Bayern mobil (former)
The module (former)
Bayern 2 plus (former)
Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks
Chor des Bayerischen Rundfunks
|Legal form:||Institute of public right|
The Bayerischer Rundfunk ( BR ) is the national broadcaster in the Free State of Bavaria , based in Munich . It is a member of the working group of the public broadcasters of the Federal Republic of Germany ARD and has the legal form of an institution under public law .
Bayerischer Rundfunk officially existed in its current legal form on January 25, 1949. On this day, the director of the US military government in Bavaria, Murray D. van Wagoner, presented the license document to BR director Rudolf von Scholtz . The predecessor was the German hour in Bavaria.
1922: German hour in Bavaria
On September 18, 1922, the businessmen Herman Klöpfer, Kommerzienrat Josef Böhm, Ernst Ludwig Voss and Robert Riemerschmid founded the German Hour in Bavaria Society for Wireless Teaching and Entertainment mbH in Munich . On November 21, 1923, the Munich radio department of the Reich Post Ministry granted the first broadcasting license to the German Hour in Bavaria.
Four months later, on March 30, 1924, radio started broadcasting its first program, heralding the radio age in Bavaria. It was sent from the Ministry of Transport on Arnulfstrasse . The transmission took place wirelessly in the Auditorium Maximum of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich . The ceremony was opened at 5 p.m. by State Secretary Georg Schätzel. 327 radio participants heard the ceremony.
On August 2, 1924, the Nuremberg transmitter began operating with a transmission power of 250 watts in the post office building at the train station, and on September 1, 1927, the Augsburg transmitter.
In May 1925, the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft (RRG) was founded in Berlin as the umbrella organization of the regional broadcasting companies in the German Reich , which initially comprised the companies NORAG (Hamburg), MIRAG (Leipzig), SÜWRAG (Frankfurt / M.) ORAG (Königsberg i . Pr.) And Schlesische Funkstunde (Breslau) joined. The three companies in Berlin ( Funk-Hour ), Münster ( WERAG ) and Stuttgart ( SÜRAG ) also joined after sometimes lengthy negotiations, while the company, now known as Bayerischer Rundfunk, only became a partner in RRG in 1931 due to financial bottlenecks.
The broadcasting process in Munich was similar to that of the other German broadcasters. In the beginning it was mainly time announcements, news, weather reports, stock market and economic news and, for a long time, music that determined the program. "Munich" broadcast on "Welle 485". The license fee was introduced on April 1, 1924. It was two Reichsmarks per month. In the beginning, the word program consisted primarily of radio lectures in addition to the news. In addition - due to the lack of recording technology, mostly live - there were radio plays , concerts and entertainment evenings. Two typical shows as featured in announcements:
- Sunday, December 5, 1926, 3:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.: Technical chat. Modern power machines and their services.
- Thursday, December 9, 1926, 6.30 a.m. to 6.45 p.m.: Do you know that? Ten minutes from the world and knowledge.
On September 23, 1926, the “German Hour in Bavaria” broadcast its program for the first time on the German broadcaster Königs Wusterhausen and from there to Amsterdam. Between 1925 and 1930 a chess broadcast was introduced, opera and sports broadcasts took place, Catholic and Protestant programs were included in the program and the first school radio programs were broadcast. The radio house designed by Richard Riemerschmid was completed and occupied in June 1929 as the first company-owned radio house in Germany.
1931: Bayerischer Rundfunk GmbH
On January 1, 1931, the "German Hour in Bavaria" was renamed "Bayerischer Rundfunk GmbH" according to a resolution of the shareholders' meeting. On February 11, 1932, the private shareholders sold their shares in the Munich transmitter to the Reichspost and the Bavarian state. From then on, state centralization of broadcasting took place step by step, both in terms of organization and programming. This broadcast structure made it easier for the National Socialists to synchronize the station from 1933 onwards and to develop it into a propaganda tool.
1933: Reichsender Munich
After Hitler came to power , the National Socialists occupied the radio station in Munich in March 1933 and hoisted the swastika flag . On April 15, 1933, Reich Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels brought Kurt von Boeckmann, the first BR director, to Berlin to set up a shortwave propaganda program abroad . Von Boeckmann became the first director of the German shortwave transmitter with far-reaching tasks, including as head of the foreign department in the Reich broadcasting line. In order to be able to broadcast far into the flat country, a 165 meter high transmission tower was built in Ismaning near Munich in 1932 . 300 cubic meters of South American pitch pine wood were used for the construction . In 1983 the tower was blown up.
As early as the summer of 1933, Munich was broadcasting inflammatory speeches against the Austrian government three times a week. They culminated on the evening of July 5th with a speech by the NSDAP state inspector in Vienna, Theodor Habicht . He called the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss a traitor, accused him of separatist tendencies and called on the Austrians to carve the swastika into every tree. Habicht is considered to be the mastermind behind the July coup in 1934, during which Dollfuss was murdered two weeks later.
The regional companies now became branches of the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft. From April 1, 1934, the previous names were based on the following scheme: Reichssender (headquarters) were standardized and Bavarian Radio became the Reichssender München . He was part of the German unity broadcast, which broadcast from January 1, 1939 under the name Großdeutscher Rundfunk .
The Grail Bells from Richard Wagner's Parsifal acted as a pause for the Reich broadcaster in Munich . “The radio is the most modern means of influencing the masses.” Goebbels announced on April 23, 1933 in the Munich Funkhaus as Reich Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda , thus pointing to the “new course” of National Socialist radio policy. The spread of inexpensive receivers, known as people's receivers, played a decisive role in the success of Nazi propaganda aimed at bringing the population into line . On August 18, 1933, the Volksempfänger VE 301 came on the market. Goebbels presented it at the 10th Great German Radio Exhibition in Berlin. The prescribed price of the version for operation on the power grid was 76 Reichsmarks ; a battery-operated version cost 65 Reichsmarks. With the beginning of the war in 1939, wiretapping of so-called enemy transmitters was made a criminal offense. From June 1940 the Reichsender München completely lost its own programming sovereignty. From now on it broadcast the standard program of the Großdeutscher Rundfunk. On April 29, 1945 the programming of the Reichssender München was stopped, which started on March 30, 1924 with the first broadcast of the German hour in Bavaria G. m. b. H. had started. The historical archive of Bayerischer Rundfunk has documented this development history in detail in an overview using the transmitter organization charts.
1945: Radio Munich - Radio Munich
After the German capitulation , the US military government took over the Reichsender München, which was henceforth called "Radio Munich, a station of the American military government". She had the destroyed radio house rebuilt. From May 31, 1945 it was possible to broadcast from here again. On May 12, 1945 he broadcast his first program. Radio Munich , as the radio wave was then called, initially acted as the main source of news for the population as long as paper and thus newspapers were scarce. The music forbidden by the National Socialists, especially jazz , was broadcast. The Americans attached great importance to extensive coverage of the Nuremberg trials . "Chief of section" was the Germany expert Field Horine. It was broadcast on the Ismaning major broadcaster. The first broadcast on Radio Munich was from the poorly repaired radio building in the city center. On September 8, 1947, Radio Munich began broadcasting regular school radio programs.
Alois Johannes Lippl was chairman of the Bavarian Broadcasting Council . On January 25, 1948, he received the license certificate for the Bavarian radio from the American military government. He remained in this position until 1950.
From 1949: "Bayerischer Rundfunk" as an institution under public law
On January 25, 1949, Radio Munich was handed over to German hands and licensed as Bayerischer Rundfunk, a public-law corporation for the Free State of Bavaria. The basis for this was the Broadcasting Act, which came into force on October 1, 1948, with its three organs, Intendant, Broadcasting Council and Administrative Council . In 1949, the BR broadcast its program for the first time on VHF . It was the first FM transmitter in Europe. The advantage: the listening and reception quality has improved enormously compared to medium wave. Since 1950 the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation offered a second radio program on VHF. The BR Symphony Orchestra and the Munich Radio Orchestra were founded between 1949 and 1952, and the first commercials were broadcast after the war. The BR became a founding member of the ARD , which was founded on August 5, 1950 in Munich.
Structure and organization
The BR management, administration, radio technology, most of the radio editorial offices and the broadcasting committees are based on the radio station in downtown Munich. The BR TV is in the north of Munich, in Freimann resident. The trimedial information directorate founded in May 2014 is also located in Freimann.
The legal basis of Bavarian Broadcasting is the Bavarian Broadcasting Act , which is intended to guarantee the BR independence from the state and from private interest groups in accordance with the constitutional requirements according to which public broadcasters are obliged to the general public. As a public broadcaster, the BR has the right of self-administration, which means that state supervision should be limited to limited legal supervision. Within the BR, the competencies are divided between three different bodies: the artistic director, the broadcasting council and the administrative board. The director leads the BR independently, is responsible for the program design and for the entire operation of the establishment and has to ensure that the program complies with the legal requirements. It is the task of the Broadcasting Council to represent the interests of the general public. According to the Broadcasting Act, the Broadcasting Council, in cooperation with the other two bodies, has to ensure that the BR fulfills its tasks within the framework of the law. He advises the artistic director on all broadcasting issues, in particular on the design of the program. The board of directors is responsible for overseeing the management of the director. Exceptions to this are decisions in the context of program design.
Finances, license fee
In 2015, Bayerischer Rundfunk financed itself 86.3 percent from contributions and 11.8 percent from other operating income (cost reimbursements, investment income, securities and other interest income, rents / leases, program exploitation, income from co-productions and co-financing, channel sharing, inventory changes ) and 1.9 percent from advertising . In 2015, the BR posted premium income of € 927.6 million, a decrease of € 20.8 million on the previous year. In particular, this is due to the reduction in the monthly fee on April 1, 2015 from € 17.98 to € 17.50 for the full fee. The premium income that can actually be used in 2015 was only € 879.5 million, which is € 48.2 million below the booked income. This difference, which arithmetically results from the additional income that goes beyond the needs determined by the KEF , must be transferred by the BR to a premium reserve for the most part (€ 47.7 million); the remainder of € 0.5 million increases the BR payment as part of the ARD financial equalization scheme. The funds from the premium reserve are expected to be available to the state broadcasters from 2017 to cover their future financial needs. In total, the 2015 BR generated revenues of € 1,074.6 million.
At the end of 2015, Bayerischer Rundfunk employed 3,402 permanent employees, including temporary contracts - with the exception of trainees, volunteers, interns, etc. In addition, the BR 1712 employed freelance workers with 12a status (so-called employee-like employees). According to the annual report, a total of 3175 positions were reported in 2015, consisting of 3036 permanent positions and 139 positions outside the position plan for non-permanent tasks such as long-term projects. According to the annual report, 20% of the permanent employees of Bayerischer Rundfunk work in administration, which consists of directorship, legal management and administration. According to the Bayerischer Rundfunk establishment plan, the share of the television directorate was 8 percent, the radio directorate 18% and the information directorate 10%. The production and technology department has the most posts with 1346 posts, which corresponds to a share of 44%.
Advertising, product and topic placement, sponsoring
In BR television - as in all third television programs as well as the programs Arte , 3sat , KiKA , Phoenix , ARD-alpha , One and tagesschau24 - no advertising in the narrower sense may take place. In this context, broadcast sponsoring does not count as advertising and is permitted to a limited extent. The production company Bavaria has been involved in several cases of surreptitious advertising and product placement in the past . a. relates to the early evening series “Marienhof”, which is editorially responsible for the BR. There, as well as in the Bavaria series “In aller Freundes” (lead: WDR ), there was surreptitious advertising worth 1.476 million euros between January 2002 and May 2005. Sponsoring and placement are subject to legal regulations: In the TV sector, the Interstate Broadcasting Agreement prohibits surreptitious advertising, product and topic placement under Section 7 (7). However, there are exceptions for product placements. At the European level, the “Directive 2010/13 / EU of the European Parliament and of the Council” and the “European Agreement on Transfrontier Television” also prohibit surreptitious advertising and distinguish it from product placement. In public broadcasting, there is still a ban on paid product placement, with the exception of third-party productions. So-called production aids, on the other hand, are permitted in public and private television. However, in the past there has been criticism from the Bavarian Supreme Audit Office of the Bavarian Broadcasting’s handling of these production aids. The Court of Auditors criticized the fact that the contract manufacturer of the Dahoam is Dahoam series had made use of production aids for the vehicles shown in the series and recommended that the BR clarify the matter as soon as possible and examine claims for repayment against the manufacturer.
Until 1950, the BR broadcast only one radio program, which later became Bayern 1 . In the same year, the station started its second radio program BR 2 and Bayern 2 . In 1954, television could be broadcast and received in Bavaria for the first time from the new studios in Munich-Freimann. The Bayerischer Rundfunk contributed to the ARD community program and started the first regional broadcast in November 1954 with the “Münchner Abendschau”.
In 1958 the journalist Wilhelm Sandfuchs took over the church radio department of the BR. He continued to expand it until he retired in 1978. Under his leadership, the BR took over reporting from the Vatican and about the Popes in Rome for the entire ARD.
In 1960 the BR broadcasted regional programs for the first time on the radio for Franconia, Old Bavaria and Swabia. The regional programs were expanded in 1973 (for Eastern Bavaria) and 1977 (for Main Franconia). On November 1, 1964, the 3rd radio program Bayern 3 started , initially as a guest worker program , but from April 1, 1971 it was expanded into a service and pop wave.
In 1980 the 4th radio program Bayern 4 Klassik started , which was later expanded into a full program. The Radio Data System (RDS) was introduced in all four radio programs in 1989 . The last VHF radio program to start was the news program B5 aktuell on May 6, 1991 .
Since July 1, 1998, the radio programs Bayern 1, BR-Klassik, Bayern 3 and B5 current as well as the new digital program Bayern mobil have been broadcast via DAB in regular operation. In 2003, the DAB broadcasting of Bayern 2 and Bayern 3 was stopped for the time being in favor of the new offers Das Modul , BR Traffic News , BR Info and BR Business . In 2005, BR Info and BR Business were discontinued. For this, Bayern 2 was switched on again. The previously unmoderated program Bayern mobil was replaced in 2008 by the hit and folk music wave Bayern plus .
On October 8, 2007, the youth broadcaster Bavarian Open Radio started broadcasting via the four medium-wave transmitters of the BR, via the DAB channel "Das Modul" and via Internet streaming. On May 5, 2008 it was renamed on3radio (spelling from March 2009: on3-radio). Since May 15, 2013, Puls has taken over the already known transmission channels from on3-radio.
On September 1, 2008, Bayern plus started, a digital radio program that broadcast mainly German music and until February 2, 2015 also folk music . Folk music was outsourced to the new DAB + transmitter BR Heimat on February 2, 2015 .
- Radio programs
Terrestrial via VHF and DAB +, as well as via DVB-S. DVB-C and broadcast on the Internet:
- Bayern 1 - pop and service wave with hits mainly from the 1970s and 1980s
- Bavaria 2 - culture and information program
- Bayern 3 - pop and service wave with hits from the 1990s to the present
- BR-Klassik - classical program
- B5 current - news channel
- Bayern plus - pop stations
- Pulse - young program with new music
- B5 plus - B5 current event channel (if there are no events, B5 is currently running)
- BR Heimat - folk music station
- BR Verkehr - traffic information
- Audience acceptance BR-Hörfunk
The audience acceptance of the radio programs in Germany is regularly monitored nationwide by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Media-Analyze e. V. (agma) collected in the media analysis radio (ma radio).
According to the media analysis in 2017, Bayerischer Rundfunk reached more than six million listeners nationwide with its five FM radio programs, of which 5.33 million were in Bavaria. Overall, compared to the rest of Germany, there is an above-average amount of radio listeners in Bavaria in two respects: 1.) The percentage of daily radio listeners in Bavaria is 81.1 percent, above the national average of 78.1 percent. 2.) The daily listening time in Bavaria is 199 minutes, nationwide it is 189 minutes. All private and public radio programs are included in this overall survey.
The five BR radio programs show the following acceptance data: With 2.90 million listeners nationwide and a reach of 23.8 percent in Bavaria, Bavaria 1 is the most popular program on Bavarian radio. In addition, the Bayern 1 listeners had the longest dwell time of all Bavarian radio programs at 213 minutes. This is followed by BAYERN 3, which is heard by 2.88 million people nationwide every day and has a reach of 22.8 percent in Bavaria. A little more than ten percent of Bavarians listen to at least one of the BR culture and information programs every day. Bayern 2 switch on 610,000 listeners nationwide every day. The range in Bavaria is 4.8 percent. BR-KLASSIK follows 280,000 listeners in Germany every day with a 2.0 percent range in Bavaria. 6.2 percent of people in the Free State use B5 aktuell to find out more. Nationwide, 800,000 listeners tune in to B5 every day.
On September 22, 1964, the BR started broadcasting its own third TV program as the first ARD station , initially as a study program primarily concerned with broadcasting programs from the Telekolleg series, later as Bavarian TV , which has been a full program since 1978 and has meanwhile also been can be received via satellite in almost all of Europe.
The Rundschau , introduced on October 1, 1979, was gradually expanded to become the broadcaster's main news format, and in 1991 and 1996 it was expanded to include the Rundschau-Magazin and Rundschau-Nacht formats . This made Bayerischer Rundfunk, along with MDR, the only ARD broadcaster that did not take over the 20 o'clock daily news in its third television program. However, the BR has been broadcasting the Tagesschau on its special-interest channel ARD-alpha since June 29, 2014 at the same time as ARD. Since the name was changed to BR Fernsehen on April 11, 2016, the BR has also been showing the Tagesschau in its main program .
On September 1, 1986, the BR's regional teletext service was launched under the name “Bayerntext”. On January 7, 1998, the BR began to broadcast its television education channel BR-alpha via satellite, which was renamed ARD-alpha on June 29, 2014.
At the beginning of May 2012, with the end of analog satellite broadcasting in Germany, BR HD was also introduced as a simulcast HD variant.
- TV audience acceptance
With an average Germany-wide market share of 1.7%, BR-Fernsehen was in fifth place in comparison with the other third-party television programs . If one compares the audience ratings for 2015 in the respective broadcasting areas of the third ARD programs, BR Fernsehen was in third place with a market share of 7.5% (2014: 7.1%) after NDR and MDR television. In 2015, BR television viewers were on average 66 years old.
Bayerischer Rundfunk has been presenting an internet service since October 16, 1995. It is primarily used to distribute additional information on radio and television broadcasts. In November 1995, the BR began to stream the news channel B5 currently . So-called value-added services have been offered on the Bayerischer Rundfunk homepage since 1996. Since then, as part of the “CollegeR @ dio” project, the contents of the school radio can be accessed on the Internet. In 1997, the station's online presence was fundamentally revised. Using navigation elements and additional information offers, the listener and viewer receive additional information about the programs and broadcasts. Since then, the education channel ARD-alpha has also been available on the Bayerischer Rundfunk online service. In October 1998 the BR-Online website was completely overhauled, subdivided into the eight sections "Science & Education", "Politics & Current Affairs", "Economy & Money", "Bavaria & Regions", "Culture & Society", " Leisure & Sport ”,“ Fun and Excitement ”and“ Advice & Service ”.
In 2000 the main multimedia department became responsible for the online offer. In October 2002 there were again changes to the topic categories, namely in the areas of "Bavaria Today", "Country & People", "Sport & Leisure", "Culture & Scene", "Environment & Health", "Knowledge & Education". Since 2002 the viewers of the Bavarian television can use the teletext pages, i. H. the Bayerntext, also available online around the clock. Since then, podcasting has also been integrated into the online offering.
In March 2008, the content was better structured and the multimedia offerings expanded (MP3 live streams with up to 128 kb / s ). Since then, every subpage of BR-Online has been able to access the pages of Bayern 1, Bayern 2, Bayern 3, BR-Klassik, B5 aktuell, Bayern plus, Puls, BR Heimat, BR Fernsehen, ARD-alpha, Bayerntext and the BR-Mediathek can be accessed.
On October 27, 2011, the website was revised again. Most striking change was shortening the URL of br-online.de to br.de . The design also changed again. The navigation bar was completely omitted; the subject areas are symbolized by large tiles. The screen resolution has since been adapted to the widescreen monitors. The comment function, which was initially only available in selected places on the homepage, was also renewed. The BR presents its multimedia content on BR-Online in five subject areas: BR-Sport, Advice, Bavaria, Knowledge in BR, Culture in BR.
On September 21, 2015, Bayerischer Rundfunk launched its new BR24 news service together with a free BR24 news app for smartphones and tablets. Since then, the news offerings of the BR radio editors , the TV news program Rundschau and the online editors have been bundled under this brand . This also includes a new messaging app. According to several Bavarian newspaper publishers, including the Süddeutscher Verlag , the BR24 app violates the State Broadcasting Treaty . The publishers criticize the fact that the app is characterized by texts and photos that, in their opinion, are not related to the broadcast. They argue that fee-financed free offers from public broadcasters are not permitted under the provisions of the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty due to possible distortion of competition compared to digital news offers from the private press. The publishers therefore filed a lawsuit against Bayerischer Rundfunk with the Munich Regional Court I. The lawsuit against the app version from September 2015 was successful because it was too press-like and thus constituted a violation of the State Broadcasting Treaty. The BR had to issue a cease and desist declaration and bear the costs of the proceedings. The BR24 Android app recorded, according to the Google Play store , in October 2019, more than 100,000 downloads.
The BR is bound to European legal bases in its internet offer. Originally the State Treaty on Media Services , which expired in 2007, was decisive. Succession regulations at state level can be found in the State Broadcasting Treaty . Insofar as the MDStV contained double regulations on the TDG, the successor regulations are now exclusively at the federal level in the Telemedia Act .
BR sound body
The three ensembles of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation are divided into the following areas:
- Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra ; Established in 1949, a symphony orchestra steeped in tradition, whose chief conductor a. a. Eugen Jochum , Rafael Kubelík , Sir Colin Davis and Lorin Maazel were. Mariss Jansons has been chief conductor since 2003 .
- Munich Radio Orchestra ; founded in 1952 (Sunday concerts, Paradisi Gloria, youth and children's concerts, rarely performed works)
- Bavarian Radio Choir ; founded in 1946 as the “Rundfunkchor München”; the choir led u. a. Works by Rafael Kubelík and Hans Pfitzner for the first time.
The Nuremberg Dance Orchestra (NTO) was also part of the orchestra from 1949 to 1994.
The program content of the three orchestras will be presented trimedially on radio, television and on the Internet site of Bavarian Radio. In addition, the BR markets numerous productions of the sound bodies via CD and DVD through its subsidiary BRmedia Service GmbH.
Start into the tri-media future
In 2012, Bayerischer Rundfunk decided to structure itself “trimedially” within ten years in view of the changed use of media and the accumulated renovation burdens. H. To better network radio, television and online units. According to its own information, the BR no longer sees itself as a pure radio and television broadcaster, but as a provider of audio and video content that is distributed in all channels.
The reform, which was conceived with the participation of many employees and is described as the largest since Bayerischer Rundfunk was founded, affected structures and working methods as well as buildings and locations. Since this structural reform, the BR is no longer organized according to the distribution channels (radio, television, online), but according to content (e.g. culture, sport, knowledge / education, entertainment). For this purpose, the existing editorial units were combined into so-called “tri-media departments” that work for all channels. With the reform, the BR has also decided on a spatial reorganization. Almost all Munich BR editorial offices will work from the previous television location in the Freimann district from 2021 from a common, tri-media news center and Wellenhaus. The BR promised itself synergies, better cooperation between editorial and technology as well as more depth in the reporting. According to media reports, the location at the Münchner Rundfunkplatz will be retained as the headquarters of the administration, while the Unterföhring location in the north of Munich will be given up in a few years.
At the program directorate level, the information directorate, the first tri-media organizational unit, was created in May 2014 with Thomas Hinrichs, information director appointed by the artistic director and confirmed by the broadcasting council. The information department includes radio, television and online units from the fields of politics, business, sport and current Bavaria. It exists alongside the classic program directors for radio (radio director Martin Wagner) and television (television director Reinhard Scolik). At the same time it was announced that all areas would be restructured and sorted according to content in the coming years.
Within the information department, the tri-media sports department was founded in May 2015 by merging the previous television, online and radio sports departments. It was the first trimedially organized department at the BR's program area level. In April 2016 the tri-media departments “Culture” and “Entertainment & Home” were founded, and on August 1, 2016 “Knowledge and Education”. The change process, which operates internally under the name “BR to the power of three”, is to be completed within ten years. In addition to the programmatically oriented trimedial structure, the radio and television directorates remained in place.
New management structure
On July 1, 2020, the BR heralded the end of the program and management structure defined by radio and television. As a result of the tri-media conversion “BR hoch Drei” started in 2013, the two program departments “Culture” and “Information” will be responsible for all program content of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation on all channels. The previous television director Reinhard Scolik has been appointed head of the Culture Program Directorate. In addition to the departments previously bundled in the television department, such as the tri-media program areas “Culture”, “Knowledge and Education”, “Game-Film Series”, “Entertainment and Home” as well as the planning units for the BR media library, BR television, ARD -alpha, 3sat and the digital radio station “BR Heimat” are now part of the Culture Program Directorate “Bayern 2”, “BR-Klassik” and the ensembles of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation.
With the structural reform of July 1, 2020, the "Bayern 1 - Bayern 3 - Puls" waves, which were previously subordinate to the BR Radio Directorate, and the digital radio wave Bayern plus were integrated into the Information Program Directorate, which has existed since May 2014 , still under the direction of Thomas Hinrichs . With the tri-media program areas "Politics and Economy", "Sport and Leisure", the information radio "B5 aktuell" and the digital BR information service "BR24", for which Hinrichs was previously responsible, the entire news section of Bayerischer Rundfunk is now under the control of the information department.
Studios and broadcast
The BR maintains a main broadcasting house in Munich, in which only the BR's radio programs are produced (geographic coordinates studios in Munich-Freimann and Unterföhring, the Studio Franken with headquarters in Nuremberg , the regional studio East Bavaria in Regensburg and the regional studio Mainfranken in Würzburg . The BR has correspondent offices in 20 cities. In Augsburg , Kempten and Traunstein and Bayreuth several employees work in other offices such as Bayreuth, Hof , Passau or Rosenheim each established a correspondent. In addition, the BR operates studios abroad, e.g. B. in Rome (also for Vatican City ), Vienna , Tel Aviv , Istanbul or Buenos Aires .), television
- The first German television - joint program of the ARD
- Phoenix - joint event channel of ARD and ZDF
- KiKA - children's channel from ARD and ZDF
- Arte - German-French cultural channel
- 3sat - cultural channel from ARD , ZDF , ORF and SRG SSR
- One - ARD specialty program
- tagesschau24 - ARD specialty program
With the political independence stipulated in the State Broadcasting Treaty, Bavarian Broadcasting broke several times. In particular, the proximity to the CSU ruling in Bavaria often shaped the fate of the station. The CSU top politician Franz Josef Strauss exerted pressure on the executive floor of the BR in the late 1960s and 1970s and interfered in the details of filling positions in individual editorial offices.
Lack of distance from the state
The change of the former government spokesman Ulrich Wilhelm to the head of the BR on May 8, 2010, received severe criticism . This was rated as a far-reaching integration of politics and public television broadcasters. The station's distance from the state, which is required by the Basic Law, is “punished”. The Süddeutsche Zeitung also criticized the change from civil service to the head of a public service institution: “ In principle, the change from government spokesman to station manager sends the wrong message. The thing is impossible. It strengthens reservations about public broadcasters, for which citizens have to pay more money every month. "Wrote Hans-Jürgen Jakobs in the Süddeutsche Zeitung on May 20, 2010. Bernd Gäbler wrote in Stern :" The targeted placement of the previous government spokesman in a key position under public law, in which Ulrich Wilhelm will later also be the spokesman for ARD on a rotating basis and remains unique and bold ”.
In January 2015, the appearance of CSU politician Markus Söder in the early evening series Dahoam is Dahoam was criticized because Söder was allowed to praise his own government program free of charge and without being contradicted. In addition to criticism from political opponents, the chairman of the Bavarian Association of Journalists was also critical: “There can be no more obvious abuse of public broadcasting. In this case, Bayerischer Rundfunk is obviously far removed from the state. "
Fade out from the ARD program
The conservative orientation of some of the BR's editorial teams meant that the broadcaster repeatedly faded out from the ARD's joint program .
- For the first time, Bayerischer Rundfunk faded out from the joint program of ARD on January 17, 1961. The reason was the broadcast of Fritz Kortner's television adaptation of Aristophanes: Die Sendung der Lysistrata . Romy Schneider was seen in the production in a short scene with a half-bared bosom. Television director Clemens Münster gave moral reasons for the fade out.
- The film satire Das Bohrloch or Bavaria is not Texas , broadcast for the first time in 1966 , sparked outrage at the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation, which it described as a "contempt for the Bavarian way of life". When the film was repeated in 1968, Bayerischer Rundfunk hid it from the joint program of ARD and, according to director Rainer Erler , even threatened to withdraw from it.
- The fading out of programs in which homosexuality was a topic caused discussion. It began in 1973 with the film Not the homosexual is perverted, but the situation in which he lives .
- The BR practiced something similar on November 8, 1977 when the film The Consequence was broadcast . A protest note against this decision was signed by over 3800 people.
- On May 22, 1986, Bayerischer Rundfunk (Bavarian Broadcasting) was removed from the joint television program for the duration of the broadcast of an episode of the cabaret show Scheibenwischer from the joint television program of ARD on May 22, 1986 , because a week after the Whitsun battle at the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant , the cabaret show featured a nuclear power-critical sketch should be listed.
Censorship in the radio program
As with other broadcasters, there were repeated disputes between authors, editors and broadcasters about program content on Bayerischer Rundfunk, which resulted in heavily publicly discussed interventions in the program.
- The case of censorship on public radio, which occurred in 1961, became known far beyond Bavaria. The head of the night studio cultural program , Gerhard Szczesny , had met with criticism from conservative and church circles with some of his night studio programs. A supposedly communist essay was canceled by order of the artistic director Christian Wallenreiter . After the Broadcasting Council had approved the cancellation of the program, Szczesny submitted his departure from the BR in November 1961.
Music titles have also been censored; they were not allowed to be broadcast in the BR, for example because of allegedly unacceptable sexual or violent content. The Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation often interpreted this more strictly than other broadcasters and in some cases had to put up with the accusation of exercising censorship.
- The 1963 hit song Schuld was only the bossa nova by singer Manuela , who topped the German charts for several weeks , was not played by the BR.
- In 1988, the radio director at the time, Udo Reiter , banned the broadcast of the song Gehet hin und Multiple von Udo Jürgens , in which contraception is discussed and the attitude of the Catholic Church is criticized.
Conflict over wave swapping
In 2006 there were internal considerations in the BR about broadcasting its program “Das Modul”, which is distributed via DAB, via individual support frequencies, locally limited, also via VHF. The private broadcasters objected, however, that the law only allowed five radio programs of Bavarian radio broadcast in analog technology. The original plan was not implemented. Instead, BR director Ulrich Wilhelm announced that in the course of a controversial wave exchange , he wanted to move the youth radio pulse to the previous FM frequency of BR-Klassik . BR-Klassik was only to be broadcast on DAB, whereas the Bavarian Music Council took a stand and initiated an online petition to keep FM broadcasting. The BR Broadcasting Council agreed on July 10, 2014, with the proviso that certain prerequisites were met, to the BR director's proposal to move BR Klassik from VHF to DAB + from 2018 . As a result, 60 local private broadcasters and the state-wide private broadcaster Antenne Bayern brought an action before the Munich Regional Court in February 2015 . The lawsuit was dismissed on June 7, 2016, on the grounds that "which focus is broadcast on which transmission channel is not prescribed in any form under the State Broadcasting Treaty or the Bavarian Broadcasting Act". On December 8, 2017, Bayerischer Rundfunk announced that it would refrain from swapping frequencies. The BR justified this with permanently changed framework conditions. Contrary to the expectations at the time, it has been possible since 2014 to address younger listeners more and at the same time to achieve nationwide coverage with DAB +.
With just under 1 billion euros (2015), the public broadcaster achieved the fourth-highest premium income of all ARD broadcasters, but between 2010 and 2014 the BR accumulated annual deficits of more than 100 million euros.
- Transmitter for FM and DAB + in Ismaning
- Transmitter for FM and DAB + in Landshut
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Dillberg
- Transmitter for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) in Würzburg
- Transmitter for DAB + in courtyard
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Wendelstein
- Transmitter for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Kreuzberg
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Grünten
- Transmitter for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the bread jack bar
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Hohe Bogen
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the high line
- Transmitter for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Ochsenkopf
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Büttelberg
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Pfaffenberg
- Transmitter for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Hohenpeissenberg
- FM and DAB + transmitters on the Hühnerberg
- Transmitter for FM and DAB + in Coburg
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (future: DVB-T2) in Augsburg / city
- Transmitters for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) on the Hochberg
- Transmitter for FM, DAB + and TV (DVB-T / T2) in Gelbelsee
- Transmitter for FM and DAB + on the Geisberg near Bamberg
From 2017 to 2019, the switch to DVB-T2 will take place at all of the above-mentioned transmitter locations with TV broadcasting.
In addition to the locations listed, there are other small locations (filling stations) or locations of other operators that are also used (e.g. stations Gaißach , Pfarrkirchen, Burgsinn, stations Untersberg , stations Jenner etc.) with sometimes different offers with regard to VHF, DAB + or TV (DVB-T / T2).
Bayerischer Rundfunk owns the Grünten cable car to supply the Grünten station .
- The charity campaign Sternstunden e. V. des Bayerischer Rundfunk, which supports sick, handicapped or distressed children and young people around the world. Since then, 82 million euros have been donated to around 1,600 projects. This makes Sternstunden one of the most successful charity campaigns in Bavaria, awarded the European Prize for Social Commitment in 1999. In 2007, the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation also awarded the special prize of the Bavarian TV Prize for this . The non-profit association received the Pater Rupert Mayer Medal in gold in 2012. In 2013, the Federal Cross of Merit was awarded to initiator and founder Thomas Jansing.
- The BR was the last state broadcaster to start its own youth station. On3radio has been broadcasting since May 5th, 2008 (formerly Bavarian Open Radio , broadcasting started October 8th, 2007) with three hours of moderation a day as an internet live stream, via satellite radio and in the cable network. Medium wave broadcasting was discontinued on January 10, 2011. Up until the start of on3radio, there was Radio Mikro for children and the Zündfunk on Bayern 2 for young adults .
- The BR's pause sign was the motif of the folk song Solang der alten Peter . The melody is the acoustic trademark of the BR and still appears in Bayern 3's traffic jingle, for example . The eponymous church of St. Peter was badly damaged in the war. As long as the church was not rebuilt, the BR always left out the last note of the melody. It was not until October 28, 1951, when the church was fully restored, that the BR played the pause sign completely. In the original version, however, the song does not sing about a Munich church, but rather St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna .
- The BR is a founding member of MedienCampus Bayern , the umbrella organization for media education and training in Bavaria. BR director Ulrich Wilhelm sits on the board of the registered association. The BR is also a partner of MedienNetzwerk Bayern, a state platform for networking and location communication in the media sector.
- The Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation is the only broadcaster in Germany to have an aerial cableway , namely the cableway on the Grünten to supply the transmission system located there.
- The BR is also the only ARD station that has a mountaineering editorial team.
- The subsidiary BRmedia is responsible for the marketing of the advertising time in the radio programs of the BR and in the ARD evening programs.
- Bayerischer Rundfunk is the Free State of Bavaria , the City of Munich and the Umbrella Organization of the Film Industry (SPIO) Partner of the International Munich Film Weeks GmbH ( Munich Film Festival , International Festival of Film Schools Munich ).
- In September 2015, cultural broadcasts by Bavarian Radio such as Bookmarks (on the air from 1972 to 2015), taktlos (on the air since 1998) and LIDO (on the air since 2009) were placed on the Culture Red List by the German Cultural Council and placed in the "one" category and thus classified programs threatened with closure.
From 2003 with ARD umbrella brand
- www.br.de - official website
- www.br.de/mediathek/ - BR Mediathek
- Youtube channel of the Bavarian Radio
- Bavarian radio . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria
- Entry "Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR)" in the ARD's ABC
- Sabine Rittner: An event of unusual importance. Bayerischer Rundfunk, January 22, 2014, accessed on May 21, 2016 .
- License document Jan. 25, 1949 , accessed on May 21, 2016.
- BR Chronicle: The BR from 1922 to today ( Memento from January 6, 2019 in the Internet Archive ).
- September 18, 1922
- Poster with the program of events and the opening speech by Georg Schätzel from March 30, 1924 (presumably afterwards)
- What is meant is the medium wave frequency with a wavelength of 485 m
- Quoted from Werag - Official Organ of Westdeutsche Rundfunk AG Cologne, Rufu-Verlag Cologne, Issue No. 1 of December 3, 1926.
- History of Riemerschmidbau, accessed on March 3, 2015
- The transmitter Munich-Ismaning. wabweb.net, accessed April 18, 2017 .
- Martin Trauner: Last wooden transmission tower in Germany blown up. br.de, Bayern2, March 16, 2017, accessed April 18, 2017 .
- Protest against Nazi Broadcast , In: The Times, July 7, 1933, p. 13. The article goes on to say that the Austrian government reserves the right to take countermeasures. The Austrian Broadcasting Company Ravag lodged a protest with the IBU and the Reich government in Berlin. Newspapers suggested using the new station Bisamberg near Vienna to interfere with programs like "other countries have long been doing as a weapon against wireless propaganda from Moscow".
- Chronicle of the BR: National Socialism. ( Memento from January 6, 2019 in the Internet Archive ) br.de from January 22, 2009.
- History of Bavarian Radio , accessed on August 12, 2014.
- Radiogeschichte Organigramme , accessed on September 11, 2014.
- Chronicle of Bayerischer Rundfunk: Reconstruction - 1945 to 1952 ( Memento from January 6, 2019 in the Internet Archive ).
- Chronicle of ARD , accessed on September 11, 2014.
- Bavarian Broadcasting Act, accessed on October 7, 2014
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: Annual Report: BR closes 2015 with declining premium income in the red . July 14, 2016 ( br.de [accessed November 13, 2016]).
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: Annual Report: BR closes 2015 with declining premium income | BR.de . July 14, 2016, p. 50 ( br.de [accessed on November 13, 2016]).
- Michael Hanfeld: Surreptitious advertising for 1.476 million euros. In: FAZ.net . July 1, 2005, accessed May 3, 2020 .
- The financial situation of Bayerischer Rundfunk 2009, update 2011, p. 15 ( Memento from October 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 867 kB)
- Chronicle of Bayerischer Rundfunk: The television is coming - 1953 to 1969 ( Memento from January 6, 2019 in the Internet Archive )
- Hansjörg Biener: 40 years of foreign broadcasts in Germany . asamnet.de. April 3, 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Media-Analyze Radio ( Memento from August 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 4, 2014.
- br.de , accessed on March 3, 2016.
- BR company Simulcast-HD , accessed August 12, 2014.
- Joachim Huber: Quota ranking of the third programs: NDR and MDR in front, RBB in the back. Der Tagesspiegel, December 29, 2015, accessed on January 2, 2016 .
- TV usage: balance sheet Bayerisches Fernsehen 2015. Bayerischer Rundfunk, December 30, 2015, accessed on January 2, 2016 .
- BR, Dept. of Business Analysis and Media Research, on email request
- Radio and TV, multimedia and interactive. Accessed September 14, 2014.
- The five subject areas. Accessed September 14, 2014
- News: News from Bavaria, Germany and the world - BR.de. Bayerischer Rundfunk, accessed on November 28, 2015 .
- BR24: New BR news app sets standards. Bayerischer Rundfunk, September 21, 2015, accessed on September 27, 2015 .
- Alexander Krei: "Red line crossed": Newspaper publishers complain against the new "BR24" app. DWDL.de, December 16, 2015, accessed on December 17, 2015 .
- BR24: Legal dispute over news app of Bayerischer Rundfunk ended , heise.de, June 7, 2016.
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: BR starts tri- media reform: "Strong, visible and relevant" | BR.de . October 17, 2012 ( br.de [accessed April 15, 2017]).
- Trimedial work structures: BR starts the conversion process, radio correspondence, October 26, 2012, page 12.
- Structural reform at BR, Süddeutsche Zeitung, October 12, 2012, p. 30.
- Thomas Anlauf: This is what the new Bavarian radio should look like . In: sueddeutsche.de . April 1, 2015, ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed April 15, 2017]).
- In conversation: BR director Ulrich Wilhelm: We should now get out of the trenches . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . March 9, 2013, ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed April 15, 2017]).
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: BR-Rundfunkrat: Thomas Hinrichs becomes information director | BR.de . December 5, 2013 ( br.de [accessed April 15, 2017]).
- At the Baumeister, Der Journalist, 09/2015, p. 45.
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: BR-Rundfunkrat: Werner Reuss becomes head of the new program area "Knowledge and Education" | BR.de . July 14, 2016 ( br.de [accessed April 15, 2017]).
- Stuttgarter Zeitung, Stuttgart, Germany: Reform at Bayerischer Rundfunk: On the way to the digital future . In: stuttgarter-zeitung.de . ( stuttgarter-zeitung.de [accessed on April 15, 2017]).
- Timo Niemeier: After seven years: BR conversion completed. dwdl.de, June 29, 2020, accessed June 30, 2020 .
- BR sets up directorates completely according to content. br.de, June 29, 2020, accessed June 30, 2020 .
- In addition to many publications at that time, Der Spiegel criticized the "Schwarzfunk des Franz Josef Strauss": RUNDFUNK / BAYERN: Mit Demokratie . In: Der Spiegel . No. 52 , 1970 ( online - 21 December 1970 ).
- Christian Deutschländer: Indendantenwahl: Change of power at the BR. MERKUR ONLINE, April 15, 2010, accessed September 8, 2010 .
- The media column on the BR director's election: Angela Berlusconi's governor in Munich . stern.de. May 5, 2010. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Ulrich Wilhelm becomes the new BR director . focus.de. May 6, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Ulrich Wilhelm - Merkel's husband for Munich. In: sueddeutsche.de . May 20, 2010, accessed May 3, 2020 .
- Angela Berlusconi's governor in Munich. In: stern.de . May 5, 2010, accessed May 3, 2020 .
- At BR dahoam: Söder's questionable PR excursion on dwdl.de on January 22, 2015.
- Bavaria's waste . In: Der Spiegel . No. 2 , 1973, p. 97 ( online ).
- Lisa Schnell, Hans Kratzer: Söder writes a letter of complaint to Bayerischer Rundfunk. In: sueddeutsche.de . October 30, 2016, accessed May 3, 2020 .
- Rainer Erler's film "Das Bohrloch" provokes protests. In: Chronicle of the ARD. Retrieved June 8, 2019 .
- MUH - Bavarian Aspects, Issue 28, 2018, The Forgotten Film: Bavarian Films Unseen for a Long Time Unearthed: The Borehole or Bavaria is not in Texas, page 73.
- Film review from Cinema.de , accessed on October 8, 2014.
- 1977: censorship. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Muzzle for Hildebrandt. . Deutschlandradio Kultur, calendar sheet / archive | Article from May 22, 2006.
- 1986: Whitsun Battle - ( the Friday of May 11, 2016)
- broadcast has been discontinued, History of the Night Studio in the introduction to pdf finding aids , accessed on December 1, 2014.
- Case Szczesny in BR.de, accessed November 30, 2014
- Szczesny leaves Bayernfunk , accessed on December 31, 2014.
- The hit dress at swr.de on August 13, 2013, accessed on October 30, 2014.
- Reto Wehrli: Demonized Heavy Metal. Scandals and Censorship in Modern Music History . 2nd Edition. Telos, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-933060-15-X , p. 562 .
- § 19 para. 7 a. F. RfStV i. V. m. the list drawn up by the federal states of the radio programs broadcast as of April 1, 2004, which is included as an annex to the official justification for the 8th Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty; now regulated for the BR in Art. 2 Para. 3 Sentence 2 BayRG
- Online petition "BR-Klassik must stay!" , Accessed on August 12, 2014.
- Bayerischer Rundfunk press release "Information on the subject of BR-Klassik" , accessed on April 12, 2014.
- radioszene.de: PULS gets FM frequencies from BR-Klassik 2018
- Court decision: action by private radio stations against the BR dismissed. Bayerischer Rundfunk, June 7, 2016, accessed on June 7, 2016 .
- BR decides against frequency swap PULS / BR-Klassik. In: radio scene. December 8, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017 .
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: Annual Report: BR closes 2015 with declining premium income | BR.de . July 14, 2016 ( br.de [accessed on May 23, 2017]).
- Mia san mia, that is no longer enough . ( tagesspiegel.de [accessed on May 23, 2017]).
- Executive Board MedienCampus, accessed on November 8, 2014 ( Memento from April 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Homepage of MedienNetzwerk Bayern, accessed on April 8, 2015 ( Memento from September 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- German Cultural Council: September 3, 2015 Red Lists of Threatened Cultural Institutions ( Memento from October 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on September 17, 2015