|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Franconia|
|Height :||340 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||66.93 km 2|
|Residents:||74,783 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1117 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||95444, 95445, 95447, 95448|
|Primaries :||0921, 09201, 09209|
|License plate :||BT|
|Community key :||09 4 62 000|
|LOCODE :||DE BYU|
|City structure:||74 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Thomas Ebersberger ( CSU )|
|Location of the city of Bayreuth in Bavaria|
Bayreuth [ ˈbaɪ̯rɔʏ̯t or baɪ̯ˈrɔʏ̯t ] is a Franconian city in the Bavarian administrative district of Upper Franconia and is part of the Nuremberg Metropolitan Region . The city is the seat of the government of Upper Franconia , the district of Upper Franconia and the Bayreuth District Office . The city is world-famous for the Richard Wagner Festival that takes place every year in the Festival Hall on the Green Hill . The margravial opera house has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2012 .
Contrary to what the name suggests, the city has only been part of Bavaria since 1810. As a result of centuries of belonging to the Principality of Bayreuth , it is shaped by Protestants .
Bayreuth is on the Burgenstrasse and Bavarian Porcelain Route tourist routes .
In 1194 the place was first mentioned as Baierrute in a document from Bishop Otto II of Bamberg . The part of the name -rute is probably to be interpreted as clearing. The fact that Baier- could refer to immigrants from the Bavarian settlement area is controversial and cannot be proven. There are many indications that the final name was only given after the secondary expansion of the town and that special Bavarian interests were to be made visible. 1199 the name "Beirrut", 1231 "Beirruth" is documented. In the Bayreuth land book of 1421/24, the names "Peyeruth" and "Peyrreute" are also documented, the predecessor church of the town church was initially called "Pfarr peyr Reut" (Reut = Altenstadt ).
The "y" of the place name appeared for the first time in 1532 long before Bavaria took possession of the city . The current form of writing is documented in the Kulmbacher Bürgerbuch in 1625 , but has not yet finally caught on. Margravine Wilhelmine (1709–1758) called the city "Bareith".
The city is located in the southern part of the Upper Main Hills on both sides of the Red Main , the southern and longer of the two source rivers of the Main , between the Fichtelgebirge and Franconian Switzerland . Other rivers in the city are the Warm Steinach , the Mistel , called “Mistelbach” in Bayreuth, and the Sendelbach with its historically interesting side canal system Tappert . The largest standing body of water is the Röhrensee, which is fed by the Aubach .
The center of the city (not to be confused with the decentralized district of the old town ) is about 340 meters above sea level, more than 100 meters lower than most of the ridges that frame the Bayreuth basin. The nucleus of Bayreuth on today's lower market arose strategically on a flat hill between the valleys of the Red Main and the Sendelbach. The highest surrounding elevation is the Sophienberg in the south at 594 meters . Other heights are the Schlehenberg, the Oschenberg , the ridge of the Hohe Warte , the Rote Hügel and the Buchstein. The lowest point of the city with is located in the northwest in the lower Rotmainaue on the border with Heinersreuth . The pelvic position has a positive effect on the climate. The annual mean temperature for Bayreuth is 8.3 ° C.
Official city structure
Bayreuth officially consists of 74 hamlets and 39 districts: List of the boroughs and districts of Bayreuth
Unofficial city structure
Peripheral districts clockwise
Larger incorporated villages clockwise
Prehistory and early history
Finds in the Bayreuth area - near the Bodenmühle , near Bindlach and on the Neubürg - go back to the Neolithic . Barrows near Eckersdorf , Görschnitz and at Pensen are considered to be Bronze Age . The Hallstatt period can be u. a. Allocate finds on Saaser Berg , Sophienberg and Mistelgau . In 1992 the remains of a Celtic settlement from around 400 BC were found at the foot of the Bindlacher Berg . Found.
Already in the early Middle Ages there was a fort on the site of the former Laineck Castle . Its wall, which at first was a pure wood-earth construction in block construction, was later replaced by a new wood-earth wall, which was reinforced by massive posts set into the earth. In a third phase, this was replaced by a dry stone wall. The first and third stages of this defense are particularly reminiscent of Slavic construction methods, Slavs settled in parts of Upper Franconia in the early Middle Ages. In the second half of the 11th century, the Slavs of the Upper Franconian area disappeared from written history, numerous place and field names (Dürschnitz, Döhlau, Kulm) still indicate their presence. The weir system on Rodersberg also dates from the period between 800 and 1000 AD .
The East Franconian colonization, supported by the nobility and free Franks , reached the two mainland at the beginning of the 9th century. Under the Schweinfurt counts , Franconian settlers advanced to Mistelgau and Gesees , and Obernschreez and Eckersdorf are also included in this settlement phase.
With the founding of the Bamberg diocese in 1007, the region began to develop independently. At the same time it came to a loss of power of the Schweinfurters, whose house with the death of Otto III. 1057 went out. His youngest daughter Gisela married Arnold from the Andechs line of those von Dießen in 1098 ; thus the later dukes of Merania gained a foothold in the Bayreuth area.
The fact that the Bamberg prince-bishops forbade the sovereigns to expand Altentrebgast Castle accelerated settlement development in the Bayreuth area. Around the year 1000, the places Altenreuth (today the old town district ), Heinersreuth , Oberkonnersreuth and Meyernreuth emerged. Bindlach became the original parish , whose district u. a. the daughter churches in today's old town and in Sankt Johannis included. Presumably, in the 11th century, in the course of the clearing activities of the Schweinfurt counts, a small settlement emerged on the lower market. The foundation of the future city in the triangle of forces Bindlach - Altentrebgast - Altenstadt probably took place at the time of the rivalry between Bamberg and the new rulers Dießen-Andechs and Sulzbach , d. H. in the years 1137 to 1177.
The incorporated villages of Seulbitz (1035 as the Salian royal estate Silewize in a document from Emperor Conrad II ) and Sankt Johannis (possibly 1149 as Altentrebgast) were mentioned in documents earlier than Bayreuth . The Altstadt district (until the 19th century Altenstadt) west of the city center is also likely to be older than the Bayreuth settlement. In 1600 the town clerk referred to it as the original Bayreuth ("Urbayreuth"), this view held until the end of the 19th century. Even older traces of human presence were found in the Meyernberg district : ceramic remains and wooden dishes were dated to the 9th century based on their decorations.
Middle Ages, Reformation and Early Modern Times
The construction of a street market , the management of which is integrated into an old Carolingian street , indicates an early small trading center in this area. The “market”, as it is still called today, was the pulsating heart of the settlement, whose inhabitants were initially mostly arable citizens . At the presentation of market law in Neustadt am Kulm in 1370 conferred on Bayreuth market law was referred to as a model.
While Bayreuth was first referred to as a villa (village) (1199) , the term civitas (city) appeared for the first time in a document in 1231 . One can therefore assume that Bayreuth was granted city rights between 1200 and 1230. The lords of the town were the Counts of Andechs-Meranien until 1248. After their extinction, the burgraves of Nuremberg from the Hohenzollern family took over the inheritance in 1260 . In the second half of the 12th century, as part of the first expansion of the city, the city church , today's Sophienstraße, Kanzleistraße, Brautgasse and Kirchgasse were built. The upper and lower gates formed the two entrances.
Initially, however, the Plassenburg in Kulmbach was the residence and center of the country. The city therefore developed slowly and was repeatedly hit by disasters. But as early as 1361, Emperor Charles IV granted Burgrave Friedrich V the right to mint the cities of Bayreuth and Kulmbach .
Bayreuth ("Pairaeut") first appeared on a map in 1421. On the map of the “lantstrassen through the Romisch reych” by Erhard Etzlaub (1501) Bayreuth is shown as a station on the Via Imperii from Leipzig to Verona . The Bayreuth town hall was in the middle of the widest part of the elongated market square. Privileges such as the right to coin and customs, the jurisdiction and the brewing monopoly have been handed down from the 15th and 16th centuries. The most important trades were represented by the dyers, cloth makers, cloth millers , wooleners, butchers, bakers, bread makers, millers, leather makers , shoemakers and candelabras .
In February 1430, the Hussites almost completely devastated the town, which had around 1500 inhabitants at that time, and the town hall and the churches burned down. Matthäus Merian described this event in 1642 as follows: “Umbs year 1430 the Hussites from Boheimb / Culmbach and Barreut infected / and committed great cruelty / like the wild animals / on the common mob / and on noble people. / The clergy / monks and nuns either laid them on the fire / or performed them on the established eyes of the water and rivers / (in Francken and Bayren) poured cold water on them / and brought them to such a shape pitifully umb / like Boreck in the Bohemian Chronic pag. 450 reports: “The first hospital and nursing home (hospital) in the city - located outside the city at the time - was also a victim of the Hussite storm. Instead of a new construction at the same place, a place within the city wall was chosen. In 1435 the Bürgerspital was inaugurated on the lower market, in 1439 the predecessor of today's hospital church was inaugurated.
Margrave Friedrich I took care of the reconstruction of the city, which in 1444 already had around 200 houses within the city walls . From 1450, according to data from the Society for Leprosy, there was evidence of a medieval leprosy in Bayreuth , which was located on Erlanger Strasse and was known as the "Siechhaus". It was renovated in 1580, then used as a military hospital from 1666 and existed as a building until 1854. With Kasimir , the city and the country were ruled by a brutal and ruthless prince from 1515 to 1527: massive gouge out of eyes, limbs cut off and other mutilations were still considered to be milder punishments for the peasants who were thrown down in the Peasants' War . He was very accommodating to Rome's indulgences , and in 1517 indulgence dealers in Bayreuth also collected money for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica .
As early as 1528 (eleven years after the beginning of the Reformation ), the rulers of the Franconian margravial areas joined the Lutheran creed. Margrave Georg "the Pious", who ruled the city from 1527 to 1541 from Ansbach , was personally acquainted with Martin Luther . The Schwabach articles written by him and the Nuremberg people from 1528 formed the basis for the Reformation in his countries. In accordance with the principle of “ Cuius regio, eius religio ”, all Bayreuth residents had to accept the faith of their prince; it was not until the 18th century that the Enlightenment brought more tolerance towards those of different faiths. The Franciscan monastery , which was only founded in 1514 on nearby Oschenberg , was dissolved again in 1529. There were already followers of Luther in the city: Georg's predecessor, Kasimir, who forbade Luther's teaching in the country, had the preacher Schmalzing arrested and taken to the episcopal prison in Bamberg . Georg's successor Albrecht "Alcibiades" was again Catholic; he had the Augsburg Interim introduced in the country , but failed in an attempt to reverse the form of Lutheran worship.
During the Margravial War in 1553, the settlements outside the city were given up in order to better defend Bayreuth. The plague raged in Bayreuth in 1495 and 1602, killing almost 20 percent of the population. In 1605, a major city fire caused by negligence destroyed 137 of 251 houses; another major city fire followed in 1621, which also killed the town hall on the market square. Bayreuth also suffered heavily from looting in the final phase of the Thirty Years War , which depopulated the city by almost 30 percent.
Bayreuth becomes the royal seat
A turning point in the city's history was the relocation of the residence from Plassenburg above Kulmbach to Bayreuth in 1603 by Margrave Christian , the son of Elector Johann Georg von Brandenburg. The first Hohenzollern Castle, built between 1440 and 1457 under the Margrave Johann the Alchemist , the forerunner of today's Old Castle, was expanded and rebuilt many times. After Christian's death in 1655, he was succeeded by his grandson Christian Ernst , who founded the Gymnasium Illustre (later Christian-Ernestinum ) in 1664 and was involved in the liberation of Vienna , which was besieged by the Turks, in 1683 . To commemorate this act, he had the margrave fountain , which today stands in front of the New Palace, made as a memorial on which he is depicted as the Turkish winner. During this time, the outer ring of the city wall and the (old) castle church were built.
The first urban aqueduct was built at the beginning of the 17th century. The spring socket was completed in 1611, the water flowed in wooden pipes from the upper spring yard near Röhrensee into four fountains in the city.
In the 1680s, Margrave Christian Ernst began to bring Huguenots to his country as religious refugees . From 1686, craftsmen and tradespeople came to Bayreuth, mainly from southern France, and founded the first French-Reformed church there that year.
18th century - cultural boom at the time of the margraves
At the beginning of the 18th century the Main Barracks - destroyed in 1945 - was built. Christian Ernst's successor, the Hereditary Prince and later Margrave Georg Wilhelm , began in 1701 with the construction of the then independent town of Sankt Georgen am See (today's St. Georgen district, incorporated into Bayreuth in 1811) with the so-called Order Castle , a town hall, a prison and a small one Barracks. He had the local Brandenburg pond enlarged, on which he had sea battles staged. In 1705 he founded the Order of Sincerity (ordre de la sincérité), which was renamed the Red Eagle Order in 1734 , and had the order church built, which was completed in 1711. In 1716 a princely faience factory was set up in St. Georgen .
The first palace in the Hermitage Park was also built by Margrave Georg Wilhelm (1715–1719) during this period. As a replacement for the town hall, which was built in 1440 in the middle of the market square and destroyed in one of the town fires, the city council acquired the Palais of Baroness Sponheim (today's old town hall) in 1721.
In 1735 a private foundation established a retirement home, the so-called Gravenreuther Stift , in St. Georgen. The cost of the building exceeded the funds of the foundation, but Margrave Friedrich stepped in.
Bayreuth experienced a high point in the city's history during the reign (1735–1763) of the margrave couple Friedrich and Wilhelmine , who are also known as " Frederick the Great's favorite sister ". Under the overall urban planning of Johann Friedrich Graels , who was appointed building director of Bayreuth in 1736, an extensive eagerness to build began to change the face of the royal seat. An ordinance issued by the Hofbauamt (Hofbauamt), established in 1735, granted all those who “wanted to build after a previously examined Ris, in order to decorate the city”. The old, dark gatehouses were demolished because they obstructed traffic and were defensively outdated. The city walls were also built over in some places. After Grael's death in 1740, Wilhelmine appointed the Paris- trained architect Joseph Saint-Pierre to the Bayreuth court.
In the following years, under the direction of the court architects Joseph Saint-Pierre and Carl von Gontard, numerous representative buildings and facilities were built: the Margravial Opera House as a richly furnished baroque theater (1744–1748), the redesign and expansion of the Hermitage with the construction of the New Hermitage Palace with sun temple (1749–1753), the construction of the new (city) palace with courtyard garden (1754 ff.) after the old palace was burned out due to the margrave's inattention, and the magnificent city expansion in today's Friedrichstrasse . An independent variant of the Rococo was created, the so-called Bayreuth Rococo , which primarily shaped the interior design of the buildings mentioned.
Margrave Friedrich successfully kept his principality out of the wars of his brother-in-law Frederick the Great, which were raging at the time, and thus gave the Franconian Empire a period of peace.
In 1742 the Friedrichs Academy was founded , which was elevated to a university in 1743, but was relocated to Erlangen in the same year because of the negative attitude of the population after serious riots . It still exists there as a university today. From 1756 to 1763, Bayreuth also had an academy of liberal arts and sciences, which was initiated by the couple's trip to Italy.
Margravine Wilhelmine died in 1758. Margrave Friedrich married again, but this marriage lasted only for a short time and had no descendants. After Friedrich's death in 1763, many artists and craftsmen emigrated to Berlin and Potsdam to work for the Prussian King Friedrich the Great, because Margrave Friedrich Christian's successor, Margrave Friedrich Christian , had little understanding for art. But he also lacked the means, because the lavish lifestyle of his predecessor, the buildings and the salaries for the mostly foreign artists had swallowed up a lot of money. The court, which under Georg Friedrich Karl comprised around 140 people, had grown to around 600 employees by the end of the reign of Margrave Friedrich. In 1769 the principality was on the verge of bankruptcy.
1769 followed the childless Friedrich Christian Margrave Karl Alexander from the Ansbach line of the Franconian Hohenzollern. Bayreuth sank to a secondary residence. Karl Alexander continued to reside in Ansbach and only rarely came to Bayreuth. In order to be able to pay off his high debts, the margrave provided the English with two regiments, an artillery division and a hunter company during the American War of Independence . More than 2,300 men from his Bayreuth and Ansbach territories were forced to do military service in the Thirteen Colonies under threat of standing death sentences , only 1,379 returned. In 1788, Karl Alexander once again lent 1,500 soldiers who had to fight on Java for the States General of the Netherlands . In 1775 the Brandenburg pond in St. Georgen was drained.
After the last Margrave Karl Alexander renounced the principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth on December 2, 1791, his areas became a Prussian province. The Prussian minister Karl August Freiherr von Hardenberg took over the administration from the beginning of 1792. In March 1792 a fusilier battalion was moved from Halle to Bayreuth, which became a Prussian garrison town . In that year Alexander von Humboldt came to the city as royal commissioner for the mining of the two principalities , where he lived - with interruptions - until 1796.
19th century - The Principality of Bayreuth becomes Bavarian
The rule of the Hohenzollern over the Principality of Kulmbach-Bayreuth ended in 1806 after the defeat of Prussia against Napoleonic France. When Prussia declared war on France in the summer of 1806, the principality was almost defenseless to Napoleon and his Bavarian allies. On October 7th, Marshal Soult, coming across the Dürschnitz , occupied the city with 30,000 men. On October 8th, Marshal Ney appeared with 18,000 soldiers, the next day the first Bavarian division marched in . Forced billeting, requisitions, looting and violent attacks terrified the population. With Etienne Le Grand de Mercey, the city received a military governor who took a hard hand.
During the French occupation from 1806 to 1810, Bayreuth was considered a province of the French Empire and had to pay high war contributions . 2.5 million francs were requested “in the shortest possible time”. From November 14, 1806, the principality was under the administration of Comte Camille de Tournon , who drew up a detailed inventory of the then Principality of Bayreuth. In June 1809 the city was occupied by Austrian troops, but they had to give way to the French in July.
On June 30, 1810, the French army handed the former principality over to Bavaria, which had now become a kingdom and bought it from Napoleon Bonaparte for 15 million francs. At that time the city had about 12,000 inhabitants. Its citizens harbored no hope for more freedom and equality. Napoleon was still at the height of his power and the Bavarian king was his vassal . Bayreuth became the capital of the Bavarian Main District , which later became the Upper Main District and was renamed the Upper Franconia District in 1837 . The previously Protestant castle church became Catholic and the oratory was profaned .
With the takeover by Bavaria, the city became a Bavarian garrison . The Main Barracks, which were destroyed in 1945, were initially used as infantry barracks; the cavalry was housed on Geißmarkt. In the middle of the 19th century, 5,000 soldiers were stationed in the city of 15,000. Before the next turn of the century, construction began on the barracks district on the southern outskirts and the troops were relocated there until 1903. Napoleon Bonaparte came to the city with his wife Maria Louise on May 15, 1812. He was greeted without cheers by the population, and a local merchant's plan to blow him up failed.
In 1810 there were 561 Jews in the city. In the spirit of the Enlightenment , the margravial politics in the 18th century ensured that the Jewish population of Bayreuth could feel reasonably safe. The Bavarian Jewish edict of 1813 improved their legal position. In 1814, Sigismund Kohn was the first Jewish child to attend the local grammar school. The Bayreuth Koppel Herz studied medicine from 1835, but in 1854 he was initially denied his habilitation . It was not until 1869 that he became the first Jew to become a full professor in Bavaria. After compulsory guilds were lifted in 1868, Jews, who had previously worked primarily as traders, were also able to take up skilled trades.
Due to the short Prussian rule and the French occupation, Bayreuth had a bad starting position for the emerging industrialization , which occurred rather late in the entire region, which was partly due to competition from other regions. An advantage of Bayreuth was its convenient location on various highways. The connection to the railroad in 1853 also brought about a positive development, although Bayreuth never became an important industrial city. In 1855 there was a shop window in the city for the first time , in 1866 the Bayreuther Tagblatt called the still unpaved Jägerstraße (today's Bahnhofstraße) as the busiest street in the city “beyond description pathetic”.
The first company in Bayreuth was the Theodor Schmidts sugar factory in the Sankt Georgen district from 1834/35. Most important for Bayreuth, however, was the textile industry. Sophian Kolb founded the first mechanical flax spinning mill in 1846, and the mechanical cotton spinning mill was established in 1853 . Friedrich Christian Bayerlein opened a business in 1894 , and Carl Schüller and Otto Rose founded the New Cotton Spinning Mill in 1889 . The spinning mills remained the industrial mainstay of the city well into the twentieth century. The 33 factories that were counted in 1889 also included a furniture factory with 300 employees, an oven factory with 100 employees and, with the Steingraeber company, Bavaria's largest piano factory.
The brewery still has a special place in Bayreuth today. For a long time it was mainly the bakers who took over the brewing, but from the middle of the 19th century, industrial breweries such as the Bierbrauerei AG founded in 1872 and the brewery of the Maisel brothers opened in 1887 , which are still the two most important breweries in Bayreuth today.
In 1852 a Royal Bavarian Telegraph Station was set up in the Old Castle, which connected the city with Bamberg . In 1859 it was moved to the old station building, which had been destroyed in 1945, and then to Maximilianstrasse 80 in 1874. In 1870, the factory owner Sophian Kolb received his first private telephone line to the station. In 1891 the local telephone network went into operation with initially 35 subscribers. A telephone connection with Nuremberg was opened in 1892 and with Munich two years later.
In the years 1852/1853, a stock company built a gas factory next to the brickworks south of the courtyard garden . It initially processed wood and, from 1864, hard coal . In 1890 the plant was taken over by the city. After the connection to the long-distance gas supply , the gas works was shut down in early March 1965 and dismantled in October of that year. As early as the 1850s, the city council had the oil lanterns over the streets replaced with gas lighting.
When Bavaria was opened up by the railway, the main line from Nuremberg to Hof ( Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn ) was laid past Bayreuth, it leads to Hof via Lichtenfels, Kulmbach and Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg. Bayreuth was not connected to the rail network until 1853, when the leased railway ( from Neuenmarkt ) built at the expense of the city of Bayreuth was inaugurated. It was followed in 1863 by the Ostbahn ( from Weiden ), in 1877 by the Fichtelgebirgsbahn from Nuremberg and in 1896 by the local railway to Warmensteinach . The construction of a solid station building did not begin until August 1856, almost three years after the railway opened. The current reception building was built by 1879 . The old building was still used by the Royal Bavarian Post until it was destroyed in April 1945.
During the German War , a battalion of the Bavarian Leib Regiment was defeated by Prussian troops near Seybothenreuth . Bayreuth thus came under Prussian rule again temporarily in the summer of 1866, which apparently did not displease parts of the population and the local daily newspaper clearly enough. The magistrate and community representatives then had trouble limiting the damage and assured their "majesty" that the city's representatives and residents had "never deviated from the path of honor and duty". In November 1866 , Ludwig II paid a three-day visit to the city in order to bind the Bayreuth subjects, who were scolded as fickle, more firmly to the crown of Bavaria .
On April 17, 1870, Richard Wagner visited Bayreuth because he had read about the margravial opera house, whose large, but above all deep, stage seemed to him suitable for his works. However, the orchestra pit could not contain the large number of musicians, for example at the Ring des Nibelungen , and the ambience of the auditorium also seemed unsuitable for the "work of art of the future" that it propagated. That is why he thought of building his own festival theater in Bayreuth. The city supported him in his project and provided him with a piece of land, an undeveloped area outside the city between the train station and Hoher Warte, the Green Hill . At the same time, Wagner acquired a piece of land at the Hofgarten to build his house, Haus Wahnfried . On May 22nd, 1872 the foundation stone was laid for the festival hall, which was officially opened on August 13th, 1876 (see Bayreuth Festival ) - which made Bayreuth the first festival city in Europe. Planning and construction management were in the hands of the Leipzig architect Otto Brückwald , who had already made a name for himself with the construction of theaters in Leipzig and Altenburg.
In the 1840s the Jean-Paul-Verein founded a “child rescue center”, in which around 1860 around 35 children were “removed from material and moral misery”. The foundation of the municipal councilor Christoph Friedrich Leers created the material basis for an orphanage . The Bayreuth Ladies' initiative launched at the beginning of 1859 to support “shamefaced housebreakers” already had more than 600 fellow campaigners by the end of that year. At that time the association system flourished, from the music amateur association to the polytechnical association for scientifically inquisitive people to the corpse association of the livery servants , many inclinations were covered. In 1861 the gymnastics club was established, which in 1864 already had over 400 members and established the first fire brigade . In 1863 the Bayreuth workers' association, which initially did not formulate any political goals, was founded in order to make the "intellectual education and moral strengthening" of its members "fruitful in a Christian sense". The socially weak of that time spoke up only rarely and in submissive language. Around 1870 the carpenters , bricklayers , stone masons and tailors joined together to form professional associations with the character of a trade union . In May 1871 the tailors were able to negotiate a wage increase of 25%. Otto von Bismarck's repressive socialist law again severely restricted the scope of the Bayreuth proletarians from 1878 onwards . Even the worker's song table was declared a political association and dissolved. In 1885, an electoral association of the SPD was founded under the name "Association for the achievement of popular elections" . Its members were sent to prison for making harmless statements such as quoting Bible verses . In 1895 Bismarck was made an honorary citizen of the city.
In the Reichstag elections in 1890 , a candidate supported by the Social Democrats received a majority of the votes in the urban area, the District Court Judge Heinrich Stoll from the German-free-thinking party . Only the conservative population of the villages in the constituency of Upper Franconia saved the Reichstag mandate of Wagner's intimate partner Friedrich Feustel . In 1903, the SPD candidate Karl Hugel fared no better , who prevailed by a large margin in the city (84% of the vote in the Altstadt district) and still lost the election.
The first electric street lighting was installed on a trial basis in 1887 and permanently in 1893. The electricity was supplied by the pumping station in the C'est-bon valley at the southern end of the Röhrensee . In November 1899, the metropolitan-looking Friedmann department store (demolished in 1939) opened on the lower Opernstrasse.
In 1894, the Bayreuther Tagblatt wrote about the partially health- endangering condition of the workers' apartments (called “true diphtheria caves” by the newspaper ) and their blatant deficiency. On April 8, 1894, workers at Rose's sugar factory founded a consumer cooperative , which after a few weeks already had 240 members. In view of the new, unpredictable competition, local merchants warned "urgently" in the daily newspaper about this "superfluous" initiative. The employers quickly had the first strikes under control with pressure and threatening gestures. In July 1896, strikers at the Seiler furnace factory had to retreat under humiliating circumstances and declare that they would never again join a professional association (i.e. a trade union ). The "main agitator and his accomplices" were released. The Bayreuth trade union cartel was constituted on March 14, 1897 , which caused alarm in the town hall. Mayor Theodor von Muncker arranged for the cartel to be monitored "in an inconspicuous manner".
Until the end of the Weimar Republic (1900–1933)
Between 1840 and 1900 the population doubled to over 27,000. The first decade of the 20th century saw the city have more strikes than ever before or since. The workers fought for fair wages and the eight-hour day. In 1900, the trade union cartel demanded an increase in the local daily wage from 1.50 to 2.50 marks , which the magistrate uncompromisingly rejected. In order to be better armed against the ever-growing trade union movement, 25 building contractors founded an employers' association in May 1902, which two months later was expanded to include all businesses in Bayreuth and the surrounding area. In 1905 the local homeowners organized themselves and drew up a blacklist of defaulting tenants.
During those years, the central hall in the Kreuz district became a joint action platform for social democrats and trade unionists for many years. Although the Social Democrats had a majority behind them, the committees remained in conservative hands and were seldom willing to make concessions because of the municipal electoral law, which largely excluded workers from local political activities. In 1900 Leopold Casselmann was elected mayor with legal qualifications, and in 1907 he was given the title of Lord Mayor . The ultra-conservative politician of the National Liberal Party , who ruled the city until 1919, was considered a mortal enemy of social democracy .
In autumn 1901 the municipal employment office and a heating hall were opened on Schulstrasse. In 1903 the first edition of the local SPD newspaper Fränkische Volkstribüne appeared , and on August 31 of that year the Bauverein housing cooperative , which defines the cityscape, was founded. Whitsun 1904, the 6th Bavarian Workers' Association took place in the Kreuz district, with well over five thousand visitors. In 1910 there was a powerful May demonstration by the Bayreuth workers for the first time on Mainflecklein. In the same year, after the beer price had been increased from ten to eleven pfennigs for the Seidla , the unions called for a beer strike that lasted several months. In 1912, Karl Hugel , a Bayreuth social democrat, was elected to the Reichstag for the first time.
The entry into the new century was associated with some innovations in modern technology, but also in the social field. In February 1900 a ladies band played for the first time in the central hall. On March 7th of that year, the “Women's Work Association” was registered, which took care of the needs of working women. In July 1904, Elsa Großmann, the first woman from Bayreuth, graduated from high school. One of the innovations of the first decade was the women's pool, a swimming pool on Badstrasse. 1. FC Bayreuth was founded in 1910 ; In 1912 there were already four other football clubs, including the “Pfeil” workers' club and the “Wittelsbach” club with members loyal to the king. The bourgeoisie and the workers went their separate ways when it came to cycling and gymnastics.
In July 1900 the bicycle dealer Conrad Hensel brought the first car to Bayreuth. Exactly two years later, the city council passed the first speed limit: twelve kilometers an hour, even less during the festival. The motorization was slow, however, in the early 1920s the license plates II H 1 to 69 were sufficient. Also in 1900, the first municipal power station was built at the Herzogmühle, and on December 20, 1909, a new building went into operation at today's Berliner Platz. In July 1907, a "garbage truck" pulled by two horses was used for the first time as a forerunner of modern garbage disposal, and uniform garbage cans were introduced. In the same year, the representative building of the Königliche Filialbank ( Iwalewahaus since 2013 ) was built on the site of the old "coin mill" that burned down in 1903. In 1908 the first cinema hall was opened as the “Theater of Living Photographs” with the “Central” on Josephsplatz. On the morning of May 30, 1909, Ferdinand von Zeppelin flew over the city in an airship , which drove people out of the churches and caused storms of enthusiasm on that Pentecost Sunday . On June 3, a street was named after Zeppelin and that was celebrated when visiting the city two days later. In July 1912, an air show was held for the first time on the parade ground in the south of the city .
In 1904 the branch line to Hollfeld and in 1909 the local line via Thurnau to Kulmbach went into operation. In 1905 the municipal hospital was opened in the Kreuz district, replacing the gloomy old hospital on Dammallee. For the first time water from the Fichtelgebirge brought a pipeline which was put into operation in 1908. In 1914/15 the main arm "Altbach" of the Red Main was straightened and widened in part after areas along the river had been inundated during a flood in 1909. In the years before the First World War , Bayreuth experienced an economic boom. 1910 existed in the city 128 grocery stores , 55 fruit and vegetable shops and 14 specialty food stores. The numerous textile shops were the domain of the Jewish merchants.
When the war broke out on August 1, 1914, the Richard Wagner Festival was canceled after only eight performances. Bayreuth's social democratic newspaper Fränkische Volkstribüne was banned in the same month by military order. On August 27, the first soldier from Bayreuth was reported as "fallen" . At the end of the war there were 3387 dead soldiers of the Bayreuth 7th Infantry Regiment , plus almost 7000 wounded.
In 1915, after the death of the duchess Emilie von Meyernberg, the city was able to acquire her house on Luitpoldplatz. For 120,000 marks she converted the Reitzenstein-Palais built by Carl von Gontard into the New Town Hall and moved into it at the end of 1916. In view of the deteriorating supply situation, a public kitchen was set up in Münzgasse in October 1916 . After the end of the war in 1918, the workers 'and soldiers' councils briefly took power in Bayreuth . On February 17, 1919, the so-called Speckputsch took place , which was bloodless: for two days, a crowd of at times a thousand people besieged the town hall and the newspaper, occupied the train station, the post office and the telegraph office .
From 1902 anti-Semitism gradually intensified . As early as 1919 there was a völkisch rumor in the city, and the first scandal began against the Jewish fellow citizens . On January 7, 1920, the swastika was shown for the first time at a meeting of the German National Guard and Defense Association . In that month, Lord Mayor Albert Preu warned of the threat to public peace from "the attacks against Judaism, some of which were open, some on sticky notes almost every day". On September 30, 1923, a nationalist German day took place in Bayreuth with over 5000 participants (approx. 15% of Bayreuth's population). Among the guests were u. a. the Lord Mayor and Siegfried and Winifred Wagner , who invited Adolf Hitler , the main speaker in Bayreuth, to the Villa Wahnfried , where he also met the local son-in-law of Richard Wagner , the anti-Semitic racial theorist and writer Houston Stewart Chamberlain . Also later NSDAP - Gauleiter of the Bavarian Ostmark Hans Schemm met that day Hitler for the first time.
At the first festival since 1914, the black, white and red flag of the monarchy was hoisted at the Festspielhaus instead of black, red and gold . In the city council election in December of that year, the “patriotic” members of the black-white-red unified list received 18, the SPD only 12 seats. When the first Reich President of the Weimar Republic , the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert , died in February 1925 , the majority of the city council, against the will of Lord Mayor Preu, refused to display mourning flags. Denominational rifts still shaped coexistence: in 1928, the opening of the market square for the Catholic Corpus Christi procession was only enforced through state intervention.
Immediately after the establishment of the Weimar Republic , the Bayreuth Adult Education Center was founded in October 1919 . She found her first domicile in the Hotel Schwarzes Ross in Ludwigstrasse. The new city library recorded an initial inventory of 560 volumes in June 1921.
In the summer of 1924 the first petrol station (" Dapolin pump ") was opened on Maximilianstrasse , until then the petrol had to be obtained from drugstores. At the end of the 1920s, almost 400 motor vehicles were registered in the city. In the Steinach Valley near Laineck, the first airfield went into operation in 1926 with scheduled intermediate stops for the Nuremberg-Leipzig route. In 1927 the first youth hostel was opened on the Stuckberg. In 1922 the “new swimming facility” was the forerunner of today's Kreuzsteinbad , and in 1929 the municipal indoor swimming pool was opened.
In 1932 the administrative districts of Upper and Middle Franconia were merged and set as the seat of the Ansbach government. Bayreuth received the merged state insurance companies of Upper and Middle Franconia as a small compensation . Unlike the government merger, this merger was never reversed.
On December 8, 1929, the National Socialists and nine city councilors moved into the town hall for the first time. Nazi Gauleiter Hans Schemm, according to the daily Fränkische Volkstribüne “as notorious as sour beer in Bayreuth and the surrounding area”, was looking for permanent confrontation. According to the verdict of the conservative Lord Mayor Albert Preu, he created “an atmosphere that is harmful to the general interest, worrying and embarrassing for residents of the Jewish faith”.
At the beginning of the 1930s, the social democratic "Iron Front" and the National Socialists faced each other irreconcilably. In September 1930 there was a “wild scuffle” in the town hall, and the Nazis gradually got the city under their grip. In July 1932 they gathered 30,000 people at the “Gautag” on the Untere Au. In the Reich presidential election on April 10, 1932 , Hitler was clearly ahead of Hindenburg in Bayreuth , and in the Reichstag election on November 6, 1932 , the NSDAP already received 46.7 percent of the vote in Bayreuth (33.1 percent of the Reich average).
As a result of the Great Depression in the late 1920s and early 1930s, the city had to limit its spending to the bare minimum. Construction activity fell sharply in the general recession . In 1930 - with 1,341 people looking for accommodation - only 47 new apartments were built, more than half of them by the Bauverein housing cooperative.
The time of National Socialism (1933–1945)
In 1933 Bayreuth became the capital of the NS-Gau Bayerische Ostmark (from 1943 Gau Bayreuth) and was to be expanded accordingly to a district forum . The first Gauleiter was Hans Schemm, who was also the Bavarian Minister of Culture and Reichswalter of the National Socialist Teachers' Association , who was given his seat in the House of German Education in Bayreuth in 1936 .
On January 31, 1933, the day after Hitler's " seizure of power ", thousands of residents celebrated the event. A large counter-demonstration was organized by the socialist side on February 6th, which ended in a street battle with the new rulers. On March 9, the SPD newspaper Frankish people Tribune was banned the following night were 21 communist officials and 28 Socialists in " protective custody taken". In April, 105 Bayreuth “protective prisoners”, including two SPD city councilors appointed on April 22, 1933, were taken to the Dachau concentration camp . Even before the SPD was banned, the Social Democrats withdrew from the work at the town hall that had become pointless. The new Lord Mayor Karl Schlumprecht , successor to the deposed Albert Preu, appeared before the city councilors in SS uniform .
The first boycott of Jewish shops took place before Easter 1933. In the same year, two years before the “Blood Protection Act” was passed , the mayor prevented the Jewish businessman Justin Steinhäuser from marrying an “Aryan” woman. In September 1933 the Freemasons' lodge house was looted by the National Socialists and expropriated in 1935, the inventory - including the library with over 10,000 volumes - was lost.
The May Day celebration of 1933, perverted by the Nazis, was given the church blessing by the Protestant High Church Councilor Karl Prieser. At the regional synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria on May 4th, Hans Meiser was elected regional bishop in Bayreuth . Sections of the Bayreuth Protestants , the great majority of whom had initially welcomed National Socialism, rebelled against the decreed Reich Church of German Christians from 1934 onwards . By June 1935, 8,500 citizens had signed up on the lists of the Confession Front .
Settlements consisting of single, semi-detached or terraced houses with gardens were built for “deserving” party members: in 1936 the “ SA settlement Birken ” and the “Hans Schemm garden city ”, in 1938 the “Dankopfersiedlung Roter Hügel ”. In 1935 the Rotmainhalle was completed as a cattle auction hall, and in 1936 the House of German Education was inaugurated. The Winifred Wagner Hospital (today's Hohe Warte Clinic ) was built between 1938 and 1942 . In July 1937, with the completion of the Lanzendorf – Bayreuth section, it was connected to the new Reichsautobahn , today's Federal Motorway 9 . The German postal operation in the city since 1936 with public transport buses . When it was taken over by the electricity company in 1938, the first urban transport company was established. The first city bus route ran from Sankt Georgen via Sternplatz to the Altstadt train station . In March 1943, the buses were converted to run on coal gas .
In the pogrom night of November 9, 1938 , the synagogue of the Jewish community in Münzgasse was desecrated and looted, but not burned down because of its proximity to the opera house. Quite a few residents were benevolent in the goings-on of the Nazis, the Jews dragged out of their beds and rounded up in the Rotmainhalle were insulted, yelled at and beaten. Inside the Bayreuth synagogue , which is currently being used again by a Jewish community as a place of worship , a plaque next to the Torah shrine commemorates the persecution and murder of the Jews in the Holocaust , which killed at least 145 Jewish citizens. In February 1939 the local Chamber of Commerce and Industry announced : “Chamber district soon to be free of Jews”. 101 companies had been "de-Jewished" and 220 "liquidated". The first Jewish fellow citizens were deported on November 27, 1941, followed by the second deportation on January 12, 1942.
In January 1939 the pavement tariff , from which passenger cars had been exempted since 1905, was finally abolished in the urban area . In the summer of that year, the Erwege department store (former Friedmann department store, built in 1899 by a Jewish merchant) was demolished at Hitler's request. Hitler visited the city for the last time in July 1940. In March 1945 the urban green spaces were converted into vegetable land. The later Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhard relocated his Institute for Economic Research from Nuremberg to Bayreuth at that time. On April 5th, 8th and 11th the city was partially destroyed by Allied bombardment .
During the Second World War there was a branch of the Flossenbürg concentration camp in the city , where prisoners had to take part in physical experiments for the V2 . Wieland Wagner , the grandson of the composer Richard Wagner , was deputy civil director there from September 1944 to April 1945. The brothers Max and Wilhelm Rose of the local Sinti were killed in the Dachau concentration camp , the sixteen-year-old Sintezza Hulda Siebert from Bayreuth was slain in the Würzburg Gestapo prison in March 1945 . An “Aryan” girl who had entered into a relationship with a Sinti and married him as Margarete Rose in 1934 was forcibly sterilized before the marriage.
After the building in Berlin was destroyed on February 3, 1945, it was decided to outsource the People's Court to Potsdam and to relocate the senates responsible for high treason and treason to Bayreuth. Since autumn 1944 the People's Court had met several times in the Palace of Justice in Bayreuth. Therefore, on February 6, 1945, around 270 political prisoners were being transported from Berlin. They arrived at Bayreuth St. Georgen prison on February 17 and were to be shot on April 14, 1945 in view of the approaching US troops. The Köpenickiade of the political prisoner Karl Ruth , who had escaped from there a few days before and disguised as an American officer, saved their lives at the last minute - including Ewald Naujoks and the later Bundestag President Eugen Gerstenmaier . That day the city was handed over to the Americans without a fight.
The architectural remodeling measures by the National Socialists
According to the National Socialist ideology , the city of Bayreuth was preferred as a place of worship for German music and a "cultural pilgrimage site". The reasons for this were Hitler's close ties to the Wagner family and his preference for Richard Wagner as a “German national genius”. The erection of representative buildings in German cities that began after the seizure of power also had an impact on Bayreuth, whose development into a socio-political center necessitated an increasingly opulent conception of the building projects. Thus, the decree of February 17, 1939 made it possible to carry out urban planning measures in line with Hitler's wishes, among others by the party architect Hans C. Reissinger, who was based in Bayreuth . He took over the overall conception and the construction of a district forum, the construction of which would have meant the removal of around one hundred historic buildings, including parts of the New Palace . A partial implementation took place. The following table shows an excerpt of the most important planned building projects as part of the redesign of Bayreuth by the National Socialists.
|Name of the project||implementation|
|New construction of the festival hall on the Green Hill in the style of an ancient acropolis||not done|
|Redesign of the Ludwig-Siebert-Festhalle (today the town hall)||carried out|
|Construction of a hotel in Bayreuth||not done|
|Establishment of the House of German Education||carried out|
|Construction of the house for photography and propaganda||carried out|
|Construction of a Hitler Youth home||carried out|
|Construction of the Adolf-Hitler-Künstlerdank-Siedlung||partially carried out|
|Construction of a market and auction hall||carried out|
|Construction of the Hans Schemm barracks||carried out|
|Creation of a wide parade road south of the Hofgarten||not done|
|House of the Gauleitung as an urban counterpart to the castle||not done|
|Construction of a district hall to compete with the palace theater||not done|
|Implementation of various landscape design projects||not done|
|Construction of two airfields||carried out|
Despite the enactment of an expropriation law on June 24, 1939, only a few of the plans were put into practice, which can be ascribed to the outbreak of World War II just two months later.
Destruction of Bayreuth in World War II
Bayreuth was largely spared from air raids until April 1945 . Only in the early morning of January 13, 1941 did one or two Royal Air Force aircraft hit the buildings of the three large local spinning mills with a few bombs. On April 5, 1945, the first massive air raid hit the city. 39 bombers of the US 18th Air Force dropped about 55 tons of explosives over Bayreuth in several waves, 88 dead and 67 wounded were mourned.
After this first attack, the area around the main train station, the mechanical cotton spinning mill , the district around Wilhelmsplatz, parts of Lisztstrasse and parts of Jean-Paul-Strasse were destroyed. On Sunday, April 8, 1945, 51 US planes launched the second major attack on the city. He met u. a. the Jean-Paul-Platz with the Ludwig-Siebert-Festhalle (later the town hall) and numerous buildings in the barracks district.
The third and heaviest attack took place on April 11, 1945, in which large parts of the city were destroyed: “Bayreuth's blackest day”. 110 British planes dropped 340 tons of high explosive and 17.8 tons of incendiary and light bombs over Bayreuth on a bright spring afternoon .
According to official figures, the balance of these attacks amounts to 875 fatalities, but more than 1,000 are also mentioned. 36.8% of the living space in Bayreuth was completely destroyed, 2,700 residential buildings and 4,460 completely destroyed apartments. The damage amounted to around 45,000,000 RM.
The historic city center got off relatively lightly. When the American soldiers moved in, however, the Nazis burned incriminating documents in the Old Castle. The fire spread to the building and the houses on the north side of the market square. Due to the lack of a functioning fire brigade and the lack of extinguishing water, it could only be contained by blowing up houses at Maximilianstrasse 34 and 36. A significant part of the house front on the north side fell victim to this fire.
Capture of the city by US troops
On the morning of April 14, 1945, American units advanced from Altenplos to Bayreuth. The German troop leader, Lieutenant Erich Braun, who was supposed to defend the city “to the extreme”, surrendered with his soldiers in the area of the Hohe Warte , considering the hopelessness of such an approach . The political prisoner Karl Ruth , who escaped from the Sankt Georgen prison during an air raid , met the Americans near Cottenbach and subsequently served them as a negotiator. Their threat to "shoot the city into the ground" in the event of resistance could be averted with his help. However, due to the refusal of the German combat commandant General August Hagl, who remained in the peripheral district of Sankt Johannis , the New Palace of the Hermitage was destroyed there by a fighter-bomber and artillery attack.
When the handover negotiations with Mayor Friedrich Kempfler were about to be concluded, the 14th US Armored Division opened fire on Bayreuth again, contrary to what had been agreed. It wasn't until just before 1 p.m. that the guns finally fell silent. The American soldiers advanced into the city from north of the Red Main. They imposed an exit restriction , initially the population was only allowed to leave their homes for four hours a day. The restaurateur Wilhelm Kröll was appointed acting mayor, although Kempfler was still officially in office.
The US military governor's instructions for Bayreuth were strict. The population was forbidden to use certain streets and the city limits could not be crossed without a permit. Exit times were soon extended to 7 am–10pm and 3–6pm. Cameras and binoculars had to be handed in; violations of the prohibition on the possession of guns were punishable by death . Private property could be confiscated for public use; only bicycles and handcarts were allowed as vehicles . No goods could be accepted from Americans.
Post-war period, reconstruction (1945-2000)
After the end of the Second World War , Bayreuth belonged to the American zone of occupation . The American military administration set up a DP camp to accommodate so-called Displaced Persons (DP). Most of them were from Ukraine . The camp was looked after by the UNRRA .
In mid-May 1945, the exit time was extended to 9 p.m. and the obligation to blackout was lifted. From the end of May, the population was allowed to move freely from the city limits at a distance of up to twelve kilometers. Meetings of more than five people were prohibited. Long-term NSDAP members were brought in to help clear up duds . Instead of a city council, a “main committee” was set up on November 29, 1945, which advised immediate measures regarding food supply, housing management and rubble removal on streets and squares, as well as the gradual establishment of a new city administration.
On December 18, 1945, there was again a daily newspaper with the first issue of the Franconian Press . The conservative Bayreuther Tagblatt did not appear again until October 1, 1949. The first political meeting of the post-war period took place on October 15, 1945, organized by the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). On November 9th, 1945 the local association of the SPD was re-established, on December 30th that of the CSU. At the end of June 1946, the first arbitration chamber proceedings began in the course of denazification .
The housing situation was initially very difficult: Approx. 56,000 inhabitants, considerably more than before the start of the war, lived in the city. This increase resulted mainly from the high number of refugees and displaced persons. On November 1, 1947, there were 11,101 refugees in Bayreuth. Since many homes were destroyed in the war at the same time, thousands of people had to live in emergency shelters. At the end of 1947, 3,706 evacuees were counted, 4,800 of the 16,000 local households were without a home. Around 500 people were even accommodated in the festival restaurant next to the festival hall. At the beginning of 1947 urban warming rooms were set up in eight inns.
Up until the currency reform of 1948 , residential construction developed only slowly, and the barracks had hardly emptied. In autumn 1948, 4500 apartments were still missing, whereupon Bayreuth was recognized as an “emergency area” by the Bavarian Ministry of Social Affairs at the request of the city council. This set the course for a greater flow of state funds for public and cooperative building projects. In April 1949, the non-profit housing association (GEWOG) was founded to combat the misery of housing. After the currency reform, the reconstruction of the destroyed houses on the north side of the market square began in 1948.
The supply situation was also precarious: pigs did not arrive at the local slaughterhouse again until July 1947. In May 1947 school meals began with 350 calories per student per day.
In 1945 around 1400 men were signed up by the city administration for “vital work” (cleaning up destroyed buildings, clearing streets). In 1948, 425,000 m³ of the initially almost 500,000 m³ of rubble had already been cleared: 245,000 m³ of this from the city of Bayreuth, 180,000 m³ in-house. In 1949, 80% of the properties in Bayreuth were considered "cleared of rubble".
The first mayor after the war was the lawyer Joseph Kauper, who died in a traffic accident in November 1945. The former slaughterhouse director Oskar Meyer was appointed as his successor by the US military government. In the first city council election on May 16, 1946, and again in the second on May 5, 1948, the SPD became the strongest force. On June 6, 1946, the first democratically elected city council of the post-war period met; on July 1, 1948, administrative specialist Hans Rollwagen (SPD) was elected head of the city with 38 out of 40 votes.
On March 30, 1946, the blocking period for civilians was lifted, and in the same month the first commemoration ceremony for the victims of fascism with the social democratic resistance fighter Oswald Merz took place. Cultural life also gradually got going again: in 1947 the Margravial Opera House held Mozart Festival Weeks, from which the Franconian Festival Weeks developed. In 1949 the Festspielhaus was played again for the first time, there was a gala concert with the Vienna Philharmonic under the direction of Hans Knappertsbusch . In 1951 the first Richard Wagner Festival after the war took place under the direction of Wieland and Wolfgang Wagner .
The city bus service was resumed on April 15, 1946, and the central bus stop on the market square went into operation in 1950. In 1949 Bayreuth became the seat of the government of Upper Franconia again, and in November of that year the first weekly market took place in the Rotmainhalle. In April 1950, the cooperative retail chain Konsum opened its first self-service store at Maximilianstrasse 67 . In July 1950 the ban on immigration to Bayreuth was lifted.
In 1953 the city's first traffic lights were installed at Sternplatz, and in May 1957 the first parking meters were installed in front of the Sparkasse building on the lower market . At the end of March 1956, television reception began, initially in a shop window of Bayerische Elektricitäts-Lieferungs-Gesellschaft AG (BELG), founded in Bayreuth in 1914, and within a few days the number of television sets rose from four to 33 sets.
In local politics , the SPD had been the leading force since 1946, and the CSU in 1952, with four seats, only the sixth largest group in the city parliament. In the federal elections, however, the Christian Democrats found themselves on the rise and in 1957 even won the direct mandate. With the support of the CSU, the administrative expert and SPD candidate Hans Walter Wild was elected mayor as successor to Hans Rollwagen in 1958 . He held this office without interruption for the next 30 years. In 1955 the last prisoners of war returned to Bayreuth from the Soviet Union .
In September 1956, the New Cotton Spinning Mill in Bayreuth hired a guest worker for the first time . The city, “a late industrial developer with an unhealthy monostructure”, opened up the drained Brandenburg pond as an industrial site in the mid-1950s . There, near the Bayreuth-Nord motorway junction, the companies British American Tobacco (BAT, in local parlance "Batberg") and Grundig established production facilities in 1957 and started production in the same year. In the summer of 1958 Grundig already had 1,000 employees, and in November of that year the first lecture took place at the Pedagogical University in what is now the Margravine Wilhelmine Gymnasium on the Dürschnitz . The external faculty of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg received a new building in the Roter Hügel district in 1964. The city center was festively illuminated for the first time at Christmas time in 1958. The garlands stretched along and across the streets are now seven kilometers in length (as of 2018) as the longest Christmas chain of lights in Franconia .
The 1960s and 1970s were characterized by a lack of love for the historical cityscape, and large parts of the old buildings were destroyed. Cross-party, with only sparse opposition from the population and fewer city councilors, the concept of a modern, car-friendly city was chosen. By 1969 the open river bed of the Red Main fell victim to the desire to expand the “City” towards the main train station.
In 1960 the city's first escalator was installed in the Loher department store on Kanalstrasse. The city museum was opened in the New Palace, which today still exists as a history museum in the old Latin school on the church square. In that year, the central sewage treatment plant on the Untere Au went into operation, and the castle tower became the property of the Catholic Church. From May 1962, the city received drinking water from a new elevated tank on Eichelberg, which was supplemented in 1969 by a water treatment plant . In May 1964, the Kreuzsteinbad was opened on the site of the former swimming school, and the former margravial riding hall was converted into a town hall by January 1965 . The market square was redesigned in 1965 to be “car-friendly”. In March of that year the connection to the long-distance gas network took place and the municipal gas works was shut down. In 1968, the last of the city's 320 gas lamps were dismantled in Sankt Georgen and Grünewaldstrasse. The remaining open section of the Mühlkanal along Kanalstrasse was capped in 1967 and the municipal stadium opened in June . In 1968 the new building of the Städtische Sparkasse was built on the site of the one-storey remnant of the Reitzenstein-Palais on Luitpoldplatz, which was demolished in 1966, and the first shopping arcade (today's Eysserhaus-Passage) was opened between Maximilianstrasse and Kanalstrasse.
The city leaders of Annecy ( France ) and Bayreuth sealed the partnership between the two unequal places with ceremonies in both cities in the summer of 1966 : Annecy as the center of the Resistance and Bayreuth as the former stronghold of the National Socialists. In the city council election in March of that year, the right-wing extremist National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) won three seats, and in the state elections in autumn 1966 it achieved almost 14 percent. The symbolic Wagner city came increasingly into the twilight and in the sights of the world press. The NPD party convention planned in Bayreuth in February 1969 was banned by the city as an “act of self-defense” (Lord Mayor Wild).
In 1971 the Bavarian State Parliament decided to establish the University of Bayreuth , the foundation stone of which was laid on March 23, 1974. It began operations on November 3, 1975 in the multi-purpose building (today: Geosciences I). In the 2013 winter semester it counted more than 13,000 students in the city. On May 6, 1972, the New Town Hall was inaugurated on the area around the former Altbachplatz. By the mid-1970s, the largely four-lane city center ring was built, to which significant parts of the historical building fabric fell victim, especially in the south-western city center . The first section of the pedestrian zone was built in July 1978 on the lower Maximilianstrasse .
Mayor Wild ruled the city almost unchallenged until the 1970s. Isolated protests against his modernization and demolition plans easily swept away by Franz Josef Strauss's duo friend . In the 1972 city council elections, the SPD won 23, the CSU 16 and the Bayreuth Community (BG) five seats, and the SPD won the direct mandate in the federal election. After almost thirty years of abstinence, the CSU presented its own candidate for the mayor's office for the first time in 1975. With almost 42 percent of the vote, Ortwin Lowack achieved a respectable success. In the 1978 city council election, the CSU was tied for the first time with the SPD.
At the beginning of March 1970, heavy snowfall made many streets and sidewalks impassable, and the city administration had to ask the Bundeswehr for help to clear them . In 1971, Life 2000, which was only open for almost two years, was the first shopping center on the outskirts of the city. In May 1972, the most serious accident with a roller coaster since the end of the Second World War occurred at the city's festival: an overstaffed car derailed and several people were thrown out. Four people died and five were injured, some seriously. From 1973 the airline Ostfriesischer Lufttransport operated the Bayreuth airfield on scheduled services.
In 1972 the city grew by incorporating the suburbs of Oberkonnersreuth and Laineck , and in 1976 Aichig , Oberpreuschwitz , Seulbitz and Thiergarten were added. The railroad dying began in 1973 with the closure of the line to Thurnau . The new youth hostel was opened in October 1975 and the ice rink in December. The communal youth center was established in 1978 in the former "Home of the Hitler Youth" on Hindenburgstrasse. In September of that year, the Bayreuth Citizens' Festival was celebrated for the first time in the city center. In 1979, the football club SpVgg Bayreuth only just missed promotion to the First Bundesliga . In October 1979 Bayreuth was a founding member of the Schwandorf waste disposal association. On October 7, 1982, the first garbage truck to Schwandorf left the municipal garbage transfer station, where since then the Bayreuth domestic and bulky waste has been burned to generate energy in the newly built power plant there.
After the local elections in 1984, the CSU provided the majority of the city councils for the first time. In the 1980s, the tranquil city increasingly became the scene of demonstrations. The NATO double decision , the dying forest , the planned reprocessing plant Wackersdorf and other occasions brought numerous people to the streets. In 1989, Chinese students demonstrated against the Tiananmen Square massacre . In 1985 the pedestrian zone was expanded to include the market square, which, however, retained the central bus stop. In September 1986 Bayreuth was connected to the long-distance water supply Upper Franconia. Also in 1986 the special-purpose hospital on the Red Hill was opened , and in 1987 the rescue helicopter station and the Upper Franconian Hall opened. In 1988 the new fire station replaced the old one on Kirchplatz (former Latin school, historical museum since 1996). For the construction of the Nordring, which opened in 1985, the city lost more historic buildings.
In 1987 the local radio Mainwelle went on air for the first time. In 1988 the SPD politician Dieter Mronz prevailed against Ortwin Lowack in the election of the new mayor. After the inner-German border opened in November 1989, the city was literally overrun by its citizens due to its proximity to the GDR . Around 606,000 East Germans came to Bayreuth by the end of that year, mainly to go shopping.
In 1991, on the anniversary of Rudolf Hess's death, a large number of neo-Nazis gathered on Jean-Paul-Platz. In the following years the city succeeded in preventing such events. On March 23, 1992, the US armed forces stationed in Bayreuth were bid farewell, and in May 1992, fast rail traffic with tilting trains to the Nuremberg hub began for the city located off the main thoroughfare . In 1993, Bayreuth was designated as a regional center by resolution of the Council of Ministers . Mayor Mronz commented on the city's financial situation in September 1994: “Now all dams are breaking. The city's ability to act is turned to practically zero. ”Restructuring on the part of the federal government and the state had greatly increased the financial burdens on the municipalities, which led to an estimated deficit of 26.5 million marks in the 1995 city budget. The largest single item was the 38% increase in the municipalities' share of the Solidarity Pact , in which Bayreuth had to contribute 13 million marks. The amendment to the Railway Crossing Act put three railway bridges in need of renovation , and the federal government's planned limitation of unemployment benefits to two years, the care of the long-term unemployed in the responsibility of the city.
On January 26, 1995, after precipitation and melting snow, the Red Main overflowed its banks, and in some streets the water was up to 80 cm high. The controversial Rotmain-Center shopping center on the site of the old slaughterhouse opened its doors in September 1997. In 1998 the Mühlkanal - with a different course - was opened on the lower Opernstrasse, and in 1999 the palace terraces were built there. Also in 1999 the Federal Archives for Load Balancing started operations in the former municipal hospital and the Lohengrin Therme in Seulbitz .
Destruction of historical substance after 1945
Much of what was left by the days of bombing in April 1945 was subsequently destroyed. The old castle was a late victim of the National Socialists, who burned incriminating material there. The fire spread to the building and the house front on the north side of the market square. In the absence of a fire brigade and extinguishing water, it could only be contained by blowing up two houses on the orders of the advancing American soldiers.
A heavy loss for the city was the demolition of Max Stirner's birthplace (1970), the historic Burg social quarter (first Bavarian social settlement of the 19th century) until 1981 and the remains of the Reitzenstein Palace . In the 1970s, with the construction of the city center ring, the ensemble at the beginning of Erlanger Strasse, including the only surviving house with visible half-timbering (Eck-Schoberth), was sacrificed to road traffic. The part of the Rote Main , which was previously visible in the center, was largely covered as a road and parking area (demolition of the Ludwigsbrücke and the sentry box from the 18th century). For the construction of the new town hall, the idyllic quarter on Altbachplatz was demolished, including the judge's house, which was inhabited by the first festival conductor and Bayreuth honorary citizen, Hans Richter . From today's point of view, there were further demolitions in Richard-Wagner-Strasse (“Türkenhaus”, built in 1709), at Sternplatz and in Sophienstrasse (priests' houses from the 16th century). On the market square, three of the few remaining old houses on the north side were sacrificed to a new department store from 1962, and only recently the old savings bank building from 1934 had to give way to a controversial new building.
A modern building was erected in 1971 on the site of the demolished Stirnerhaus. The text on the memorial plaque, once initiated by John Henry Mackay and re-attached there, stating that it was the house where Max Stirner was born, is therefore no longer applicable and is therefore misleading.
Bernd Mayer , historian and honorary citizen of the city who died in 2011, described the destruction of the post-war period as more extensive than that of the Second World War.
Every September from 2000 to 2009 there was the Bayreuth Baroque music festival in the Margravial Opera House . In 2019 the city council decided to support the annual Bayreuth Baroque Festival from September 2020.
Since 2005 the city has belonged to the metropolitan region of Nuremberg, which was founded in that year . In 2006, the CSU appointed Michael Hohl as the Lord Mayor of Bayreuth for the first time. He served only six years, on May 1, 2012 he was replaced by Brigitte Merk-Erbe . The candidate of the Bayreuth Community (BG) was elected with the votes of the SPD and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen .
In 2007 a youth parliament was elected, consisting of twelve young people between 14 and 17 years of age. At the end of October, the long-planned new central bus stop (ZOH) and the associated functional building on the newly created Hohenzollernplatz were inaugurated and put into operation.
On July 26, 2011, the Israel Chamber Orchestra gave the first guest performance of an Israeli orchestra in Bayreuth in the town hall. On June 30, 2012, UNESCO made the Margravial Opera House a World Heritage Site . In 2013, the central ceremony for the 8th Franconian Day took place in Bayreuth under the motto “Francs in your ear” . In that year the mikveh was inaugurated in the garden of the synagogue , and the building was extensively renovated by 2018. In 2016, Bayreuth hosted the Bavarian State Horticultural Show .
A burst pipe on the morning of February 23, 2019 had far-reaching consequences, as a result of which the water supply from the Hohe Warte tank was interrupted. Around half of Bayreuth's households, especially in the north and west of the city, were partially unserved until late afternoon. For New Year's Eve, the city council decided in October 2019 to ban the use of fireworks in the city center to protect the historic buildings . As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic , the Richard Wagner Festival in 2020 was canceled.
- 1811: Sankt Georgen
- 1840: Altenstadt (today's district of the old town )
- April 1, 1939: Colmdorf , Meyernberg, St. Johannis
- January 1, 1972: Oberkonnersreuth
- May 1, 1972: Laineck
- July 1, 1976: Aichig, Oberpreuschwitz, Seulbitz , Thiergarten
- May 1, 1978: Wolfsbach (partially) with Schlehenberg, Krugshof and Püttelshof
Bayreuth only had a few thousand inhabitants in the Middle Ages and early modern times . The population grew only slowly and fell again and again due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. In 1430 the Hussites destroyed the city; In 1602 around 1000 residents died when the plague broke out. Even during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) the city suffered population losses. Only with the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century did population growth accelerate. While 10,000 people lived in the city in 1818, there were already around 30,000 in 1900.
By 1939 the population rose to 45,000 - also due to the incorporation of several places on April 1, 1939. Shortly after the Second World War, the large number of refugees and displaced persons from the German eastern regions brought a further increase of 11,000 people to 56,000 inhabitants by October 1946. The population continued to grow afterwards, not least because of the newly founded university from the 1970s. On June 30, 2005, the official number of inhabitants for Bayreuth was 74,137 according to an update by the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices). 63.7 percent of them were Protestant and 28.8 percent Catholic. In 2011 the city of Bayreuth had around 38,000 households. 50.1 percent of the citizens were Protestant and 25.8 percent Catholic. 24.1 percent have a different belief or are not religious.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Until 1818 it is mostly an estimate, then census results (¹) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1871, the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the place of the main residence”. Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures.
¹ census result
² 2011 census
In contrast to the figures from the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing, the city's surveys are slightly higher. So were z. B. 74,524 residents for October 31, 2017 and 75,572 for October 31, 2018.
In 2003, the average population density in the urban area was 1114 inhabitants per km², with the highest density of all 20 districts in the city center with 4750 inhabitants per km².
Population forecast to 2034
According to a forecast by the Bavarian State Statistical Office , the number of inhabitants in Bayreuth will decrease by around 3.8% between 2014 and 2034.
The city council is made up of 44 city councilors and the mayor. The election to the city council on March 15, 2020 brought the following result for the allocation of seats to the city councilors (+/–: change to the 2014 election):
JB = Young Bayreuth, DU = The Independent, FL = List of Women. The seat of the mayor is located under the seats of the CSU.
After the elections in 2020, the council will consist of 33 men and 11 women, the average age of its members in March 2020 was 52 years. The oldest council member was Norbert Aas at the age of 69 , the youngest 24-year-old Louisa Hübner (both Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ).
In the city council election in 1911, only 1,800 of the 32,000 inhabitants were allowed to vote, as the right to vote presupposed citizenship. This was only granted to men who had worked in Bayreuth for at least 15 years and who paid a fee that was not reasonable for everyone. As a rule, workers could not afford this luxury. The first democratically elected city council met in June 1919. With 16 out of 30 seats, the conservative camp prevailed over the socialists. For the first time, factory worker Christiane Gick from the USPD was represented on the committee.
In 1929 the NSDAP moved into the city parliament. In that year's election it won nine seats, and with thirteen seats, the SPD became the strongest force for the first time. During the time of National Socialism , the elected members were replaced by Bayreuth citizens appointed as “councilors”, from whom unanimous decisions were expected. Also at City Hall was in the Third Reich , the leader principle .
From the first city council elected after the Second World War in 1946 to the local elections in 1972, the SPD had the strongest parliamentary group, since then the CSU has been the strongest force, apart from a stalemate in 1976 (and repeated in 1990). In 1984, Werner Kolb was the first Green candidate to be elected to the city council. The election of March 1990 caused a sensation, in which the right-wing conservative party The Republicans received 10.6 percent of the list votes.
Mayor of Bayreuth since 1818
|1818-1848||Erhard Hagen von Hagenfels||first legally qualified mayor|
|1851-1863||Friedrich Carl Dilchert||civil mayor|
|1863-1900||Theodor von Muncker||legally qualified mayor|
|1900-1918||Leopold von Casselmann||legally qualified mayor,
mayor from 1907
|1919-30. April 1933||Albert Preu||Lord Mayor|
|May 1, 1933 – June 1937||Karl Schlumprecht||NSDAP|
|July 21, 1937 – April 1938||Otto Schmidt|
|May 3, 1938-30. June 1938||Fritz Wächtler||Gauleiter, self-
appointed provisional lord mayor
|July 1, 1938 – April 1945||Fritz Kempfler||Lord Mayor|
|April 24, 1945 – November 1945||Joseph Kauper|
|November 1945–30. June 1948||Oscar Meyer|
|July 1, 1948-30. April 1958||Hans Rollwagen||SPD|
|May 1, 1958-30. April 1988||Hans Walter Wild|
|May 1, 1988-30. April 2006||Dieter Mronz|
|May 1, 2006–30. April 2012||Michael Hohl||CSU|
|May 1, 2012–30. April 2020||Brigitte Merk-Erbe||BG||Lord Mayoress|
|since May 1, 2020||Thomas Ebersberger||CSU||Lord Mayor|
Blasonierung : "square and covered with two diagonally crossed Unterreuten (Reuthaken), the right black, the left silver; 1 and 4 quartered of silver and black; 2 and 3 in gold with silver and red twelve gestücktem board a rotgekrönter, rotgezungter and rotbewehrter black lion. "
The full coat of arms: "On the left-facing helmet with red-silver blankets, a red hat with a silver cuff and two buffalo horns, each set six times in red and silver, between them a left-facing, gold-crowned black lion, topped with the black and silver crossed tail."
Founding of the coat of arms: Margrave Albrecht Achilles , who was also Elector of Brandenburg , awarded the city of Bayreuth the city coat of arms, which is still valid today, in December 1457. Two fields (1 and 4) show the black and silver Hohenzollern coat of arms . The black lion in gold with a white and red border was the official coat of arms of the burgraves of Nuremberg and originally comes from the von Raabs family . Along the two diagonals are two branches , clearing tools with slightly curved handles. They refer to the ending -reuth in the place name.
The city coat of arms is officially described as follows: “The city coat of arms consists of two fields in gold, each with a black lion, and two square, black and white fields, which are also placed across corners. The two fields in gold are framed by a frame divided into red and white fields. A white hook goes over the two lion fields and a black hook over the two black and white fields. Above the coat of arms is a helmet with two crossed horns in white and red, in between a black lion with a golden crown, standing on a hat cover. The helmet cover is alternating between red and white. "
The city of Bayreuth maintains city partnerships with the following cities:
- Annecy , France , since 1966
- Rudolstadt , Thuringia , since 1990
- La Spezia , Italy , since 1999
- Prague 6 district , Czech Republic , since 2008
- Tekirdağ , Turkey , since 2012
Further partnership agreements with other European cities are planned. The English city of Shrewsbury is currently still under discussion .
The cultural partnership with the Austrian Burgenland was concluded in 1990 against the background that Richard Wagner's father-in-law Franz Liszt was born in Raiding there and died in Bayreuth. There is also a cooperation agreement with the Chinese city of Shaoxing and a university partnership between the University of Bayreuth and Washington and Lee University in Lexington in the US state of Virginia .
The city of Bayreuth was awarded the Council of Europe plaque of honor in 2014 for its commitment to promoting the European idea . The Council of Europe voted unanimously in favor of Bayreuth. The award is both recognition and appreciation for the diverse and successful efforts of Bayreuth in the European field. According to the statutes of the Council of Europe, the honor plaque is awarded to municipalities that have been holders of the honorary diploma and then the honorary flag for several years. This is considered a precursor to the European Prize , the highest award that the euro Europe has awarded to.
The city of Bayreuth has been supporting a development aid project in the African community of Tchighozérine in Niger since 2015 .
Culture and sights
Theater and music
The margravial opera house is a theater that has existed since 1748. It is a museum and at the same time the oldest scene in Bayreuth that is still used today. The building is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Bayreuth town hall (multi-purpose facility in the walls of the former margravial riding hall) did not have its own ensemble. It was regularly performed by the Theater Hof , and touring theaters also made stops there. The building is currently unusable due to a fundamental renovation and is expected to reopen under the name "Friedrichsforum" in autumn 2022.
The only two theaters with their own ensemble are the Studiobühne Bayreuth and the amateur theater Brandenburger Kulturstadl . The venues of the studio stage in Bayreuth are the domicile of the theater in Röntgenstraße, the ruin theater of the Bayreuth Hermitage and the inner courtyard of the Bayreuth piano factory Steingraeber & Sons .
The Operla puppet theater was founded in 2008. On the occasion of Margravine Wilhelmine's 300th birthday , the play Wilhelmine - Princess on a golden thread was staged. The performances have been taking place in the Steingräber-Passage since January 2012.
Other venues are the center in the Äußere Badstraße, the Reichshof in the Maximilianstraße, the floating stage in the Wilhelminenaue and the Upper Franconian Hall . Open-air concerts have so far taken place in the Hans-Walter-Wild-Stadion and on the Volksfestplatz.
- Old town cult museum
- of SpVgg Bayreuth , Markgrafenallee 3a
- The Other Museum
- After Franz Joachim Schultz had transferred the Small Poster Museum he founded to the holdings of the Bayreuth Art Museum in 2012, he founded the Other Museum, a temple of the Muses, in the rooms on Friedrich-Puchta-Straße.
- The Archaeological Museum
- in the Italian building of the New Palace, Ludwigstrasse 21, was founded in 1827 by the historical association . In eight exhibition rooms, among other things, Neolithic stone axes, 80 clay vessels from the Hallstatt period and Celtic bronze jewelry can be viewed. The exhibits, all of which come from eastern Upper Franconia, with a focus on Franconian Switzerland and the Bayreuth region, range from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages. In the experimental area you will find a reconstructed loom, a stone drill and an original sliding mill.
- The branch gallery of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
- was opened in August 2007 in the New Palace , Ludwigstrasse 21. 80 works of Dutch and German painting from the late 17th and 18th centuries are on display.
- Maisel's brewery and butchery museum
- Kulmbacher Strasse 40; there you can find out everything about wheat beer production over an area of 2,400 square meters . It was entered in the Guinness Book of Records in 1988 as the "most extensive beer museum" (including over 5500 beer glasses and mugs)
- Museum The Bayreuth of Wilhelmine
- in the New Palace, Ludwigstrasse 21
- In the house of the Masonic Lodge Eleusis for Secrecy , Im Hofgarten 1, with the representation of the customs of the Masons and the history of the lodges.
- German Typewriter Museum
- Bernecker Str. 11, with a collection of over 450 historical typewriters from the research and training center for shorthand and word processing
- At the fire station 4
- in the house where Franz Liszt died , Wahnfriedstraße 9, with approx. 300 pictures, manuscripts and prints from the collection of the Munich pianist Ernst Burger , which the city of Bayreuth bought in 1988. In addition, a silent piano, the Ibach grand piano from the Wahnfried house, letters and first editions of Franz Liszt's work can be seen. Biographical panels, a cast of the baptismal font from Liszt's birthplace Raiding and the Liszt bust by Antonio Galli complete the collection. The visitor is accompanied by the music of Franz Liszt. The brick building on the former "Miedelschen Peunt am Rennweg" was built in the late 1870s, and since 1993 Liszt's former apartment on the mezzanine floor has housed the museum.
- in the old Latin school, Am Kirchplatz 4. On the ground floor it shows the history and development of Bayreuth from the late Middle Ages to the 20th century with a model of the city in 1763. On the first floor is the section on the art and cultural history of the Bayreuth margrave period (17th and 18th centuries). Another section shows the handicrafts in Bayreuth and the surrounding area with the products of the faience factory, the glassworks of the Fichtelgebirge and the stoneware potters from Creußen . Painting, handicrafts and early industrial products from the Biedermeier period and the late 19th century round off a visit to the museum.
- Iwalewahaus , changing exhibitions of contemporary non-European - especially African - art
- Wölfelstrasse 2
- Jean Paul Museum
- in the former home of Richard Wagner's daughter Eva Chamberlain, Wahnfriedstrasse 1, with autographs , first editions of the works, portraits and other images.
- Johann Baptist Graser School Museum
- in the grass school, Schulstrasse 4
- Jewish Museum
- in the former margravial mint ("old coin"), Münzgasse 9
- Catacombs of the Bayreuth share brewery
- Kulmbacher Strasse 60
- Small poster museum
- formerly Friedrich-Puchta-Straße 12, now in the Art Museum Bayreuth, Maximilianstraße 33
- in the Old Town Hall, Maximilianstrasse 33, with the Helmut and Constanze Meyer Art Foundation, the Georg Tappert Collection, the archive and the Caspar Walter Rauh Collection . The collections mainly contain works from the 20th century, including graphics and drawings by the Swedish artist Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd .
- Margravial state rooms and the Bayreuth faience collection
- in the New Palace, Ludwigstrasse 21
- Museum of farm implements
- in Lettenhof, Adolf-Wächter-Straße 17
- Valkyrie Porcelain Museum
- Gravenreutherstrasse 5
- Karolinenreuther Strasse 58
- in Haus Wahnfried , Richard-Wagner-Straße 48, Richard Wagner's house and family seat until 1966, since 1976 museum with affiliated national archive and research facility of the Richard Wagner Foundation Bayreuth .
- School museums
- in the Richard-Wagner-Gymnasium, Wittelsbacherring 9
- Tobacco history collection
- the British American Tabacco in the former mayor's rooms of the Old Town Hall, Maximilianstrasse 33
- Transport Museum Wedlich
- Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse 36
- Kanzleistraße 1, shows the history of life in Upper Franconia since the beginning of the world. The exhibitions change constantly, currently the life-size dinosaur models are of particular interest.
- in his birth house Moritzhöfen 25
- Where Saracen Art
- Brandenburger Strasse 36
Art in public space
- The illuminated lettering Gluehwürmchen Feuersalamander by Roland Schön has been installed on the roof of the Kolping House since 2011. In 2008, with the words in reverse order, he was part of the parallel action art project in the courtyard of the Old Palace. Then it adorned the head building of the Central Bus Stop (ZOH) for almost two years.
- The installation Silent Voices in Richard-Wagner-Park below the Festspielhaus , which has existed since mid-2012, commemorates those who participated in the Festival , who were defamed or not engaged because of their Jewish origin before 1933 and who were exiled or murdered during the Nazi era . She should stay in Bayreuth until the end of 2013.
- An original variant of the sculpture Non Violence by the Swedish painter and sculptor Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd , a revolver with a knotted barrel, is located in Maximilianstrasse. It was erected on April 3, 2011, soon afterwards destroyed by strangers and has been restored in its place since August 2012.
- On the campus of the University is in the open area behind the central library, the plastic Large dimensional curve Bayreuth , the last major space curve of the sculptor Norbert cricket .
- The Sculpture Mile Bayreuth e. V. wants to set up unusual works of art in order to create an "axis of art" with works by contemporary artists over the course of time between the art museum and the festival hill.
- The first thing that could be done in April 2001 was the bronze sculpture Marsyas I by Alfred Hrdlicka in front of the Bayreuth Art Museum.
- In April 2004, three steel sculptures by Horst Antes followed in the Bayreuth Mühlkanal.
- In July 2012 the sculpture Bayreuth Group was inaugurated by Jürgen Brodwolf at the city church.
- Since March 2013, a ten-meter-high, sweeping, curved lattice construction has stood in front of the Jean-Paul Museum, reminiscent of Jean Paul's story Des Luftschiffer Giannozzo Seebuch and sponsored by the Sculpture Mile Bayreuth e. V. was commissioned by the Berlin artist collective Inges Idee .
- The margravial opera house designed by Joseph Saint-Pierre and designed inside by Giuseppe Galli da Bibiena was built between 1744 and 1748. It is one of the few original theater and opera buildings of that time in Europe and is a jewel among the theaters of the 18th century. On June 30, 2012, UNESCO declared the baroque building a World Heritage Site .
- The Richard-Wagner-Festspielhaus on the Green Hill was built in the years 1872–1875 by Otto Brückwald based on designs by Richard Wagner in the style of Hellenistic Romanticism . Experts consider it the “most important opera house in the world” when it comes to the development of musical theater.
- Haus Wahnfried is Richard Wagner's former home on the edge of the courtyard garden . The building, built by master builder Carl Wölfel based on the ideas of Richard Wagner and modified plans by the Berlin architect Wilhelm Neumann , was a gift from King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Construction began in 1872 and was completed in 1874.
- The centuries-old former road keeper's house with agriculture and gastronomy, located about halfway between the city and the Hermitage , was acquired by the Rollwenzels in the late 18th century. The landlady Anna Dorothea acquired the friendship of the poet Jean Paul , who dubbed her “the best soup and pastry cook in the state of Ansbach-Bayreuth ”. She set up her own room for her regular guest, in which he wrote his most important works. This poets' room has been restored and can be visited.
- The old castle is an irregular complex of buildings from different times. After it burned down in 1753, it fell victim to the flames a second time in April 1945. There, on the day of the American invasion, the National Socialists burned incriminating material, with the fire spreading to the building and the neighboring houses. Today the tax office is located behind the restored facade.
- The New Palace was built from 1753 after a fire in January 1753 had largely destroyed the previous residence - the Old Palace . In 1758 it was essentially completed; the builder was the margravial court builder Joseph Saint-Pierre . The Italian building was built after 1759 for the second wife of the margrave, Sophie Karoline Marie von Braunschweig, as a stand-alone building south of the palace and was only later structurally connected to the New Palace by a connecting wing. The architect was Carl von Gontard .
- The Hermitage Landscape Park is a rococo gem and a prime example of the horticultural culture of the 18th century. From 1715 under Margrave Georg Wilhelm a small summer palace and other buildings were built as the center of a courtly hermitage . The plans came from the court architect Elias Räntz . Margravine Wilhelmine arranged for the small castle to be extended by two side wings. Between 1749 and 1753, the New Palace was built to the west of it . It consists of two curved wings that are separated from the central part. This carries a gold-plated quadriga and is known as the temple of the sun ; the side wings now form the orangery of the Hermitage. The facilities and water features of the Upper, Lower and Inner Grotto are remarkable .
- The order castle in the St. Georgen district was completed in 1727. Until the end of the margraves' era , it was a pleasure palace and the venue for many large events. One of the main attractions was the Brandenburg pond , which was closed in 1775 and where naval battles were staged with six larger sailing ships and corresponding teams. Today the castle is part of the St. Georgen-Bayreuth JVA , a visit to the elaborately restored Order Hall is only possible in exceptional cases.
- In 1754 the margrave minister Freiherr von Reitzenstein had the castle built in its present form. Just a few years later, Margrave Friedrich bought it and gave it to his second wife, Sophie Caroline Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel . After this it was also called Carolinenruhe .
- Margrave Georg Wilhelm had the building erected on the site of a previous building by Johann David Räntz . It has housed a private international school since 2010.
- The construction of the building with a baroque garden and tea house based on plans by Charles Philippe Dieussart dates from 1687 to 1692. The baroque castle is privately owned.
- The castle estates, also known as Freihäuser , were privileged buildings, especially of local noble families , near the city wall . The Seckendorffer and the Nanckenreuther Burggut are located on Kanzleistraße, and the Burggut Plassenberg is located on Sophienstrasse.
- Mohren Pharmacy
- The Mohren pharmacy is one of the oldest preserved buildings in the city. The pharmacist Johann von Gera had it built in 1610 by the court architect Michael Mebart on the site of a fire ruin (city fire of 1605). In 1614 the pharmacist Wolfgang Schmauß received the license for the pharmacy zum Goldenen Greif , the name change to Mohren-Apotheke took place in the 18th century.
- Former orphanage on Friedrichstrasse
- Margrave Georg Friedrich Karl had the building built as an orphanage and school for the poor in 1732/33. In 1804 the grammar school (later the Royal Bavarian College , since 1952 Christian Ernestinum grammar school ) was moved there. Since the move to a new building on Albrecht-Dürer-Straße, the building has been used as an administration building.
- The three-story building was completed in October 1904. Three Art Nouveau interiors were shown before they were installed at the St. Louis World's Fair , USA, where they received high awards.
- The victory tower on the Hohe Warte on the northern outskirts is a 17 meter high observation tower that was built to commemorate the victory in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 .
Churches, synagogues and mosques
- City Church Holy Trinity
- The striking building with its two 50 m high towers is the main parish church of the Protestant city. Remains preserved in the basement of the north tower indicate a previous building that was consecrated on November 9, 1194. The current building was erected between 1437 and 1495, and since 1668 the towers have had their shape with French domes and stone bridges.
- The first consecration of the Gothic building took place in 1439, from 1576/77 onwards there was a comprehensive renovation in the Renaissance style. The current building was built between 1748 (laying of the foundation stone) and 1750 (consecration) according to plans by the Bayreuth court architect Joseph Saint-Pierre .
- The castle church, which dates from the 18th century, houses the marble coffins of the Protestant Margravine Wilhelmine, who was important for urban development, and her family in its princely crypt. During the Bavarian period in 1813 it was handed over to the city's Catholic parish. The octagonal tower erected in 1565 is a secular building, the widely visible cross was placed on its top in 1964, bypassing the city council.
- The Bayreuth synagogue was inaugurated on March 15, 1760 (Sabbath Para 5520). On the night of November 9, 1938, the rooms were looted and destroyed, but due to its close proximity to the margravial opera house , the building escaped the fire.
- reformed Church
- Since 1755 the church has been located in the Palais von Gleichen , a former noble house.
- The Ordenskirche, also called Sophienkirche, is located in Sankt Georgen, which was incorporated in 1811. The baroque building was consecrated in 1711.
- The Neuer Weg district and the Bahnhofsviertel received a church building in the 1950s. The striking structure with three towers was built on ruins.
- in the Kreuz district, inaugurated on October 23, 1960. The “Kreiza Kerwa” (Kreuzer Kirchweih) festival, which has taken place annually in late summer since 1897, has a profane origin.
- Church of the Redeemer
- in the Altstadt district, a modern brick church, inaugurated in 1956
- Parish Church of St. Johannis
- Catholic parish church St. Hedwig
- in the Altstadt district, inaugurated in 1960. With its uncut Jurassic limestone facade, it is considered one of the most beautiful buildings by the architect Emil Steffann .
Parks and cemeteries
To the east of the city center is the Hofgarten at the New Palace , to the south of which is the Röhrensee with the park of the same name and a small zoo. Below the festival hall, on the green hill , is the festival park and on the Dürschnitz, east of the city center, with the small Miedelsgarten, one of Jean Paul's favorite places . The ecological-botanical garden on the southern outskirts belongs to the University of Bayreuth . In the Gartenstadt district there is a small park between Hans-von-Wohlnahm-Straße and Dr.-Hans-Richter-Straße.
The most famous of all the parks in Bayreuth is the Hermitage in the St. Johannis district. With a total area of almost 50 hectares, it is the largest park in the city.
Bayreuth was selected as the organizer for the Bavarian State Garden Show 2016 in spring 2009 . The extensive Wilhelminenaue green area has thus been created in the upper Main meadows, between the festival area and the A 9 motorway .
The oldest existing cemetery in Bayreuth is the city cemetery with a number of grave monuments of famous personalities. The southern cemetery with a crematorium is located on the southern edge of the Saas district. The districts of St. Johannis and St. Georgen have their own cemeteries . The Jewish cemetery is located on Nürnberger Strasse in the southeast of the city. On the outskirts of the old town there used to be a burial place for those who were executed, the little rogue, in the immediate vicinity of the gallows.
In the urban area there are several Natura 2000 areas with a total area of almost 200 ha; this includes the upper and lower Rotmaintal as well as the Misteltal and the park of the Hermitage.
Nature and landscape protection areas
On the north-eastern edge there is a nature reserve (NSG-00739.01) with the shell limestone area on Oschenberg . There are also nine protected landscape areas , five FFH areas and three designated geotopes (as of March 2016).
- See also:
- List of nature reserves in the city of Bayreuth
- List of landscape protection areas in the city of Bayreuth
- List of FFH areas in the city of Bayreuth
- List of geotopes in Bayreuth
- Rock faults on the Hohe Warte
- Rhätsandstein -Felsengruppe on the 411 m high Buchstein , 600 m southeast of violin Reuth in the district Meyernberg (Geotop number 462R001)
- Geological outcrop Bodenmühlwand , approx. 200 m southeast of the Bodenmühle, district Wolfsbach (geotope number 462A001)
- Teufelsgraben with Teufelsbrücke, Donndorf (geotope number 462R002)
Bodies of water and wells
The most important river is the Red Main , which crosses the city from east to west. Two flood disasters in 1907 and 1909 prompted the regulation between 1913 and 1916, the river bed was widened and canalized. With the construction of the city center ring in the 1970s, it partially disappeared under a concrete ceiling,
His artificial side arm Mühlkanal , which is also covered in the inner city area , received a new, open run in 1997/98 at La-Spezia-Platz. In contrast to the Red Main, this watercourse can be reached via step-shaped terraces.
While the Warme Steinach already flows into the Red Main on the eastern outskirts, the mistletoe , called Mistelbach in Bayreuth , runs longer in the urban area. The stream between the old town and its confluence with the Red Main was regulated and optically renatured.
The Sendelbach is largely invisible in the cityscape and is almost only recognizable at the Moritzhöfenbrücke . Its Tappert tributary, which is also channeled underground, feeds the ornamental canal in the courtyard garden . Its southern tributary Aubach supplies the water for the Röhrensee .
The Röhrensee , surrounded by a park with animal enclosures, is the largest standing body of water in the city. The forerunner of this artificial pond was created in the 17th century to store wooden pipes in its water. They were intended for a water pipe from the nearby spring farms to the city center, which fed four wells there.
None of the former draw wells in the city center have survived. During historical excavations as part of the redesign of the market square, over 20 former well shafts and part of the former canal course of the Tappert made of sandstone were found. One of the wells was restored in the passage between the hospital and the Rotmaincenterbrücke.
A large number of ornamental fountains come from the margrave period in particular:
- Famabrunnen on the marketplace, 1708 by Elias Räntz created
- Herkulesbrunnen on the market square, 1676, by Georg Wieshack, 1755 new figure by Joh. Gabriel Räntz, since 1926 in the park in front of the Festspielhaus, since 2005 in the Historical Museum, copy 1926 by the sculptors Martin Mösch and Christian Weißbrod
- Margrave fountain in front of the New Palace, a baroque fountain system by Elias Räntz from 1699
- Neptune Fountain in the market square from 1755
- Obelisk fountain from 1789 next to the town church on the site of the ossuary built in 1508
- Equestrian fountain on Sternplatz from 1922
- Wittelsbacher Fountain on Opernstrasse from 1914
Has been on the market place, in accordance with the original terms of the Tappert a water-bearing ornamental gutter with walk-in wells and water playground, 2010 as Stadtbächlein created.
Roter Main in the Hammerstatt district
- Emil Warburg Foundation (University of Bayreuth), named after the physicist Emil Warburg .
- Otto Warburg Chemistry Foundation (University of Bayreuth), named after the chemist and Nobel Prize winner Otto Warburg , son of Emil Warburg.
- Richard Wagner Foundation Bayreuth
- Hospital Foundation of the City of Bayreuth
- Bernd Mayer Foundation, extensive collection of photos and documents on the history of Bayreuth Bernd Mayer .
- Brigitte Merk-Erbe-Stiftung, foundation of the Lord Mayor to strengthen non-profit associations of Bayreuth.
- Public baths
- The Altstadtbad is a municipal outdoor pool on Fantaisiestraße specially created for children. It has a non-swimmer pool, a shallow pool for small children, play equipment and a large sunbathing area. Admission is free.
- Bürgerreuth open-air pool (with Kneipp facility )
- The Kreuzsteinbad is the largest outdoor pool in the city. The 10-meter diving platform at the diving pool is striking. There is also a 50-meter swimming pool, a wave pool, a pool for toddlers and an 85-meter-long, winding large slide. The entrance is on Frankengutstrasse.
- Indoor pool of the swimming club SVB
- Lohengrin Therme (in the Seulbitz district with parking space for mobile homes)
- Opened on December 14, 1929, the Stadtbad in Kolpingstrasse is the oldest indoor swimming pool in Upper Franconia and the second oldest in Bavaria. In April 1945, the boiler house was destroyed by a bomb, and the pool was not in operation again until 1949. At the end of 1993, the public swimming pool was temporarily closed again and was completely renovated by 1996. It has a 25 meter long swimming pool, plus a paddling pool, a teaching pool and a sauna area.
- Animal park, cross-generational playground and boat rental at Röhrensee
- The Samocca reading café in the building of the adult education center and city library "RW21" (Richard-Wagner-Str. 21) is worth mentioning . The café is integrated into the library and is run by people with disabilities.
- None of the traditional cinemas of the 20th century survived. The last time the Reichshof Lichtspiele were closed was in 1999 , but the Cineplex with several halls opened in 1997 .
- International Circle Bayreuth
- Joint establishment of the international societies in Bayreuth (German-French, German-Polish, German-Czech, German-English and German-Hispanic Society Bayreuth), Schulstr. 5. Under the motto Languages Open Doors, there are numerous events, including foreign language conversation and the joint monthly international aperitif .
From February to July 2013, the Berlin author Volker Strübing was Bayreuth's first town clerk . The Jean Paul Jubilee was the occasion to bring this office into being. During this time, Strübing dealt intensively with Jean Paul and commented on his experiences in a blog.
- Club sport
- Over 60 clubs offer the opportunity to participate in almost 100 sports. The most successful club in the city is currently the Luftsportgemeinschaft Bayreuth with their gliding Bundesliga team: in 2002, 2015 and 2018 the pilots won the Bundesliga, in 2015 and 2018 even the gliding world league "IGC World League". In 2003, 2005, 2008 and 2010 they became vice-champions. The street hockey team of the Bayreuth Hurricans can also boast several German championship titles, which was three times German runner-up champion (1998/2004/2006) and even won the title of German champion five times (1996/1997/2001/2005/2007). In a first Bundesliga, in addition to the air sports community and the hurricans, the basketball team Medi Bayreuth , which was founded in 1999 as BBC Bayreuth and has been back in the basketball Bundesliga since the 2010/11 season, plays. The handball team of HASPO Bayreuth and the volleyball players of BSV Bayreuth go in the Bavarian League and Hockey Team of the EHC Bayreuth went to 2016 in the Oberliga Süd at the start. For the 2016/17 season, the EHC Bayreuth rose to the DEL2 . Since the 2014/15 season, HaSpo Bayreuth's Ladies I team has been playing in the women's 3rd Bundesliga East under their coach Thomas Hankel. The 6th place in the table was achieved in the first season.
- The most important football clubs are SpVgg Bayreuth and the former 1. FC Bayreuth . For the former, the highlight was the second place in the 2nd Bundesliga South in 1979, which entitles them to participate in the promotion games to the Bundesliga . On January 12, 1980, the DFB Cup won 1-0 against Bayern Munich . SpVgg played in the 2nd Bundesliga for a total of twelve years (six of them in the single-track), most recently in the 1989/90 season . SpVgg has been playing in the regional league since autumn 2014.
- Before the Second World War , 1. FC Bayreuth dominated football in Bayreuth. The team rose to the 1926/27 season in the Bavarian District League, the top division at the time. In 2003, the soccer department of 1. FC in the FSV Bayreuth went on.
- The volleyball players of the Bayreuth Turnerschaft (BTS), the oldest and largest sports club in the city, drove to Rudolstadt in Thuringia in December 1966 . It was the first time since the Berlin Wall was built that a West German team was allowed to enter what was then the GDR .
- Sport also had its heyday in Bayreuth in the late 80s and early 90s. The basketball players from Steiner Bayreuth were two-time German cup winners (1987/1988 and 1988/1989), in the 1988/1989 season they also brought the German championship to Wagnerstadt, the ice hockey team of the Bayreuth swimming club (SVB) was two-time German champions of the second division Süd and also played a year in the ice hockey Bundesliga. Furthermore, the table tennis team from Steiner Bayreuth - at that time the club was still called TTBG Steiner-Optik Bayreuth - was first class (since 1983 second Bundesliga, 1984/85, 1986/87 and 1987/88 1st Bundesliga , 1988 withdrawal) and the game association played for many years in the 2nd Bundesliga. The table tennis players of 1. FC Bayreuth were also represented in the 1. Bundesliga from 1994 to 1997.
- Wheelchair dance can be practiced in the wheelchair dance group in the RSV (Wheelchair Sports Association) Bayreuth.
- In 1999 the world championships in gliding took place in Bayreuth .
- The oldest still existing association in the city are the United Rifle Guilds St. Georgen from 1720 and Bayreuth from 1623 e. V., which emerged from a union of two rifle guilds in 1950.
- Independent sports facilities
- Scattered across the city there are football, basketball and beach volleyball courts that can be used free of charge. There is an outdoor municipal fitness studio on the southern Adolf-Wächter-Straße (currently closed). There is also a fitness trail in the nearby Wolfsgrube wood , and another has been created in the student forest.
- January, May, June, July, November and December: Young master pianists (concert series of young pianists from various music academies in the rooms of the Steingraeber & Sons piano factory)
- February / March: Bayreuth carnival parade and carnival market
- April: Bayreuth Easter Festival (benefit concerts in favor of children with cancer)
- May: Musica Bayreuth
- June: Uniopenair
- June: time for new music
- June: Bayreuth folk festival. The first folk festival was organized by the tourist association on Mainflecklein from August 13-22, 1910, a second folk festival did not take place until 1921. In the period after the Second World War , the now annual event took place on today's Albrecht-Dürer-Strasse between the Reds Main and the railway line instead. In 1964, today's Volksfestplatz was opened on Äußere Badstrasse.
- July: Afro-Caribbean Festival
- July: Bayreuth Citizens' Festival (always on the first weekend in July)
- July: Sankt Georgen swingt , a two-day music festival that takes place in mid-July, during which many performers / bands performed in the backyards of the Sankt Georgen district and on its main street. The event has been taking place in Park Wilhelminenaue since 2018.
- July: Bayreuth Piano Festival
- July – August: Bayreuth Festival , Summer Night Festival, Festival of Young Artists (former youth festival meeting)
- August: Children's holiday town Mini-Bayreuth with children's parliament on the grounds of the SC Kreuz
- September: Rock in Bayreuth
- September: Bayreuth Baroque (opera performances in the margravial opera house )
- October: Bayreuth Pub Festival: On November 3rd, 1993 the first pub festival took place with ten bands on ten stages. At the 27th festival in 2019 there were 27 concerts on twenty stages, whereby all venues could be visited with one ticket.
- October: Bayreuth Museum Night (the day before the time change)
- October: Since 2008 the city has been awarding the Bayreuth Margravine Wilhelmine Prize for tolerance and humanity in cultural diversity every year as part of the Bayreuth Future Forum symposium
Every January 6th, called “Öberschtn”, people meet in good company to “drink strength”. According to a centuries-old Franconian tradition, you can drink a “ Seidla ” strong beer or a “Schnäpsla” every month in order to recharge your batteries for the new year.
In 1990 the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden was not allowed to perform in Bayreuth. The city administration canceled a planned concert in the Upper Franconian Hall, this was justified by the music style known as "brutal rock".
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Bayreuth achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of 4.527 billion euros within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was 62,352 euros (Bavaria: 44,215 euros / Germany: 38,180 euros) and thus well above the regional and national average. There were around 66,300 employed people in the city in 2017. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.4% and thus above the Bavarian average of 2.7%, but below the national average.
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the independent city of Bayreuth was ranked 65th out of 402 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "high future opportunities".
In 2007, the number of people in employment in Bayreuth was 57,600, including 41,200 employees subject to social security contributions . Of these, around three quarters are employed in the service sector, which is attributed to the large number of authorities ( Deutsche Rentenversicherung Nordbayern ), hospitals, schools and credit institutions . As the largest employer, the University of Bayreuth with 1,800 employees was replaced by the Klinikum Bayreuth GmbH, which was founded in 2003, with 2,300 employees.
In the post-war period, all three federal highways leading through Bayreuth were bundled in Richard-Wagner-Straße . The B 22 running through the lower Maximilianstrasse and the B 85 coming from the Mühltürlein met at the western end of the market square, which they both crossed lengthways . Coming from Opernstrasse, the B 2 joined it at Sternplatz . At the Dürschnitz, the B 2 and B 85 left the street towards Nürnberger Straße and remained united as far as Pegnitz .
Today the federal highways run over the city center ring. The city center, which has largely been converted into a pedestrian zone, is only affected by the ring formed by the streets Wittelsbacherring, Hohenzollernring, Cosima-Wagner-Strasse and part of Birkenstrasse.
In August 1969, the city's first Green Wave was set up on the Hohenzollernring . As early as 1994, Hellmut Schubert, who had worked for the city as a traffic planner since the 1960s, suggested to the city council that, with the exception of the main traffic arteries, speed 30 should be introduced in the city area for ecological reasons. For the city center ring, he favored a one-way system with a lane reserved for cyclists, buses and taxis.
In 1937 the section Leipzig - Nuremberg was completed. This makes it one of the oldest motorways in Germany with supra-regional importance. The six-lane expansion in the Bayreuth area was completed in 2006, and in the Laineck district it was encased over a length of 360 m. The two junctions Bayreuth-Nord and Bayreuth-Süd exist in the urban area, which means that the section in between also functions as an urban motorway .
The construction of this extension line began in 1937, but it was not until November 21, 1958 that the first section from the Bayreuth / Kulmbach triangle to the Kulmbach / Neudrossenfeld junction was put into operation as a single-lane motorway with two lanes. The final completion to Bamberg was not completed until 1996. The A 70 does not touch the city area, but can be reached quickly via the A 9 and the Bayreuth / Kulmbach triangle.
- : Rosow - Berlin - Potsdam - Lutherstadt Wittenberg - Leipzig - Gera - Hof - Bayreuth - Nuremberg - Roth - Donauwörth - Augsburg - Munich - Mittenwald
- : Würzburg - Bamberg - Hollfeld - Bayreuth - Weiden idOpf - Cham
- : Berga - Weimar - Saalfeld - Kronach - Kulmbach - Bayreuth - Amberg - Schwandorf - Cham - Passau
- : Bad Berneck - Goldkronach - Bayreuth - Mistelbach - Hummeltal - Pottenstein - Leupoldstein - Betzenstein - Plech - Neuhaus an der Pegnitz
- : Bayreuth - Weidenberg - Warmensteinach - Fichtelberg - Mehlmeisel - Brand - Ebnath - Erbendorf - Windischeschenbach - Floß - Waldthurn - Altenstadt near Vohenstrauss
From Bayreuth main train station , the main routes lead north to Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg (and from there to Bamberg or over the sloping plane to Hof), south-east to Weiden and south to Schnabelwaid (with a connection to Nuremberg via the Pegnitztalbahn ). The only remaining branch line is the line to Warmensteinach , which has only been operated as far as Weidenberg since 1993 . The routes to Hollfeld and Thurnau (- Kulmbach) that used to lead to the western and north-western surroundings have been completely dismantled. The railway lines around Bayreuth are without exception single-track and not electrified.
Since May 23, 1992 ran between Bayreuth and Nuremberg with tilting technology equipped diesel railcars of the 610 series , which by the former German Federal Railways were purchased specifically for the winding route. These were later replaced by the 612 series.
With the timetable change on June 10, 2001, the newly created ICE line 17 (Dresden - Nuremberg every hour, every second train via Bayreuth) went into operation. For two years ICE TD multiple units with tilting technology of the 605 series ran . Since the 2006/2007 timetable change, Bayreuth is no longer connected to the long-distance network of Deutsche Bahn .
The IRE Franken-Sachsen-Express offered alternatively from December 2006 to December 2013 a direct connection via Hof and Plauen to Dresden (since December 2007 every two hours). Diesel railcars with tilting technology from the 612 series were used . There was also a regional express direct connection with such railcars via Lichtenfels and Bamberg to Würzburg .
Since June 12, 2011, the agilis transport company has been serving the newly created Upper Franconian diesel network on behalf of the Bavarian Railway Company and thus local rail transport in the Bayreuth area.
Since December 2013 there are no more direct connections from Bayreuth to Dresden and Würzburg.
Supraregional connections ( Deutsche Bahn AG):
- RE Bayreuth Hbf - Pegnitz - Nürnberg Hbf (mostly every hour)
- RE Hof Hbf - Münchberg - Bayreuth Hbf - Nürnberg Hbf (mostly every 2 hours)
- RE Bamberg - Lichtenfels - Kulmbach - Bayreuth Hbf (mostly every 2 hours)
Regional train connections largely every hour (agilis):
- RB Bad Rodach - Coburg - Lichtenfels - Kulmbach - Bayreuth Hbf
- RB (Hof Hbf -) Marktredwitz - Kirchenlaibach - Bayreuth Hbf
- RB Weidenberg - Bayreuth Hbf - Weiden (Oberpf)
- See also
The city bus routes are operated by Stadtwerke Bayreuth Verkehr und Bäder GmbH . In some cases, private bus companies also drive vehicles on their behalf. 16 lines (lines 301 to 316) run Monday to Friday mostly every 20 or 30 minutes. During the winter semester, the number of services on line 306 will also be increased so that a bus runs between the central bus stop (ZOH) and the university campus almost every 5 minutes. Otherwise, on the weekend the cycle is stretched to 30 minutes, although not all lines operate. By superimposing lines and simultaneously shifting travel times, larger parts of the city and the main train station can be reached every ten minutes. During times of low demand (Saturdays from 6:15 a.m. to 7:45 a.m., Sundays and public holidays from 9:15 a.m. to 1:15 p.m. and every evening between 7:45 p.m. and 11:45 p.m., and 0:45 a.m. on weekends Clock) a network reduced to six lines (lines 321 to 326) is offered every 30 minutes. Suburbs with little demand are served with scheduled taxi services at these times.
The network is star-shaped with a centrally located transfer stop (ZOH). The only exception since October 1, 2015 has been line 316, which connects the main station directly to the university every 30 minutes without taking the "detour" via the ZOH. Originally, the ZOH was on the market square, in the middle of Maximilianstrasse. Since October 27, 2007, the ZOH has been located on Hohenzollernplatz at the confluence of Kanalstrasse and Hohenzollernring. There are also stops for regional buses at the ZOH to make it easier to change trains. A dynamic passenger information system provides information about the next departures or current timetable changes and diversions. There is also the customer center, where network-wide timetable information and tickets are available Monday through Saturday.
On January 1, 2010, was Public transport (public transport) in the regional transport system Nuremberg (VGN) integrated. The entire city of Bayreuth corresponds to the VGN tariff zone 1200, in which price level D applies. The VGN tariff zone regulation (price levels 1 to 10) applies to trips beyond the city limits. As a transport company in the VGN, Stadtwerke Bayreuth Verkehr und Bäder GmbH enables bicycles to be taken on city buses. After 8 p.m. there is also the option of getting off between two regular stops, provided that this is possible under traffic law. The VGN mobile phone app can also be used to purchase "mobile phone tickets" for Bayreuth city buses. As early as the winter semester of 1994, Bayreuth was the first university town in Bavaria to introduce the solidarity "Semesterticket" for all students at the University of Bayreuth and the University of Protestant Church Music. This local semester ticket regulation was retained despite joining the VGN.
Regional traffic is served by Omnibusverkehr Franken GmbH. The city and district of Bayreuth are part of the Nuremberg Metropolitan Region . Bayreuth is also a member of the German-Czech transport association EgroNet .
A cycle path network is partially available, the signage of which is often supra-local in nature (example: Haidenaab cycle path ). Due to its immediate location on the 600 km long Main Cycle Path , Bayreuth is the destination for several tourist cycle routes .
Most of the 13,000+ students (as of 2015) at the University of Bayreuth use bicycles as an everyday means of transport. The topography of the city and the lack of continuous safe routes create difficulties and sometimes lead to problematic solutions. In many places, cyclists are directed to sidewalks and sidewalks or even forced to use them by signs, which creates conflicts with pedestrians. Park areas usually have to be bypassed, but since 2012 there are two ways to cross the Hofgarten . Most of the pedestrian zone in the city center can be used by bicycle. A section of the route from the university to the city center (Univercity) is signposted as a cycle route .
The airfield Bayreuth serves commercial aviation, the individual business travel, the general aviation and air sports . Until 2002, the Frankfurt – Hof airline made a stopover in Bayreuth three times a day.
The airfield at Bindlacher Berg is also one of the most important bases for gliding in Germany, u. a. The 1999 World Championships took place here. For the Luftsportgemeinschaft Bayreuth , the airport is the starting point for flights in the soaring Bundesliga. The association also conducts training in gliding and powered flight here.
Statistics on the number of overnight stays in Bayreuth have been kept since 1922. In 1923 the city counted around 31,000 overnight stays.
The number of overnight stays is highest during the festival season in August, in 2010 around 39,000 overnight stays were counted. In August 2019, the previous peak was recorded with 58,678 registered overnight stays, which was an increase of 13.7% compared to the same month of the previous year. The share of foreign guests was 32.6%.
Due to the festival, the city has a sufficient number of hotels. The average annual bed occupancy is 50%, but there are days between May and August where there are no rooms available.
In addition to hotels, guesthouses and private accommodation, there is also Bayreuth
- the youth hostel on Universitätsstrasse
- the youth campground of the youth ring
- the parking spaces for mobile homes at the Lohengrin Therme in the Seulbitz district and on Grünewaldstrasse in the Hammerstatt district
Hospitals and clinics
- Bayreuth Clinic , Preuschwitzer Str. 101
- Hospital with Rehabilitation Clinic Hohe Warte , Hohe Warte 8
- Bayreuth District Hospital , Nordring 2
- Herzoghöhe Clinic, Kulmbacher Str. 103
- MEDICLIN Rehabilitation Center Roter Hügel, Jakob-Herz-Strasse 1
- Bayreuth emergency practice of the general practitioners Dokhaus , Spinnereistr. 5
- Orthopedic-surgical emergency practice in the Medcenter , Spinnereistr. 7th
- Veterinary clinic for small animals with emergency treatment, Friedrich-von-Schiller-Str. 3 c
- Animal shelter of the Bayreuth Animal Welfare Association, Jakobstrasse 120
- Weekly market on Wednesdays and Saturdays in and in front of the Rotmainhalle
- Viktualienmarkt on Tuesdays and Thursdays on the city floor (Maximilianstraße)
- Flea market on the grounds of the Volksfestplatz, twice a year
- Christmas market on the Stadtparkett (Maximilianstraße), annually, from the weekend of the First Advent until December 23rd
Industrialization began relatively late in the city. In the second half of the 19th century, three cotton mills became the most important ones. Porcelain, iron and paint factories and two steam brick factories set up shop next to it. In addition to the malt houses, there were a large number of small brewers, many of which formed a community brewery.
After 1945, rapid economic development began on the site of the drained Brandenburg pond in the north of the city, with a cigarette factory and an electrical company being the most important companies. In the following years, further industrial areas were developed. But new industrial companies and service companies are also facing emigration and closings. So is z. B. The number of local breweries has now shrunk to three companies.
Currently important companies
- The Bayreuth slaughterhouse belongs to the Müller Fleisch group ; Approx. 150 employees slaughter and process 72,000 cattle and 150,000 pigs per year there.
- Brewery Gebr. Maisel ( wheat beer )
- British American Tobacco (Germany) GmbH ( cigarettes )
- Cybex ( strollers , child seats , children's fashion)
- Desko (document readers , face recognition )
- Grundig Business Systems (professional dictation systems )
- Lyondellbasell Bayreuth Chemie GmbH, Cologne ( polyolefins )
- W. Markgraf ( construction company )
- medi GmbH & Co. KG (medical aids)
- Rottolin (plastics)
- In 1865 Friedrich Rotter founded a paint and varnish factory, which was moved to Bayreuth in 1881. The plant in the Hammerstatt district currently produces 30,000 tons of plastic compounds per year.
- Stäubli ( textile machines , technical couplings and robots)
- Steiner optics ( binoculars )
- Steingraeber & Sons Pianomanufaktur ( pianos )
- TenneT TSO GmbH (transmission system operator)
- Zapf GmbH ( prefabricated garages , prefabricated houses )
- ZF Electronics ( data input devices , switches, sensors , automotive)
Major companies from the past
- Mechanical cotton spinning in Bayreuth 1853–1981
- New cotton spinning mill in Bayreuth 1889–1992
- FC Bayerlein 1894–1979 (textile company: weaving, spinning, twisting and dyeing)
- Valkyrie porcelain factory 1899–2020
- Franka Kamerawerk 1909–1967
The North Bavarian Courier emerged on January 2, 1968 from the merger of the competing local daily newspapers Bayreuther Tagblatt and Fränkische Presse . The editors are Wolfgang Ellwanger and Dr. Laurent Fischer, editor-in-chief is Christina Knorz. With additional local editions, the newspaper achieved a sold circulation of 28,416 copies.
Other print media
- Bayreuth4U (city magazine)
- Bayreuth Journal (city magazine)
- Upper Franconian Economy, (business magazine for Upper Franconia)
- Thalia Festival Magazine (formerly Gondrom's Festival Magazine) - is published for the Bayreuth Festival
- Falter - newspaper for campus culture (student newspaper of the University of Bayreuth)
- Bayreuth Aktuell (Official event magazine of the City of Bayreuth)
- Festival newspaper - appears once a year to mark the opening of the Bayreuth Festival
- Bayreuth Sunday newspaper
- Franconian newspaper (FZ); formerly Bayreuther Anzeiger, renamed October 2008.
- Weekend spotlight
Radio and television
- Bayerischer Rundfunk (Correspondents Office Upper Franconia North). In the 1950s / 1960s, Bayerischer Rundfunk in Bayreuth operated a radio transmitter on medium wave with a frequency of 520 kHz and a transmission power of 200 watts with a 60 meter high transmission mast.
- Radio Galaxy (local station of the Bavarian youth broadcaster)
- Radio Mainwelle (local radio)
- Campus TV (media project of media studies, University of Bayreuth)
- Kultradio (Bavaria-wide DAB radio station)
- Dispositiv (media blog of the University of Bayreuth)
- Schalltwerk (web radio of the University of Bayreuth)
- The government of Upper Franconia is a medium-sized state authority with 550 employees. Among other things, it is responsible for the general supervision of the state authorities as well as legal and technical supervision, for example of the Upper Franconian regional authorities. It represents the state government in Upper Franconia and vice versa. Four independent cities and 210 municipalities or administrative communities are within their area of responsibility.
- Upper Franconia Foundation
- Employment Agency (formerly Employment Office)
- Office for Food, Agriculture and Forests Bayreuth
- District Liaison Command Upper Franconia of the Bundeswehr
- Federal archive for load balancing
- Federal Police Department
- Deutsche Rentenversicherung Nordbayern (formerly Landesversicherungsanstalt - LVA)
- Evangelical Luth. Church tax office
- Tax office
- Chamber of Crafts Upper Franconia
- Chamber of Industry and Commerce for Upper Franconia
- Sankt Georgen-Bayreuth correctional facility
- Competence Center for New Materials Northern Bavaria
- Social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG), Bayreuth office
- Police Headquarters Upper Franconia
- Bayreuth Palace and Garden Administration
- City Youth Association Bayreuth
- Land surveying office
- Center Bavaria Family and Social Affairs, Headquarters and Region Upper Franconia (formerly Office for Supply and Family Support)
Palace of Justice on Wittelsbacherring
Bayreuth's first public educational institution was the Latin City School, or Latin School for short. Its founding dates back to before 1430, and it was presumably already located on today's church square. In 1571 it received an extension, currently the building - after an interim use as a fire station - houses the historical museum.
In 1529, on a recommendation from Martin Luther, a "German School" was set up in the city. In this elementary school children were taught reading, writing and arithmetic so that they could a. could even read the Bible in German. It did not have a building of its own, at first they were content with - separate for boys and girls - "schoolrooms" in town houses. Although there was no compulsory schooling, more and more citizens were soon sending their children there for class.
On March 21, 1742 , the inauguration of the Academia Fridericiana (Friedrichsakademie) took place in the auditorium of the grammar school founded in 1664 , which had emerged from the old Latin school. Daniel de Superville became the rector of the new university, which moved into the building at Friedrichstrasse 15 and included a theological, philosophical, medical and law faculties . Because of the "insubordinate" behavior of the 66 students, the university was closed again on July 4, 1743 and relocated to Erlangen . It was not until 1958 that Bayreuth became a university location again with the conversion of the Institute for Teacher Training to the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg University of Education.
From 1810 to 1825, the educationalist Johann Baptist Graser was a district school councilor in Bayreuth . The former margravial mint (Münzgasse 9, now the Jewish Museum) was converted into a school building at the city's expense. In 1813 he set up an institute for teacher training, where from then on elementary school teachers for town and country were systematically trained. In 1824 an Israelite school was added in addition to the “Münzschulhaus”. In addition to the up to then only continuing education institution, the humanistic grammar school, the predecessor of the Graf-Münster grammar school was built in 1833 in the rear building of the old town hall with the district agricultural and trade school . In 1867 the “higher school for girls” (today's Richard Wagner Gymnasium) was inaugurated in the kitchen of the New Palace.
The first major elementary school in the city was the Central School, which was inaugurated on November 1, 1875, and became today's Graserschule. The Luitpold School followed in 1902 and the Old Town School in 1914. The beginnings of the vocational school system go back to Sunday schools . From 1819 on, all boys and girls were supposed to attend these “holiday schools”. A real vocational training school did not exist in Bayreuth until a hundred years later.
The University for Protestant Church Music goes back to the church music school founded in Erlangen in 1948 and is the successor institute of the Academy for Protestant Church Music Bayreuth. It is located at the Wilhelminenstrasse / Wittelbacher Ring intersection in a building specially constructed for its purpose. The student dormitory “Am Campus” of the Evangelical Settlement Works (ESW) is located in the immediate vicinity.
The university, founded in 1975, specializes in law and economics, African studies, materials science, life sciences, and bio and environmental engineering. The university offers interdisciplinary courses as well as additional training. Examples of this are the additional economic training for lawyers as well as courses such as health economics, sports economics and the bachelor's degree in Philosophy & Economics.
She is involved in the Elitenetzwerk Bayern with the courses Advanced Materials and Processes , Finance and Information Management and Macromolecular Science as well as with the PhD programs Structure, Reactivity and Properties of Oxide Materials , Lead Structures of Cell Function and Global Change Ecology .
A special feature of the University of Bayreuth is the 16 hectare ecological-botanical garden (ÖBG). It has been a central institution of the university since 1978. Research, teaching and public relations form the guiding principles of the ÖBG.
The Institute for African Studies (called IAS for short) is unique in German-speaking countries. It promotes and coordinates African studies in 14 disciplines at the University of Bayreuth, which are spread across four of its six faculties.
- Humanistic, linguistic and scientific-technological high school with around 750 students (as of the beginning of the 2011/12 school year). The school, founded in 1664, is the city's oldest grammar school, but has only been at its current location since 1966.
- Graf-Münster-Gymnasium (GMG)
- Scientific, technological, linguistic and European high school with around 940 students (as of 2015). Founded in 1833 as a district agricultural and trade school , the school moved into today's main building in 1910 as the royal district high school for Upper Franconia . In 1966 the Oberrealschule (in local parlance: OR) received its current status and name. Up until the 1970s it was a pure boys' school; girls were only admitted to the upper school in exceptional cases.
- Margravine Wilhelmine High School (MWG)
- Arts and language high school with around 800 students (as of the 2018/2019 school year). The monumental, splendid building was erected in the open as a royal teacher training institute at the end of the 19th century . In 1949, a "Oberschule in Kurzform" (Oberschule in Kurzform) was attached to the teacher training institute, which gave its graduates access to elementary school teacher studies after seven school years. In 1954 the latter was renamed Deutsches Gymnasium , in 1964 the teacher training institute, now known as the Pedagogical University, left the building. The grammar school got its current name in the school year 1965/66. The namesake is the Bayreuth Princess Wilhelmine .
- Richard-Wagner-Gymnasium (RWG)
- Linguistic, economic and social science high school with around 900 students (status: 2006/07 school year). The school building of the former Higher Girls' School was inaugurated in 1908, 1930 from the Municipal Secondary School for Girls , the first sechstklassige Girls Secondary School . In 1939 it was transferred to an eight-grade high school for girls and in 1947 to an upper secondary school for girls . In 1965 the school was given its current name, and in 1976 it was also opened to boys.
- Economics and Natural Science High School of the City of Bayreuth (WWG)
- with a focus on economics and a natural science and technology high school, around 1200 students (as of the 2006/07 school year).
Real and high schools
- Alexander von Humboldt Realschule Bayreuth (State Realschule Bayreuth I)
- Johannes-Kepler-Realschule (State Realschule Bayreuth II)
- State technical college and vocational college in Bayreuth
- State vocational school I (industrial training and IT professions), inaugurated on September 1, 1957
- State vocational school II (commercial apprenticeships)
- State vocational school III (agriculture, horticulture, housekeeping, young people without an apprenticeship)
- State Institute for the Training of Remedial Teachers
- State Institute for the Training of Specialized Teachers Dept. V Specialized Teachers for Middle and Real Schools
- Multi Lingua - Vocational school for foreign language professions
- State vocational school for child care
- State vocational school for nutrition and supply
- State vocational school for social care
- Vocational school for dieticians Bayreuth of the non-profit society for social services - DAA-mbH
- Vocational school for occupational therapy Bayreuth of the non-profit society for social services - DAA-mbH
- Vocational school for physiotherapy, hospital administration association Bayreuth
- Vocational school for medical-technical laboratory assistants (MTLA) Hospital Association Bayreuth
- Vocational school for nursing and nursing assistants at the Bayreuth Clinic
- Vocational school for child nursing at the Bayreuth Clinic
- Vocational school for nursing at the Bayreuth District Hospital
- Vocational school for geriatric care and geriatric care assistance of the Bavarian Red Cross district association Bayreuth
- Vocational school for geriatric care and geriatric care assistance of the bfz GmbH
- Vocational school for emergency paramedics of the Bavarian Red Cross Bayreuth
- Technical school for curative education, non-profit society for social services - DAAmbh
- Technical school for curative education care help Non-profit society for social services - DAAmbH
- Agricultural School Bayreuth Department of Agriculture and Housekeeping
- Technical school for vehicle technology and electromobility (technical school)
- Municipal business school
- Private business school according to School GmbH
- Graser Elementary School
- Bayreuth-Herzoghöhe primary school
- Jean Paul Primary School
- Laineck primary school
- Bayreuth-Lerchenbühl primary school
- Luitpold Primary School
- Bayreuth-Meyernberg primary school
- St. Georgen primary school
- Bayreuth-St. Primary school Johannis
- Albert Schweitzer Middle School Bayreuth
- Middle School Bayreuth-Altstadt
- Middle School Bayreuth – St. George
- Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Schule (private school to promote learning)
- Dr. Kurt Blaser School (private school for coping with life)
- Markgrafenschule (school in the district of Upper Franconia for language training), 130 students in eleven classes in 2018
- State school for the sick
- Janusz Korczak School Private school for educational assistance (elementary and partial secondary school)
- Vocational school for special needs education
- Private Montessori School Bayreuth (state-recognized integrative primary and secondary school)
- Bayreuth Vocational School for Cosmetics
- Municipal music school
- Bayreuth Euro Schools (basic German courses for resettlers and persons entitled to asylum, courses for professional development, foreign language courses for corporate and private customers as well as translation services)
Libraries and Archives
- Library of the Federal Archives
- Library of the German Freemasons Museum
- German library for shorthand, word processing and typing
- National Archives of the Richard Wagner Foundation
- City Archives
- Public archive on the history of the city of Bayreuth in the courtyard of the Spitalkirche, Maximilianstrasse 64
- City library with youth library
- Public library with function rooms and reading café Samocca in the Haus der Bildung RW21, Richard-Wagner-Straße 21. In the "Sprachencafé" (free of charge and registration), you can meet regularly. a. open conversation groups in different foreign languages.
- Public library on the university campus
Other educational institutions
- Chamber of Industry and Commerce for Upper Franconia - education center
- Chamber of Crafts for Upper Franconia - vocational training and technology center
- German Employees Academy (DAA) - Bildungswerk der DAG e. V.
- German Adult Education Association V. (DEB)
- Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BDP)
- Vocational training centers of the Bavarian economy gGmbH (bfz)
- Administration and Business Academy Bayreuth, branch academy of the Administration and Business Academy Nuremberg
- Akademie Handel, educational center of Bavarian trade e. V.
- TÜV Akademie GmbH Training Center Bayreuth
- Training center for shorthand and PC typing of the Stenografenverein Bayreuth e. V.
- Agricultural educational establishments in the Upper Franconia district - agricultural machinery school
- Evangelical Luth. Seminary
Adult education institutions
- Adult Education Center of the City of Bayreuth
- Evangelisches Bildungswerk Bayreuth / Bad Berneck / Pegnitz e. V.
- Evangelical family educational institution plus multi-generation house in Bayreuth
- Senior education center Kirchplatztreff
- Catholic adult education in the city of Bayreuth e. V. (KEB)
Bayreuth is also the headquarters of ACQUIN, one of the six accreditation agencies that, on behalf of the Foundation for the Accreditation of Study Programs in Germany, provide the technical and content-related assessment of study programs with the degrees Bachelor / Bachelor and Master / Magister nationally and internationally.
The Bayreuth Institute for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (BITÖK) and its successor Bayreuth Center for Ecology and Environmental Research BayCEER have existed since 1989 . Founded as one of only three institutes for ecosystem research in Germany, today ecology and environmental sciences form the interdisciplinary research focus.
Bayreuth is the seat of the competence center for new materials. The New Materials Bayreuth GmbH (NMB) is a consulting services company that was interested in innovations company in materials issues and application technical support.
With the presentation of the grant notification (ZWB) on March 2, 2006 in the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (IHK) for Upper Franconia, the starting shot was given for the Fraunhofer project group on process innovation for companies in the East Bavarian region (PRINZ). This is under the direction of Professor Rolf Steinhilper.
The Bavarian Academy of Sciences , Commission for Dialect Research, operated the East Franconian dictionary in Bayreuth (today in Fürth ) until March 2012 . The city of Bayreuth continues to be a "corporate sponsoring member" of the Max Planck Society .
Bayreuth was also a garrison town for centuries . In the beginning it was margravial domestic troops, but from 1792 to 1806 it became units of the Prussian army , namely the Brandenburg infantry regiment von Voit and then the fusilier battalion von Requard. The Grevenitz infantry regiment under Colonel von Bonin was stationed in Bayreuth for two years. After four years of occupation by troops of the French Empire , units of the Royal Bavarian Army were located in Bayreuth from 1810 . From 1810 to 1866 parts of the 13th Infantry Regiment , from 1866 to 1919 the 7th Infantry Regiment were stationed in Bayreuth, from 1832 to 1866 parts of the 5th Chevaulegers Regiment and from 1866 to 1919 the 6th Chevaulegers Regiment . From 1920 to 1935 the III. Battalion of the 21st (Bavarian) Infantry Regiment of the Reichswehr in Bayreuth, from which the 42nd Infantry Regiment of the Wehrmacht emerged . After the Second World War , units of the US Army , from 1957 additional troops from the German Armed Forces and the Federal Border Guard (BGS) were on site. With the end of the Cold War , the city's garrison tradition largely ended in the early 1990s, when the margrave barracks of the Bundeswehr with the Armored Artillery Battalion 125 ( Armored Brigade 12 ), the Armored Grenadier Battalion 102, the "Bayreuth Jäger" ( Armored Infantry Brigade 10 ) and the II./ Air Force Training Regiment 3 and the US Army's tubular sea barracks ( 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment ) were abandoned. Only the former Federal Border Police Department, now the Federal Police Department , is still in its accommodation next to the Margrave Barracks.
sons and daughters of the town
→ Main article: Personalities born in Bayreuth
Personalities who lived and worked in Bayreuth
→ Main article: Well-known residents of Bayreuth
Since 1960, the city has awarded citizens' medals and rings of honor to personalities who have made a special contribution to the welfare of the city. Those who have been awarded a Golden Citizen Medal must be citizens of the city of Bayreuth. Those who have been awarded a Golden Ring of Honor do not have to be citizens of the city of Bayreuth.
- A humorous name for the Bayreuthers is "Mohrenwäscher". Around 1865 a showman is said to have performed an African in front of the Margravial Opera House. Since citizens expressed doubts about the authenticity of his dark skin color, the poor man was taken to the Red Main, where a policeman lathered him and scrubbed him with a brush .
- Bayreuth is the name of the patrol boat of the Federal Police with the Hull number BG 25. The ship of the Bad Bramstedt class was moved from Cuxhaven to Neustadt in Holstein in 2017 and is now patrolling the coast as part of the coast guard the Baltic Sea. The ship and the city are connected by a sponsorship.
- At the end of April 1969, in the presence of almost the entire Bayreuth city council at Nuremberg Airport, a Lufthansa aircraft was christened Bayreuth by the mayor's wife . The inauguration flight with the guests on board led over the city, which was flown over in a loop at a height of just 200 m.
- Bayreuth was the name of an Airbus A 340-311 operated by Lufthansa, which entered service on December 23, 1994 under the registration D-AIGK. In 2013 the machine was sold to the Iranian airline Mahan Air .
- Bayreuth is the name of an Airbus A 321-231 operated by Lufthansa , which entered service on December 23, 2010 under the registration number D-AIDB.
- Bayreuth 1 is the title of the 1998 album by German musician Joachim Witt . In 2000 the album with the title Bayreuth 2 followed and in 2006 (after several albums with other titles) Bayreuth 3 .
- The Bayreuther Hütte is located at an altitude of Münster and Kramsach in Rofangebirge in Tyrol and is owned by the DAV - Section Bayreuth. It is the base for hikes to the surrounding peaks and for numerous climbing tours. above the villages of
- The plot of the episode A day like every other of the television series Tatort takes place in Bayreuth, the film was largely shot there.
- Vicco von Bülow alias Loriot in an interview: “What is perfect happiness for you?” - “Bayreuth (arrival)”. "The greatest misfortune?" - "Bayreuth (departure)".
- Friedrich Nietzsche in a letter to Malwida von Meysenbug in 1873: "I still think that at some point we will all sit together in Bayreuth and no longer understand how we could endure it anywhere else."
- Voltaire described the city during a visit in 1743: “Bayreuth is a wonderfully lovely city. You can enjoy all the amenities of the court here without the inconvenience of the big world. "
- Jean Paul described Bayreuth in a declaration of love in 1793 as: "You dear Bayreuth, presented to you on a beautifully crafted, green-painted platter from the area - you should dig yourself into you so that you can never get out." 1807, three years after his Moving to the city, he wrote soberly, he owed nothing to Bayreuth but “the area, beer and boredom”. Eight years later, the evil sentence was even heard: "Everything dead lives here, but everything living is dead".
- For Thomas Mann the city was a “place of suggestive dizziness”, for George Bernhard Shaw a “terribly dull town”, for Alban Berg “an empty madness”.
- The satirist Wiglaf Droste called Bayreuth a “German dump”, a “spiritual hole in the ground” and a “cow dung heap from which the megalomaniac peace wells up”. He suggested to the Israelis to bomb Bayreuth instead of Beirut .
- Dennis Sand sketched in the newspaper Die Welt under the heading “Why Bayreuth is the original German hell on earth”, the psychogram of a city, apart from the festival, rather “cultureless” with three parallel worlds, divided into the festival society, the students and the residents, everything Closed to new and strangers.
- List of streets and squares in the city of Bayreuth
- History of the railway in Bayreuth
- List of architectural monuments in Bayreuth
Sorted alphabetically by authors / editors
- Johann Kaspar Bundschuh : Bayreuth . In: Geographical Statistical-Topographical Lexicon of Franconia . tape 1 : A-egg . Verlag der Stettinische Buchhandlung, Ulm 1799, DNB 790364298 , OCLC 833753073 , Sp. 306-313 ( digitized version ).
- Susanne Dahm (employee): Bayreuth. A city changes its face. Druckhaus Bayreuth, 1996, ISBN 3-922808-40-9 .
- Rudolf Endres : Bayreuth. From an 800-year history . 1995
- Oliver van Essenberg: Enjoy the way of life - in and around Bayreuth. with texts by (among others) Frank Piontek, Stephan Müller, Stephan H. Fuchs and Monika Beer. selekt-Verlag, Bamberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-9813799-5-2 .
- August Gebeßler : City and district of Bayreuth (= Bavarian art monuments . Volume 6 ). Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1959, DNB 451450914 , p. 3-79 .
- Sylvia Habermann: Bayreuth garden art: The gardens of the Margrave of Brandenburg-Culmbach in the 17th and 18th centuries (= Green Row 6). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1982, ISBN 978-3-88462-012-0
- Sylvia Habermann and Rainer Trübsbach: Bayreuth. History and Art (= Great Art Guide , No. 131). Munich / Zurich 1986
- Georg Paul Hönn : Bayreuth . In: Lexicon Topographicum of the Franconian Craises . Johann Georg Lochner, Frankfurt and Leipzig 1747, p. 227-228 ( digitized version ).
- Wilhelm Kneule: Church history of the city of Bayreuth. Degener, Neustadt / Aisch 1973.
- 1. - From the establishment of the place around 1180 to the Enlightenment around 1810.
- 2. - The 19th and 20th centuries. 1810-1970.
- Circle of Bavarian Scholars (Ed.): Upper Franconia and Middle Franconia (= Bavaria. Regional and Folklore of the Kingdom of Bavaria . Volume 3 ). Literary and artistic establishment of the JG Cotta'schen Buchhandlung, Munich 1865, DNB 56034290X , p. 559-568 ( digitized version ).
- Bernd Mayer : Bayreuth as it was. Flash lights from the city's history 1850–1950 . 2nd Edition. Gondrom, Bayreuth 1981.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth à la carte. Ellwanger Verlag, Bayreuth 1987, ISBN 3-925361-03-0 .
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth Chronicle 1989. Gondrom Verlag, Bayreuth 1989.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth. The last 50 years. 2nd Edition. Gondrom Verlag, Bayreuth 1988.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century. North Bavarian Courier, Bayreuth 2003.
- Bernd Mayer, Sylvia Habermann: Experience Bayreuth. Photos: Reinhard Feldrapp, Wolfg. Bouillon, Stephan Müller. elmar hahn Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-928645-10-2 .
- Jakob Müller: schoolmaster and bone carver. Archaeological excavations in Bayreuth. Bamberg 1996, ISBN 3-931278-01-8 .
- Marieluise Müller: Bayreuth. Gondrom, Bindlach 1993, ISBN 3-8112-0810-1 .
- Stephan Müller: Großer Manne, Graf Gravina and Marquis Salou, anecdotes from Bayreuth. Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8313-2404-0 .
- Stephan Müller: Bayreuth Festival Stories. Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2012, ISBN 978-3-8313-2418-7 .
- Stephan Müller: Dark stories from Bayreuth - Schön & Schaurig Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2018, ISBN 978-3-8313-3230-4 .
- Stephan Müller, Torsten Krüger. Bayreuth - Color picture book Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2019, ISBN 978-3-8313-3132-1 .
- Stephan Müller: Moments of happiness - stories from Bayreuth Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2020, ISBN 978-3-8313-3324-0 .
- Stephan Müller: 150 years of Bayreuth gymnastics. Bayreuth 2011.
- Wilhelm Müller: lovable city of Bayreuth. Guide through the festival u. University City. Sachße-Verlag, Altenplos 1965.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries. History of a city. Gondrom, Bayreuth 1993, ISBN 3-8112-0809-8 .
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered, a city-geographical excursion guide. Ellwanger Druck und Verlag, Bayreuth 2007, ISBN 978-3-925361-60-9 .
- Wilhelm Rauh, Ernst Peter Rudolf: In love with Bayreuth. Druckhaus Bayreuth, 1981, ISBN 3-922808-00-X .
- Gert Rückel: City Guide Bayreuth. Gondrom, Bindlach 1992, ISBN 3-8112-0787-3 .
- City administration of Bayreuth (ed.): Bayreuth. Mosaic of a cultural city. Bayreuth 1972.
- Pleikard Joseph Stumpf : Bayreuth . In: Bavaria: a geographical-statistical-historical handbook of the kingdom; for the Bavarian people . Second part. Munich 1853, p. 548-551 ( digitized version ).
- Camille de Tournon: Statistics of the Province of Bayreuth, 1809. About the Principality of Bayreuth in Napoleonic times. Hist. Upper Franconia Association, Bayreuth 2003, ISBN 3-87707-599-1 .
- Ingo Toussaint (Ed.): Travel to Bayreuth. Reports from eight centuries. Olms, Hildesheim 1994, ISBN 3-487-08354-X .
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth 1194–1994. Druckhaus Bayreuth 1993, ISBN 3-922808-35-2 .
- Society for Christian-Jewish Cooperation Bayreuth e. V. (Ed.): Jewish Bayreuth. Verlag Ellwanger Druck, Bayreuth 2010, ISBN 978-3-925361-81-4 .
- Literature about Bayreuth in the catalog of the German National Library
- Homepage of the city of Bayreuth
- Extensive collection of images from above and below Bayreuth
- Entry on the coat of arms of Bayreuth in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- Bayreuth: Official statistics of the LfStat
- City of Bayreuth population registers 1807–1937 ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Online search tool from the Bayreuth City Archives
- History of the city of Bayreuth (in three parts) by Johann Georg Heinritz (1772-1853), edited by Walter Bartl (pdf, Bayreuth City Archives)
- "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth. 1194-1994 . Druckhaus Bayreuth, Bayreuth 1993, ISBN 3-922808-35-2 , p. 154 .
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth. P. 28.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 24.
- Karl Müssel: The name Bayreuth through the ages . In: Historischer Verein für Oberfranken (Hrsg.): Archive for the history of Upper Franconia 74th volume . Ellwanger, Bayreuth 1994, p. 33 ff .
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries . 1st edition. Gondrom, Bindlach 1993, ISBN 3-8112-0809-8 , p. 25 .
- Climate & Weather in Bayreuth at climate-data.org, accessed on August 27, 2017.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 16.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 11
- Björn-Uwe Abels , Walter Sage , Christian Züchner: Upper Franconia in prehistoric times . Bayreuth 1986, ISBN 3-87052-991-1 .
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 18 f.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 12.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 17 f.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 20.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 23.
- Jörg Maier, Michael Stettberger u. a .: Bayreuth. A city changes its face . Druckhaus Bayreuth, Bayreuth 1996, ISBN 3-922808-40-9 , p. 14 .
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p.26 f.
- Adam Stuhlfauth: Find reports on prehistory and early history in the Franconian Alb area . In: Archive for the history of Upper Franconia, thirty-fifth volume, third issue, Bayreuth 1991.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 30
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 49th
- The road map from 1501 , Liechtenstein Map Collection (Houghton Library), Harvard University Library.
- Frühwald (ed.): Franconian cities and castles around 1650 based on texts and engravings by Merian , Sennfeld 1991.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 48
- See documentation: Medieval Leprosoria in Today's Bavaria. ( Memento of March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Originally in the journal Die Klapper , accessed on March 17, 2018; the year it was first mentioned is given as "around 1450".
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 50
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 51 ff.
- Jörg Maier, Michael Stettberger u. a .: Bayreuth. A city changes its face , p. 15.
- Kurt Herterich: Im southeastern Bayreuth, p. 53.
- Barbara Dölemeyer: The Huguenots. W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-17-018841-9 , p. 140 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Bernd Mayer: Kleine Bayreuther Stadtgeschichte , p. 46.
- Will of Poswik, Herbert Conrad: Bayreuth . Druckhaus Bayreuth, Bayreuth 1974, p. 14 .
- E. Hübschmann et al. a .: Bayreuth - looked around and questioned. Bumerang Verlag, Bayreuth 1992.
- Eva-Maria Bast, Heike Thissen: Bayreuth Secrets . 1st edition. Bast Medien Service, Überlingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-9816796-1-8 , p. 91 ff .
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 127 f.
- Camille de Tournon: Statistique der la Province de Bayreuth , p. 137 (French).
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 153.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 139th
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 141
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth wie es war , 2nd edition, p. 19 ff.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 181 f.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 155.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 303 ff.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , pp. 175 and 178.
- Jörg Maier, Michael Stettberger u. a .: Bayreuth. A city changes its face , p. 16.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , pp. 180-183.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 51.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth as it was , p. 50.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 186 f.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 189.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 263rd
- End of the Bayreuth gas production. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier . March 2, 2015, p. 10.
- Robert Zintl: Bayreuth and the railway. P. 17 ff.
- Robert Zintl: Bayreuth and the Railway , p. 107.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth as it was , p. 43.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth as it was , p. 38.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth as it was , p. 53.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 57.
- Bernd Mayer: The building association makes town history. In: 90 Years Bauverein Bayreuth , p. 11 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 19.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 61 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 62 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 15.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 20.
- Bernd Mayer: The great festival of the workers singers. In: Heimatkurier of the North Bavarian Courier. 2/2004, p. 5.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 26.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 29.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 25.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 10 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth as it was , p. 74 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 77.
- Sylvia Habermann, Bernd Mayer, Christoph Rabenstein: "Reichskristallnacht". The fate of our Jewish fellow citizens. A memorial by the city of Bayreuth , 1988, p. 11.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 27.
- Robert Zintl: Bayreuth and the railway. Pp. 81 and 96.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 12.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 32.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth as it was , p. 84 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 30.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 36.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 35.
- Martin Schramm: Deutscher Tag, Bayreuth, September 30, 1923 . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 49.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 52.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 42.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 43.
- 100 years VHS Bayreuth in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of October 10, 2019, p. 21.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 44.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 46.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 58 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 70.
- Peter Engelbrecht: The war is over. Spring 1945 in Upper Franconia . Späthling, Weißenstadt 2015, ISBN 978-3-942668-23-1 , pp. 8 .
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , p. 198.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 291 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 61.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 69.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 71.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - newly discovered , p. 70 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 86.
- "Prelude to Genocide". In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. November 9, 2018, p. 13.
- Memorial for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation. Volume 1, Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 119 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 68.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 76.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 80.
- Albrecht Bald, Jörg Skriebeleit: The Bayreuth satellite camp of the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp: Wieland Wagner and Bodo Lafferentz in the "Institute for Physical Research" . C. & C. Rabenstein, Bayreuth 2003, ISBN 3-928683-30-6 .
- Bayreuth's forgotten victims. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 27./28. January 2018, p. 14.
- Desire for a memorial. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. June 30th / 1st July 2018, p. 15.
- Many unanswered questions. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 17./18. November 2018, p. 14.
- Helmut Weihsmann : Building under the swastika. Architecture of doom. Promedia, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-85371-113-8 , p. 267 .
- Anton Joachimsthaler : The broad gauge railway. The project for the development of the greater European area 1942–1945. 4th edition. Herbig, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7766-1352-1 , p. 22-43 .
- Regine Kießling, Giesela Kraut, Ulrich Wanitzek: Large buildings of the state and the party (Munich, Nuremberg and Berlin) . In: Georg Bussmann and Frankfurter Kunstverein (ed.): Art in the 3rd Reich. Documents of submission. Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt 1981, p. 106-147 .
- Helmut Weihsmann: Building under the swastika. Architecture of doom . Promedia, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-85371-113-8 , p. 267 .
- Helmut Weihsmann: Building under the swastika. Architecture of doom . Promedia, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-85371-113-8 , p. 268 .
- Helmut Weihsmann: Building under the swastika. Architecture of doom . Promedia, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-85371-113-8 , p. 268-271 .
- Christoph Kuhl: Air protection and aerial warfare in Upper Franconia 1933-1945 . In: Historischer Verein für Oberfranken (Hrsg.): Archive for the history of Upper Franconia 88th volume . Ellwanger, 2008, ISSN 0066-6335 , p. 347 .
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth April 1945 , p. 29.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth April 1945 , p. 32.
- Atlas for Reconstruction - Bayreuth. In: House of Bavarian History. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth April 1945 , p. 36.
- Number on the plaque in the foyer of the New Town Hall
- Peter Engelbrecht : The war is over: Spring 1945 in Upper Franconia . Späthling, Weißenstadt 2015, ISBN 978-3-942668-23-1 .
- Werner Meyer : Götterdämmerung - April 1945 in Bayreuth . RS Schulz, Percha 1975, ISBN 3-7962-0066-4 , p. 115 .
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , pp 211 et seq.
- Esther Neblich: Bayreuth in the post-war occupation and 1945-55 . In: Historischer Verein für Oberfranken (Hrsg.): Archive for the history of Upper Franconia 86th volume . Ellwanger, Bayreuth 2006, p. 409 ff .
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 354.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 82 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Where every tenth person owned a chair. In: Heimat-Kurier, the historical magazine of the North Bavarian Courier. No. 3/2004.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 87.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 84 f.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 357.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 348.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 102.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 101.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 94 f.
- Bayernwerk history at bayernwerk.de, accessed on September 3, 2018.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 98.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 91.
- More shine for the light. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. November 19, 2018, p. 7.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 108 u. 119.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 118 f.
- 50 years ago in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of October 16, 2019, p. 10.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 111.
- 50 years ago: computers came, gas lamps went off. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. October 10, 2018, p. 10.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 109.
- A passage in transition. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. September 7, 2018, p. 10.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 112 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 123.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 130.
- 1876 Freshmen start in Bayreuth. In: Kurier.de. 15th October 2015.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 126 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 128.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 134 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 132 f.
- 50 years ago in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of March 3, 2020, p. 8.
- Accidents at public festivals. In: rhein-zeitung.de. November 27, 1995, accessed February 10, 2015 .
- Region included from the start in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from October 11, 2019, p. 18.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 152 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 140 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 142 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 150.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 146 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 148 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 162 f.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 172 ff.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 164.
- 25 years ago. City financially heavily burdened in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from September 17, 2019, p. 10.
- 25 years ago. Flood in Bayreuth in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from January 27, 2019, p. 8.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 158 f.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries. P. 146.
- Bayreuther Barock 2005 at omm.de, accessed on September 26, 2019
- From 2020 there will be two festivals in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from September 26, 2019, p. 9.
- The Nuremberg Metropolitan Region is celebrating its 10th anniversary! In: Metropolregionnuernberg.de. April 13, 2015, accessed September 4, 2019.
- Signal on green for VGN membership. In: Oberpfalznetz.de. February 21, 2009, archived from the original on June 18, 2015 ; accessed on September 4, 2019 .
- Julia Spinola: Israel Chamber Orchestra in Bayreuth: Building bridges, one-sided. In: FAZ.net. July 27, 2011, accessed September 4, 2019; Live recording. "26th July 2011 at 11 am in the Bayreuth town hall: First guest performance by an Israeli orchestra in Bayreuth. "
- Inauguration of the mikveh at: kirchenkreis-bayreuth.de, accessed on November 7, 2019
- Half of Bayreuth without water. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. February 25, 2019, p. 10.
- No fireworks in the city center in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from October 10, 2019, p. 10.
- Bayreuth Festival canceled in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from April 1, 2020, p. 1.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries. P. 142.
- Wilhelm Volkert (Ed.): Handbook of the Bavarian offices, municipalities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 600 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 669 .
- Form-server.de: Population.
- Bayreuth reports over 74,500 inhabitants. In: Wiesentbote.de. November 14, 2017, accessed September 4, 2019.
- For the first time over 75,000 inhabitants - Bayreuth's population continues to rise. In: Bayreuth.de. November 15, 2018, accessed September 4, 2019.
- Clean air / action plan for the city of Bayreuth (as of March 2007) by the government of Upper Franconia on bayreuth.de, p. 7, accessed on August 22, 2019 (PDF, 4.8 MB).
- Contributions to Statistics Bavaria , Issue 544, June 2015 (PDF file).
- Politics is simply your thing in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from April 2, 2020, p. 10.
- Worker, mother, city councilor. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. February 11, 2019, p. 9.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 187 f.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 198 f.
- Werner Kolb asks you to "get up". In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. September 11, 2018, p. 11.
- Nordbayerischer Kurier March 19, 2015, p. 12.
- Entry on Bayreuth's coat of arms in the database of the House of Bavarian History , accessed on August 29, 2017 .
- coat of arms of the city of Bayreuth
- § 8 sentence 2 of the municipalthe city of Bayreuth from September 26, 2018. In: Official Journal of the City of Bayreuth No. 15 October 12, 2018, accessed on September 4, 2019 .
- City partnerships ( Memento from May 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- City is for a partner. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. March 6, 2009.
- Services to the partnership in: Nordbayerischer Kurier, August 7, 2020, p. 8.
- Meeting of the city council on April 26th. (No longer available online.) In: Focus.de. Formerly in the original ; accessed on September 4, 2019 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Carolin Richter: Friedrichsforum: Why the completion is delayed. In: Bayreuther Tagblatt. September 17, 2019, accessed on November 13, 2019 (German).
- The Reichshof lives. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 6./7. April 2019, p. 13.
- Permanent exhibition in the Bayreuth Historical Museum. In: Bayreuth.de. Retrieved May 20, 2018 .
- 1.5 million euros for the Alte Münze. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 5th / 6th January 2019, p. 11.
- The symbol of peace will soon be in Bayreuth. In: The tip. Issue 421, May 6, 2010.
- Exhibition in the park remains. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. August 21, 2012, p. 14.
- Reuterswärd pistol. ( Memento from February 10, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) In: bayreuth4u.de. April 3, 2011.
- North Bavarian Courier. August 15, 2012, p. 15.
- North Bavarian Courier. May 7, 2012
- Homepage of the Art Museum Bayreuth , accessed on August 18, 2012.
- Sculpture "Bayreuth Group" is inaugurated at the city church. In: Wiesenbote.de. June 30, 2012.
- Balloon - a sculpture for Jean Paul. In: Ingesidee.de. As of July 23, 2013.
- Markus Kiesel, in: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 5th / 6th May 2011, p. 13.
- Kurt Herterich: In the east of Bayreuth. P. 182.
- Kurt Herterich: In the heart of Bayreuth. P. 47.
- Kurt Herterich: In the heart of Bayreuth. P. 136.
- Kurt Herterich: In historical Bayreuth. P. 54.
- Kurt Herterich: In the east of Bayreuth. P. 14.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 94.
- Kurt Herterich: In historical Bayreuth. P. 8.
- Kurt Herterich: In the heart of Bayreuth. P. 150.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 97.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth - the last 50 years. P. 102.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth. P. 311.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 128.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. P. 82.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries. P. 144.
- State Garden Show goes to Bayreuth. ( Memento from July 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Bayerischer Rundfunk .
- Bayreuth Stadtnachrichten - Official Gazette of the City of Bayreuth, No. 2, January 30, 2009.
- Environmental Protection 2011; Office for environmental protection of the city of Bayreuth
- Green list of nature reserves in Upper Franconia from the Bavarian State Office for the Environment , accessed on June 19, 2014.
- Kurt Herterich: From the Bayreuth castle tower to the festival hill. P. 29.
- The Famabrunnen of Elias Räntz - Bayreuth's baroque angel of fame. ( Memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Historisches-Franken.de. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- Bayreuth List of Monuments. Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, p. 30 (PDF).
- Kurt Herterich: In the east of Bayreuth. P. 12.
- Bernd Mayer: Mysterious Bayreuth. P. 36.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 53rd
- Kurt Herterich: In the east of Bayreuth. P. 35.
- Bayreuth Sunday newspaper of September 21, 2014 .
- "I've always been a Wasserratz" in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from 14./15. December 2019, p. 9.
- Kurt Herterich: From Bayreuth Castle Tower to Festival Hill. P. 105.
- lfs.bsb-muenchen.de ( Memento from May 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- International Circle , dfg-bayreuth.de.
- nordbayerischer-kurier.de ( Memento from August 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Column by Volker Strübing at the Nordbayerischer Kurier, accessed on July 24, 2013.
- bayreuthertagebuch.wordpress.com Bayreuth diary by Volker Strübing, accessed on July 24, 2013.
- "Encounters without much fuss". In: North Bavarian Courier. October 31, 2014, p. 17.
- DTS magazine , 1984/6, p. 32.
- Journal DTS, 1988/5, p. 12.
- Wheelchair dance group at RSV Bayreuth , accessed on December 8, 2011.
- United Rifle Guilds St. Georgen from 1720 and Bayreuth from 1623 e. V. Retrieved October 13, 2017 .
- forum.nordbayerischer-kurier.de ( Memento from August 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- area "Saas - Narzissenweg" ( Memento from August 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- No peak of happiness. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. May 28, 2018, p. 8.
- North Bavarian Courier. August 7, 2012, p. 19.
- One evening, 20 stages, 27 concerts in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from 19./20. October 2019, p. 11.
- The search for strength for the year In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 5th / 6th January 2019, p. 16.
- Twelve Seidla for Health In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. 4th / 5th January 2020, p. 11.
- "Iron Maiden" were not allowed to perform. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. July 25, 2015, p. 14.
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- State of Bavaria. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- Future Atlas 2016. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
- Clean air / action plan for the city of Bayreuth (status: March 2007) by the government of Upper Franconia on bayreuth.de, p. 8, accessed on August 22, 2019 (PDF, 4.8 MB).
- Chapter 3 on the reorganization of the land use plan on bayreuth.de, accessed on August 22, 2019 (PDF, 197 KB).
- Elena Bruckner: From Adidas to ZF: These are the 30 largest employers in Franconia , infranken.de from October 30, 2018, accessed on August 22, 2019.
- 50 years ago. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. August 8, 2019, p. 10.
- That's how it used to be. The Ring as a one-way street In: Nordbayerischer Kurier from October 9, 2019, p. 10.
- That's how it used to be. The ring as a one-way street In: Nordbayerischer Kurier from October 1, 2019, p. 10.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 72.
- City bus Bayreuth
- New parking regulations for the Hofgarten ( Memento from March 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Taking bicycles with you , vgn.de.
- The strongest month of all time in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from October 17, 2019, p. 11.
- tierklinik-bayreuth.de ( Memento from April 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- bayreuth.de ( Memento from April 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Not every slaughterhouse is a hotspot in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from 4./5. July 2020, p. 7.
- When the face becomes an ID in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from February 22, 2020, p. 11.
- https://www.rottolin.de/historie/ Ideas and a real pioneering spirit 150 years of Rottolin. With rottolin.de since 1865 , accessed on July 10, 2020
- Porzellanfabrik Walküre is processed in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from January 8, 2020, p. 9.
- according to IVW , second quarter 2020, Mon-Sat ( details and quarterly comparison on ivw.eu )
- Dispositiv ( Memento of July 14, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- www.regierung.oberfranken.bayern.de Authority supervision, legal and technical supervision. Accessed March 4, 2011.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , S. 55 f.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , pp 100 et seq.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries , page 147 f.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 220.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - newly discovered , p. 328.
- elitenetzwerk.bayern.de: Elite degree programs at the University of Bayreuth .
- http://gmg-bayreuth.de/das-gmg-stell-sich-vor/zahlen- /
- Kurt Herterich: Im southeastern Bayreuth , p. 152 ff.
- Carolin Richter: Guide: Gymnasiums in Bayreuth and their orientation. In: Bayreuther Tagblatt. September 10, 2018, accessed September 4, 2019 .
- Bernd Mayer: Mysterious Bayreuth. P. 19.
- Kurt Herterich: Im eastern Bayreuth , p. 155 ff.
- Kurt Herterich: Durchs Südwestliche Bayreuth , p. 152 f.
- The heart of Upper Franconia. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. October 10, 2018, p. 14.
- see list of corporative sponsoring members of the Max Planck Society ( Memento of January 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 445 kB).
- "Ruge among the Berlin 'Free' (1842)". Marx-Engels Works. Vol. 27, opposite p. 400.
- Statute on awards from the city of Bayreuth
- Controversial association name in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from February 25, 2020, p. 10.
- First the woman, then the ship. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. May 18, 2013, p. 20.
- 50 years ago. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. April 26, 2019, p. 10.
- Lufthansa A340s are now flying in Iran at aerotelegraph.com, accessed on August 24, 2017.
- the "crime scene" at the crime scene. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. February 25, 2019, p. 9.
- Friedrich Nietzsche. All letters. Critical study edition. Volume 4. No. 297, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, ISBN 978-3-423-59063-1 , p. 126 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Wilhelm Rauh, Erich Rappl: Stage Bayreuth . Druckhaus Bayreuth, Bayreuth 1987, ISBN 3-922808-21-2 , p. 45 f .
- Bayreuth is not for beginners. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. September 1, 2014, p. 9.
- Eloquent rascal. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. May 17, 2019, p. 5.
- Dennis Sand: Why Bayreuth is the original German hell on earth. In: Welt.de . August 29, 2014, accessed February 10, 2015 .
- The spelling of the state name Bavaria with "y" was ordered by Ludwig I in 1825. See www.bairische-sprache.at: Bavarian, Bavarian or Bavarian ???
- The name of the former mill on the Mühlkanal refers to its location on Münzgasse.
- In April 1933, the city councils were not elected, but the seats were distributed according to the results of the previous month's Reichstag elections .
- A list of the names of the victims can be found in "Denk / Steineetzen", published by the Geschichtswerkstatt Bayreuth, Bumerang Verlag, Bayreuth 2003. People who lived in Bayreuth for a long time or who were or were born in Bayreuth are considered Jewish Bayreuthers . who were deported from Bayreuth.
- The few city firefighters - the volunteer fire brigade had been assigned to the Volkssturm - were initially hindered by artillery fire and gunfire from aircraft, and SS guards prohibited fire-fighting work on the old castle. After the arrival of the US troops, the fire department was also subject to curfew during the dark . The water and electricity networks were out of order, and numerous fire brigade devices were damaged or destroyed.