Otto Dix

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Otto Dix around 1933 (photograph by Hugo Erfurth )

Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (* December 2, 1891 in Untermhaus , today a district of Gera ; † July 25, 1969 in Singen am Hohentwiel ) was an important German painter and graphic artist of the 20th century.

Otto Dix's work is characterized by stylistic diversity, but remains committed to realism in its basic artistic attitude . The best known are those of his paintings that are assigned to the New Objectivity ( Verism ).


Childhood and youth

Otto-Dix-Haus in Gera: the painter's birthplace, museum since 1991

Otto Dix was born in the municipality of Untermhaus near Gera as the son of Ernst Franz Dix (1862–1942) and his wife Pauline Louise Amann (1864–1953). His father worked as a moulder in an iron foundry . The mother, a seamstress , was interested in music and art. Otto Dix, who always saw himself as a working class child, grew up in simple, but not penniless and by no means uneducated circumstances.

After the drawing teacher Ernst Schunke had encouraged him during his school days , Dix completed an apprenticeship with the Gera decorative painter Carl Senff from 1905 to 1909 . A scholarship from Prince von Reuss enabled him to study at the Dresden School of Applied Arts (1910–1914) with professors Johann Nikolaus Türk (1872–1942) and Richard Guhr, among others . He dealt with the history of painting and studied the old masters in the Dresden picture gallery ; parallel to this he created late impressionist and expressionist works. Even before the First World War, he turned to the avant-garde and experimented with cubist and futuristic forms.

First World War and Weimar Republic

Dix enlisted in the First World War as a volunteer for military service. He was used in the field artillery and as a machine gunner on the western and eastern fronts. His last rank was vice sergeant . During the war, futuristic drawings and gouaches were created that deal with aspects of the war.

After returning to Dresden , he began studying at the Academy of Fine Arts , not least for pragmatic and financial reasons; As a master student of Otto Gussmann , he was able to move into a free studio in the Polytechnic School on Antonsplatz in the summer of 1919 . At the same time he acted as a freelance artist: As a founding member of the Dresden Secession Group in 1919 , he participated in group exhibitions in Dresden and throughout Germany. Since 1919 he was in contact with the Berlin Dadaists . In 1919/20 he created Dada paintings with collage elements, moving pictures and Dada dolls; In 1920 he took part in the First International Dada Fair . In the following years he created his main work, the trenches , the most important war and anti-war image of his time.

In the autumn of 1922, after the regular loss of his Dresden free studio , Dix moved to Düsseldorf , where he received a master class studio from Heinrich Nauen at the local academy . The workshop manager Wilhelm Herberholz taught Dix in graphic techniques. In 1923 he married Martha Koch, born four years his junior. Lindner (1895–1985), whom he had met in 1921. She was divorced from the urologist Hans Koch and had two children.

Dix moved around the gallery owner Johanna Ey and joined the artists' association Das Junge Rheinland . In 1923 , Hans Friedrich Secker bought the trench for the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum , which became the sensation of the newly opened Neue Galerie. Violent discussions about its political tendencies now dominated the feature pages. In 1924 - on the occasion of the anti-war year - the painting was exhibited in the Prussian Academy of the Arts . On the same occasion, the art dealer Carl Nierendorf published Dix's graphic portfolio Der Krieg with fifty etchings.

In 1925 Dix moved to Berlin; That year he also took part in the traveling exhibition Neue Sachlichkeit , which gave the new realistic tendencies in painting its title. His work was to decisively shape the art direction. The year 1926 recorded two important solo exhibitions: in the Neumann-Nierendorf Gallery in Berlin and in the Thannhauser Gallery in Munich . He was also prominently represented at the International Art Exhibition in Dresden, a forerunner of the documenta in Kassel . After meeting Arno Breker in 1926 at his art dealer Alfred Flechtheim in Berlin, Breker designed a portrait bust of Dix.

Otto Dix around 1929 (photograph by Hugo Erfurth)

From 1927 to 1933 Dix held a professorship at the Art Academy in Dresden , meanwhile he was also part of the extended board of directors of the German Association of Artists . After a series of large-format portraits, the triptych Großstadt was created in 1927/28 , and in 1932 he completed the triptych The War . In 1930 Dix became a member of the Prussian Academy of the Arts.

National Socialism

After the seizure of power of the Nazis in 1933 Dix was one of the first art professors who were fired, and the recently previously registered to him Property in Unterbilk was foreclosed. Dix initially tried to stay in Dresden as a freelance painter; there, for example, the old master's painting The Seven Deadly Sins was created . Before the defamation of National Socialist artists, however, he withdrew to southern Germany in the autumn of 1933. He first lived in Randegg Castle , which is owned by Dr. Hans Koch was, and from 1936 in his own house in Hemmenhofen on Lake Constance. He drew and painted the landscape of the Hegau and the shore landscape of the Untersee on the ( Höri peninsula ). He remained in the German art scene until 1936, even exhibiting in Berlin and at the last annual exhibition of the subsequently banned German Artists Association in July 1936 at the Hamburger Kunstverein . In 1937, many of his works were shown by the National Socialists in the Munich propaganda exhibition " Degenerate Art " and defamed as "painted military sabotage ", among other things . Dix was no longer allowed to be exhibited: 260 of his works were subsequently confiscated from German museums. Two weeks after the attack on Adolf Hitler in Munich's Bürgerbräukeller , the Gestapo temporarily imprisoned Otto Dix in 1939. Dix then withdrew into internal emigration , but continued to receive private assignments. For example, he painted a depiction of Saint Christopher for the owner of the Köstritz black beer brewery in the style of the old masters . Dix was often a guest in Chemnitz during this time, where two families, namely those of the dentist Köhler and those of the margarine manufacturers Max and Fritz Niescher, supported him with invitations, commissioned works and the purchase of works. In Albstadt-Ebingen, the industrial couple Walther Groz and Lore Groz also supported him by purchasing pictures.

In 1945 Dix was drafted into the Volkssturm and was taken prisoner by the French . He was taken to a camp in Colmar in Alsace , where many of the 6,000 prisoners died. When it was discovered who he was, Dix was allowed to work as an artist in the camp. In February 1946 he returned to Hemmenhofen.

Post War and Death

Otto Nagel congratulates Otto Dix (right) on his appointment as a corresponding member of the German Academy of the Arts , 1957

In 1945 Dix turned from the old master's glaze painting back to modern all-prima painting and returned to the expressionist painting style of his early days. After 1945, Dix remained an outsider in the more and more distant German states, also artistically: he could neither identify with the socialist realism of the GDR nor with the abstract post-war art of the FRG. Nevertheless, he received high recognition and numerous honors in both countries. Much of the late work is characterized by Christian themes.

After the war, Dix regularly stayed in Dresden for work. He had a studio there and had his lithographs printed in the screen printing shop for fine arts. In Dresden he also had his "second family", Käthe König and their daughter Katharina (* 1939). His wife Martha continued to live with their three children in the big house in Hemmenhofen. When in the year 1949 in relation to the re-occupation of a vacant painting professor at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart from Willi Baumeister , the name Otto Dix was taken to the proposal and the Academy Senate required the submission of work samples, Dix refused decided.

In 1959 he received the Great Federal Cross of Merit and the Cornelius Prize from the city of Düsseldorf. In 1950 he was unsuccessfully proposed by the Gera Culture Association for the GDR National Prize.

In the sixties Dix organized numerous exhibitions and received honors and prizes in both parts of Germany. On the occasion of his 75th birthday, he was made an honorary citizen of Gera in 1966 and was awarded the Lichtwark Prize in Hamburg and the Martin Andersen Nexö Art Prize in Dresden in 1967 . In 1967 he also received the Hans Thoma Prize and in 1968 the Rembrandt Prize of the Goethe Foundation in Salzburg.

Dix died on July 25, 1969 after a second stroke in Singen am Hohentwiel. His grave is in Hemmenhofen on Lake Constance.

The Dix couple had three children: their daughter Nelly (1923–1955) and their sons Ursus (1927–2002) and Jan (1928–2019).

Works (selection)

Exhibitions (selection)

Museums and Estate

Dix is ​​considered an excellent draftsman and left behind more than 6000 drawings and sketches . The most extensive collections of works can be found in the Stuttgart Art Museum and the Gunzenhauser Museum in Chemnitz . The Albstadt Gallery owns the world's largest inventory of works on paper .

The written estate has been in the German Art Archive in the Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg since 1976 . The picture estate is in the archive of the Otto Dix Foundation in Bevaix (Switzerland).

The studio and residential house in Hemmenhofen on the Höri peninsula on Lake Constance, where the painter and draftsman lived and worked from 1936 to 1969, was sold to the association with the non-profit Otto Dix Haus Foundation , which was established in December 2009 . The operation was taken over as Museum Haus Dix by the Kunstmuseum Stuttgart as a branch. The city of Stuttgart , the municipality of Gaienhofen , the district of Konstanz and sponsors made a total of 1.5 million euros available to save the house, which was in dire need of renovation. The house was last owned by the artist's granddaughter, Bettina Dix-Pfefferkorn.

In 2011 four previously lost watercolors emerged from the painter's estate, including the watercolors Nachtens and Soubrette . A year earlier, a preliminary study of the Winter's Tale , which had been missing since 1933 , had been discovered.

In December 2012, on the occasion of renovation work, six large-scale murals by the painter were discovered in a basement room in his house in Hemmenhofen used as a library. These are drawings that Dix created for a carnival festival on February 19, 1966. They represent a monster with trumpet trunks, a jazz band and figures from the Alemannic Carnival like the Hansele . There are also scenes from the film Des Pudels Kern (1958) with Alec Guinness . So far only smaller paintings in the corridor of the cellar, which were created for the same occasion, were known.

In November 2013 it became known that a previously unknown self-portrait by Dix had also been discovered at the Schwabing art find .


  • In honor of the artist, Gera Otto-Dix-Stadt is called . Also carries since 2008, a train of Gera tramway his name. Since 1992 in Gera, named after Otto Dix Otto Dix Prize awarded.
  • Deutsche Post issued a postage stamp on the occasion of Otto Dix's 125th birthday (date of first issue November 2, 2016, value 85 ct, motif: excerpt from the painting “ To Beauty ” from 1922.)
  • The last 20 euro collector's coin in the Federal Republic of Germany appeared on November 3, 2016. It is dedicated to the artist Otto Dix, who would have been 125 years old this year.


  • Marion Ackermann (Ed.): Met. Otto Dix and the art of the portrait. Texts: Daniel Spanke. Exhibition catalog Kunstmuseum Stuttgart 2007. Dumont, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-8321-9057-6 .
  • Rainer Beck : Otto Dix. 1891-1969. Time, life, work. Stadler, Konstanz 1993.
  • Rainer Beck: Otto Dix. The cosmic images. Between “longing” and “pregnant woman”. Verlag der Kunst (Philo Fine Arts), Dresden 2003, ISBN 3-364-00389-0 .
  • Nicole Bröhan: Otto Dix. (= Berlin heads. Volume 7). Jaron, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-89773-126-4 .
  • Art collection Gera (Ed.): Exhibition catalog Otto Dix retrospective. For the 120th birthday. 2011, ISBN 978-3-910051-59-1
  • Frédérique Goerig-Hergott (Ed.), Otto Dix (Illustrator): Otto Dix - Isenheimer Altar. Work title: Otto Dix - Le Retable d'Issenheim , Verlag Belser and Musée Unterlinden Stuttgart and Colmar 2016, exhibition ' Otto Dix - Isenheimer Altar ', October 8, 2016 to January 30, 2017, Musée Unterlinden Colmar, ISBN 978-3-7630 -2777-4 .
  • Arie Goral : Around and around Dix - documents from 50 years. Printing center at the University of Hamburg, Hamburg 1977.
  • Philipp Gutbrod: Otto Dix. Art of living. Ostfildern 2009, ISBN 978-3-7757-2275-9 .
  • Birgit Jooss : “Sweet sweetheart and sweet darling” - Otto Dix's letters to Käte and Katharina Koenig in Dresden . In: Anzeiger des Germanisches Nationalmuseums 2014 . Edited by G. Ulrich Großmann, Nürnberg 2015, pp. 127–144.
  • Eva Karcher: Otto Dix - 1891 1969 - life and work. Cologne 1988, ISBN 3-8228-0071-6 .
  • Florian Karsch: Otto Dix. The graphic work. Text: Hans Kinkel. Hanover 1970.
  • Fritz Löffler : Otto Dix. Life and work. Dresden 1960, new edition 1970
  • Fritz Löffler: Otto Dix 1891–1969. Oeuvre of paintings. Recklinghausen 1981.
  • Fritz Löffler: Otto Dix. Images of the Bible. Union Verlag, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-372-00055-2 . (With bibliography, catalog and picture index and picture credits)
  • Ulrike Lorenz : Otto Dix. The catalog raisonné of the drawings and pastels. Print edition and database on DVD. Publishing house and database for the humanities (VDG), Weimar.
  • Ulrike Lorenz: Dix avant Dix. The youth and early work 1909–1914. Glaux, Jena 2002, ISBN 3-931743-36-5 .
  • Ulrike Lorenz (Ed.), Edited by Gudrun Schmidt: Otto Dix. Letters. Wienand Verlag, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-86832-163-0 .
  • Ulrike Lorenz u. a .: Violencia y pasión. Exhibition catalog June 16, 2016 to September 18, 2016 Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey, October 11, 2016 to January 15, 2017 Museo National de Arte Mexico City, Verlag Goethe-Institut Munich and Ciudad de Mexico 2016, ISBN 978-3- 945048-19-1 .
  • Wolfgang Maier-Preusker : Otto Dix. In: Books and portfolios with graphics of German Expressionism. Maier-Preusker, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-900208-37-9 .
  • Ina Neddermeyer, Claudia Emmert: Otto Dix - I have to see everything! Exhibition catalog December 2, 2016 to April 17, 2017 Zeppelin Museum Friedrichshafen, Hatje Cautz Verlag Berlin 2016.
  • Olaf Peters : Otto Dix: the intrepid look; a biography. Reclam, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-15-010938-0 .
  • Suse Pfäffle: Otto Dix. Catalog raisonné of watercolors and gouaches. Stuttgart 1991.
  • Ulrike Rüdiger: Greetings from the war - field postcards from the Otto Dix collection. Art gallery Gera, Gera 1991, ISBN 3-910051-03-0 .
  • Diether Schmidt: Otto Dix in a self-portrait. Berlin 1981.
  • Dietrich Schubert. Otto Dix - The War. 50 etchings from 1924. Jonas, Marburg 2002.
  • Birgit Schwarz: Works by Otto Dix. Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe 1986, ISBN 3-925212-01-9 .
  • Birgit Schwarz, Michael Viktor Schwarz: Dix and Beckmann. Style as an option and fate. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1996, ISBN 3-8053-1744-1 .
  • Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden , Birgit Dalbajewa, Simone Fleischer, Olaf Peters (eds.): Otto Dix. The War - The Dresden Triptych . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2014, ISBN 978-3-95498-073-4 .
  • Stiftung Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (publisher) with the participation of Susanne Meyer-Büser (curator): Otto Dix - The Evil Eye , Prestel Munich, London, NYC 2017, exhibition catalog Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, February 11, 2017 to May 14, 2017 : Düsseldorf K20; Tate Liverpool 23rd June 2017 to 15th October 2017: Liverpool. With DVD. ISBN 978-3-941773-41-7 .
  • Andreas Strobl : Otto Dix. A painting career in the twenties. D. Reimer, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-496-01145-9 .
  • Ilka Voermann (ed.): The eye of the world. Otto Dix and the New Objectivity. Exhibition catalog Kunstmuseum Stuttgart 2012. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern 2012, ISBN 978-3-7757-3439-4 .
  • Dix, Otto in: Hans Vollmer (Hrsg.): General Lexicon of Fine Artists of the XX. Century. First volume (A – D) , EA Seemann, Leipzig 1999 (study edition). ISBN 3-363-00730-2 . (P. 571f)
  • Änne Söll : The New Man? Male portraits by Otto Dix, Christian Schad and Anton Räderscheidt : 1914–1930 , Wilhelm Fink Paderborn 2016.
  • Gerd Presler: Otto Dix - "Trust your eyes!" in: Splendor and misery of the 20s. The painting of the New Objectivity. dumont Tb 285, Cologne 1992, pp. 44-51 ISBN 3-7701-2825-7


  • Ulla Spörl: The boy from Untermhaus. Childhood and youth of Otto Dix. Novel. Verlag Der Neue Morgen, Rudolstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-942460-22-4 .
  • Ulla Spörl: The cornfield on the clay pit. Student years, frontline work & creative heyday of Otto Dix. Novel. Verlag Der Neue Morgen, Rudolstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-95480-084-1 .
  • Ulla Spörl: Escape from brown men. National Socialist persecution & inner emigration of Otto Dix. Novel. Greifenverlag, Weimar 2016, ISBN 978-3-946553-62-5 .
  • Ulla Spörl: To the goal through ripe grain. Late work and retirement of Otto Dix. Novel. Greifenverlag, Weimar 2016.



  • Otto Dix - the relentless painter. Documentary, Germany, 2016, 53 min., Book: Nicola Graef and Susanne Brand , director: Nicola Graef, production: Lona Media.
  • The painter Otto Dix - trust your eyes. Documentary, Germany, 2014, 29:50 min., Book: Inga Wolfram and Helge Trimpert , director: Inga Wolfram, production: telekult, MDR , series: CVs, first broadcast: 4th September 2014 on MDR, synopsis by MDR ( Memento vom September 5, 2014 in the web archive ).
  • The painter Otto Dix. (Alternative title: Dix fois dix. ) Documentary, Canada, Germany, 2010, 56 min., Director: Jennifer Alleyn, production: NDR , arte , Ici ARTV (Canada), first broadcast: November 7, 2011 by arte, summary by arte.
    The film won the Prix ​​Tremplin pour le monde ARTV at the 29th Festival International du Film sur l'art (FIFA).
  • Otto Dix - The Eye of the World. (Alternative title: Otto Dix - The painter is the Eyes Of The World. ) Documentation, BR Germany, 1989, 58 min., Script and director: Reiner E. Moritz , production: Poorhouse Productions, RTBF , Sept, Südwestfunk , film data from WorldCat . DVD distribution: Arthaus Musik , 2008, ISBN 978-3-939873-12-9 , table of contents .


Web links

Commons : Otto Dix  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Theo Piegler: Ernst Schunke . In: Association for Vogtland History, Folklore and Regional Studies e. V. (Ed.): Famous Vogtlanders . B 1. Plauen 1997, p. 91 .
  2. Helga Meister: Museum Kunst Palast: Evil dance of the gas masks , on, accessed on November 23, 2015.
  3. Full members of the German Association of Artists since it was founded in 1903 / Dix, Otto ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. at, accessed on March 10, 2016. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. Foreclosure on February 20, 1934, Mühlenstrasse 34 court office: 3rd registered owner on November 3, 1933 Otto Dix, painter in Düsseldorf, a) residential building, b) workshop, c) rear building, Konkordiastrasse 94 a / b in public gazette no. 1, Düsseldorf, Saturday January 6, 1934.
  5. 1936 forbidden pictures , exhibition catalog for the 34th annual exhibition of the DKB in Bonn, Deutscher Künstlerbund, Berlin 1986 (p. 38/39: Otto Dix).
  6. Lars Neuenfeld: Unlifted Treasure - Dix-Jahr reveals amazing things , interview with Thomas Bauer-Friedrich (curator of the Gunzenhauser Museum), in: 371 Stadtmagazin 5/2011, accessed on March 22, 2017.
  7. Mirko Krüger: The master of death . Thuringian newspaper, February 9, 2017.
  8. Birgit Jooss: Sweet sweetheart and sweet sweetheart - Otto Dix 'letters to Käte and Katharina Koenig in Dresden . In: Anzeiger des Germanisches Nationalmuseums 2014 . Edited by G. Ulrich Großmann, Nürnberg 2015, pp. 127–144.
  9. I stand in front of the landscape like a cow ,, June 15, 2013, accessed on November 29, 2014.
  10. Wolfgang Kermer : Data and images on the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart . Stuttgart: Edition Cantz, 1988 (= improved reprint from: The State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart: a self-portrayal . Stuttgart: Edition Cantz, 1988), o. P. [11]. Manfred Henninger came on the spot .
  11. Werner Rudolf: The painter Otto Dix and the Riesengebirge., 2005, accessed on June 22, 2013 .
  12. ^ Cornelius Prize 1959: Prof. Otto Dix (painter), Hemmenhofen; Prof. Ludwig Gies (sculptor), Cologne , in the administrative report of the state capital Düsseldorf from April 1, 1959 to December 31, 1960, p. 154.
  13. Otto Dix's grave in the Hemmenhofen cemetery.
  14. Dix's “Sunrise” again in Dresden on ( Memento from February 1, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  15. ^ Richard Franz, Norbert Berghof (Red.): Special folder examples of art in persecution: "Degenerate Art" - Exhibition 1937 in Munich . 18 examples. and supplement: life data and personal testimonials. Neckar, Villingen 1987, without ISBN.
  16. ^ The municipal art collection had bought the portrait of Eulenberg in 1925 for 2000.00 marks. The picture was sent from Düsseldorf to Munich in July 1937 for the Degenerate Art exhibition.
  17. ^ The municipal art collection had bought the portrait of Radziwill in 1928 for 1,500.00 marks. The picture was sent from Düsseldorf to Munich in July 1937 for the Degenerate Art exhibition. Today the Museum Kunstpalast collection is back in stock.
  18. ^ Zeppelin Museum - Otto Dix., accessed on December 15, 2015 .
  19. See Wolfgang Sofsky : The victor of the great slaughter was the mud - "Flanders" was Otto Dix's last picture of the First World War. FAZ, November 11, 1998.
  20. ^ Inge Herold, Ulrike Lorenz: Private Passions. Collecting in Mannheim. 1st edition. Kehrer, Heidelberg, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86828-268-9 (on the occasion of the exhibition of the same name in the Kunsthalle Mannheim from November 27, 2011 to February 26, 2012).
  21. Milan Chlumsky: Unconditional love . In: Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung . No. 289 , December 14, 2012, p. 13 ( Online: newspaper article by Milan Chlumsky, text no. 47 [accessed June 24, 2013]).
  22. ^ Catalog of the Deutscher Künstlerbund 1950. First exhibition in Berlin 1951, in the rooms of the Bild University. Arts, Hardenbergstr. 33 , complete production: Brüder Hartmann, Berlin 1951 (without page numbers; catalog number 35, with illustration).
  23. ^ Reference painting by Fritz Perl
  24. ^ New Objectivity in Dresden - Painting of the Twenties from Dix ​​to Querner. (No longer available online.), archived from the original on May 30, 2013 ; Retrieved June 24, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  25. ^ Information from the Chemnitz Art Collections (PDF; 606 kB).
  26. ^ Announcement on the exhibition , accessed on August 3, 2014.
  27. (October 10, 2016).
  28. , October 8, 2016, Sabine Glaubitz, dpa: Otto Dix in Colmar: Fascination in front of boldness ( memento of the original from October 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (October 10, 2016). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  29. , October 10, 2016, Hans-Dieter Fronz: “A work of unheard-of boldness” (October 10, 2016).
  31. Alexandra Matzner: Otto Dix - The evil eye. Society analyzes , portraits and “The War” ,, accessed on February 8, 2017.
  32. The Otto Dix House., March 31, 2009, accessed June 22, 2013 .
  33. The home of the great painter - Otto Dix House on Lake Constance can now be renovated., July 1, 2010, accessed on June 22, 2013 .
  34. Adrienne Braun: Soon again "nice to suck up". (No longer available online.), April 28, 2009, archived from the original on March 13, 2012 ; Retrieved June 22, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  35. State Gazette No. 12 of April 3, 2009, p. 31.
  36. Lost watercolors by Otto Dix reappeared., August 30, 2011, accessed on June 22, 2013 .
  37. According to the museum and the Otto Dix Foundation.
  38. Dix paintings discovered: Hidden behind book shelves., December 19, 2012, accessed June 22, 2013 .
  39. Figure
  40. Münchner Kunstfund: They are previously unknown masterpieces. on, accessed on March 22, 2017.
  41. Jennifer Alleyn: ( Page no longer available , search in web archives: Dix fois dix ) ( The painter Otto Dix ), on, accessed on September 5, 2014 (French).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  42. Ulrike Bajohr: The two worlds of Otto Dix. on, accessed on March 22, 2017.