasant wedding outdoors , around 1590
  • Rembrandt van Rijn : Self-Portrait with a Neck , around 1629; The apostle Paul in reflection , around 1629/30
  • Joseph Heintz : Cupid's Farewell to Psyche , 1603
  • Johann Liss : Peasant dispute , around 1616/1619; The prodigal son with the prostitutes , around 1622/3
  • Pieter de Hooch : Society piece (officer and young woman) , around 1663/5
  • Johann Georg Platzer : The Concert , around 1750

The stained glass has been partly integrated into the medieval exhibition collection since April 2006. Before, you could study these works in a separate room. The works of this genre begin from the 13th century.

Prehistory and early history

Eagle brooch from Domognano

The collection includes archaeological finds from Central Europe from the Paleolithic to the time of Charlemagne, around 200,000 BC. BC to around 800 AD With the objects made of stone, ceramics, gold, bronze, iron and glass from settlement, grave and hoard finds, a differentiated picture of the cultural-historical and technological development in Central Europe and especially of individual regions in draw the German-speaking area. The collection thus presents the development of people from hunters and gatherers to settling down as peasants to steel and ceramics production, but also the sociological development from simple family and tribal structures to complex states.

  • The gold hat (also: gold cone) from Ezelsdorf-Buch comes from the Bronze Age . Sun symbols and a calendar meaning are suspected in its decorations. It is one of only four known such gold hats .
  • The eagle brooch from Domagnano is the most important object of a 21-part find complex or precious jewelry ensemble of a very wealthy Ostrogoth. The jewelry corresponds to Byzantine fashion around 500 AD, is made of gold and decorated with almandine, lapis lazuli, pearls and green glass. In the Roman population of Italy, the eagle symbolizes the Roman state power and was also considered by the Goths as a symbol of their highest god Wodan. The eagle carries a Christian cross within a round shield on its chest. In 1952, on the occasion of the centenary of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, the symbol of the eagle brooch became the motif of the first special issue of a 5 DM coin.

Old jurisdiction

The collection includes items related to criminal justice (torture, shame and corporal punishment), above all instruments for the administration of justice and the execution of sentences, as well as legal symbolism. The objects are mainly from the early modern period.

Sculpture until 1800

The sculpture collection with its around 2,600 works of art and around 350 plastic copies provides a comprehensive overview of sculpture in the German-speaking area from the high Middle Ages to the end of the modern era. This makes it one of the most important collections of its kind in Germany. One focus of the collection is u. a. on sculptures and sculptures from Nuremberg from the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which reflect the special position of the city as one of the artistic centers of this time, both regionally and internationally.

  • The so-called "Brunnenhansel" is an unusual bronze hollow casting from around 1380. It served as a fountain figure in the Nuremberg Heilig-Geist-Spital , with water running out of the shawm of the young musician depicted.
  • The group of figures "Raphael and Tobias", created by Veit Stoss in Nuremberg in 1516, illustrates a seldom depicted story from the Old Testament in which the young Tobias is accompanied by the Archangel Raphael . The sculpture was presumably commissioned by an Italian fur trader based in Nuremberg and is characterized by masterful carving, the extremely thin folds of clothing and a virtuoso composition with a skilful description of the movement. Veit Stoss is one of the most authoritative sculptors at the transition from the late Middle Ages to the Renaissance in the German-speaking world. His works testify to the high quality of the arts around 1500 in the then merchant city of Nuremberg.
  • The bust “Der Satirikus” by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt , one of the great masters of his time at the Vienna Academy, is part of a cycle of “character heads” , which are considered the artist's best-known work. The special design of the head with differentiated surfaces and the strong expression of emotional impulses in the shape of the skull and face reflects the emerging scientific interest in the problems of physiognomics and pathognomics at the end of the 18th century.

20th century

The collection on art and culture in the 20th century, founded in the 1950s, includes painting, sculpture, handicrafts, design and poster art. The collection shows key points of artistic developments in Germany in dialogue with international ideas and positions of modernity. A special focus is on works by artists who have worked in the vicinity of Herwarth Walden and his Berlin gallery “Der Sturm”. Furthermore, the “folk art” of National Socialism, which is usually hidden in museums, is critically contextualized in relation to progressive movements of the Weimar Republic.

  • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's picture “The Drinker” was created in Berlin in 1914/15 and is today considered a key work of Expressionism. Kirchner, a co-founder of the artist group “Die Brücke”, shows himself in this self-portrait in a colorful robe, in contrast to the uniforms of the First World War, in a resigned attitude. Next to him is a bright green glass, which can be read as a symbol of the deadly madness of the war time.
  • The " Frankfurt kitchen " is considered the original model of the modern fitted kitchen. It was designed by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky in 1926 as part of the social housing project “Das Neue Frankfurt” . The design concept of the Viennese architect envisaged adapting the kitchen functionally optimally to the processes in the household with the least possible means. The kitchen was installed in around 10,000 Frankfurt apartments by 1930.

Graphic collection

With more than 350,000 sheets, the collection is one of the largest of its kind in Europe and conveys the history of graphics and their technical processes from the early Middle Ages to the present day. The works come mainly from the German-speaking area, but they also include Italian, Dutch and French examples. Artist graphics from the period from the 15th to the 19th century represent an outstanding area of ​​the collection. The "historical sheets", a comprehensive, thematically structured material fund on German cultural history, are also of particular importance. The collection also has its own profile through special holdings such as portraits, playing cards, bookplates, posters and topographical views.

  • The hand study is part of the painting “The twelve-year-old Jesus among the scribes” by Albrecht Dürer in the collection of the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid. It was created in Venice in 1506 and testifies to the artist's mastery as a draftsman. It depicts the rhetorical motif of the “arguing hands”, which has been in use since the 15th century, which Dürer significantly enhanced by studying nature and made it the central content of his picture.
  • The draft for Kandinsky's work “Helles Bild”, which is now in the Guggenheim Museum in New York, was created in 1913. A year later, the watercolor was presented to the artist, who was among other things co-editor of the almanac “Der Blaue Reiter” Germanic National Museum. You can see a dynamic microcosm that Kandinsky painted during a creative phase when he began to experiment with non-representational forms and ascribe a special color to each color: abstract painting was supposed to trigger an inner experience in the viewer.

Historical musical instruments

The musical instrument collection that has existed since the day the museum was founded is one of the largest in Europe and documents the history of musical instruments in German-speaking countries. The collection, which has been exhibited in the newly opened south wing of the Germanic National Museum since July 1969, comprises over 3,000 objects from the 16th to the 20th centuries. This includes one of the world's largest holdings of historical keyboard instruments , in particular the important complex of early fortepiano , mainly of southern German and Viennese provenance. Another focus is the manufacture of musical instruments in the Free Imperial City of Nuremberg.

  • The fortepiano by Johann Andreas Stein represents a piano model with new mechanics, which has no other register as lifting the total attenuation. Stein's developed wing mechanism uses very few components and reacts extremely sensitively to the player's attack. In this way, tones can be finely modulated and special timbres generated, something that contemporaries like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart valued very much.
  • The double virginal by Marten van der Biest combines a main instrument (mother) with a smaller, one octave higher sounding instrument (child). If two players want to make music together, the "child" is pushed into the opening at the bottom right, symbolically in the mother's stomach. If only one person is playing, the “child” is placed on top of the “mother”. Both instruments can be played at the same time from the keyboard of the main instrument.


The focus of the collection is on German furniture from the Baroque and Rococo periods. In the respective permanent exhibitions for the individual epochs, there are additional pieces that complement the collection with examples from living culture from the Middle Ages to the present.

The coin cabinet

The collection today comprises around 150,000 objects, including coins, medals, banknotes and emergency notes, stamps, symbols and arithmetic pennies as well as seals and stamps, antique gems, medals and decorations. A large part of the holdings are loans, including the numismatic collections of the city of Nuremberg and some Nuremberg families. The focus of the collection lies in the German-speaking area and covers the time from the Carolingians to the present day.

Toy collection

The toy collection with its over 20,000 objects includes not only children's toys, but also games for adults. The collection is particularly dedicated to the cultural and historical side of play and toys. In this context, the Nuremberg dollhouses from the 17th century should be emphasized. They are of international importance and, as models of ideal households, are both objects to be seen and toys. The spectrum of the collection also includes shops, dolls, tin figures, board games and paper theaters.

  • The doll's house is named after its last owner, Freiherr von Stromer from Nuremberg. Even the height of the dollhouse of around 250 cm shows that it was not intended for play. On the contrary, the models served v. a. To show young girls and boys how a household should ideally be organized. The Stromer dollhouse reflects the living culture of the 17th century in Nuremberg. With its 15 rooms and over 1,000 objects, it illustrates an ideal typical patrician household in Nuremberg, not a real building.
  • The billy goat decorated with Art Nouveau ornaments was a riding animal for children that August Geigenberger designed and made in the workshop of the Nuremberg woodcarver Johann Stöttner. In the context of the life reform movement around 1900, its supporters spoke a.o. a. against mass-produced industrially manufactured toys, in particular because the aesthetics of historicism could be read in them. They demanded that children should be educated to be able to enjoy aesthetic pleasure from an early age and that they should stimulate children's imaginations with simply shaped toys. The billy goat, with its colors and reduced form, reflects the implementation of these demands.

Scientific instruments and a collection of pharmaceutical history

Compiled from various sources - this collection includes the estate of the mathematician and astronomer Regiomontanus - you will find telescopes , clocks , glasses , world machines as well as terrestrial and celestial globes , including the oldest surviving terrestrial globe by Martin Behaim from 1492 ( Martin Behaims Erdapfel ). Medical and pharmaceutical exhibits can also be seen, based on Germany's first large collection of pharmaceutical history, which the pharmacist Hermann Peters had compiled from 1883 onwards.

Weapons and hunting equipment

Arms and hunting room in the east of the museum (room 47)

The collection includes around 4000 weapons. A Tannenberg rifle that was made before 1399 is the oldest datable firearm in the world.

  • Pot helmet - funeral helmet of the Rieter von Kornburg family from the All Saints Church in Kleinschwarzenlohe , mid-14th century (W 2801)


Under Essenwein (1866 ff.) The collection area of ​​medieval treasure art , the tools related to ecclesiastical cult, could acquire a certain importance; however, the increase consisted mainly of plaster casts at first. Only the purchase of the collection of the Bremen doctor Hermann Freiherr von Eelking (1818–1884) was able to increase the value of this department significantly in 1880. After that, only one-off items were added, some of which were extremely important objects such as one of the rare Carolingian lecture crosses in 1894 (the so-called Ardennes cross , probably around 830), in 1955 a magnificent Ottonian gospel (the Codex aureus Epternacensis ), and in 1978 a high Romanesque armilla from the Robert von collection Deer . The healing shrine , which formerly housed the imperial regalia , also belongs to this department .

The pieces of modern arts and crafts ( 16th to 18th centuries) belong primarily to the secular area; many objects have been part of the museum since the 19th century, such as Italian majolica of the Renaissance or faience and porcelain .

Commercial museum and design

The Bavarian Industrial Museum was founded in 1869 as a private initiative by two Nuremberg industrialists, the pencil manufacturer Johann Lothar von Faber and the mechanical engineering entrepreneur Theodor von Cramer-Klett. It existed as an independent institution until 1987 and was incorporated into the Germanic National Museum in 1989. The model was today's Victoria & Albert Museum in London and the former South Kensington Museum. The approximately 16,000 objects in the industrial museum include many interesting pieces that could be acquired at the world exhibitions from 1873 to 1900. The design collection comprises around 1700 objects.

From November 28, 2019 to September 27, 2020, the history and highlights of the largest loan portfolio from the Germanisches Nationalmuseum will be presented in the anniversary exhibition: 150 Years of the Bavarian Trade Museum .

  • In the first half of the 19th century, the master carpenter Michael Thonet revolutionized chair production by working with bent beech wood. His chair from 1859 consists of just six parts and was a great sales success. 50 million units had been produced by 1930. The chair is very typical of the period around 1850, as it reflects the experimentation of the 19th century.
  • Zoological table works, as published in 1899 by the Jena scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919), should u. a. Source of inspiration for breakthrough work that can be seen on the body of this punch bowl. The combination of silver and ivory can often be found in the work of the then leading craftsman Friedrich Adler. The variety of materials shown is characteristic of the style period shortly before the First World War.


The folklore department focuses on rural living. Urban living culture played a central role from the very beginning, but this collection was only slowly built up between 1890 and 1900. This arose from the need to visualize rural living culture as a counter-movement to the advanced industrialization of this time. In addition to furniture, components and furnishings as well as everyday items, traditional costumes from all over the German-speaking area were also collected. In the meantime the costumes have been outsourced to the textile collection. The foundation of the collection is the collection donated by Frankfurt privateer Oskar Kling .

Textiles and jewelry

The collection created when the museum was founded is one of the oldest and most important specialist textile collections. With more than 25,000 objects, it now includes textiles and clothing from late antiquity to the present day. Particular emphasis is placed on late medieval tapestries and the collection of early modern clothing. The clothing collection, which is broadly based on cultural history and has continued to the present day, goes far beyond a fashion collection. Attached to it is the jewelry collection, the works of which mainly date from the 16th and 19th centuries.

  • Flinder bonnets were part of the patrician class clothing on festive occasions. The name has its origin in the innumerable "Flinderlein" which were hung into the silk braid with wire-reinforced pins. The metal plates hit one another and clanked when the hood was worn. As a result, one not only saw, but also heard that it was an upper-class lady.
  • In the late 18th century, flowing dresses with a high waist came into fashion, which were based on the ancient statue robes with free folds. The idea arose from the new bourgeois image of man, whose ideals were nature and classical. The “Greek” dresses temporarily replaced the previously very tightly laced, artificial court fashion.

Historical components (architecture)

This area includes things as diverse as plastic fragments ( capitals , consoles , walls), fountains , stairs , stoves or wallpaper , but also just simple bricks and roof tiles. Large objects such as chapels in parts or parlors and rooms are also part of this collection. Architectural plans complete this inventory.

Among the objects to be highlighted are the choir of the Sebalder Pfarrhof in Nuremberg , before 1361 (in the museum since 1902, replaced by a copy at the original location), and important remains of the beautiful fountain , 1385-1392 (also at the original location in 1902 and after 1945 replaced a reconstructed copy).

Special exhibitions

  • The Germanisches Nationalmuseum: Founding and early days (February 14 - November 24, 2002)
  • Patrons, donors, donors: The Germanisches Nationalmuseum and its collections (March 14 - May 12, 2002)
  • Quasi Centrum Europae: Europe buys in Nuremberg 1400 - 1600 (June 20 - October 6, 2002)
  • Unloved inventory: The GNM's cast collection (December 15, 2002 - March 30, 2003)
  • Theatrical Thunder: Costume Designs - Clarinets - Children's Theater (December 19, 2002 - March 23, 2003)
  • Heinz Trökes: Works and Documents (April 24 - July 20, 2003)
  • Gold and Cult of the Bronze Age (May 21 - September 7, 2003)
  • In the brightest colors: watercolors from Dürer to Macke (October 16, 2003 - February 8, 2004)
  • Bloodletting and comfort of soul: Medieval manuscripts and incunabula from Berlin collections (November 13, 2003 - February 15, 2004)
  • Anti-Aging for Art: Restoring - Dealing with the Traces of Time (April 1 - August 1, 2004)
  • Good sound from Bunzlau: Bunzlau dishes in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum (September 30, 2004 - February 27, 2005)
  • The fascination of masterpieces: Dürer, Rembrandt, Riemenschneider (October 15, 2004 - January 25, 2009)
  • Buyable feelings: friendship and congratulations tickets from Biedermeier (October 28, 2004 - February 6, 2005)
  • Book treasures from Art Nouveau and Expressionism: God greet art (February 24 - May 29, 2005)
  • Heinz-Günther Prager: Prints 1967-2003 (March 3 - May 29, 2005)
  • Georg Tappert: German Expressionist (July 21 - October 23, 2005)
  • With milk porridge and rod: family, school and education during the Reformation period (November 17, 2005 - March 5, 2006)
  • Check the king! Chess games by Max Söllner (November 25, 2005 - November 5, 2006)
  • The Beginnings of European Printmaking: 15th Century Woodcuts and Their Uses (December 15, 2005 - March 19, 2006)
  • The Power of Silver: Carolingian Treasures in the North (January 26 - April 23, 2006)
  • What is German? Special exhibition for the 2006 FIFA World Cup (June 2 - October 3, 2006)
  • Hot runners: sledding: representation, fun, sport (November 16, 2006 - March 11, 2007)
  • Kingfisher meets rattlesnake: pewter figures and children's books in the Enlightenment (November 30, 2006 - April 22, 2007)
  • Hidden beauty: Late Gothic treasures from the Klarakirche in Nuremberg (May 10 - August 5, 2007)
  • World-famous and in great demand: furniture from Roentgen-Manufaktur in the GNM collection (February 8, 2007 - February 10, 2008)
  • Matisse Jazz: The Matisse Museum visits Nuremberg (July 18 - November 4, 2007)
  • Gold luster and silver beam: Nuremberg goldsmithing by a master's hand (September 20, 2007 - January 13, 2008)
  • Codex Aureus: The Golden Book of Gospels from Echternach (November 22, 2007 - April 30, 2008)
  • Animal + Human (April 3rd - May 4th 2008)
  • 100 master drawings: From the graphic collection of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (March 6 - June 8, 2008)
  • The love game: For the new presentation of the »play carpet« in the Middle Ages permanent collection (May 8, 2008 - April 13, 2009)
  • Saints and Rabbits: Book Treasures of the Dürer Period (July 10 - October 12, 2008)
  • Revelations: Restored works of art from Riemenschneider to Kremser Schmidt (October 19, 2008 - January 25, 2009)
  • Art and the Cold War: German Positions 1945–1989 (May 28 - September 6, 2009)
  • The very first upset Peter: toy collection of the GNM (July 5 - September 30, 2009)
  • Striking! Product advertising in posters (November 19, 2009 - April 11, 2010)
  • Wonderful worlds of books: Modern printing from Hamburg (December 10, 2009 - April 11, 2010)
  • Myth Castle (July 8th - November 7th 2010)
  • Travel companion: suitcase stories from 1750 to today (December 9, 2010 - May 1, 2011)
  • The Fruit of Promise: Citrus Fruits in Art and Culture (May 19 - September 11, 2011)
  • Johannes Grützke: The Retrospective (November 24, 2011 - April 1, 2012)
  • Gold brocade and rhinestones: studio exhibition in the permanent exhibition Late Middle Ages (March 29 - September 2, 2012)
  • Merian's coronation work The Wonder World of the Tropics (studio exhibition) (February 28, 2012 - February 3, 2013)
  • The early Dürer: The largest Dürer exhibition for 40 years (May 24 - September 2, 2012)
  • Daydreams - Night Thoughts: Fantasy and Fantasticism in Graphics and Photography (October 25, 2012 - February 3, 2013)
  • Wagner - Nuremberg - Meistersinger: Richard Wagner and the real Nuremberg of his time (February 21 - June 2, 2013)
  • Hearty! Mysterious Crafts 1500 - 1800 (March 21 - July 7, 2013)
  • Awakening of Youth: German Youth Movement Between Self-Determination and Seduction (September 26, 2013 - January 19, 2014)
  • Rembrandt: Master of Etching (March 5, 2013 - January 26, 2014)
  • The Gumbertus Bible: Golden Imagery of the Romanesque (May 1 - July 27, 2014)
  • Paths to Modernity: World Exhibitions, Media and Music in the 19th Century (March 27 - September 21, 2014)
  • Exhibition posters 1882–1932 (October 15, 2013 - October 19, 2014)
  • Small-format works of art (January 27, 2014 - January 25, 2015)
  • Seen from above: the bird's eye view (November 20, 2014 - February 22, 2015)
  • The oldest pocket watch in the world? The Henlein watch dispute (December 4, 2014 - April 12, 2015)
  • Monster: Fantastic worlds of images between horror and comedy (May 7th - September 6th 2015)
  • In fashion. Dresses and pictures from the Renaissance and early Baroque periods (December 3, 2015 - March 6, 2016)
  • Between Venus and Luther: Cranach's Media of Seduction (May 21, 2015 - May 22, 2016)
  • Dutch drawings: Newly discovered works from the Germanisches Nationalmuseum (February 18 - May 22, 2016)
  • The Deichsler Altar: Nuremberg Art around 1420 (May 5 - October 23, 2016)
  • Historical models - works of art, media, visions (June 30, 2016 - February 5, 2017)
  • Bavarian-Czech state exhibition "Karl IV." (October 20, 2016 - March 5, 2017)
  • Wartime in the National Museum 1914–1918 (November 24, 2016 - November 26, 2017)
  • Wake up tears in nights: New acquisitions Hannah Höch (December 1, 2016 - January 29, 2017)
  • Luther, Columbus and the Consequences (July 13 - November 12, 2017)
  • Bought - exchanged - stolen? Acquisitions between 1933 and 1945 (October 26, 2017 - June 17, 2018)
  • Peter Behrens. The Nuremberg Intermezzo (November 30, 2017 - May 6, 2018)
  • Light and canvas. Photography and Painting in the 19th Century (May 10, 2018 - September 9, 2018)
  • Richard Riemerschmid. Furniture Stories (June 21, 2018 - January 20, 2019)
  • Luxury in silk. 18th Century Fashion (July 5, 2018 - January 6, 2019)
  • Wanderland. A journey through the history of hiking (November 29, 2018 - April 28, 2019)
  • Heroes, martyrs, saints. Paths to Paradise (April 11, 2019 - October 4, 2020)



The library is at the same time a collection as well as a publicly accessible reference library , the founder 's library ( Aufseß library ) , which is now integrated into the system, formed the basis for this.

In the 19th century, the inventory was built up mainly through free copies from publishers. In the 20th century the willingness to donate decreased more and more. In 1978 the inventory comprised approx. 400,000 volumes; At the end of 2006 there was an increase to over 650,000 volumes and 1695 current journals, 3380 manuscripts, around 1000 incunabula and 3000 prints from the 16th century were also available.

The inventory includes:

The following private collections were loaned to the museum as deposits:

Historical archive

The historical archive is a public study collection. Von Aufseß gave the archive the first place in the museum's departmental structure. It was supposed to take on the task of a German central archive by not so much original documents, but primarily copies and facsimiles of inventories and archive materials (up to 1650). At the time, however, this project was too much for those involved; only the seal cast collection made good progress quickly.

It was soon turned to securing original sources in order to prevent parchment and paper documents from being recycled ( gold leaf maker , paper maker). In doing so, they deliberately did not want to compete with the state archives, but saw themselves primarily as a collecting basin for the loss-endangered transmission of people, families or companies. The archive does not have a section of taxable bodies (with the exception of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum itself), but collects culturally and historically relevant traditions from the entire German-speaking area, for which there is no other tax obligation.

Today the holdings range from rulers' and private documents (since the 10th century) to aristocratic archives such as that of the barons / counts of Wolkenstein-Rodenegg (13th-18th centuries) and parts of imperial city archives, clerical and secular princes and corporations up to the bequests of important personalities and autographs. The sources on the history of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum itself are also important. Some of the holdings are deposits.

Archival bodies that were taken over were usually not dissolved; however, "land consolidations" were primarily undertaken in the 1970s with the aim of transferring scattered individual items and remains to the relevant archives. The usefulness of this approach is disputed today.

The German Bell Archive has also been part of the archive since 1966.

German art archive

The German Art Archive , renamed on January 1, 2008, was founded in 1964 as an archive for fine arts . It houses almost 1,400 literary papers and bequests from artists, art scholars and critics, as well as from institutions such as art associations and written sources from the field of visual arts. The following written bequests should be mentioned:


New additions are announced in the display .

Institute for Art Technology and Conservation

As the restoration department of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, the institute not only looks after the museum's collection, but is also available to third parties and contributes to the museum's research work.

Publishing house of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum

In addition to the “Anzeiger”, between five and ten volumes are now published annually by the in-house publisher. In the case of large publications, for cost reasons and because of better sales opportunities, one often enters into cooperation with specialist publishers .

Art and cultural education center

The Center for Art and Culture Education is located in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum and is supported by the museum and the city of Nuremberg.

Foundation for the promotion of the Germanic National Museum

The Foundation for the Promotion of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum was established with the support of Hypovereinsbank and started work on February 14, 2006. It is hoped to achieve foundation assets of four million euros in the first year. An endowment is possible for everyone from 10,000 euros.

The museum's largest private lender is the Merkel Family Foundation, see the library of the Paul Wolfgang Merkel Family Foundation .

public relation

As part of its public relations work , the Museum u. a. numerous flyers and a program booklet that will appear quarterly from 2004 onwards and, in addition to information about the museum, contain third-party advertising on eight of 48 pages . The program is regularly sent to the more than 5,500 members of the museum.

The twelve-page magazine KulturGUT appears every three months with a print run of 4,500 copies (as of 2007). This booklet is available free of charge in the museum and other locations and is also available as a PDF download. The monthly "Blickpunkt" objects are presented in the KulturGUT , most of which can be seen in the entrance hall.

Museum staff regularly guide visitors through the exhibits. Twice a year, private cultural objects are professionally examined, there is no monetary appraisal.


See also


History and overall representations
  • Bernward Deneke, Rainer Kahsnitz (Ed.): The Germanic National Museum. Nuremberg 1852–1977. Contributions to its history. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-422-00684-2 .
  • Georg Ulrich Großmann (ed.): The Germanic National Museum. Foundation and early days. (= Booklet accompanying the exhibition of the same name from February 14 to November 24, 2002). Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums, Nuremberg 2002, ISBN 3-926982-86-1 .
  • Frank Matthias Kammel , Claudia Selheim (eds.): Wartime in the National Museum 1914–1918 (= cultural-historical walks in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Volume 17; exhibition catalog of the exhibition of the same name from November 24, 2016 to November 26, 2017). Publisher of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-946217-02-2 .
  • Annette Scherer: patrons, donors, donors. The Germanic National Museum and its collections. Contributions by the head of the collection, overall coordination and editing Annette Scherer. (= Cultural-historical walks in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Volume 5 / exhibition catalog of the exhibition of the same name from February 14th to November 24th, 2002). Publisher of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2002, ISBN 978-3-926982-87-2 .
Museum guides and publications on the exhibition collections
  • Rudolf Maria Bergmann: Museum guide Franconia. L & H Verlag, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-928119-29-X , pp. 59-64.
  • Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg (Ed.): Treasury of the Germans. From the collections of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg. Publisher of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 1982, DNB 820676527 .
  • Germanisches Nationalmuseum (Hrsg.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Guide to the collections. Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums, Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 .
  • Christoph Hahn, Siegmar Hohl (ed.): The great museum guide. Collections on art, culture, nature and technology in Germany. Bassermann Verlag, Gütersloh / Munich 2000, ISBN 978-3-8094-5013-9 , pp. 377-380.
  • State office for non-state museums in Bavaria (ed.): Museums in Bavaria - A guide through the Bavarian museum landscape. 6th, completely revised edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin / Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-422-07382-1 , pp. 348-349.
  • Klemens Mörmann (ed.): The German museum guide in color. Museums and collections in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. Book Guild Gutenberg, Frankfurt am Main / Olten / Vienna 1983, DNB 870131540 , pp. 745–747.
  • Tobias Springer, Martin Baumeister, Kathrin Vogelsang: Guide through the pre-history and early history collection of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums, Nuremberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-936688-50-4 .
  • Peter Stepan (ed.): The German museums. Westermann's colored guide through all important museums and collections. Westermann Sachbuch, Braunschweig 1983, ISBN 3-14-508854-8 , pp. 380–384.
  • Jutta Zander-Seidel: Change of clothes. Women's, men's and children's clothing from the 18th to 20th centuries. (= The exhibition collections of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Volume 1). Publisher of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2002, ISBN 3-926982-90-X .
  • Jutta Zander-Seidel, Daniel Hess, Frank Matthias Kammel , Ralf Schürer u. a .: Middle Ages. Art and culture from late antiquity to the 15th century. (= The exhibition collections of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Volume 2). Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums, Nuremberg 2006, ISBN 3-936688-21-4 .
  • Daniel Hess, Dagmar Hirschfelder (eds.): Renaissance.Barock.Elightenment. Art and culture from the 16th to the 18th century. (= The exhibition collections of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Volume 3). Publishing house of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-936688-47-4 .
  • Jutta Zander-Seidel, Anja Kregeloh (Ed.): Historical images . The foundation of the Germanic National Museum and the Middle Ages. (= The exhibition collections of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Volume 4). Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums, Nuremberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-936688-87-0 .
Newer inventory catalogs
  • Kurt Holes: The Paintings of the 16th Century. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern 1997, ISBN 3-7757-0696-8 .
  • Kurt Lochs: The German Paintings of the 16th Century in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Supplements to the inventory catalog. In: Anzeiger des Germanisches Nationalmuseum. 2000, pp. 103-118.
  • Claudia Maué: The sculptures of the 17th and 18th centuries in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum.
  • Andreas Tacke: The paintings of the 17th century in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Verlag Phillip von Zabern, Mainz 1995, ISBN 3-8053-1713-1 .
Special work on the history of the collection
  • Dietrich Hakelberg: Noble tradition and bourgeois national history. Hans von Aufseß and the prehistory of the Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg. In: Heinrich Beck u. a. (Ed.): On the history of the equation "Germanic-German". Language and names, history and institutions. (= Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde - supplementary volumes. Volume 34). de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-017536-3 , pp. 523-576.
  • Birgit Jooss: The German Art Archive in the Germanic National Museum. In: Central Institute for Art History (Ed.): Art Chronicle. Monthly journal for art history, museums and monument preservation. Volume 61, Issue 7. Nuremberg 2008, pp. 346–347.
Periodicals and series
  • Display of the Germanic National Museum . (Yearbook since 1852); Abstracts and table of contents from 1996 onwards. Earlier volumes are also available online .
  • Cultural history walks in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. 1997 ff. (Annual edition for members, 15 volumes up to 2014).
  • KulturGUT. From the research of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. will appear quarterly from April 2004; also online as a PDF .
  • month indicator. Museums and exhibitions in Nuremberg. Published monthly between 1981 and 2004; has been digitized and is also available online .
Catalogs for the special exhibitions
  • Thomas Eser, Stephanie Armer (ed.): Luther, Columbus and the Consequences: World in Transition 1500–1600. (= Catalog of the exhibition of the same name from July 13th to November 12th, 2017). Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums, Nuremberg 2017, ISBN 978-3-946217-06-0 .
  • Daniel Hess, Thomas Eser (ed.): The early Dürer. (= Catalog of the exhibition of the same name from May 24th to September 2nd, 2012). Publishing house of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-59-7 .
  • Jutta Zander-Seidel (Ed.): In fashion. Dresses and pictures from the Renaissance and early Baroque periods. (= Catalog of the exhibition of the same name from December 3, 2015 to March 6, 2016). Publishing house of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-936688-96-2 .

Web links

Commons : Germanisches Nationalmuseum  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Zander Seidel: Drum is the Germanic Museum a national museum , accessed on June 30, 2015.
  2. Nuremberg in figures 2018. (PDF) In: Statistical Office of the City of Nuremberg, accessed on July 6, 2018 .
  3. GNM website Frequently Asked Questions ( accessed July 13, 2013); In 2003, 1.2 million were given.
  4. GNM website We about us ( accessed July 14, 2013)
  5. GNM website Frequently Asked Questions ( accessed July 14, 2013)
  6. GNM website About us , see mission statement ( accessed on July 14, 2013)
  7. Jörn Bahns: The museum buildings from the takeover of the Charterhouse in 1857 to around 1910. In: B. Deneke, R. Kahsnitz (ed.): The Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Nuremberg 1852–1977. 1978, p. 357 ff., Here 358 ff.
  9. a b c Deneke 1978, pp. 81, 86.
  10. Deneke 1978, p. 89.
  11. Deneke 1978, p. 264.
  12. Deneke 1978, p. 266.
  13. Deneke 1978, pp. 275, 281.
  14. Deneke 1978, p. 281.
  15. Deneke 1978, p. 270 f.
  16. Deneke 1978, p. 284.
  17. ^ The art historian Daniel Hess becomes the new General Director of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. WDR, December 20, 2018.
  56. ;
  76. a b Collection of Prehistory and Early History. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on August 3, 2016 .
  77. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, p. 25th f .
  78. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 28-29 .
  79. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg, p. 33 f .
  80. Collection: Old Jurisdiction. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 27, 2016 .
  81. a b c Collection Skulptur bis 1800. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on August 3, 2016 .
  82. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2001, ISBN 3-926982-77-2 , p. 56 .
  83. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2001, ISBN 3-926982-77-2 , p. 75 .
  84. a b c 20th century collection. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  85. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 189 .
  86. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 192 f .
  87. a b c Graphic Collection. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 21, 2016 .
  88. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, p. 217 .
  89. ^ Stefan Lieser: Cologne, the city of music? A musical instrument museum is to be built. In: Guitar & Lute. 8, 1986, No. 1, pp. 28-35; here: p. 31.
  90. a b c Collection of musical instruments. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 27, 2016 .
  91. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 143 .
  92. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 145 f .
  93. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 143 f .
  94. Coin Cabinet. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 27, 2016 .
  95. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 218 .
  96. Collection of toys. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  97. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 207 .
  98. Collection of toys. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  99. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 207 .
  100. Collection of toys. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  101. Eckart Roloff , Karin Henke-Wendt: A clever composition of medicine, pharmacy and craft. (The Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg) In: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 2: Southern Germany. Verlag S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-7776-2511-9 , pp. 129-130.
  102. According to doubts that soon emerged and the latest research - according to the museum director's statement (Deutschlandfunk, December 4, 2014) - a conglomerate from historicism.
  103. ↑ Your Highness had them packed up. Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  104. ^ Hirsch, Robert (von). In: Frankfurter Personenlexikon. Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  105. GNM object catalog; Armilla with depiction of the crucifixion (Armilla). In: Germanic National Museum Nuremberg. Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
  107. Trade Museum and Design. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 27, 2016 .
  108. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 181 .
  109. Anniversary exhibition: 150 Years of the Bavarian Trade Museum : Germanisches Nationalmuseum , accessed on July 8, 2019.
  110. Trade Museum and Design. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 27, 2016 .
  111. Trade Museum and Design. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 27, 2016 .
  112. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Guide through the collections, p. 262 f.
  113. a b Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Guide through the collections, p. 248 f.
  114. Textiles & Jewelry Collection. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  115. Textiles & Jewelry Collection. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  116. Textiles & Jewelry Collection. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, accessed on July 28, 2016 .
  117. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum (ed.): Germanisches Nationalmuseum - Guide through the collections . Nuremberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-936688-67-2 , pp. 152 .
  118. Inventory of the GNM
  119. GNM website library (accessed February 27, 2019)
  120. GNM website historical archive : usage and holdings (accessed on February 27, 2019)
  121. Claus Pese: More than just art. The archive for fine arts in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Ostfildern-Ruit, 1998, pp. 136-145
  122. GNM website Deutsches Kunstarchiv (accessed February 27, 2019)
  123. a b Overview of all issues of KulturGUT , ( accessed July 27, 2016)
  124. ( Memento of the original from November 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed January 1, 2007) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  125. Overview page on heiJOURNALS. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .
  126. Overview page on heiJOURNALS. Retrieved July 27, 2016 .
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on February 24, 2008 .