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Work data
Title: Parsifal
Title page of the first print

Title page of the first print

Shape: thoroughly composed
Original language: German
Music: Richard Wagner
Libretto : Richard Wagner
Premiere: July 26, 1882
Place of premiere: Festspielhaus , Bayreuth
Playing time: about 4.5 hours
Place and time of the action: On territory and in Monsalvat Castle in northern Spain in the early Middle Ages
  • Amfortas, King of the Grail ( baritone )
  • Titurel, Amfortas' father ( bass )
  • Gurnemanz, Knight of the Grail (bass)
  • Parsifal ( tenor )
  • Klingsor (bass)
  • Kundry ( soprano or mezzo-soprano )
  • Two knights of the grail (tenor and bass)
  • Four squires (soprano and tenor)
  • Klingsor's Magic Girl (6 single singers, soprano and alto )
  • Voice from on high (alto)
  • Choir:
    • Magic girl (soprano and alto)
    • Brotherhood of the Grail Knights (tenor and bass)
    • Youths and boys (tenor, soprano and alto)

Parsifal ( WWV 111) is the last music-dramatic work by Richard Wagner . Wagner himself described the three-act play as a stage dedication festival and decreed that it should only be performed in the Bayreuth Festival Hall . The plot and title are based on the verse novel Parzival by the Middle High German poet Wolfram von Eschenbach .

Wagner's intention

Wagner's Parsifal contains religious elements such as solemn music, monstrance wrapping ( Grail ), baptism and Christian communion ritual . In his Zürcher Kunstschriften ( The Artwork of the Future , Opera and Drama ) he developed the idea of ​​illustrating the core of the religious through art. In Religion and Art he summarizes:

"One could say that where religion becomes artificial, it is reserved for art to save the core of religion by capturing the mythical symbols, which it actually wants to be believed to be true, according to their symbolic values, in order to allow the deep truth hidden in them to be recognized through ideal representation. "

Wagner explained that in order to transform his parable-like message, redemption and regeneration of humanity through compassion - represented by the searching Parsifal and the suffering Amfortas - he had chosen an art form which, with religious symbolism, was supposed to have a "rapturing effect on the mind".

History of origin

Wagner was already busy in Marienbad in 1845 when he designed Lohengrin and wrote down the first idea for Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg , with the material of the legend. The first sketch entitled “Parzival” was not made until 1857 in Zurich. In 1865, King Ludwig II of Bavaria , who had supported Wagner financially since 1864, asked to carry out the Parzival Plan. The first prose draft of the work was then created. After the first Bayreuth Festival ended with the performance of the Ring of the Nibelung , Wagner began, at the request of his wife Cosima - who recorded the entire development process in detail in her diary - with the implementation of his old Parzival plans in January 1877. Wagner soon changed the spelling of the name to “Parsifal” by referring to the supposedly Persian words for “pure” (fal) and “gate” (parsi). The figure of Parsifal is laid out in the work as a pure gate in the heart . Wagner began composing in September 1877. In April 1879 the orchestra sketches for all three acts were ready. In February 1880 Wagner intended to emigrate to the USA after experiencing a financial disaster when he performed his Ring at the first Festival in 1876 in the Bayreuth Festival Hall . He discussed his plans to emigrate with his dentist friend, Newell Sill Jenkins, and in a three-page letter he also formulated the conditions that would secure his existence across the ocean and bring the Americans to Parsifal. Thanks to Jenkins' persuasion, Wagner did not implement his plans. It took until January 1882 until the work (during a long stay in Palermo ) was completely composed and the score was completed. In November 1880, the orchestral prelude to the first act was heard for the first time in a private performance for King Ludwig II of Bavaria in Munich. Wagner sold the publishing rights to the successors of his publisher and friend Franz Schott in Mainz at a high price of 100,000 marks at the time , who thus co-financed the 2nd Festival.


The plot goes back to the verse epic Parzival , which was written at the beginning of the 13th century. However, it tightens and concentrates the story set in the 8th century and above all changes the scenic props Grail and Holy Spear . The characters are reduced to a few main characters, the plot is concentrated on the idea of ​​salvation that dominates almost all of Wagner's works.



King Titurel has two miraculous relics : the Grail and the Holy Spear. The grail was used as a drinking cup at the last supper and caught the blood of Christ on the cross. Jesus was wounded on the side of the cross with the spear. Titurel has gathered knights around him who, strengthened by the relics, go into the world and fight for good. Klingsor once tried to be allowed to belong to the Grail Community, but was rejected because of his unchastity. Therefore he emasculated himself, but was not accepted anyway. Thereupon he created a counter-kingdom for himself in the desert, a magic garden with seductive women, and swore to disempower the king and his knights and to take the relics.

Some of the knights did not withstand the temptations, so that Titurel's son Amfortas, as a young king of the Grail, decided to go into battle against Klingsor armed with the holy lance. But he too was seduced by a mysterious woman. Klingsor succeeded in stealing the lance, the holy spear, from him. Amfortas has since suffered a wound that Klingsor struck him with this (poisoned) spear and from which he has suffered terribly ever since. Because the wound no longer closes: with each new revelation of the Grail, which nourishes the entire knighthood, it breaks open again.

I. Elevator, forest clearing and Grail Castle

Prelude Parsifal, Bayreuth 1951, festival orchestra under Hans Knappertbusch
First image of Act I at the Metropolitan Opera , New York, 1903

In a clearing near the Grail Castle, Knight Gurnemanz wakes up some miners. He asks them to pray and prepare the morning bath for the young King of the Grail, Amfortas, who is suffering from a wound that does not heal. Kundry , the mysteriously wild helper of the Grail Knights, rides up on horseback. With the last of her strength, she hands over balm for the king. Half desperate, half mockingly, she remarks that he will not help any more than the medicinal herbs that Knight Gawan has already brought. Kundry is mocked by the squires as a "pagan" and "magician". Only Gurnemanz defends them when the squires mockingly demand that Kundry should go to retrieve the lost holy lance. Now Gurnemanz tells that, according to a prophecy, only a “pure fool who knows through compassion” can win back the spear and heal Amfortas with it. Because the wound is only closed by the spear that struck it.

The scene is disturbed by noise from the nearby lake. The knights caught a boy who killed a holy swan with a bow and arrow. It is Parsifal, the son of Herzeleide and the knight Gamuret, who fell in battle before he was born. The boy grew up under the sole care of his mother in the forest without any contact with the outside world. He himself does not know his name, nor does he know where he comes from or who his father is. Kundry knows his story and tells of his mother's death. Gurnemanz hopes to have found in him the “pure fool” announced in the vision of Amfortas, and takes him to the Grail Castle, while Kundry falls into a hypnotic sleep.

In the Grail Castle, Parsifal becomes a silent witness as the knights and Amfortas gather around his father Titurel, who is living in the grave, to unveil the Grail. Amfortas laments his pain, which the sight of the Grail can only relieve briefly. Titurel and the knights challenge him to reveal the grail. The chalice with the blood of Christ shines in a magical glow of light. The knights then take the meal, bread and wine, and then leave the temple strengthened. Parsifal is incapable of saying anything about everything he saw and is shown at the door by Gurnemanz, who believes he was wrong about him. However: a voice from on high repeats the words of the prophecy with the last chimes of the grail bells: “Knowing through pity, the pure fool”.

Elevator II, Klingsor's magic garden

Garden of Villa Rufolo , the model of the "magic garden "

The second act leads to a different, fantastic world. Klingsor, who was not accepted into the knighthood of the Grail after emasculating himself in order to master his desires, hates the knights ever since and created the magic garden to destroy them. In his magic mirror he is now watching Parsifal approaching his castle and the magic garden. With Kundry as a tool, Klingsor wants to rob the fool of innocence, like many knights of the grail before. Now the role of Kundry is revealed: because she laughed at Jesus Christ on his way to the crucifixion, she searches for him - “from world to world” - in ever new rebirths in order to finally find redemption from her guilt. Since then, full of longing for death, she has voluntarily served the knights of the grail as an assistant, but Klingsor succeeds time and again in pulling her under his spell and abusing it as a willless, beautiful tool of temptation. It was she who seduced Amfortas, whereby Klingsor was able to snatch the sacred spear from him and inflict the non-healing wound. Kundry is now supposed to beguile and thus destroy Parsifal. She can only get salvation if a man resists her seduction. She is reluctant to submit to Klingsor's orders to defeat Parsifal, but has to bow to his power.

When Parsifal wants to escape the lure of the flower girls in Klingsor's magic garden, Kundry calls him by his name. The boy listens to her tale of the sad fate of his parents. Parsifal is deeply shaken. Comforting, but with the intention of introducing him to love, she embraces him. During a long kiss, Parsifal instantly recognizes the cause of Amfortas' torment and his own destiny; he becomes “world-clear-sighted”. He pushes Kundry back and promises her redemption. Her burst of frenzied laughter and screams calls Klingsor to throw the sacred spear at Parsifal. The spear remains hovering over Parsifal's head. He seizes him and makes the sign of the cross with him, whereupon Klingsor and with him the entire magic garden fall victim to destruction. Kundry looks down on Parsifal, who hurries to shout: "You know where to find me again!"

III. Elevator, forest clearing and Grail Castle

Parsifal by Hermann Hendrich

The orchestral prelude describes the wanderings of Parsifal, who tries to find his way back to the Grail Castle.

Many years have passed. Gurnemanz now lives as a hermit in the forest and finds Kundry in a deep swoon in the undergrowth. When awakened by him, she appears completely changed: gentle, helpful and silent. A knight in black armor appears. Gurnemanz tells him to lay down his weapons with the reference to Holy Good Friday. After the knight has put down his weapons and armor, Gurnemanz is delighted to see that he has Parsifal in front of him with the holy spear who has found his way back to the Grail Castle. He greets him and tells of the collapse of the Grail Society: In order to finally force his own redeeming death, Amfortas no longer performed the life-energizing ceremony of the Grail unveiling. His father Titurel has already died as a result, and Amfortas only wants to unveil the Grail one last time that day for his funeral.

Parsifal collapses in desperate self-accusations, Gurnemanz blesses him and anoints him as the new King of the Grail. As his "first office" he donates the baptism of the violently weeping Kundry. Parsifal and Gurnemanz are amazed to see the idyllic nature shining in the morning sun, which is also redeemed. When the bells ring from the Grail Castle around noon, all three set off there. The knighthood of the Grail, accompanying Titurel's corpse, has gathered in the temple. Amfortas complains about his dead father, who died through his guilt because he no longer revealed the life-giving Grail - to hasten his own death. He again refuses the planned unveiling of the Grail and desperately begs for his release from the agony of his incurable wound: the knights may kill him, then the Grail will shine for them by itself. Then Parsifal, accompanied by Gurnemanz and Kundry, appears and finally closes with the holy spear the wound that Klingsor once inflicted on Amfortas.

As the new King of the Grail, Parsifal finally reveals the Grail again, and a white dove hovers over him from above as a sign of divine grace. Amfortas and Gurnemanz pay homage to the new keeper of the Grail; Kundry sinks - finally released from her curse - lifeless to the ground.


The French composer Claude Debussy , who usually didn't spare criticism of Wagner's music, remained perhaps the most prominent admirer of Parsifal's music to this day. “One hears orchestral sounds [he wrote] that are unique and unexpected, noble and full of power. This is one of the most beautiful sound monuments that have been erected to the immortal glory of music. ”On the other hand, the later writings were quite divided as to the musical rank of Parsifal. While Wagner's Tristan (1859) increasingly moved into the position of a key work of the dawning musical modernity, Parsifal had for a long time had the reputation of being an old-fashioned late work that no longer came close to the boldness and progressiveness of Wagner's earlier works. In addition, the supposed inconsistency of the score, that mélange of the most disparate musical phenomena, which ranges from the almost Cecilian -seeming neo-renaissance style of some passages of the first act to moments on the “threshold of atonality” ( Adorno , 1952) in the second act, irritated. Even Hans Mayer Wagner Monograph 1959 judges in this sense. According to Mayer, the music of Parsifal works “very strongly with tried and tested recipes. [...] The instrumentation is absolutely masterful and is able to cover up a certain sparseness of the actual musical invention for a long time. […] In addition to the sought-after musical simplicity […] there are the highest harmonic audacity. [...] But the conventional transfiguration of the ending with A flat major and D flat major and A flat major and glowing red Grail and chorus mysticus remains embarrassing to bear. ”Only in more recent studies has such a general criticism been decidedly contradicted, for example in the essays by Claus- Steffen Mahnkopf (1999) and Johannes Schild (2010), who see the inadequacies less in Wagner's music than in an outdated analytical instrument. Against this background, Schild completely renounces the categories of traditional harmony theory and resorts to the analysis method of the Hungarian conductor and music theorist Albert Simon, published in 2004, with the help of which he tries to present the Parsifal score as an artistic unit founded on tonality .

The first performances

The Grail Temple. Stage design for the premiere

The premiere took place at the 2nd Bayreuth Festival on July 26, 1882 and was conducted by Hermann Levi . The stage set was created by Paul von Joukowsky , whom Wagner met on his travels to Italy in Naples . Joukowsky designed the set in a Mediterranean style: the grail temple of the premiere was reminiscent of the cathedral of Siena , Klingsor's magic castle was influenced by the garden of Villa Rufolo in Ravello . There were a total of 16 performances by the end of August. In the last performance, the composer himself took over the baton and conducted the transformation music in the III. Elevator to the end of the work. - It was the only time that Wagner conducted a public performance in his festival hall.

The reaction of the audience - including many artists and musicians - was consistently positive and corresponded to Wagner's intention to achieve a “collection” effect with his stage consecration festival, to be able to reflect and meditate in a community of sentiments. With many it hit the nerve.

To give an impression of the premiere, the Leipzig theater director Angelo Neumann reports on a comment from a Mr. Förster present during a dinner following the performance. In the excited circle he remarked: "You will see, Wagner dies". When Mr. Neumann asked him how he came to such a remark, he replied: “A person who has created what we have experienced today can no longer live. It's done. He has to die soon. "

To performance practice

According to the express will of Wagner and his heirs, Parsifal was to be performed exclusively in Bayreuth. Numerous concert (partial) performances, for example on August 1, 1887 in the Alberthalle of the Leipzig Crystal Palace , quickly made Parsifal's music known. Shortly after the composer's death, his widow Cosima permitted a special performance in Munich for King Ludwig II . Heinrich Conried performed the first staged performance of Parsifal outside Bayreuth on December 24, 1903 at the Metropolitan Opera in New York without Cosima Wagner's permission . This annoyed Cosima so much that the conductor of the performance, Alfred Hertz , was banned from all German theaters in the future. When the copyright protection for the work expired in 1913 , Cosima Wagner tried hard to have this period extended by at least 20 years. After these efforts had proved futile, she sent a petition to the Reichstag to secure at least the exclusive right to perform for Bayreuth. The Reichstag, however, rejected this special legislation, ridiculed as "Lex Cosima". At least ostensibly because of this “Parsifal robbery” - in a Wagner year of all places - there were no festivals in Bayreuth. Because the term of protection ended in April 1913 under Swiss law, the work was given in the Zurich Opera House that month . Just in time for the expiry of the term of protection, the first performance began on January 1, 1914, at midnight, in the Barcelona Opera House . Numerous theaters in Germany brought the work to the stage in 1914.

For many years it was customary not to clap at all after Parsifal was performed because of its “religious” character . Often the audience does without it after the first act (sacrament scene). Wagner himself had nothing against applause at Parsifal performances. But he himself was hissed off when he applauded his “flower girl” in the second act.

Traditionally, Parsifal is often given during Easter (the third act takes place on a Good Friday). The piece is performed annually on Maundy Thursday in the Vienna State Opera . Sometimes performances take place on Good Friday, which is permitted in some German federal states due to the serious nature of the work ( holiday laws ). Hans Schüler's Parsifal production from 1957 at the Nationaltheater Mannheim , which is still performed every year at least on Good Friday, is considered to be the oldest opera production in German-speaking countries. On April 14, 2017, the 60th anniversary of the premiere, there was the 137th performance of this production.

Duration (using the example of the Bayreuth Festival)

At the Bayreuth Festival it was customary to document the length of the individual lifts, but not all years were recorded there. The type of voice and the temperament of the singers influenced the duration. The times mentioned here only include performances for which all three acts were documented.

Overview (1882 to 1975)
Parsifal 1st act 2nd act 3rd act Total duration
Hours. conductor Hours. conductor Hours. conductor Hours. conductor
Shortest duration 1:33 Hans Zender 0:56 Clemens Krauss 1:05 Pierre Boulez 3:38 Pierre Boulez
Longest duration 2:06 Arturo Toscanini 1:12 Arturo Toscanini 1:30 Arturo Toscanini 4:48 Arturo Toscanini
Span * 0:33 (35%) 0:16 (29%) 0:25 (38%) 1:10 (32%)

* Percentages refer to the shortest duration.

Playing time with individual conductors of the Bayreuth Festival (in hours)
year conductor 1st act 2nd act 3rd act Total duration
1882 Hermann Levi 1:47 1:02 1:15 4:04
Franz Fischer 1:50 1:10 1:23 4:23
1888 Felix Mottl 1:46 1:07 1:22 4:15
1:50 1:05 1:19 4:14
(undated) 1:55 1:08 1:26 4:29
1897 Anton Seidl 1:48 1:04 1:27 4:19
1901 Karl Muck 1:56 1:07 1:23 4:26
1904 Michael Balling 1:46 1:03 1:19 4:08
1906 Franz Beidler 1:48 1:05 1:18 4:11
1909 Siegfried Wagner 1:49 1:09 1:25 4:23
1924 Willibald Kaehler 1:59 1:08 1:22 4:29
1931 Arturo Toscanini 2:06 1:12 1:30 4:48
1933 Richard Strauss 1:46 1:04 1:18 4:08
(undated) Richard Strauss 1:45 1:00 1:11 3:56
1934 Franz von Hoeßlin 1:44 1:05 1:18 4:07
1936 Wilhelm Furtwängler 1:52 1:03 1:17 4:12
1951 Hans Knappertsbusch 1:56 1:10 1:21 4:27
1953 Clemens Krauss 1:39 0:56 1:09 3:44
1957 André Cluytens 1:56 1:11 1:18 4:25
1958 Hans Knappertsbusch 1:46 1:09 1:13 4:08
1965 André Cluytens 1:53 1:05 1:11 4:09
1966 Pierre Boulez 1:38 1:01 1:10 3:49
1967 1:35 0:58 1:05 3:38
1969 Horst Stein 1:44 1:05 1:10 3:59
1970 Pierre Boulez 1:34 0:59 1:06 3:39
1973 Eugene Jochum 1:38 1:00 1:08 3:46
1975 Horst Stein 1:38 1:03 1:08 3:49
Hans Zender 1:33 1:01 1:08 3:42
Parsifal foreplay
conductor Duration (min.)
Hermann Levi 12
Franz Fischer 13
Felix Mottl 16
Anton Seidl 14th
Karl Muck 14.5
Richard Wagner 13 (1878) *
14.5 (1880) **

* First performance on December 25, 1878 in Bayreuth ** Separate performance for Ludwig II. On November 11, 1880 in Munich


Friedrich Nietzsche

Wagner's turn to the ethics of compassion in Christianity, to the religious itself, as expressed in Parsifal , was one of the main reasons for the increasing alienation and ultimately for the break between Friedrich Nietzsche and Wagner. Nietzsche later described this in a letter to Lou Andreas-Salomé :

“The last written words of Wagner to me are in a beautiful dedication copy of Parsifal“ To my dear friend Friedrich Nietzsche. Richard Wagner, Ober-Kirchenrath. "At exactly the same time, I sent my book" Menschliches Allzumenschliches "to him - and with that everything was" clear ", but everything was over."

When Nietzsche first heard the prelude to Parsifal in Monte Carlo at the beginning of 1887, the author of the Antichrist and pastor's son confessed that nothing comparable would express “deep” Christianity and encourage compassion; this music is an indescribable expression of greatness and compassion. "Has Wagner ever done anything better?" ... he asked in a letter to his "assistant" Peter Gast (Heinrich Köselitz) and tried to describe what he had heard:

“[...] an extraordinary feeling, experience and event of the soul at the bottom of the music that gives Wagner the highest honor, a synthesis of states that many people, including“ higher people ”, will consider incompatible, of judicial severity, of "Height" in the terrifying sense of the word, of knowing and looking through, which cuts through a soul as if with a knife - and of compassion for what is seen and judged. "

Gustav Mahler

After visiting the Bayreuth performance of “Parsifal” in July 1883, 23-year-old Gustav Mahler wrote deeply moved to his friend Fritz Löhr: “When I stepped out of the Festspielhaus, unable to speak, I knew that the greatest thing Most painful had risen and that I will carry it with me through my life undeclared [...] "

Hans Knappertsbusch

Hans Knappertsbusch , one of the most famous conductors of Parsifal in the 1950s and 1960s, was convinced of the indispensability of religious symbols such as the appearance of the dove at the end of the work. When Wieland Wagner wanted to remove this very symbol from his production, Knappertsbusch refused to conduct. So Wieland kept the pigeon, but only let it come down far enough from the Schnürboden of the Bayreuth stage that the conductor could see it looking straight up from the lectern, while it remained invisible to the audience. According to legend, Knappertsbusch later went to Wieland Wagner and wordlessly put a piece of string on his desk.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler , who had been an ardent admirer of Wagner in Linz and Vienna since his youth , described Parsifal as the key opera par excellence. From 1934, Hitler took a decision to influence the Bayreuth production of Parsifal. With his former painter idol Alfred Roller from Vienna, he contributed ideas to the stage design and wanted a "clearing out" following the National Socialist ideology, away from a Christian primordial consecration character.

Thomas Mann

Thomas Mann , who repeatedly dealt with the "Wagner phenomenon", owed him art luck and knowledge of art for a long time and for a long time placed him above all his artistic thoughts and actions and was honest enough to describe his love for Wagner as "love without faith" To denote, said that the work was in "its pious depravity and monstrous expressiveness of pain certainly the strangest thing there is". In a letter to his fellow writer Ludwig Ewers on August 23, 1909, after a performance of Parsifal, he wrote:

“Although I went there very skeptically and had the feeling that I was on a pilgrimage to Lourdes or to a fortune teller or to some other place of suggestive fraud, I was finally deeply shaken. Certain passages in particular in III. Nude, Good Friday music, baptism, anointing, but also the unforgettable final scene - are significant and absolutely irresistible [...] There is probably no such terrible expressiveness in any of the arts. The accents of contrition and agony, on which Wagner has practiced all his life, only come to their final intensity here [...] "

Significant recordings


In 1982 - on the hundredth anniversary of the first Parsifal performance - Hans-Jürgen Syberberg created a cinematic staging of the work. It plays on, in front of and in a 15 m long and 9 m wide subdivided concrete replica of Wagner's death mask . Before shooting started, the music was recorded by the Orchester Philharmonique de Monte Carlo under Armin Jordan . Among others, Reiner Goldberg (Parsifal), Yvonne Minton (Kundry) and Wolfgang Schöne (Amfortas) sang . Two soloists on this recording, Robert Lloyd (Gurnemanz) and Aage Haugland (Klingsor), played their vocal parts in the film. Armin Jordan played the role of Amfortas in the film. Apart from Kundry ( Edith Clever ) and Titurel ( Martin Sperr ), the other people were cast by amateur actors.

Arrangements and transcriptions

  • Franz Liszt : Solemn March to the Holy Grail from the Parsifal Stage Festival (1882)
  • Engelbert Humperdinck : 12 excerpts from the opera Parsifal for piano four hands
  • Sigfrid Karg-Elert : Parsifal Prelude / Grail Bells and Last Supper for organ
  • Michael Starke : Prelude to Parsifal by Richard Wagner, arranged for string orchestra (2016)

See also



  • John Deathridge / Martin Geck / Egon Voss , Wagner work directory. Directory of the musical works of Richard Wagner and their sources , Mainz (Schott) 1986.
  • Richard Wagner, Parsifal , orchestral score, Mainz (Schott Verlag) 1883.
  • Richard Wagner, drafts for: "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg", "Tristan and Isolde", "Parsifal" , published by Hans von Wolzüge, Leipzig (Siegel) 1907.
  • Richard Wagner, Parsifal , facsimile of the autograph, Munich (Dreimasken Verlag) 1925.
  • Richard Wagner, Parsifal , WWV 111, Critical Complete Edition, edited by Martin Geck & Egon Voss , Mainz (Schott) 1978.


  • Theodor W. Adorno , Essay on Wagner , "Gesammelte Schriften", vol. 13, Frankfurt (Suhrkamp) 1971.
  • Theodor W. Adorno , On the score of Parsifal , in: Theodor W. Adorno, Gesammelte Schriften , vol. 17, Frankfurt (Suhrkamp) 1982, pp. 47-51.
  • Hans-Joachim Bauer, Wagner's »Parsifal«. Criteria of Composition Technique , Munich / Salzburg (Katzbichler) 1977.
  • Carl Friedrich Baumann, stage technology in the Bayreuth Festival Hall , Munich (Prestel) 1980.
  • Peter Berne, Parsifal or The higher determination of man. Christ mysticism and Buddhist interpretation of the world in Wagner's last drama , Vienna (Hollitzer Wissenschaft) 2017, ISBN 978-3-99012-419-2 .
  • Dieter Borchmeyer , Richard Wagner's Theater. Idea ─ Poetry ─ Effect , Stuttgart (Reclam) 1982.
  • Dieter Borchmeyer / Jörg Salaquarda (eds.), Nietzsche and Wagner. Stations of an epochal encounter , Frankfurt / Leipzig (Insel) 1994.
  • Dieter Borchmeyer, Richard Wagner. Ahasver's changes , Frankfurt / Leipzig (Insel) 2002.
  • Jacques Chailley, "Parsifal" de Richard Wagner: opéra initiatique , Paris (Buchet / Chastel) 1986.
  • Attila Csampai / Dietmar Holland (eds.), Richard Wagner, "Parsifal". Texts, materials, comments , Reinbek (rororo) 1984.
  • Carl Dahlhaus , Wagner's conception of the musical drama , Regensburg (Bosse) 1971, 2nd edition: Munich / Kassel (dtv / Bärenreiter) 1990.
  • Sven Friedrich, The auratic work of art. On the aesthetics of Richard Wagner's music theater utopia , Tübingen (Niemeyer) 1996.
  • Sven Friedrich, Richard Wagner, interpretation and effect. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2851-1 .
  • Antonia Goldhammer, do you know what you saw? Stefan Herheim's Bayreuth Parsifal . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin / Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-422-07058-5 .
  • Adriana Guarnieri Corazzol, Tristano, mio ​​Tristano. Gli scrittori italiani e il caso Wagner , Bologna (Il Mulino) 1988.
  • Wolf-Daniel Hartwich, "German Mythology". The invention of a national art religion , Berlin (Philo) 2000.
  • Ulrike Kienzle, "... the voluntary suffering of truthfulness". On the philosophical background of the break between Wagner and Nietzsche: A reconstruction of their dialogue about Schopenhauer's pessimism , in: Thomas Steiert (Ed.), "The Wagner Case". Origins and consequences of Nietzsche's criticism of Wagner , "Thurnauer Schriften zum Musiktheater", vol. 13, Laaber (Laaber) 1991, pp. 81-136.
  • Ulrike Kienzle, The World Overcoming Work. Wagner's »Parsifal« ─ a scenic-musical parable of the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer , Laaber (Laaber) 1992. ISBN 3-8260-3058-3 .
  • Chikako Kitagawa, attempt on Kundry ─ Facets of a Figure , Bern / Frankfurt / New York (Peter Lang) 2015.
  • Stefan Kunze (ed.), Richard Wagner. From opera to music drama , Bern / Munich (Francke) 1978.
  • Stefan Kunze , Richard Wagner's Concept of Art , Regensburg (Bosse) 1983.
  • Alfred Lorenz, The Secret of Form with Richard Wagner , Volume 4: The musical structure of Richard Wagner's »Parsifal« , Berlin (Max Hesse) 1933, Reprint Tutzing (Hans Schneider) 1966.
  • Jürgen Maehder , Form, Text-Setting, Timbre, Aura ─ Structural Aspects of Wagner's “Parsifal” Score , in: Naomi Matsumoto et al. (Eds.), Staging Verdi and Wagner , Turnhout (Brepols) 2015, pp. 81–113.
  • Jürgen Maehder , The Intellectual Challenge of Staging Wagner: Staging Practice at Bayreuth Festival from Wieland Wagner to Patrice Chéreau , in: Marco Brighenti / Marco Targa (eds.), Mettere in scena Wagner. Opera e regia fra Ottocento e contemporaneità , Lucca (LIM) 2019, pp. 151–174.
  • Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf (ed.): Richard Wagner, designer of modernity. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-608-91979-1 .
  • Volker Mertens, Richard Wagner and the Middle Ages , in: Ulrich Müller / Ursula Müller (eds.), Richard Wagner und seine Mittelalter, Anif / Salzburg (Müller Speiser) 1989, pp. 9–84.
  • Heinz-Klaus Metzger / Rainer Riehn (eds.), Richard Wagner, "Parsifal" , "Music Concepts", vol. 25, Munich (text + criticism) 1982.
  • Stephan Mösch , consecration, workshop, reality. "Parsifal" in Bayreuth 1882-1933 , Kassel / Stuttgart / Weimar (Bärenreiter / Metzler) 2012, ISBN 978-3-7618-2326-2 .
  • Ulrich Müller / Ursula Müller (eds.), Richard Wagner und seine Mittelalter , Anif / Salzburg (Müller-Speiser) 1989.
  • Ulrich Müller , From »Parzival« to the prohibition of love. Richard Wagner and the Middle Ages , in: Dietrich Mack (ed.), Richard Wagner: Mittler between the times , Anif / Salzburg (Müller-Speiser) 1990, pp. 79-103.
  • Ulrich Müller / Oswald Panagl, Ring and Graal. Texts, comments and interpretations on Richard Wagner's “The Ring of the Nibelung”, “Tristan and Isolde”, “The Mastersingers of Nuremberg” and “Parsifal” , Würzburg (Königshausen & Neumann) 2002.
  • Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Wagner androgyne , Paris (Bourgois) 1990; English translation (Stewart Spencer): Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Wagner Androgyne. A Study in Interpretation , Princeton (Princeton University Press) 1993.
  • Gösta Neuwirth, Parsifal and the musical Art Nouveau , in: Carl Dahlhaus (Ed.), Richard Wagner ─ Work and Effect , Regensburg (Bosse) 1971, pp. 175–198.
  • Adolf Novak, Wagner's »Parsifal« and the idea of ​​the art religion , in: Carl Dahlhaus (Ed.), Richard Wagner ─ Work and Effect , Regensburg (Bosse) 1971, pp. 161–174.
  • Wolfgang Osthoff , Richard Wagner's Buddha project "The Sieger". His ideal and structural traces in »Ring« and »Parsifal« , in: Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 40/1983, pp. 189–211.
  • Daniel Schneller, Richard Wagner's “Parsifal” and the renewal of the mystery drama in Bayreuth. The vision of the total work of art as a universal culture of the future , Bern (Peter Lang) Bern 1997, ISBN 3-906757-26-9 .
  • Wolfgang Seelig, Ambivalence and Redemption. "Parsifal". Human understanding and dramatic representation of nature , Bonn (Bouvier) 1983.
  • Giuseppe Sinopoli , Parsifal a Venezia , Venezia (Marsilio Editori) 1993, ISBN 978-88-317-7914-2 ; German edition: Parsifal in Venice , Claassen Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-546-00252-0 .
  • Carl Suneson, Richard Wagner och den Indiska Tankevärlden , Stockholm (Almqvist & Wiksell International) 1985, "Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis", "Stockholm Oriental Studies", vol. 13; German edition: Richard Wagner and the Indian Spiritual World , Leiden (Brill) 1989.
  • Peter Wapnewski , The Sad God. Richard Wagner in his heroes , Munich (CH Beck) 1978.
  • Peter Wapnewski , Richard Wagner. The scene and its master , Munich (CH Beck) 1978.
  • Peter Wapnewski , Tristan the hero of Richard Wagner , Berlin (Quadriga) 1981.
  • Petra-Hildegard Wilberg, Richard Wagner's mythical world. Attempts against historicism , Freiburg (Rombach) 1996.

Web links

Commons : Parsifal (opera)  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Richard Wagner and his dentist , zm , March 30, 2016. Accessed March 31, 2016.
  2. Richard Wagner and his dentists . Academy for Dental Training, Karlsruhe. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
  3. His good friend, Richard Wagner and dentist Jenkins , zm, issue 10/2013. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  4. ^ Bernhard Dietrich Haage: Studies on medicine in the "Parzival" Wolframs von Eschenbach. , Kümmerle, Göppingen 1992 (= Göppinger Arbeit zur Germanistik, 565), ISBN 3-87452-806-5 , pp. 88–113 and 145–183
  5. ^ Claude Debussy: Monsieur Croche - Complete Writings and Interviews. Reclam, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-15-007757-5 ; P. 146f.
  6. ^ Theodor W. Adorno: Attempt on Wagner. Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin, Frankfurt am Main 1952, p. 62.
  7. Hans Mayer: Richard Wagner represented with self-testimonies and picture documents . Rowohlt, Hamburg 1959, ISBN 3-499-50029-9 , p. 161.
  8. Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf: Wagner's composition technique. In the S. (Ed.): Richard Wagner, designer of modernity. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-608-91979-1 , pp. 159-182.
  9. Johannes Schild: "... time becomes space here." Clay fields in Wagner's Parsifal. In: Bernhard Haas, Bruno Haas (eds.): Functional analysis: Music - Painting - Ancient literature / Analysis Fonctionnelle: Musique - Peinture - Littérature classique. Colloquium / Colloque Paris, Stuttgart 2007, Olms, Hildesheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-487-14532-7 , pp. 311-371.
  10. Bernhard Haas: The new tonality from Schubert to Webern. Listening and analyzing according to Albert Simon. Noetzel, Wilhelmshaven 2004, ISBN 3-7959-0834-5 .
  11. Angelo Neumann: Memories of Richard Wagner. Staackmann, Leipzig, 1974
  12. Martin Wein (ed.): I came, saw and wrote - eyewitness reports from five millennia. DTV, Munich 1964.
  13. Cf. Brigitte Hamann: Winifred Wagner or Hitler's Bayreuth. Munich 2002, p. 19 f.
  14. Volker Hagedorn, When Tristan came through the phone , in: Almanach 2013, Yearbook of the Society of Friends of Bayreuth eV , Bayreuth 2013, p. 83, ISBN 978-3-943637-30-4
  15. Mannheim: Parsifal on ( Memento from January 13, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
  16. ^ Egon Voss: The conductors of the Bayreuth Festival, 1976, Gustav Bosse Verlag, Regensburg; Documentation on Parsifal : pp. 99, 100
  17. So justified with Egon Voss
  18. ^ Letter from Nietzsche to Salomé, July 16, 1882, KSB 6, No. 269, p. 229.
  19. Renate Schostack: Behind Wahnfried's Walls. Hamburg 1998, 174f.
  20. Josef Lehmkuhl: God and Grail: An excursion with Parsifal and Richard Wagner . Königshausen & Neumann, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8260-3690-3 .
  21. ^ Hans Jürgen Syberberg: Parsifal, a film essay . Munich 1982, ISBN 3-453-01626-2