Northern German Radio

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Northern German Radio
Station logo
NDR umbrella brand.svg
General information
Seat: Hamburg
Intendant: Joachim Knuth
Radio: NDR 90,3
NDR 1 Niedersachsen
NDR 1 Welle Nord
NDR 1 Radio MV
NDR Kultur
NDR Info
NDR Info Spezial
NDR Blue
NDR Plus
Watch TV: NDR television
Sound body: NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchester
NDR Radiophilharmonie
NDR Chor
NDR Bigband
Legal form: Institute of public right
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About this picture

The North German Radio ( NDR ) is a joint state broadcasting company for the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and the countries Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein . The seat is in Hamburg.

The NDR was created in 1954 when the NWDR was split into NDR and WDR . On April 1, 1956, he began broadcasting. It is a member of the ARD and has the legal form of a non-profit institution under public law . At the end of 2015, NDR had a total of 3,426.5 employees (permanent positions). With the Hamburg Harbor Concert , founded by NORAG in 1929 , NDR 90.3 broadcasts the oldest existing radio program in Germany on Sunday from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m.

Locations of the NDR

Administration and radio of the NDR in Hamburg-Harvestehude

In Hamburg, the NDR is spread over two locations, television in Lokstedt , radio and the administration on Rothenbaumchaussee in Harvestehude . In the state capitals of Hanover , Kiel and Schwerin as well as in Hamburg there are state broadcasting houses for radio and television, which mainly create regional programs for the respective state. In addition, the NDR has regional studios and correspondent offices in several cities in its broadcasting area:

In addition, the NDR operates the ARD foreign studios in London , Stockholm , Beijing , Tokyo and Singapore . He is also involved in the ARD capital studio in Berlin and in the ARD studios in Moscow , Warsaw , Brussels , Washington, DC , New York City and Los Angeles .

The NDR also produces ARD-aktuell in Hamburg-Lokstedt . The joint facility of the ARD broadcasters publishes the news programs Tagesschau , Tagesthemen , Nachtmagazin , tagesschau24 and the online portal .


Former reform synagogue in Oberstrasse , Hamburg, Rolf Liebermann studio of the NDR
Entrance to the NDR television site in Hamburg-Lokstedt

The NDR currently produces the following television and radio programs either alone or in collaboration with other radio or television companies:

watch TV


  • NDR 90.3 - state program for Hamburg
  • NDR 1 Lower Saxony - State program for Lower Saxony from the Landesfunkhaus Hannover with strong regional reporting, oldies, pop and German cult hits
  • NDR 1 Welle Nord - State program for Schleswig-Holstein from the Landesfunkhaus Kiel with partial regionalization, hits, oldies and German-language music
  • NDR 1 Radio MV - state program for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania from the state radio station Schwerin with partial regionalization
  • NDR 2 - pop wave. NDR 2 is the only NDR radio program to broadcast commercials
  • NDR Kultur (formerly NDR 3, or Radio3 as a limited cooperation with SFB and ORB) - Classical-dominated cultural program
  • NDR Info (formerly NDR 4 or NDR 4 Info) - information radio with news (during the day), culture (at night)
  • NDR Info Special - Extended version of NDR Info with sea weather reports, foreigner programs and sports broadcasts
  • N-Joy (formerly N-Joy Radio) - youth radio
  • NDR Blue - music program with music outside the mainstream
  • NDR Plus - Schlager radio

Sound body of the NDR

The NDR has four orchestras of its own in the "Orchestra, Choir and Concerts" department, which is subordinate to the "Radio Program Directorate" :

The orchestra was founded in Hamburg in 1945 as the "Sinfonieorchester des NWDR" and was continued from 1955 to 2016 by the NDR as the "NDR Sinfonieorchester". In 2016 the name was changed to NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchester . Chief conductors were u. a. Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt , Günter Wand , John Eliot Gardiner , Christoph Eschenbach , Christoph von Dohnányi and Thomas Hengelbrock .
The orchestra, founded in 1950 as the “Rundfunkorchester Hannover des NWDR”, has been called “NDR Radiophilharmonie” since 2003. Chief conductors were u. a. Willy Steiner , Bernhard Klee and Eiji Ōue . For cross-genre concerts, the orchestra also performs under the name "NDR Pops Orchestra".
The choir was founded in 1946 by the then NWDR in Hamburg and has had its current name since 1955; he is particularly committed to early music , but also devotes himself to contemporary music.
Founded in 1945 by the then NWDR, it has been continued by the NDR in Hamburg since 1955. It has had its current name since 1971. Previously it was called "NDR-Studioband".


Under the address the NDR operates a website . The online offer is the responsibility of the Online & Multimedia program area, which is assigned to the radio (leading) and television program directors. News, sports, advice, entertainment and culture news are posted on the website.

Transmitter network

Norddeutscher Rundfunk operates its own network in Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg to broadcast its radio and television programs. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, these services are provided by the company Uplink Network GmbH on behalf of and for the account of the NDR .

There are 16 locations of basic network transmitters (NDR designation, possibly location / municipality):

In addition, there are a large number of NDR's own filling stations and stations of the German radio tower , which are operated on behalf of and for the account of the NDR.

Other facilities


The beginning until 1945

In 1924, " Nordische Rundfunk AG " (NORAG) was founded in Hamburg and began broadcasting on May 2, 1924. In May 1925, the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft (RRG), which NORAG also joined , was established in Berlin as the umbrella organization for the regional broadcasting companies in the German Reich . Since 1928 the programs have been produced in the Rothenbaumchaussee in Hamburg. In 1933 the Nordische Rundfunk AG was converted into the "Norddeutsche Rundfunk GmbH". After the seizure of power of the NSDAP regional companies to branches of the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft were. From April 1, 1934, the previous names were based on the scheme: Reichssender (headquarters) unified and North German Broadcasting became the Reichssender Hamburg . He was part of the German unity broadcast, which broadcast from January 1, 1939 under the name Großdeutscher Rundfunk .

NWDR time

Logo of the NWDR

A few days before the German surrender , the British Army took over the Reichsender Hamburg on May 4, 1945, which initially continued to broadcast as "Radio Hamburg".

On September 22, 1945, under the control of the British military government, the " Northwest German Broadcasting " (NWDR) became the common broadcaster for the entire British zone, including Berlin. The main transmitter location was Hamburg. In Cologne there was another radio station (Dagobertstrasse 38), which was badly damaged by the war and which was able to provisionally start broadcasting on September 26, 1945. From here the institute broadcast its one-hour program on its own. From 1 January 1946, which began simulcast of the station Langenberg with the station Hamburg-Moorfleet and from mid-August 1946, nor the Berlin NWDR integrated. The NWDR was handed over by the military government on December 30, 1947 and, through the Broadcasting Act, became an institution under public law for the states of Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, North Rhine-Westphalia and Berlin. The leadership of the NWDR remained British, however, because the first director general was from January 1, 1948 Hugh Carleton Greene , the chief controller of the BBC.

Two orchestras were founded in 1945 and 1946, the symphony orchestra with its conductor Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt and the radio orchestra with its conductor Walter Martin , who directed it until his death in 1964. It was then dissolved or integrated into the Hannover broadcasting orchestra, which had existed since 1950.

The NWDR initially only broadcast one program (later NWDR 1). From 1950, two regional radio programs followed UKW , UKW Nord (later NDR 2) and UKW West (later WDR 2). In the same year the NWDR was a founding member of the ARD. Two years later (1952) the NWDR was largely responsible for the restart of television in Germany .

On June 1, 1954, the newly founded broadcaster Free Berlin (SFB) left the NWDR to broadcast independent programs for West Berlin. In the same year, the joint TV program of the ARD started.

NDR as a three-country institution

In February 1955, the states of Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and North Rhine-Westphalia reorganized broadcasting in their respective states. As a result, the NWDR was split into two independent broadcasters, the "Norddeutsche Rundfunk", based in Hamburg, was to organize radio broadcasts for the states of Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein and the " Westdeutsche Rundfunk ", based in Cologne, for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

On January 1, 1956, the two new broadcasters started their own radio broadcasts. From April 1, 1956, the " North and West German Broadcasting Association " (NWRV) took over the television sector until 1961. Then both broadcasters were also responsible for their respective broadcasting areas in the television sector.

From 1956, the NDR initially broadcast two radio programs, NDR / WDR 1 and NDR 2, and contributed its share to the ARD community program of German television. The first radio program was organized together with the WDR until the end of 1980, with a weekly change. In the first week, NDR broadcast from 5 a.m. to 3 p.m., WDR then took over the rest of the day. In the second week it was the other way around. The common roots in the NWDR can still be found in the radio programs of NDR and WDR. One of the oldest time radio broadcasts on German radio, the Echo of the Day , is still organized in weekly alternation between NDR and WDR and can be heard simultaneously on NDR Info and WDR 5. The same applies to Mondays to Saturdays between 1:05 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. with the midday echo broadcast and between 11:30 p.m. to midnight with the broadcasts from today , the latter even still using the old theme tune Wade in the water of the Ramsey Lewis trio is introduced or announced (in the weekly changing NDR version, the old voiceover announcing the broadcast has been left as it is!). The editorial change takes place in such a way that if one state broadcaster is editorially responsible for the midday echo and the echo of the day , the other designs today's reports . In an occasional change, information channels from other state broadcasting corporations also take over the broadcasting reports from today , such as Radio Bremen and, until recently, also the Saarland broadcasting company.

On December 1, 1956, the NDR started its third radio program NDR 3, which was hosted together with the SFB from 1962 to 1973.

On January 4, 1965, the NDR, together with Radio Bremen and the SFB, started broadcasting their own “ Third TV Program ” (initially as “III. TV program of the Nordkette” (“The Third” for short), later N3 (which stands for North 3) )), which was soon expanded into a full program in the sense of broadcasting law and can now also be received via satellite in almost all of Europe. The Kiel studio began broadcasting in Kiel Castle on April 5, 1965 . In December 2001 it was renamed NDR television.

Former logo of the NDR (until 1980)

On July 14, 1977, the Schleswig-Holstein Prime Minister Gerhard Stoltenberg (CDU) announced before the Schleswig-Holstein state parliament that he wanted to terminate the NDR State Treaty. The actual termination was given on June 9, 1978 at the end of 1980. Stoltenberg u. a. the allegedly severe financial crisis of the station, and he complained of an undersupply in regional reporting in parts of the broadcasting area, especially in Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony. The termination was also motivated by the political orientation of some of the NDR programs. Stoltenberg was bothered by the NDR reporting that he regarded as “one-sided” and “ left-wing ”. B. to the protests against the construction of the Brokdorf nuclear power plant, u. a. in broadcasts in the political magazine Panorama in autumn 1976. A declaratory action brought by the SPD-governed Hamburg before the Hamburg Administrative Court against the termination of the State Treaty was rejected in 1979 as inadmissible.

At first it was uncertain whether the NDR would be dissolved by the termination of Schleswig-Holstein or whether it could be continued by the remaining state treaty partners Hamburg and Lower Saxony until the regular end of the validity of the state treaty on December 31, 1985. The then Prime Minister of Lower Saxony, Ernst Albrecht (CDU), was like Stoltenberg for the first interpretation. He proposed a continuation of the NDR as a two-state establishment between Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony or, alternatively, the establishment of a separate Lower Saxony state broadcaster “Radio Niedersachsen”, whereby in Schleswig-Holstein, also in Stoltenberg's opinion, a separate counterpart should also be set up . This solution was viewed by Albrecht and Stoltenberg, however, only as a last resort in addition to the continuation of the NDR as a three-state institution with Hamburg under improved framework conditions for them. After the final failure of the negotiations with Hamburg on November 7, 1979 and repeated attempts at talks on February 5, 1980, the two countries favored the continuation of the NDR as a new two-state broadcaster between Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony, with Hamburg establishing its own state broadcaster should. Albrecht hoped that this would also give him the opportunity to eliminate the so-called broadcast monopoly in order to enable the introduction of private radio and television programs especially in Lower Saxony. Stoltenberg hoped to be able to influence the editorial design of the programs by changing the provision on the composition of the supervisory bodies of the Broadcasting Council and the Administrative Council. A new program structure with more individual responsibility on the part of the state broadcasting houses should give greater consideration to regional issues.

Restructuring of the NDR from 1980

Logo of the NDR from 1980 to 2001 with the walrus Antje

On January 23, 1980, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein submitted the draft of a state treaty on the NDR as a two-state institution, which was initialed on February 7, 1980 by the two minister-presidents and by the respective CDU-led majority of the state parliaments in Kiel and was adopted in Hanover on March 11th and 12th, 1980 in the first reading. On the basis of the declaratory action brought by Lower Saxony before the Federal Administrative Court , the 7th Senate of the Federal Administrative Court ruled in a judgment of May 28, 1980 (Az .: BVerwG 7 A 2.79) chaired by its then President Horst Sendler that it was the case of Schleswig-Holstein The pronounced termination of the NDR State Treaty was merely a permissible resignation and not a termination notice and the NDR of Lower Saxony and Hamburg thus continued to exist as a two-state institution and was to be continued until the end of the contract. For Hamburg, the ruling essentially meant a confirmation of its own legal opinion, while Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony were subject to their positions.

After this legal decision, the previously quarreling contractual partner states Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony on the one hand and Hamburg on the other quickly swung in and were able to agree on compromise formulas for the continuation of the NDR as a three-state institution in June 1980. As a result, the NDR was placed on a new legal basis on the basis of a new draft state treaty by the states of Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein by initialing it on July 17, 1980 and through the corresponding adoption of the formal accompanying laws by the state parliaments.

The main compromise formulas were: 1.) Main objective of Lower Saxony (Albrecht): The broadcasting monopoly of the NDR, which had previously been anchored in the State Treaty, was limited to 1983 in order to enable private radio and television programs to be set up from 1986. In this context, Hamburg (then Mayor Hans-Ulrich Klose ) was able to ensure that the introduction of private radio in the broadcasting area of ​​the NDR only took place after a long transition period.

2.) Main objective of Schleswig-Holstein (Stoltenberg) and secondary objective of Lower Saxony (Albrecht): The programs were partly reorganized with a view to regionalization - primarily by strengthening the positions of the state broadcasters in the broadcasting network.

This circumstance mainly affected the previous joint program of NDR / WDR 1: The program NDR 1 was divided into the three independent state programs NDR 1 Lower Saxony (until the beginning of 2002 NDR 1 Radio Lower Saxony ), NDR 1 Welle Nord and NDR 90.3 (up to 2 December 2001 "NDR Hamburg-Welle 90.3") split. NDR 2 and NDR 3 were continued throughout the broadcast area as pop and classic waves. The three state programs of NDR 1 began broadcasting on January 2, 1981 and were gradually expanded to full programs. Several times a day they split up into regional programs. Here in Send NDR 1 Radio Niedersachsen regional programs from the regions Oldenburg / Ostfriesland / Bremen / Cuxhaven, Osnabrück / Emsland, Greater Hanover, Brunswick / South Lower Saxony and North-East Lower Saxony and in NDR 1 Welle Nord from the studios in Flensburg ( NDR Studio Flensburg ) Heide, Norderstedt, Lübeck and Kiel. In addition, a striking innovation was the introduction of radio advertising on the pop wave NDR 2 , Monday to Saturday in the daily program in five-minute blocks before the news, whereby the news broadcast time was shifted from half an hour to the full hour according to the block shift.

NDR television initially experienced only a few changes. In the regional windows of the ARD community program in the evening before, however, a regionalization also took place on September 30, 1985 with the introduction of twenty-minute regional magazines instead of the previously alternating, centrally responsible, general regional windows with the title Nordschau with different thematic focuses, which are independently produced and produced by the respective regional broadcasters were designed. It emerged that broadcast Monday to Friday, 19:25 to 19:45 Regional Magazine Schleswig-Holstein Magazin , Hamburg Journal (the name already existed previously as a free daily sub-heading of Nordschau ) and Hallo Niedersachsen . On January 4, 1993, the regional magazines were integrated into the full NDR television program in the course of a reorganization of the ARD community program with the result of the introduction of a uniform evening program, extended to half an hour and from March 7, 1999 daily, including on weekends ( except on public holidays) - on Sunday initially only a quarter of an hour from 7:45 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., from January 6, 2002 also as usual for half an hour from 7:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. In the course of the Nordkette program with integrated parts of Radio Bremen, its regional window in Buten was also gradually expanded.

3.) Main goal of Hamburg (Klose): The program offer of the NDR was not restricted. All waves and frequencies remained for the NDR.

On September 30, 1988, NDR launched its regional teletext service Nordtext on the Nord 3 television program, which has been run as NDR Text since December 2, 2001. The offer includes current reports for the NDR broadcasting area and Bremen as well as additional information on radio and television. Information about program offers from Radio Bremen is entitled radiobremen-text.

On January 1, 1989, the television program North 3 started with a new program structure and a new broadcast schedule as a so-called full program. On April 1, 1989, the 4th radio program NDR 4, later NDR 4 Info, began as a pure news channel Monday to Saturday from 6:00 a.m. to about 8:00 p.m. in the new quarter-hour schedule as NDR 4 info and has been broadcast as NDR Info since June 3, 2002.

New development since 1990

On January 1, 1992, the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania joined the NDR as the fourth state by means of a state treaty. The state received its own state program NDR 1 Radio MV, which, like the other state programs, switches off several times a day for regional reporting from Schwerin, Rostock, Neubrandenburg and Greifswald. In October of the same year, the SFB left the third television program N3 in order to broadcast its independent Berlin program "B1" (later SFB 1).

On April 4, 1994, the NDR started the youth program N-Joy for 14 to 19-year-old listeners , which was run under the name N-Joy Radio until 2001 .

On October 3, 1997, NDR 3 became part of the newly founded Radio 3 program , which was organized in cooperation with Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (former ORB program Radio Brandenburg ) and, until the end of 2000, with the broadcaster Free Berlin (former SFB 3 program ) and broadcast until December 31, 2002.

As the last radio program in the history of the NDR, the Nordwestradio began on November 1, 2001 , a joint radio program from Radio Bremen and NDR for the state of Bremen and the north-west of Lower Saxony. In this program the previous 2nd radio program Radio Bremen 2 went on. It has been under the sole control of Radio Bremen since 2016.

Since January 1, 2003, the NDR has been broadcasting the NDR Kultur program as a follow-up program to Radio 3 , a classical and cultural program that it designed by itself. The name Radio 3 still existed until December 31, 2003. It is now a cultural program of the RBB , some of which also took over broadcasts from NDR Kultur. On January 1st, 2004 this program went on in the new RBB Kulturradio .

Since 1 May 2012, the NDR shines in HD quality in the process simulcast .

Directors of the NDR and its predecessor institutions

Contribution to the community program Das Erste

The NDR contributes 17.45% to the program content of the television program Das Erste , the community television program of the nine regional public broadcasters organized in the ARD. This puts the NDR in third place after the WDR and the SWR .

Among other things, the news desk ARD-aktuell is located at the NDR in Hamburg . The Tagesschau , the Tagesthemen , the Nachtmagazin and the Wochenspiegel are produced there.

In addition, the NDR is the German lead for the Eurovision Song Contest and thus represents the ARD at one of the largest international media events. After Lena won the 2010 competition in Oslo , the NDR was responsible for organizing the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 in Germany.


Cases of corruption

In 2009 the Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) reported that Doris Heinze, as head of television games at NDR , had concluded and settled contracts for her husband's scripts and for herself, which had been submitted under the pseudonyms “Niklas Becker” and “Marie Funder”. The contact went through a law firm. Heinze was sentenced by the Hamburg Regional Court to a prison sentence of one year and ten months on probation for bribery, fraud and breach of trust, her husband and a film producer received fines. The public prosecutor's office spoke of a “system of self-service at the expense of the fee payers”.

In 2010 it became known that an editor from the NDR Landesfunkhaus Kiel had agreed in return for commission payments to companies and associations to provide them with airtime and to place them in the program. In 2016 he was sentenced to a two-year suspended prison sentence by the Kiel Regional Court for corruption.

surreptitious advertising

In July 2005, the managing director of the NDR subsidiary Studio Hamburg , Frank Döhmann, was dismissed without notice because he had attempted to subsequently obtain financial contributions for advertising in an already completed program.

Buying back stolen art

At the end of 2018, the NDR spent 20,000 euros to buy back a Nolde painting that was allegedly stolen in 1979 by an employee of its own . The picture is part of the station's art collection, as is a watercolor by the same artist, which has still disappeared . For legal reasons, according to the NDR, the buyback was the only way to get the work of art back.

See also


  • Wolfram Köhler (Ed.): The NDR. Between program and politics . Contributions to its history. Schlueter, Hannover 1991, ISBN 3-87706-363-2 .

Web links

Commons : Norddeutscher Rundfunk  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. NDR State Treaty, § 1, (1). (PDF; 210 kB) In: Retrieved December 7, 2017 .
  2. Annual Report 2015 (PDF; 5.3 MB) In: Norddeutscher Rundfunk, September 28, 2016, accessed December 5, 2016 .
  3. ^ Organization chart of the NDR. (PDF; 1.4 MB) NDR, September 1, 2017, accessed on December 3, 2017 .
  4. Imprint. In: Retrieved July 8, 2017 .
  5. Two thirds of the advertised ARD broadcasting network will be operated by UPLINK in 2018. In: RADIO SCENE. Retrieved May 3, 2018 .
  6. Hans-Jürgen Koch, Hermann Glaser: All ears. A cultural history of radio in Germany. 2005, p. 230 ( book information in the Google book search).
  7. Grew up in Kiel in the 60s and 70s . 1st edition Wartberg-Verl, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8313-2001-1 , p. 15 ( [accessed April 12, 2020]).
  8. Tremendous power . In: Der Spiegel . No. 26 , 1978 ( online ).
  9. Nordwestradio from 2016 under the sole direction of Radio Bremen.
  10. ARD and ZDF secure 5 transponders on Astra 19.2 ° East. (No longer available online.) In: February 15, 2011, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved July 8, 2017 .
  11. Joachim Knuth elected as the new NDR director. In: July 5, 2019, accessed July 5, 2019 .  -
    Joachim Knuth is the new director of the NDR. In: January 13, 2020, accessed January 26, 2020 .
  12. ^ Nicolas Richter , Hans Leyendecker : Tatort ARD. , August 28, 2009.
  13. Karin Franzke, Karolin Jacquemain, Jan-Eric Lindner, Kai-Hinrich Renner: The public prosecutor determined. In: Hamburger Abendblatt . August 29, 2009.
  14. ^ Judgments in NDR screenplay affair. In: Legal Tribune Online , October 8, 2012, accessed January 20, 2019 .
  15. ^ Conviction of ex-NDR boss Heinze becomes final. In: Legal Tribune Online, October 1, 2013, accessed January 20, 2019 .
  16. ^ Judgment at the regional court: Probation for ex-NDR editor. In: Kieler Nachrichten -online, March 16, 2016, accessed on March 15, 2018.
  17. Fraud trial in Kiel: Bribery ex-NDR editor sentenced to two years probation. In: , March 16, 2016, accessed on March 15, 2018.
  18. Separation from managing director: Unauthorized advertising at NDR subsidiary Article from July 14, 2005 in Handelsblatt -online, accessed on March 18, 2018.
  19. Hands full ... In: Die Tageszeitung -online, July 21, 2005, accessed on March 18, 2018.
  20. Holger True: Stolen Nolde work back - NDR had to pay for it. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , November 25, 2018, accessed on January 19, 2019 .
  21. Stefan Arndt: Stolen Nolde painting back in the NDR. In: Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung , November 26, 2018, accessed on January 19, 2019 .